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Sample records for salmonid outmigration mcnary

  1. Columbia River Salmonid Outmigration: McNary Dam Passage and Enhanced Smolt Quality, 1984 Second Year Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the McNary Dam transportation system on emigrating fall and spring chinook smolts were evaluated using physiological indices of stress (e.g., plasma cortisol, hepatic glycogen, leucocrit, interrenal cell nuclear diameter) and performance tests (e.g., saltwater challenge, secondary stress challenge, disease resistance). Controlled experiments were conducted in a hatchery environment to characterize the fishes' physiological responses to stress, and disease resistance to allow a basis for judging the nature of the stress experienced by smolts at McNary Dam. 55 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  3. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid outmigration and survival in the lower Umatilla River basin. Annual report, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, S.M.; Kern, J.C.; Cameron, W.A.; Snedaker, S.M.; Carmichael, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal

  4. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  6. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  7. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  8. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  9. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C.; Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past

  10. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  11. Relationship of external fish condition to pathogen prevalence and out-migration survival in juvenile steelhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, N.J.; Evans, A.F.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.; Hawbecker, M.; Sandford, B.P.; Thompson, D.E.; Loge, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the external condition of juvenile salmonids is associated with internal measures of health and subsequent out-migration survival can be valuable for population monitoring programs. This study investigated the use of a rapid, nonlethal, external examination to assess the condition of run-of-the-river juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss migrating from the Snake River to the Pacific Ocean. We compared the external condition (e.g., body injuries, descaling, external signs of disease, fin damage, and ectoparasite infestations) with (1) the internal condition of a steelhead as measured by the presence of selected pathogens detected by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction analysis and (2) out-migration survival through the Snake and Columbia rivers as determined by passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology. The results from steelhead captured and euthanized (n = 222) at Lower Monumental Dam on the lower Snake River in 2008 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with selected measures of internal condition. The odds of testing positive for a pathogen were 39.2, 24.3, and 5.6 times greater for steelhead with severe or moderate external signs of disease or more than 20% descaling, respectively. Capture-recapture models of 22,451 PIT-tagged steelhead released at Lower Monumental Dam in 2007-2009 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with juvenile survival. The odds of outmigration survival for steelhead with moderate or severe external signs of disease, more than 20% descaling, or severe fin damage were 5.7, 4.9, 1.6, and 1.3 times lower, respectively, than those for steelhead without these external conditions. This study effectively demonstrated that specific measures of external condition were associated with both the internal condition and out-migration survival of juvenile steelhead. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  12. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric E.; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.

  13. Culture of salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stickney, Robert R

    1991-01-01

    .... In recognition of the growing concern that aquaculture development has the potential to negatively impact the natural environment, a chapter on controversies surrounding salmonid culture has been included...

  14. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    predation. Cormorant predation rates in excess of 30%, however, were observed for some groups of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon released downstream of Bonneville Dam. Implementation of the federal plan 'Caspian Tern Management to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary' was initiated in 2008 with construction by the Corps of Engineers of two alternative colony sites for Caspian terns in interior Oregon: a 1-acre island on Crump Lake in the Warner Valley and a 1-acre island on Fern Ridge Reservoir near Eugene. We deployed Caspian tern social attraction (decoys and sound systems) on these two islands and monitored for Caspian tern nesting. Caspian terns quickly colonized the Crump Lake tern island; about 430 pairs nested there, including 5 terns that had been banded at the East Sand Island colony in the Columbia River estuary, over 500 km to the northwest. No Caspian terns nested at the Fern Ridge tern island in 2008, but up to 9 Caspian terns were recorded roosting on the island after the nesting season. There were two breeding colonies of Caspian terns on the mid-Columbia River in 2008: (1) about 388 pairs nested at the historical colony on Crescent Island in the McNary Pool and (2) about 100 pairs nested at a relatively new colony site on Rock Island in the John Day Pool. Nesting success at the Crescent Island tern colony was only 0.28 young fledged per breeding pair, the lowest nesting success recorded at that colony since monitoring began in 2000, while only three fledglings were raised at the Rock Island tern colony. The diet of Crescent Island Caspian terns consisted of 68% salmonid smolts; total smolt consumption was estimated at 330,000. Since 2004, total smolt consumption by Crescent Island terns has declined by 34%, due mostly to a decline in colony size, while steelhead consumption has increased 10% during this same period. In 2008, approximately 64,000 steelhead smolts were consumed by Caspian terns nesting at Crescent

  15. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  16. A Life-Cycle Model of Outmigration and Economic Assimilation of Immigrants in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural dynamic life-cycle model of outmigration where, in each period, immigrants choose whether to work in the host country, not to work but remain in the host country, or outmigrate.The model incorporates several features of existing life-cycle theories of outmigration

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting collection efficiency estimates of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at McNary Dam, 1989. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuehrenberg, L.; Smith, D.; Johnson, O.W.

    1995-10-01

    Populations of salmonid smolts migrating through the hydropower system on the Columbia River incur some rate of mortality at each dam. To set priorities on options to minimize losses and provide safe passage of the smolts at dams, estimates of smolt survival at each dam are necessary. Two methods have been developed to obtain these survival estimates: the direct and the indirect method. With the indirect method, a test group of fish is released upstream and a-control group is released downstream from the area of interest. With the direct method, a single release of fish above the area of interest is used, with subsequent recovery below the area of interest. In 1988, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a 2-year study at McNary Dam to address possible sources of variation associated with the direct method of obtaining survival estimates. Five study objectives were established to determine whether (1) fish from the Columbia and Snake Rivers mixed as they migrated to McNary Dam (release-location tests); (2) collection rates for Columbia and Snake River stocks were the same (river-of-origin tests); (3) test-group release timing influenced recovery rates (time-of-release tests); (4) a collection-rate bias existed from use of test fish previously guided and collected at the recovery site (tests of previously guided fish); and (5) recovery rates obtained with PIT-tagged fish were comparable to those previously obtained with freeze-branded fish (PIT-tag vs. freeze-brand technology)

  18. 'Should We Leave or Stay?' Notes on Recent Hungarian Outmigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva V. Huseby-Darvas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study is based on Hungarian electronic media sources, informal interviews and similar personal communications, as well as statistical data provided by kind and cooperative colleagues in Hungary. Addressing the recent, massive outmigration from Hungary, the article explores some of the primary push-and-pull factors, and then discusses responses to the emigration phenomenon itself and its likely long-term demographic, social and economic implications, by scholars as well as by politicians from both the governing party and the opposition. To give the emic perspective, I cited and translated from my conversations with a few young emigrants, would-be-emigrants, and mothers’ of these young people, and thus illustrate the issue from those most involved. Then, by also citing scholars, authors, columnists, and politicians my aim was to offer the etic, or outsiders’ view, but – since for various reasons – they also appear to be involved in and concerned with the problem of outmigration, theirs is still an emic perspective, though of a different order. Realizing that the present attempt is merely a quick snapshot of an ongoing, potentially volatile and dynamic process, further research and a multidisciplinary attempt to interpret and analyze the recent emigration from Hungary are needed.

  19. Rural Education and Out-Migration: The Case of a Coastal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I report on findings from a case study examining the relationship between formal education and out-migration in a Canadian coastal community from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. Although high rates of village-level out-migration were chronic, most migration trajectories were short-range. Contrary to large-scale quantitative…

  20. Dwelling habitus and urban out-migration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines young Danish families’ motives for leaving the city. By drawing on theories of Bourdieu and Giddens and combining them with a notion of place drawn from human geography, an analytical framework for studying people’s motives for moving is developed. In this framework the concept...... is based on changes in housing needs during family formation and on the limited opportunities in the Copenhagen housing market. The anti-urban motive is based on a wish to bring up children in a non-urban milieu. The paper argues that an understanding of motives that focuses on the interrelationship...... “dwelling habitus” is central. By applying the analytical framework to the study of Danish middle-income families with children, their motives for out-migrating from Copenhagen are explored. Two broad categories of motives for moving are identified: the housing and the anti-urban. The housing motive...

  1. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and

  2. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids

  3. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  4. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume 2: Estimating salmonid survival with combined PIT-CWT tagging. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, K.

    1997-06-01

    Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags and Coded Wire Tags (CWTs) in combination can provide information about salmonid survival that single tag releases may not. The release and recapture protocol affects which survival and recapture rates can be estimated and the precision of the estimates. For the particular case of Columbia river salmonids tagged with both PIT tags and CWTs, three different release and recapture protocols were evaluated. This report addresses the need to study the fate of salmon smolt in-river and their subsequent return as adults. Double-tagging procedures are investigated where PIT-tags would be used to provide in-river survival data during smolt outmigrations and coded-wire tags (CWT) used to provide adult return information. This report provides statistical models for the analysis of the joint data as well as recommendations on optimal tagging studies. Study costs and stress on smolt can be reduced by only PIT-tagging a subset of all the fish coded-wire-tagged, while retaining the information content and sampling precision

  5. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  6. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F.; Carr, David L.

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+ n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  7. Agro-ecological drivers of rural out-migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical settlement frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identification of the environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding of this process could be useful for developing policies to both reduce environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehension of this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This letter presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. The results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. (letter)

  8. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL DRIVERS OF RURAL OUT-MIGRATION TO THE MAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUATEMALA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical agricultural frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identifying environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding this process could be useful for developing policies to reduce both environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also to palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehending this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This paper presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. Results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular.

  9. The effect of geographical centralization of education for outmigration from fringe areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    During the last 25 years population in fringe areas in Denmark has declined. The main reason has been that young people leave these areas and seldom come back. In this study is examined the connection between young people’s outmigration, their choice of education and the location of educational...... institutions. It is shown that geographical centralization of education since 1990 and the tendency for more young people to choose higher education has resulted in an increase in the outmigration of young people from fringe areas...

  10. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  11. Impacts of out-migration on land management in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaquet, Stéphanie; Liniger, Hanspeter; Sudmeier-Rieux, K.; Penna, I.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Kaenzig, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Out-migration from mountain areas is leaving behind half families and elderly to deal with managing the land alongside daily life challenges. A potential reduction of labour force as well as expertise on cropping practices, maintenance of terraces and irrigation canals, slope stabilization, grazing, forest and other land management practices are further challenged by changing climate conditions and increased environmental threats. An understanding of the resilience of managed...

  12. Elwha genetics - Elwha river salmonid genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Elwha Dam is in the process of being removed, with fish restoration to occur in areas previously inaccessible to salmonids. Fish recovery anticipates that...

  13. Out-migration and land-use change in agricultural frontiers: insights from Altamira settlement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Antona, Álvaro O.

    2012-01-01

    One of Daniel Hogan’s lasting impacts on international demography community comes through his advocacy for studying bidirectional relationships between environment and demography, particularly migration. We build on his holistic approach to mobility and examine dynamic changes in land use and migration among small farm families in Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We find that prior area in either pasture or perennials promotes out-migration of adult children, but that out-migration is not directly associated with land-use change. In contrast to early formulations of household life cycle models that argued that aging parents would decrease productive land use as children left the farm, we find no effect of out-migration of adult children on land-use change. Instead, remittances facilitate increases in area in perennials, a slower to pay off investment that requires scarce capital, but in pasture. While remittances are rare, they appear to permit sound investments in the rural milieu and thus to slow rural exodus and the potential consolidation of land into large holdings. We would do well to promote the conditions that allow them to be sent and to be used productively to keep families on the land to avoid the specter of extensive deforestation for pasture followed by land consolidation. PMID:23129878

  14. Networks Versus Need: Drivers of Urban Out-Migration in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Heather F; VanWey, Leah K

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization rates rise globally, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors associated with urban out-migration. In this paper, we examine the drivers of urban out-migration among young adults in two medium-sized cities in the Brazilian Amazon-Altamira and Santarém-focusing on the roles of social capital, human capital, and socioeconomic deprivation. Using household survey data from 1,293 individuals in the two cities, we employ an event history model to assess factors associated with migration and a binary logit model to understand factors associated with remitting behavior. We find that in Altamira, migration tends to be an individual-level opportunistic strategy fostered by extra-local family networks, while in Santarém, migration tends to be a household-level strategy driven by socioeconomic deprivation and accompanied by remittances. These results indicate that urban out-migration in Brazil is a diverse social process, and that the relative roles of extra-local networks versus economic need can function quite differently between geographically proximate but historically and socioeconomically distinct cities.

  15. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1990 through March 1991 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from NcNary Dam; to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam; to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams; and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights of results of this work in the Dalles, Bonneville and John Day reservoirs are included in the four pages included in this report

  16. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batton, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ingraham, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  17. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Survival estimates for the passage of juvenile salmonids through Snake River dams and reservoirs, 1996. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.G.; Muir, W.D.; Hockersmith, E.E.; Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Ruehle, T.E.; Williams, J.G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  20. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  1. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  2. Educational Selectivity of Out-migration in Canada: 1976-1981 to 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Ram

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to show that migrants are positively selected whether they are driven by economic factors or by non-economic factors, and whether they are motivated by pull factors or push factors. Using “five-year migration data” from the 1981 to 2001 censuses of Canada, we find that the education gradient of out-migration is apparent in every region, with the highly educated being more mobile than the less educated. However, the pattern is most pronounced in the Atlantic region, Quebec, and Manitoba/Saskatchewan, the regions experiencing poorer economic conditions and persistent net losses through migration. The three high-income provinces, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia not only experience lower overall net losses, but are also less likely to lose their better educated persons—even during bad economic times. Quebec emerges as a special case where economic as well as linguistic-political factors play an important role in governing the out-migration patterns of the better educated, particularly those belonging to the non-Francophone group.

  3. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  4. Will They Stay? Foreign-Born Out-Migration from New U.S. Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Lee, Min-Ah

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants living in new destinations in 1995 were 2.5 times more likely to have migrated to another labor market by 2000 as immigrants living in traditional places. The researchers look at two competing explanations for immigrants’ differential internal migration patterns, namely that immigrants prefer areas with relatively large nativity concentrations which provide them with social support versus immigrants are target earners who prefer robust labor markets with strong employment growth and high wages. Utilizing confidential Census data for 1990 and 2000, the authors develop new destination classifications for 741 labor markets that take into account the differential growth and composition characteristics of 24 Asian, Latin American and Caribbean immigrant groups living in those markets. The empirical analysis of labor market out-migration indicates that immigrants do not see internal migration as an either/or choice between economics and social support but prefer residence places that allow them to maximize both conditions. PMID:22923857

  5. Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meehan, William R

    1991-01-01

    Contents : Stream ecosystems - Salmonid distributions and life histories - Habitat requirements of salmonids in streams - Natural processes - Timber harvesting, silvicultrue and watershed processes - Forest...

  6. Recent Trends of Rural Out-migration and its Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts in Uttarakhand Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Bhagwati

    2018-01-01

    In Himalaya, the environmental constraints impose severe restrictions on the carrying capacity of natural resources as well as on the effciency of infrastructure and services. As a result, subsistence farming constitutes the main source of rural food and livelihood. Owing to constraints of subsistence economy a large proportion of youth male population out-migrates the rural areas in search of livelihood and employment creating scarcity of farm labour. As a result, large proportion of agricul...

  7. Male out-migration: a factor for the spread of HIV infection among married men and women in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Saggurti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thus far, the reasons for increasing HIV prevalence in northern and eastern Indian states are unknown. We investigated the role of male out-migration in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection through a case-control study in rural India. METHODS: Currently married men and women were recruited from HIV testing and treatment centers across seven selected districts with high rates of male out-migration in eastern and northern India in 2010 using a case-control study design. Case subjects (men: 595, women: 609 were people who tested HIV seropositive and control subjects (men: 611, women: 600 were those tested HIV seronegative. For each gender, we obtained adjusted odds ratios (AORs and population attributable risks (PARs for migration, and behavioral factors. RESULTS: For men, the prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among those with a migration history (AOR, 4.4; for women, the prevalence of HIV was higher among those with migrant husbands (AOR, 2·3. For both genders, the returned male migration (men: AOR, 3·7; women: AOR, 28 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of HIV infection. The PAR associated with male migration was higher for men (54.5%-68.6% than for women (32·7%-56·9% across the study areas. DISCUSSION: Male out-migration is the most important risk factor influencing the spread of HIV infection in rural areas with high out-migration rates, thereby emphasizing the need for interventions, particularly, for returned migrants and spouses of those migrants.

  8. The footprint of salmonids on river morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Tonina, D.

    2012-12-01

    Female salmonids dig a pit in the streambed where they lay their eggs, which then cover with sediment from a second pit forming an egg nest call redd. This formation results in a shape resembling a dune with an amplitude, which is the vertical difference between bottom of the pit and crest of the hump, varying from few centimetres (for small fish, chum or sockeye salmon) to tenths of a meter (for large fish, Chinook salmon). During redd construction, salmonids alter streambed topography, winnow away fine sediment and mix streambed material within a layer as thick as 50 cm, for the large chinook salmon. The spawning activities may result in additional roughness at the local scale due to redds. However, redd construction may smooth large-scale topography reducing roughness due the macro-bedform. These topographical changes vary streambed roughness, which in turn may affect shear stress distribution. Redds have been suggested to increase the overall flow resistance due to form drag resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. However, the mixing of the sediment could prevent armouring of the streambed surface allowing higher than with armouring sediment transport. Here, we use detailed pre- and post-spawning bathymetries coupled with accurate 2-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling to test which of these two effects has potentially more impact on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness added by sockeye salmons, which build small redds with 15cm amplitude and 1 meter wavelength (longitudinal length of a redd), has negligible effect on shear stress at the reach-scale and limited at the local scale. Conversely, sediment mixing has an important effect on reducing armouring, increasing sediment mobility, which results in potentially more sediment transport in reaches with than without redds. Consequently, salmonid bioturbation due to mass-spawning fish can be a dominant element for sediment transport in mountain drainage

  9. Survey of Potential Hanford Site Contaminants in the Upper Sediment for the Reservoirs at McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Priddy, M; Yokel, Jerel W.; Delistraty, Damon A.; Stoops, Thomas M.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the results from a multi-agency cooperative environmental surveillance study. of the study looked at sediment from the pools upstream from dams on the Columbia River that are downstream from Hanford Site operations. The radiological and chemical conditions existing in the upper-level sediment found in the pools upstream from McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Lock and Dam, and Bonneville Dam were evaluated. This study also evaluated beach sediment where available. Water samples were collected at McNary Dam to further evaluate potential Hanford contaminants in the lower Columbia River. Samples were analyzed for radionuclides, chemicals, and physical parameters. Results from this study were compared to background values from sediment and water samples collect from the pool upstream of Priest Rapids Dam (upstream of the Hanford Site) by the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project.

  10. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  11. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    , non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations...... information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics...

  12. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  13. Where Have All the Youngsters Gone? The Background and Consequences of Young Adults’ Outmigration from Hungarian Small Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkai Bernadett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the general demographic situation in Hungary and the recent overall crisis of this traditional settlement-type, Hungarian small towns have been facing an intensive shrinking since the last decade. Although natural decrease and migration loss are almost equal factors of population decline, outmigration seems to be a more strategic, critical problem for these settlements. There are hardly any reliable data available about the migrants leaving small towns, but some of them seem to support the wellknown assumption that the young people, who leave these towns are looking for wider horizons and better perspectives. The aim of the present paper is to analyse the outmigration of young adults from small towns, and give estimation about the international aspects of migration, which is hardly ever published in official statistics. The paper also aims at revealing the impact of the intensive migration on the local labour market. A short statistical analysis based on census data and two empirical surveys conducted by the authors are also included. One was carried out with the support of volunteer contributors, former small-town students, who tried to reconstruct the post-secondary school migration of their former classmates. The other survey contains a series of interviews focusing on the consequences of the young adults’ migration on the labour market. The results facilitate the estimation regarding the (weak capability of small towns to keep their young population, and highlight the problems of local developmental options within the context of demographic shrinkage.

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  15. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmbhatt Sonal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total, 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is

  16. Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Primmer, Craig R; Houston, Ross D; Nowak, Barbara F; Bernatchez, Louis; Bergseth, Steinar; Davidson, William S; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Goldammer, Tom; Guiguen, Yann; Iturra, Patricia; Kijas, James W; Koop, Ben F; Lien, Sigbjørn; Maass, Alejandro; Martin, Samuel A M; McGinnity, Philip; Montecino, Martin; Naish, Kerry A; Nichols, Krista M; Ólafsson, Kristinn; Omholt, Stig W; Palti, Yniv; Plastow, Graham S; Rexroad, Caird E; Rise, Matthew L; Ritchie, Rachael J; Sandve, Simen R; Schulte, Patricia M; Tello, Alfredo; Vidal, Rodrigo; Vik, Jon Olav; Wargelius, Anna; Yáñez, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    We describe an emerging initiative - the 'Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes' (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis of phenotypic variation. The outcomes of FAASG will have diverse applications, ranging from improved understanding of genome evolution, to improving the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production, supporting the future of fundamental and applied research in an iconic fish lineage of major societal importance.

  17. Underwater methods for study of salmonids in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow

    1994-01-01

    This guide describes underwater methods using snorkeling gear to study fish populations in flowing waters of the Intermountain West. It outlines procedures for estimating salmonid abundance and habitat use and provides criteria for identifying and estimating the size of fish underwater.

  18. Variation in salmonid life histories: patterns and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary F. Willson

    1997-01-01

    Salmonid fishes differ in degree of anadromy, age of maturation, frequency of reproduction, body size and fecundity, sexual dimorphism, breeding season, morphology, and, to a lesser degree, parental care. Patterns of variation and their possible significance for ecology and evolution and for resource management are the focus of this review.

  19. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  1. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  2. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1993-12-01

    This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, the authors assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparation for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report

  3. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  4. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Salmonid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Øverli, Øyvind

    2001-01-01

    Stress can affect several behavioural patterns, such as food intake and the general activity level of an animal. The central monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are important in the mediation of both behavioural and neuroendocrine stress effects. This thesis describes studies of two salmonid fish model systems: Fish that become socially dominant or subordinate when reared in pairs, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genetically selected for high (HR) and l...

  5. Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

  6. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  7. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  8. 1998-1999 evaluation of fall chinook and chum salmon spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naald, W.D. van der

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  9. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  10. Assessment of native salmonids above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-01-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels

  11. Gas bubble disease monitoring and research of juvenile salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maule, A.G.; Beeman, J.; Hans, K.M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3)

  12. The energetic consequences of habitat structure for forest stream salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naman, Sean M; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Kiffney, Peter M; Richardson, John S

    2018-05-08

    1.Increasing habitat availability (i.e. habitat suitable for occupancy) is often assumed to elevate the abundance or production of mobile consumers; however, this relationship is often nonlinear (threshold or unimodal). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these nonlinearities is essential for predicting the ecological impacts of habitat change, yet the functional forms and ultimate causation of consumer-habitat relationships are often poorly understood. 2.Nonlinear effects of habitat on animal abundance may manifest through physical constraints on foraging that restrict consumers from accessing their resources. Subsequent spatial incongruence between consumers and resources should lead to unimodal or saturating effects of habitat availability on consumer production if increasing the area of habitat suitable for consumer occupancy comes at the expense of habitats that generate resources. However, the shape of this relationship could be sensitive to cross-ecosystem prey subsidies, which may be unrelated to recipient habitat structure and result in more linear habitat effects on consumer production. 3.We investigated habitat-productivity relationships for juveniles of stream-rearing Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.), which typically forage in low-velocity pool habitats, while their prey (drifting benthic invertebrates) are produced upstream in high-velocity riffles. However, juvenile salmonids also consume subsidies of terrestrial invertebrates that may be independent of pool-riffle structure. 4.We measured salmonid biomass production in 13 experimental enclosures each containing a downstream pool and upstream riffle, spanning a gradient of relative pool area (14-80% pool). Increasing pool relative to riffle habitat area decreased prey abundance, leading to a nonlinear saturating effect on fish production. We then used bioenergetics model simulations to examine how the relationship between pool area and salmonid biomass is affected by varying levels of

  13. Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local zooplankton populations, including harmful blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local zooplankton communities were monitored during the final year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary zooplankton bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with zooplankton biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded zooplankton abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the zooplankton blooms may be repelling

  14. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  15. How do land-based salmonid farms affect stream ecology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, A.; Corner, R.A.; Telfer, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing research is highlighting the fact that streams provide crucial ecosystem services through the biogeochemical and ecological processes they sustain. Freshwater land-based salmonid farms commonly discharge their effluents into low order, headwater streams, partly due to the fact that adequate freshwater resources for production are commonly found in undisturbed areas. We review the effects of salmonid farm effluents on different biological components of stream ecosystems. Relevant considerations related to the temporal and spatial scales of effluent discharge and ecological effects are discussed. These highlight the need to characterize the patterns of stressor discharge when assessing environmental impacts and designing ecological effects studies. The potential role of multiple stressors in disrupting ecosystem structure and function is discussed with an emphasis on aquaculture veterinary medicines. Further research on the effects of veterinary medicines using relevant exposure scenarios would significantly contribute to our understanding of their impact in relation to other effluent stressors. - This article reviews the effects of aquaculture effluents on stream ecosystems with an emphasis on veterinary medicines and the temporal patterns of effluent discharge.

  16. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  17. Virucidal activity of two Iodophors to salmonid viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    Wescodyne® and Betadine®, organic iodine complexes, were compared in vitro for virucidal activity against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) viruses. Both iodophors were about equally effective on all three viruses. Each iodophor completely destroyed IHN virus within 30 sec at 12 ppm iodine, and was not affected by water hardness. Virucidal activity, however, was reduced at pH levels above 8.0 and in the presence of organic matter. Wescodyne was also compared with seven disinfectants commonly used in fish hatcheries, for virucidal properties against IHN virus. Wescodyne and chlorine were the only disinfectants to completely destroy the virus. Either Wescodyne or Betadine would effectively destroy the salmonid viruses at less than 25 ppm iodine within 5 min in solutions near neutrality.

  18. Latent Toxicity of Endothall to Anadromous Salmonids During Seawater Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courter, Lauren A; Garrison, Thomas M; Courter, Ian I

    2016-05-01

    Limited evidence exists on the latent effects of toxicant exposure on the seawater adaptability of anadromous salmon and steelhead. It is unclear whether such an effect exists for the widely used and relatively non-toxic herbicide endothall. Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho), Chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Chinook), and anadromous rainbow trout, O. mykiss (steelhead) were subjected to a 10-day seawater challenge following freshwater treatments [0-12 mg acid equivalent (a.e)./L at 96 h]. Mean survival resulted in 82 % (n = 225), 84 % (n = 133), 90 % (n = 73) and 59 % (n = 147) survival for 0, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 mg a.e./L, respectively. Our results indicate a lower toxicity threshold compared with previously reported acute toxicity results, but higher compared with previous seawater challenge studies. We demonstrate the utility of the seawater challenge assay to accurately define toxic effects of pesticides on salmonids with complex life-histories.

  19. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  20. EFFECT OF NON-ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (MERCURY. ARSENIC ON SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of water ecosystem pollution with heavy metals achieved great actuality during recent years, both because of their significant distribution in environment, and wide spectrum of their toxic effects on fish organism. Much attention in modern scientific literature is given to the problem of the effects of heavy metals, including mercury and arsenic, on fish organism. However, investigations in this field are conducted mainly on cyprinids, while physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the effects of heavy metals on salmonids are less studied. According to this, the studies of the sources of heavy metals in water ecosystems, peculiarities of their action in salmonid organism on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels, species and age-related peculiarities of the effects of heavy metals are of great scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this work is to review the mentioned problems. Findings. The work characterizes the effects of mercury and arsenic on salmonids on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The article contains characteristic of conditions, under which toxic or lethal action of the mentioned xenobiotics on different species of salmonids was observed. Originality. The paper summarizes literature data concerning the effect of mercury and arsenic on salmonids. Attention is accented on the sources of the mentioned pollutants in surface waters, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of their effects on salmonids, and on factors, which determine the level of their toxicity. Lethal concentrations of mercury and arsenic to salmonids, depending on experiment duration, species and age-related peculiarities are presented. Practical value. Data presented in the review can be used for the explanation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the adaptation of salmonids to surface water pollution with heavy metals, diagnostics of fish pathologies caused by toxic effects of mercury and

  1. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 23--June 24, 1996. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendon, M.L.; Rocklage, S.J.; Kucera, P.A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts

  2. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 23--June 24, 1996. Annual report 1996; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendon, M.L.; Rocklage, S.J.; Kucera, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts

  3. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  4. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were &apos

  5. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 6, 1995--June 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenden, M.L.; Osborne, R.S.; Kucera, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June

  6. Comparison of the movement and recapture of salmonid fishes tagged at two power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Thommes, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Fish tagging studies were conducted in the vicinity of Point Beach Nuclear Plant and Waukegan Power Plant to determine whether there were any seasonal or site specific differences in the residence behavior of salmonids at thermal discharges. Results showed that there were differences in the abundance and time of peak abundance of trout and salmon at the two power plant discharges. Certain species reacted differently to the two discharges probably as a result of maturity and water temperature. Salmonids did not appear to remain at either discharge for long periods. Direction of migration was affected by stocking location and water temperature

  7. A facile method of hydrophobic surface modification for acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate terpolymer based on the out-migration property of metallic soaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Hydrophobic surface modification is conducted in this study by using additives with long alkyl chains. Several kinds of metallic soaps, such as calcium stearate (CaSt), zinc stearate (ZnSt), magnesium stearate (MgSt) and barium stearate (BaSt) were employed. Polymer matrix is acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) terpolymer due to its wonderful weather resistance property. The surface chemical characterization was studied by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) technology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carboxylate (Osbnd Csbnd O-) indexes of composites in both transmittance and reflection modes were calculated according to FTIR results. As to the ratio of carboxylate index in reflection mode to that in transmittance mode, the sample added with 5 wt% ZnSt shows a higher value of 8.77, and a much higher value of 14.47 for the sample added with 10 wt% ZnSt. The corresponding Csbnd C/ Csbnd H /Cdbnd C peak areas of the samples added with 5 wt% or 10 wt% ZnSt are 75.4% and 77.3% respectively, much higher than other samples. This indicates ZnSt is much easier to out-migrate to material surface and therefore is more suitable for hydrophobic surface modification. In particular, the water contact angle of the ASA/ZnSt composite added with 10 wt% ZnSt significantly increased to 127o (40o increase in comparison with pure ASA), successfully converting the surface wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic.

  8. Invasion versus isolation: Trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt D. Fausch; Bruce E. Rieman; Jason B. Dunham; Michael K. Young; Douglas P. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are...

  9. Cumulative effects of logging road sediment on salmonid populations in the Clearwater River, Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Cederholm; L. M. Reid; E. O. Salo

    1981-01-01

    Abstract - The nature of sediment production from logging roads and the effect of the resulting sediment on salmonid spawning success in the Clearwater River drainage have been studied for eight years. The study includes intensive and extensive analyses of field situations, supplemented by several controlled experiments. It was found that significant amounts (15-25...

  10. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes

  11. Avian predation on juvenile salmonids in the Lower Columbia River; 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results

  12. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from...

  13. Barriers, invasion, and conservation of native salmonids in coldwater streams [Box 18.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Rieman; Michael Young; Kurt Fausch; Jason Dunham; Douglas Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are threats to persistence of many native fish populations. Invading nonnative species that may restrict or displace native species are also important. These two issues are particularly relevant for native salmonids that are often limited to remnant habitats in cold, headwater streams. On the surface, reversing threats to native fishes...

  14. Development of field-based models of suitable thermal regimes for interior Columbia Basin salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman; Gwynne Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research sponsored through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Interagency Agreement #00-IA-11222014-521). The primary objectives of this research included 1) develop models relating occurrence of two threatened inland salmonid fishes to...

  15. Low Temperature-Dependent Salmonid Alphavirus Glycoprotein Processing and Recombinant Virus-Like Particle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Feenstra, F.; Villoing, S.; Hulten, van M.C.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Koumans, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish.

  16. Evaluation of an ion adsorption method to estimate intragravel flow velocity in salmonid spawning gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Clayton; John G. King; Russell F. Thurow

    1996-01-01

    Intragravel water exchange provides oxygenated water, removes metabolic waste, and is an essential factor in salmonid embryo survival. Measurements of intragravel flow velocity have been suggested as an index of gravel quality and also as a useful predictor of fry emergence; however, proposed methods for measuring velocity in gravel are problematic. We evaluate an ion...

  17. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  18. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  19. APPLICATION OF SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE N THE BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  20. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, D.; Higuera, G.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions ph...... together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque‐forming units per colony‐forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD....

  1. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Model structure of the stream salmonid simulator (S3)—A dynamic model for simulating growth, movement, and survival of juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.; Jones, Edward C.; Som, Nicholas A.; Hetrick, Nicholas J.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2018-04-06

    Fisheries and water managers often use population models to aid in understanding the effect of alternative water management or restoration actions on anadromous fish populations. We developed the Stream Salmonid Simulator (S3) to help resource managers evaluate the effect of management alternatives on juvenile salmonid populations. S3 is a deterministic stage-structured population model that tracks daily growth, movement, and survival of juvenile salmon. A key theme of the model is that river flow affects habitat availability and capacity, which in turn drives density dependent population dynamics. To explicitly link population dynamics to habitat quality and quantity, the river environment is constructed as a one-dimensional series of linked habitat units, each of which has an associated daily time series of discharge, water temperature, and usable habitat area or carrying capacity. The physical characteristics of each habitat unit and the number of fish occupying each unit, in turn, drive survival and growth within each habitat unit and movement of fish among habitat units.The purpose of this report is to outline the underlying general structure of the S3 model that is common among different applications of the model. We have developed applications of the S3 model for juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the lower Klamath River. Thus, this report is a companion to current application of the S3 model to the Trinity River (in review). The general S3 model structure provides a biological and physical framework for the salmonid freshwater life cycle. This framework captures important demographics of juvenile salmonids aimed at translating management alternatives into simulated population responses. Although the S3 model is built on this common framework, the model has been constructed to allow much flexibility in application of the model to specific river systems. The ability for practitioners to include system-specific information for the

  3. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  4. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation

  5. Three-dimensional migration behavior of juvenile salmonids in reservoirs and near dams

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Fu, Tao; Brown, Richard S.; Martinez, Jayson J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholds, Jon F.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    To acquire 3-D tracking data on juvenile salmonids, Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled hydrophone arrays were deployed in the forebays of two dams on the Snake River and at a mid-reach reservoir between the dams. The depth distributions of fish were estimated by statistical analyses performed on large 3-D tracking data sets from ~33,500 individual acoustic tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at the two dams in 2012 and subyearling Chinoo...

  6. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  7. A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matthew Drenner

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.

  8. Gas bubble trauma monitoring and research of juvenile salmonids. 1995 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maule, A.G.; Mesa, M.G.; Hans, K.M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Salmonid Chromosome Evolution as Revealed by a Novel Method for Comparing RADseq Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Thierry; Normandeau, Eric; Lamothe, Manuel; Isabel, Nathalie; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) can provide material for evolutionary innovation. Family Salmonidae is ideal for studying the effects of WGD as the ancestral salmonid underwent WGD relatively recently, ∼65 Ma, then rediploidized and diversified. Extensive synteny between homologous chromosome arms occurs in extant salmonids, but each species has both conserved and unique chromosome arm fusions and fissions. Assembly of large, outbred eukaryotic genomes can be difficult, but structural rearrangements within such taxa can be investigated using linkage maps. RAD sequencing provides unprecedented ability to generate high-density linkage maps for nonmodel species, but can result in low numbers of homologous markers between species due to phylogenetic distance or differences in library preparation. Here, we generate a high-density linkage map (3,826 markers) for the Salvelinus genera (Brook Charr S. fontinalis), and then identify corresponding chromosome arms among the other available salmonid high-density linkage maps, including six species of Oncorhynchus, and one species for each of Salmo, Coregonus, and the nonduplicated sister group for the salmonids, Northern Pike Esox lucius for identifying post-duplicated homeologs. To facilitate this process, we developed MapComp to identify identical and proximate (i.e. nearby) markers between linkage maps using a reference genome of a related species as an intermediate, increasing the number of comparable markers between linkage maps by 5-fold. This enabled a characterization of the most likely history of retained chromosomal rearrangements post-WGD, and several conserved chromosomal inversions. Analyses of RADseq-based linkage maps from other taxa will also benefit from MapComp, available at: https://github.com/enormandeau/mapcomp/ PMID:28173098

  10. Comparing stream-specific to generalized temperature models to guide salmonid management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew K. Carlson,; William W. Taylor,; Hartikainen, Kelsey M.; Dana M. Infante,; Beard, Douglas; Lynch, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase air and stream temperatures and alter thermal habitat suitability for growth and survival of coldwater fishes, including brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a changing climate, accurate stream temperature modeling is increasingly important for sustainable salmonid management throughout the world. However, finite resource availability (e.g. funding, personnel) drives a tradeoff between thermal model accuracy and efficiency (i.e. cost-effective applicability at management-relevant spatial extents). Using different projected climate change scenarios, we compared the accuracy and efficiency of stream-specific and generalized (i.e. region-specific) temperature models for coldwater salmonids within and outside the State of Michigan, USA, a region with long-term stream temperature data and productive coldwater fisheries. Projected stream temperature warming between 2016 and 2056 ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 °C in groundwater-dominated streams and 0.2–6.8 °C in surface-runoff dominated systems in the State of Michigan. Despite their generally lower accuracy in predicting exact stream temperatures, generalized models accurately projected salmonid thermal habitat suitability in 82% of groundwater-dominated streams, including those with brook charr (80% accuracy), brown trout (89% accuracy), and rainbow trout (75% accuracy). In contrast, generalized models predicted thermal habitat suitability in runoff-dominated streams with much lower accuracy (54%). These results suggest that, amidst climate change and constraints in resource availability, generalized models are appropriate to forecast thermal conditions in groundwater-dominated streams within and outside Michigan and inform regional-level salmonid management strategies that are practical for coldwater fisheries managers, policy makers, and the public. We recommend fisheries professionals reserve resource

  11. Ecology and impacts of nonnative salmonids with special reference to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) in North Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Korsu, K. (Kai)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract My main objectives in this thesis were to explore general patterns and mechanisms driving salmonid invasions globally and, more specifically, to examine the invasion dynamics and impacts of the North American brook trout in North European stream systems. Non-native salmonids have often spread extensively and caused many harmful impacts on their native counterparts. Among the three globally introduced salmonids, the European brown trout appeared as the 'worst' alien species (st...

  12. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  13. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback

  14. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  15. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  16. The role of emergent wetlands as potential rearing habitats for juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Flemming, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration.

  17. Juvenile salmonid use of freshwater emergent wetlands in the floodplain and its implications for conservation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration.

  18. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation and California Department of Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the implementation of actions I.6.1 and I.7 identified in the National Marine Fisheries Service's 2009 Biological Opinion and Conference Opinion on the Long-term Operation of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project Reasonable and Prudent Alternative. These actions consist of salmonid habitat restoration efforts within the lower Sacramento River basin and fish passage through the Yolo Bypass. We are seeking suggestions and information on the alternatives and topics to be addressed and any other important issues related to the proposed action.

  19. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  20. The waterfall paradox: How knickpoints disconnect hillslope and channel processes, isolating salmonid populations in ideal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christine; Roering, Joshua J.; Snow, Kyle; Griswold, Kitty; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls create barriers to fish migration, yet hundreds of isolated salmonid populations exist above barriers and have persisted for thousands of years in steep mountainous terrain. Ecological theory indicates that small isolated populations in disturbance-prone landscapes are at greatest risk of extirpation because immigration and recolonization are not possible. On the contrary, many above-barrier populations are currently thriving while their downstream counterparts are dwindling. This quandary led us to explore geomorphic knickpoints as a mechanism for disconnecting hillslope and channel processes by limiting channel incision and decreasing the pace of base-level lowering. Using LiDAR from the Oregon Coast Range, we found gentler channel gradients, wider valleys, lower gradient hillslopes, and less shallow landslide potential in an above-barrier catchment compared to a neighboring catchment devoid of persistent knickpoints. Based on this unique geomorphic template, above-barrier channel networks are less prone to debris flows and other episodic sediment fluxes. These above-barrier catchments also have greater resiliency to flooding, owing to wider valleys with greater floodplain connectivity. Habitat preference models further indicate that salmonid habitat is present in greater quantity and quality in these above-barrier networks. Therefore the paradox of the persistence of small isolated fish populations may be facilitated by a geomorphic mechanism that both limits their connectivity to larger fish populations yet dampens the effect of disturbance by decreasing connections between hillslope and channel processes above geomorphic knickpoints.

  1. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2009-01-01

    The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N =10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata(N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765

  2. Relationship of otolith strontium-to-calcium ratios and salinity: Experimental validation for juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of otolith strontium (Sr) or strontium-to-calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios provides a powerful tool to reconstruct the chronology of migration among salinity environments for diadromous salmonids. Although use of this method has been validated by examination of known individuals and translocation experiments, it has never been validated under controlled experimental conditions. In this study, incorporation of otolith Sr was tested across a range of salinities and resulting levels of ambient Sr and Ca concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus rnykiss), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Experimental water was mixed, using stream water and seawater as end members, to create experimental salinities of 0.1, 6.3, 12.7, 18.6, 25.5, and 33.0 psu. Otolith Sr and Sr:Ca ratios were significantly related to salinity for all species (r2 range: 0.80-0.91) but provide only enough predictive resolution to discriminate among fresh water, brackish water, and saltwater residency. These results validate the use of otolith Sr:Ca ratios to broadly discriminate salinity histories encountered by salmonids but highlight the need for further research concerning the influence of osmoregulation and physiological changes associated with smoking on otolith microchemistry.

  3. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  4. PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmonid Species of Economic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different fish species by molecular methods has become necessary to avoid both the incorrect labelling of individuals involved in repopulation programmes and the commercial frauds on the fish market. Different fish species of great economical importance, like the salmonids, which are very much requested for their meat, can be identified using molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP. The method is based on the amplification of a target region from the genome by PCR reaction followed by endonucleases digestion to detect the polymorphism of restriction fragments. In our study we analysed the following salmonid species from Romania: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo labrax, Salvelinus fontinalis, Onchorhynchus mykiss, Thymallus thymallus and Hucho hucho. In order to discriminate between the analysed species we amplified a fragment of mitochondrial genome comprising tRNAGlu/ cytochrome b/ tRNAThr/ tRNAPro/ D-loop/ tRNAPhe, followed by digestion with a specific restriction enzyme. The direct digestion of unpurified PCR products generated species-specific restriction patterns and proved to be a simple, reliable, inexpensive and fast method. Thus, it may be successfully utilized in specialized laboratories for the correct identification of the fish species for multiple purposes, including the traceability of fish food products.

  5. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  6. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  7. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  8. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  9. Potential effects of climate change on streambed scour and risks to salmonid survival in snow-dominated mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime R. Goode; John M. Buffington; Daniele Tonina; Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow; Seth Wenger; David Nagel; Charlie Luce; Doerthe Tetzlaff; Chris Soulsby

    2013-01-01

    Snowmelt-dominated basins in northern latitudes provide critical habitat for salmonids. As such, these systems may be especially vulnerable to climate change because of potential shifts in the frequency, magnitude, and timing of flows that can scour incubating embryos. A general framework is presented to examine this issue, using a series of physical models that link...

  10. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  11. Effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on the abundance and growth of resident salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret A. Wilzbach; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We studied the concurrent effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on salmonid biomass, density and growth rates in small streams over 2 years. In each of six streams in the Smith and Klamath River basins in northern California, red alder (Alnus rubra) and other hardwoods were removed along both banks of a 100-m reach to...

  12. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  13. Many Species, Many Threats: A Composite Risk Assessment of Climate Impacts for Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. C.; Greene, C.; Beechie, T. J.; Raymond, C.

    2016-02-01

    The life cycles of salmonid species span freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, exposing these economically, ecologically, and culturally important species to a wide variety of climate change threats. The diverse life histories of salmonids make them differentially vulnerable to climate change based on their use of different habitat types and the variability in climate change threats across these habitat types. Previous studies have focused mainly on assessing the vulnerability of particular life stages for a few species. Hence, we lack a broad perspective on how multiple climate threats are expected to impact the entire salmonid community, which spend much of their lives in marine waters. This lack of knowledge hampers our ability to prioritize various adaptation strategies for salmonid conservation. In order to conduct a more extensive vulnerability study of salmonids, we performed a life cycle-based risk assessment of climate change threats for nine species of salmonids (species within Oncorhynchus, Salvelinus, and Prosopium genera) inhabiting the Skagit River watershed, which is subject to an array of climate impacts. Our risk assessment integrated projections of impacts from various climate threats in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems with expert-based assessments of species-specific sensitivity and exposure. We found that projections (multiple global climate models under moderate emission scenarios) of both changes in magnitude and frequency of three flow-related freshwater impacts (flooding, low flows, and suspended sediment pulses) were more severe than threats in estuarine and marine habitats for which we could obtain projections. Combining projections with expert-based sensitivity and exposure scores revealed that these three threats exhibited the highest risk across all species. Of the nine species, the four most vulnerable were Chinook and coho salmon, steelhead, and bull trout. Even though these salmonids spend much of their lives

  14. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  15. Effects of river morphology, hydraulic gradients, and sediment deposition on water exchange and oxygen dynamics in salmonid redds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler Wildhaber, Y; Michel, C; Epting, J; Wildhaber, R A; Huber, E; Huggenberger, P; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Alewell, C

    2014-02-01

    Fine sediment decreasing gravel permeability and oxygen supply to incubating salmonid embryos, is often considered the main contributing factor for the observed decline of salmonid populations. However, oxygen supply to salmonid embryos also depends on hydraulic conditions driving water flow through the redd. A more generalized perspective is needed to better understand the constraints on successful salmonid incubation in the many heavily modified fluvial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere. The effects of hydraulic gradients, riverbed and redd morphology as well as fine sediment deposition on dissolved oxygen (DO) and water exchange was studied in 18 artificial redds at three sites along a modified river. Fifty percent of the redds in the two downstream sites were lost during high flow events, while redd loss at the upstream site was substantially lower (8%). This pattern was likely related to increasing flood heights from up- to downstream. Specific water infiltration rates (q) and DO were highly dynamic and driven on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Temporally, the high permeability of the redd gravel and the typical pit-tail structure of the new built redds, leading to high DO, disappeared within a month, when fine sediment had infiltrated and the redd structure was leveled. On the scale of hours to days, DO concentrations and q increased during high flows, but decreased during the falling limb of the water level, most likely related to exfiltration of oxygen depleted groundwater or hyporheic water. DO concentrations also decreased under prolonged base flow conditions, when increased infiltration of silt and clay particles clogged the riverbed and reduced q. Spatially, artificial log steps affected fine sediment infiltration, q and interstitial DO in the redds. The results demonstrate that multiple factors have to be considered for successful river management in salmonid streams, including riverbed structure and local and regional hydrogeological

  16. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J.; Geoghegan, Fiona; McManus, Catherine; Hill, Ashley E.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1), were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon) farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range) of 82.3 (5.4), followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon) with 75.2 (8.2), and freshwater trout (FW trout) farms with 74.8 (4.5). For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic) was the null model (looic = 46.1). For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3). Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier) were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm’s disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  17. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaishi Yatabe

    Full Text Available Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1, were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range of 82.3 (5.4, followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon with 75.2 (8.2, and freshwater trout (FW trout farms with 74.8 (4.5. For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic was the null model (looic = 46.1. For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3. Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm's disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  18. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  19. Mapping of linear antibody epitopes of the glycoprotein of VHSV, a salmonid rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Lorenzo, G.; Perez, L.

    1998-01-01

    antibodies (MAbs), only 2 non-neutralizing MAbs, I10 (aa 139-153) and IP1H3 (aa 399-413), could be mapped to specific peptides in the pepscan of the gpG. Mapping of these MAbs was confirmed by immunoblotting with recombinant proteins and/or other synthetic peptides covering those sequences. None......Antibody Linear epitopes of the glycoprotein G (gpG) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus of salmonids, were mapped by pepscan using overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the entire gpG sequence and ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal murine and polyclonal trout...... antibodies. Among the regions recognized in the pepscan by the polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) were the previously identified phosphatidylserine binding heptad-repeats (Estepa & Coll 1996; Virology 216:60-70) and leucocyte stimulating peptides (Lorenzo et al. 1995; Virology 212:348-355). Among 17 monoclonal...

  20. Ecological Effects of Re-introduction of Salmonid Spawning Gravel in Lowland Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    recently been conducted in many streams and rivers. However, systematic monitoring of these spawning gravel restoration projects is limited. The overall aim of this paper was to evaluate gravel reintroduction as a long-term salmonid rehabilitation method in 32 lowland streams. Displacement of gravel......, including both restored reaches and upstream control reaches. Downstream displacement of gravel was most common at sites where gravel was reintroduced without further improvement, although these sites exhibited the highest density of YOY brown trout (Salmo trutta), evidencing that the remaining gravel...... is still functional. The intensive study of three streams showed that spawning was enhanced by the introduction of spawning gravel at the restored sites compared to control sites and that habitat quality generally were improved. Our results also suggest complex interactions exist between spawning activity...

  1. First Laboratory Confirmation of Salmonid Alphavirus Type 2 (SAV2 Infection in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the genotype of Polish isolates of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV and to find the origin of the virus. Samples for virus isolation included the kidneys, spleen, and liver pooled from 10 fish. A typical cytopathic effect was observed after inoculation of samples on cell lines. Total RNA was extracted from cell culture supernatant and submitted to RT-PCR with primers amplifying two informative regions of the genome: a conserved region in the E2 gene and a variable region in the nsP3 gene. The sequences revealed that the strain from Poland belonged to subtype SAV 2, indicating a very strong genetic identity with isolates from Italy and France.

  2. Comparative Study of Genome Divergence in Salmonids with Various Rates of Genetic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  3. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  4. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Lapatra, S; Gregg, J; Winton, J; Hershberger, P

    2006-09-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration.

  5. Functional characterization of water transport and cellular localization of three aquaporin paralogs in the salmonid intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Olesen, Jesper H; Bedal, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced in salmonids upon acclimation from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW); however, the molecular mechanism for water transport is unknown. We conducted a pharmacological characterization of water absorption in the rainbow trout intestine along......%), 0.1 ouabain (72%), and 0.1 bumetanide (82%) suggesting that active transport, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-)-co-transport are involved in establishing the driving gradient for water transport. J(v) was also inhibited by 1 mmol L(-1) HgCl(2), serosally (23% in M and 44% in P), mucosally...... (27% in M), or both (61% in M and 58% in P), suggesting involvement of both apical and basolateral aquaporins in water transport. The inhibition was antagonized by 5 mmol L(-1) mercaptoethanol. By comparison, 10 mmol L(-1) mucosal tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of certain aquaporins, inhibited J...

  6. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in 3 salmonid species: Immunological Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt

    Third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex nematodes are considered to have a low host-specificity and are able to infect a wide range of fish species. However, the physiological and immunological status of the fish species may affect the fate of the worm following infection. We selected three...... different salmonid species to investigate the in vivo behavioural difference of experimentally inoculated Anisakis parasite inside these fishes. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were used in this experiment. Infection success differed between...... species. Baltic salmon showed a higher number of nematodes successfully established, whereas brown trout and rainbow trout showed a higher natural resistance. Microhabitat results were also different according to the fish species. Anisakis simplex found in brown trout where attached to the digestive tract...

  7. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  8. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW and seawater (SW stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification pre–adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions, is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  9. Genome specific PPARαB duplicates in salmonids and insights into estrogenic regulation in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Pinheiro, Ivone; de Paula Freire, Rafaelle; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, Luis Filipe; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of many processes in vertebrates, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PPARα, a member of the PPAR nuclear receptor gene subfamily (NR1C1), is involved in fatty acid metabolism, namely in peroxisomal β-oxidation. Two gene paralogues, pparαA and pparαB, were described in several teleost species with their origin dating back to the teleost-specific genome duplication (3R). Given the additional salmonid-specific genome duplication (4R), four genes could be theoretically anticipated for this gene subfamily. In this work, we examined the pparα gene repertoire in brown trout, Salmo trutta f. fario. Data disclosed two pparα-like sequences in brown trout. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that the isolated genes are most likely genome pparαB duplicates, pparαBa and pparαBb, while pparαA is apparently absent in salmonids. Both genes showed a ubiquitous mRNA expression across a panel of 11 different organs. In vitro exposed primary brown trout hepatocytes strongly suggest that pparα gene paralogues are differently regulated by ethinylestradiol (EE2). PparαBb mRNA expression significantly decreased with dosage, reaching significance after exposure to 50μM EE2, while pparαBa mRNA increased, significant at 1μM EE2. The present data enhances the understanding of pparα function and evolution in teleost, and reinforces the evidence of a potential crosstalk between estrogenic and pparα signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hahn

    Full Text Available Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta and Atlantic salmon (S. salar. The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  11. A comparative examination of cortisol effects on muscle myostatin and HSP90 gene expression in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J; McCormick, Stephen D; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Biga, Peggy R

    2016-10-01

    Cortisol, the primary corticosteroid in teleost fishes, is released in response to stressors to elicit local functions, however little is understood regarding muscle-specific responses to cortisol in these fishes. In mammals, glucocorticoids strongly regulate the muscle growth inhibitor, myostatin, via glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) leading to muscle atrophy. Bioinformatics methods suggest that this regulatory mechanism is conserved among vertebrates, however recent evidence suggests some fishes exhibit divergent regulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the conserved actions of cortisol on myostatin and hsp90 expression to determine if variations in cortisol interactions have emerged in salmonid species. Representative salmonids; Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); were injected intraperitoneally with a cortisol implant (50μg/g body weight) and muscle gene expression was quantified after 48h. Plasma glucose and cortisol levels were significantly elevated by cortisol in all species, demonstrating physiological effectiveness of the treatment. HSP90 mRNA levels were elevated by cortisol in brook trout, Chinook salmon, and Atlantic salmon, but were decreased in cutthroat trout. Myostatin mRNA levels were affected in a species, tissue (muscle type), and paralog specific manner. Cortisol treatment increased myostatin expression in brook trout (Salvelinus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo), but not in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus) or cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus). Interestingly, the VC alone increased myostatin mRNA expression in Chinook and Atlantic salmon, while the addition of cortisol blocked the response. Taken together, these results suggest that cortisol affects muscle-specific gene expression in species-specific manners, with unique Oncorhynchus-specific divergence observed, that are not predictive solely based upon

  12. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  13. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hauge

    Full Text Available A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.. HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge. Based on the genetic relationship to PRV, the novel virus is referred to as PRV-Oncorhynchus mykiss (PRV-Om in contrast to PRV-Salmo salar (PRV-Ss. In experimental trials, intraperitoneally injected PRV-Om was shown to replicate in blood in both salmonid species, but more effectively in rainbow trout. In rainbow trout, the virus levels peaked in blood and heart of cohabitants 6 weeks post challenge, along with increased expression of antiviral genes (Mx and viperin in the spleen, with 80-100% of the cohabitants infected. Heart inflammation was diagnosed in all cohabitants examined 8 weeks post challenge. In contrast, less than 50% of the Atlantic salmon cohabitants were infected between 8 and 16 weeks post challenge and the antiviral response in these fish was very low. From 12 weeks post challenge and onwards, mild focal myocarditis was demonstrated in a few virus-positive salmon. In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout.

  14. Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

    2003-09-01

    This is the second part of an investigation that analyzes human alteration of shallow-water habitat (SWH) available to juvenile salmonids in the tidal Lower Columbia River. Part 2 develops a one-dimensional, subtidal river stage model that explains ˜90% of the stage variance in the tidal river. This model and the tidal model developed in part 1 [, 2003] uncouple the nonlinear interaction of river tides and river stage by referring both to external forcing by river discharge, ocean tides, and atmospheric pressure. Applying the two models, daily high-water levels were predicted for a reach from rkm-50 to rkm-90 during 1974 to 1998, the period of contemporary management. Predicted water levels were related to the bathymetry and topography to determine the changes in shallow-water habitat area (SWHA) caused by flood control dikes and altered flow management. Model results suggest that diking and a >40% reduction of peak flows have reduced SWHA by ˜62% during the crucial spring freshet period during which juvenile salmon use of SWHA is maximal. Taken individually, diking and flow cycle alteration reduced spring freshet SWHA by 52% and 29%, respectively. SWHA has been both displaced to lower elevations and modified in its character because tidal range has increased. Our models of these processes are economical for the very long simulations (seasons to centuries) needed to understand historic changes and climate impacts on SWH. Through analysis of the nonlinear processes controlling surface elevation in a tidal river, we have identified some of the mechanisms that link freshwater discharge to SWH and salmonid survival.

  15. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Deters, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Titzler, P. Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, Michael S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trott, Donna M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  16. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  17. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  18. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Virbickas

    Full Text Available European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  19. The potential influence of changing climate on the persistence of salmonids of the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, A.L.; Williams, J.E.; Isaak, D.; Todd, A.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kershner, J.L.; Gresswell, R.E.; Hostetler, S.W.; Neville, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's climate warmed steadily during the 20th century, and mean annual air temperatures are estimated to have increased by 0.6°C (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Although many cycles of warming and cooling have occurred in the past, the most recent warming period is unique in its rate and magnitude of change (Siegenthaler and others, 2005) and in its association with anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007). The climate in the western United States warmed in concert with the global trend but at an accelerated rate (+0.8°C during the 20th century; Saunders and others, 2008). The region could also prove especially sensitive to future changes because the relatively small human population is growing rapidly, as are demands on limited water supplies. Regional hydrological patterns are dominated by seasonal snow accumulation at upper elevations. Most of the region is relatively dry, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are strongly constrained b y water availability (Barnett and others, 2008; Brown and others, 2008). Stream environments are dynamic and climatically extreme, and salmonid fishes are the dominant elements of the native biodiversity (McPhail and Lindsey, 1986; Waples and others, 2008). Salmonids have broad economic and ecologic importance, but a century of intensive water resource development, nonnative fish stocking, and land use has significantly reduced many populations and several taxa are now protected under the Endangered Species Act (Thurow and others, 1997; Trotter, 2008). Because salmonids require relatively pristine, cold water environments and are often isolated in headwater habitats, members of this group may be especially vulnerable to the effects of a warming climate (Keleher and Rahel, 1996; Rieman and others, 2007; Williams and others, 2009). Warming during the 20th century drove a series of environmental trends that have profound implications for many

  20. Comparison of infectious hematopoietic necrosis in natural and experimental infections of spawning salmonids by infectivity and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, C.K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) continues to be a serious virus disease of salmonids with epizootics recorded in both wild and hatchery populations (Williams and Amend 1976; Carlisle et al 1979; Groberg and Fryer 1983; Saft and Pratt 1986; Traxler 1987; Follett et al 1987; Meyers et al 1988). While originally enzootic in western North America, the virus appears to be spreading further (Sano et al 1977; de Kinkelin et al 1987; Bovo et al 1987). In hatchery outbreaks occurring in regions where the virus is not enzootic, it is often possible to trace the virus to the importation of infected fingerlings or contaminated eggs. In regions where the virus is widespread among stocks of fish, the source of virus infection is more difficult to establish particularly in watersheds where there are anadromous salmonids. Although salmonid fish surviving infection as fry and returning from the ocean to spawn are considered to be parental carriers of IHNV, there is very little data to support this hypothesis. Amend (1975) in the study of rainbow trout reported that in a population surviving infection and assayed a few years later found that a few trout were carrying virus. This is the study often cited as evidence for the carrier status of returning salmonids. LaPatra et al (1987) presented data that indicated IHNV has been transmitted horizontally through water from adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) at a hatchery in northern California. They suggested that horizontal transmission may be an important means for perpetuating IHN. However, the actual mechanisms for persistence and transmission of IHN among fish in a watershed is likely to be complex and involve multiple species and age groups as well as intermediate vectors and/or reservoirs.

  1. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  2. Control strategy for viral diseases of salmonid fish, flounders and shrimp at hatchery and seed production facility in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Salmonid fish are important species for hatchery reared and released fish. Flounders and shrimp are also important species for seed production and sea-farming in Japan. Viral disease is one of the limitations of successful propagation of these species. Methods currently used to control viral diseases are 1) hygiene and sanitation in facilities, 2) disinfection of rearing and waste water using U. V. irradiation, ozonization and electrolyzation, 3) selection of pathogen-free brood stock by cell...

  3. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  4. Developing a predation index and evaluating ways to reduce salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately

  5. Assessment of salmonids and their habitat conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-01-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000)

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  8. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal

  9. An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Paige F. B.; Breyta, Rachel; Brito, Ilana L.; Kurath, Gael; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2018-01-01

    cohort-sites experienced self-exposure by infected juvenile fish, this transmission route had the greatest probability of infection (0.22). Increased testing and/or determining whether transmission can occur from cohort-sites without testing records (e.g., determining there was no testing record because there were no fish at the cohort-site) are expected to improve inference about infection probabilities. Increased use of secure water supplies and continued use of biosecurity protocols may reduce IHNV transmission from adult fish and juvenile fish within the site, respectively, to juvenile salmonids at hatcheries. Models and conclusions from this study are potentially relevant to understanding the relative importance of transmission routes for other important aquatic pathogens in salmonids, including the agents of bacterial kidney disease and coldwater disease, and the basic approach may be useful for other pathogens and hosts in other geographic regions.

  10. Initial Detection and Molecular Characterization of Namaycush Herpesvirus (Salmonid Herpesvirus 5) in Lake Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    A novel herpesvirus was found by molecular methods in samples of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush from Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, and Lake Ontario, Keuka Lake, and Lake Otsego, New York. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of polymerase, terminase, and glycoprotein genes, a number of isolates were identified as a novel virus, which we have named Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV) salmonid herpesvirus 5 (SalHV5). Phylogenetic analyses of three NamHV genes indicated strong clustering with other members of the genus Salmonivirus, placing these isolates into family Alloherpesviridae. The NamHV isolates were identical in the three partially sequenced genes; however, they varied from other salmonid herpesviruses in nucleotide sequence identity. In all three of the genes sequenced, NamHV shared the highest sequence identity with Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) isolated from Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar in northern Europe, including northwestern Russia. These results lead one to believe that NamHV and ASPV have a common ancestor that may have made a relatively recent host jump from Atlantic Salmon to Lake Trout or vice versa. Partial nucleotide sequence comparisons between NamHV and ASPV for the polymerase and glycoprotein genes differ by >5% and >10%, respectively. Additional nucleotide sequence comparisons between NamHV and epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV/SalHV3) in the terminase, glycoprotein, and polymerase genes differ by >5%, >20%, and >10%, respectively. Thus, NamHV and EEDV may be occupying discrete ecological niches in Lake Trout. Even though NamHV shared the highest genetic identity with ASPV, each of these viruses has a separate host species, which also implies speciation. Additionally, NamHV has been detected over the last 4 years in four separate water bodies across two states, which suggests that NamHV is a distinct, naturally replicating lineage. This, in combination with a divergence in nucleotide sequence from EEDV

  11. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  12. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  13. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Piscirickettsia salmonis from Chilean and Canadian salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterlei, Alexander; Brevik, Øyvind J; Jensen, Daniel; Duesund, Henrik; Sommerset, Ingunn; Frost, Petter; Mendoza, Julio; McKenzie, Peter; Nylund, Are; Apablaza, Patricia

    2016-03-15

    The study presents the phenotypic and genetic characterization of selected P. salmonis isolates from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout suffering from SRS (salmonid rickettsial septicemia) in Chile and in Canada. The phenotypic characterization of the P. salmonis isolates were based on growth on different agar media (including a newly developed medium), different growth temperatures, antibiotics susceptibility and biochemical tests. This is the first study differentiating Chilean P. salmonis isolates into two separate genetic groups. Genotyping, based on 16S rRNA-ITS and concatenated housekeeping genes grouped the selected isolates into two clades, constituted by the Chilean strains, while the Canadian isolates form a branch in the phylogenetic tree. The latter consisted of two isolates that were different in both genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The phylogenies and the MLST do not reflect the origin of the isolates with respect to host species. The isolates included were heterogeneous in phenotypic tests. The genotyping methods developed in this study provided a tool for separation of P. salmonis isolates into distinct clades. The SRS outbreaks in Chile are caused by minimum two different genetic groups of P. salmonis. This heterogeneity should be considered in future development of vaccines against this bacterium in Chile. Two different strains of P. salmonis, in regards to genetic and phenotypic characteristics, can occur in the same contemporary outbreak of SRS.

  14. Impact of Small Hydro-Power Plants on Salmonid Fishes Spawning Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Stakėnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 and 2005, fish ladders were built in Vilnia and Siesartis rivers providing fish access to another 10 and 25 km of the rivers respectively. The analysis of redd distribution and abundance in both rivers revealed that the construction of fish ladders significantly increased the number and share of redds above dams, however, a significant increase in redds above the dam occurred 2-4 years after fish ladders construction supporting homing behaviour as one of the most important factors for the recolonization of the newly accessible habitats. The tracking of radio tagged salmon and sea trout revealed that statistically, significantly more time, fishes spent in the middle part of fish ladders. Assessed fish ladders efficiency for migrating salmonids made 66%. Minor construction defects and lack of protection were the main factors reducing fishway efficiency. Based on radio tracking data, recommendations are given for minor changes in fish ladders construction and operating schedule to increase the efficiency of fish ladders.Article in English

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  16. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan P Banish

    Full Text Available Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus, and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36 of brown trout, 34% (68/202 of bull trout, and 33% (20/61 of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE] are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6 or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8 and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  17. Survival and growth rates of juvenile salmonids reared in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golski Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of propagating juvenile trout, Salmo trutta L. in small lowland streams and to evaluate the impact of the environmental conditions in the streams on the juvenile fish. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario and sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta early fry fed under controlled conditions were used to stock third-order lowland streams. During summer, fall, and spring catches, fry were counted, measured, and weighed. The following parameters were calculated using the data collected: fry stocking density (ind. m-2; survival; specific mortality rate (SMR; length range; mean specimen length; body weight; mean body weight; specific growth rate (SGR; body condition (Fulton’s index. The ichthyological studies were accompanied by simultaneous analyses of environmental conditions that were performed monthly, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in spring and fall. No differences were observed in the biological parameters analyzed between sea trout and brown trout. Variability in environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygenation, conductivity, and stream width and depth were associated with differentiation in the biological parameters of the fry. The results clearly indicate that the considerable potential of small lowland streams for the propagation of salmonid juvenile stages is currently underexploited.

  18. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  19. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to fluorescent thiochromes; and an ultraviolet-visible-wavelength-filter fluorometer for the measurements. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Bursts and horizontal evolution of DNA transposons in the speciation of pseudotetraploid salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson William S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genome duplications have occurred in the evolutionary history of teleost fish. In returning to a stable diploid state, the polyploid genome reorganized, and large portions are lost, while the fish lines evolved to numerous species. Large scale transposon movement has been postulated to play an important role in the genome reorganization process. We analyzed the DNA sequence of several large loci in Salmo salar and other species for the presence of DNA transposon families. Results We have identified bursts of activity of 14 families of DNA transposons (12 Tc1-like and 2 piggyBac-like families, including 11 novel ones in genome sequences of Salmo salar. Several of these families have similar sequences in a number of closely and distantly related fish, lamprey, and frog species as well as in the parasite Schistosoma japonicum. Analysis of sequence similarities between copies within the families of these bursts demonstrates several waves of transposition activities coinciding with salmonid species divergence. Tc1-like families show a master gene-like copying process, illustrated by extensive but short burst of copying activity, while the piggyBac-like families show a more random copying pattern. Recent families may include copies with an open reading frame for an active transposase enzyme. Conclusion We have identified defined bursts of transposon activity that make use of master-slave and random mechanisms. The bursts occur well after hypothesized polyploidy events and coincide with speciation events. Parasite-mediated lateral transfer of transposons are implicated.

  1. N-mix for fish: estimating riverine salmonid habitat selection via N-mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Nicholas A.; Perry, Russell W.; Jones, Edward C.; De Juilio, Kyle; Petros, Paul; Pinnix, William D.; Rupert, Derek L.

    2018-01-01

    Models that formulate mathematical linkages between fish use and habitat characteristics are applied for many purposes. For riverine fish, these linkages are often cast as resource selection functions with variables including depth and velocity of water and distance to nearest cover. Ecologists are now recognizing the role that detection plays in observing organisms, and failure to account for imperfect detection can lead to spurious inference. Herein, we present a flexible N-mixture model to associate habitat characteristics with the abundance of riverine salmonids that simultaneously estimates detection probability. Our formulation has the added benefits of accounting for demographics variation and can generate probabilistic statements regarding intensity of habitat use. In addition to the conceptual benefits, model application to data from the Trinity River, California, yields interesting results. Detection was estimated to vary among surveyors, but there was little spatial or temporal variation. Additionally, a weaker effect of water depth on resource selection is estimated than that reported by previous studies not accounting for detection probability. N-mixture models show great promise for applications to riverine resource selection.

  2. Genetic and serological diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from salmonids in United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thao P H; Bartie, Kerry L; Thompson, Kim D; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Hoare, Rowena; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected from 27 sites within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG) 5 -PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profileobserved within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined was PFGE cluster II - (GTG) 5 -PCR type r1-16S rRNA lineage II - serotype Th (70/156 isolates examined, 45%). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters

  4. Dextrans produced by lactic acid bacteria exhibit antiviral and immunomodulatory activity against salmonid viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Vázquez, Montserrat; Ballesteros, Natalia; Canales, Ángeles; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara Isabel; Prieto, Alicia; Aznar, Rosa; López, Paloma

    2015-06-25

    Viral infections in the aquaculture of salmonids can lead to high mortality and substantial economic losses. Thus, there is industrial interest in new molecules active against these viruses. Here we describe the production, purification, and the physicochemical and structural characterization of high molecular weight dextrans synthesized by Lactobacillus sakei MN1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides RTF10. The purified dextrans, and commercial dextrans with molecular weights ranging from 10 to 2000kDa, were assayed in infected BF-2 and EPC fish cell-line monolayers for antiviral activity. Only T2000 and dextrans from MN1 and RTF10 had significant antiviral activity. This was similar to results obtained against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. However the dextran from MN1 showed ten-fold higher activity against hematopoietic necrosis virus than T2000. In vivo assays using the MN1 polymer confirmed the in vitro results and revealed immunomodulatory activity. These results together with the high levels of dextran production (2gL(-1)) by Lb. sakei MN1, indicate the compounds potential utility as an antiviral agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffal, A.; Givaudan, N.; Betoulle, S.; Terreau, A.; Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S.; Beall, E.; Roche, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49 o S, 70 o E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g -1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g -1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  6. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  7. Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

    1990-10-01

    An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. An extremely sensitive nested PCR-RFLP mitochondrial marker for detection and identification of salmonids in eDNA from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clusa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Salmonids are native from the North Hemisphere but have been introduced for aquaculture and sport fishing in the South Hemisphere and inhabit most rivers and lakes in temperate and cold regions worldwide. Five species are included in the Global Invasive Species Database: rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. In contrast, other salmonids are endangered in their native settings. Methods Here we have developed a method to identify salmonid species directly from water samples, focusing on the Iberian Peninsula as a case study. We have designed nested Salmonidae-specific primers within the 16S rDNA region. From these primers and a PCR-RFLP procedure the target species can be unequivocally identified from DNA extracted from water samples. Results The method was validated in aquarium experiments and in the field with water from watersheds with known salmonid populations. Finally, the method was applied to obtain a global view of the Salmonidae community in Nalón River (north coast of Spain. Discussion This new powerful, very sensitive (identifying the species down to 10 pg DNA/ml water and economical tool can be applied for monitoring the presence of salmonids in a variety of situations, from checking upstream colonization after removal of river barriers to monitoring potential escapes from fish farms.

  9. How Well Can We Predict Salmonid Spawning Habitat with LiDAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Hayes, S.

    2013-12-01

    Suitable salmonid spawning habitat is, to a great extent, determined by physical, landscape driven characteristics such as channel morphology and grain size. Identifying reaches with high-quality spawning habitat is essential to restoration efforts in areas where salmonid species are endangered or threatened. While both predictions of suitable habitat and observations of utilized habitat are common in the literature, they are rarely combined. Here we exploit a unique combination of high-resolution LiDAR data and seven years of 387 individually surveyed Coho and Steelhead redds in Scott Creek, a 77 km2 un-glaciated coastal California drainage in the Santa Cruz Mountains, to both make and test predictions of spawning habitat. Using a threshold channel assumption, we predict grain size throughout Scott Creek via a shear stress model that incorporates channel width, instead of height, using Manning's equation (Snyder et al., 2013). Slope and drainage area are computed from a LiDAR-derived DEM, and channel width is calculated via hydraulic modeling. Our results for median grain size predictions closely match median grain sizes (D50) measured in the field, with the majority of sites having predicted D50's within a factor of two of the observed values, especially for reaches with D50 > 0.02m. This success suggests that the threshold model used to predict grain size is appropriate for un-glaciated alluvial channel systems. However, it appears that grain size alone is not a strong predictor of salmon spawning. Reaches with a high (>0.1m) average predicted D50 do have lower redd densities, as expected based on spawning gravel sizes in the literature. However, reaches with lower (<0.1m) predicted D50 have a wide range of redd densities, suggesting that reach-average grain size alone cannot explain spawning site selection in the finer-grained reaches of Scott Creek. We turn to analysis of bedform morphology in order to explain the variation in redd density in the low

  10. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  12. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  13. Global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature for informing salmonid disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Alexander, Julie; Bartholomew, Jerri; Hallett, Sascha

    2018-06-01

    Many rivers in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are anthropogenically manipulated via dam operations, leading to system-wide impacts on hydrodynamic conditions and aquatic communities. Understanding how dam operations alter abiotic and biotic variables is important for designing management actions. For example, in the Klamath River, dam outflows could be manipulated to alter water age and temperature to reduce risk of parasite infections in salmon by diluting or altering viability of parasite spores. However, sensitivity of water age and temperature to the riverine conditions such as bathymetry can affect outcomes from dam operations. To examine this issue in detail, we conducted a global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature to a comprehensive set of hydraulics and meteorological parameters in the Klamath River, California, where management of salmonid disease is a high priority. We applied an analysis technique, which combined Latin-hypercube and one-at-a-time sampling methods, and included simulation runs with the hydrodynamic numerical model of the Lower Klamath. We found that flow rate and bottom roughness were the two most important parameters that influence water age. Water temperature was more sensitive to inflow temperature, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, flow rate, and wet bulb temperature respectively. Our results are relevant for managers because they provide a framework for predicting how water within 'high infection risk' sections of the river will respond to dam water (low infection risk) input. Moreover, these data will be useful for prioritizing the use of water age (dilution) versus temperature (spore viability) under certain contexts when considering flow manipulation as a method to reduce risk of infection and disease in Klamath River salmon.

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  15. Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J.G. Sutherland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome duplication (WGD can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into nonrecombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e., heterochiasmy, which is also poorly understood. The family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have nonhomologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species and four genera. Although nonhomology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for 21 unique growth, reproductive, and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic

  16. Incorporating episodicity into estimates of Critical Loads for juvenile salmonids in Scottish streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bridcut

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Load (CL methodology is currently used throughout Europe to assess the risks of ecological damage due to sulphur and nitrogen emissions. Critical acid neutralising capacity (ANCCRIT is used in CL estimates for freshwater systems as a surrogate for biological damage. Although UK CL maps presently use an ANC value of 0 μeq l-1, this value has been based largely on Norwegian lake studies, in which brown trout is chosen as a representative indicator organism. In this study, an ANC value specific for brown trout in Scottish streams was determined and issues were addressed such as salmon and trout sensitivity in streams, episodicity, afforestation and complicating factors such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC and labile aluminium (Al-L. Catchments with significant forest cover were selected to provide fishless sites and to provide catchment comparisons in unpolluted areas. Chemical factors were the primary determinant with land use a secondary determinant of the distribution of salmonid populations at the twenty-six study sites. ANC explained more variance in brown trout density than pH. The most significant index of episodicity was percent of time spent below an ANC of 0 μeq l-1. An ANCCRIT value of 39 μeq l-1 was obtained based on a 50% probability of brown trout occurrence. The use of this revised ANCCRIT value in the CL equation improved the relationship between trout status and exceedance of CLs. Uncertainties associated with variations in Al-L at any fixed ANCCRIT, particularly within forested catchments, and the role of DOC in modifying the toxicity of Al-L are discussed. Keywords: Critical Load, Critical acid neutralising capacity, brown trout, episodes, streams

  17. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  18. A comparative evaluation of crowding stress on muscle HSP90 and myostatin expression in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; McCormick, Stephen; Biga, Peggy R.

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that contributes to poor production and animal welfare concerns in aquaculture. As such, a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in the stress response is imperative to developing strategies to mitigate the negative side effects of stressors, including the impact of high stocking densities on growth. The purpose of this study was to determine how the muscle growth inhibitor, myostatin, and the stress-responsive gene HSP90 are regulated in response to crowding stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). All species exhibited higher cortisol and glucose levels following the handling stress, indicating physiological response to the treatment. Additionally, all species, except rainbow trout, exhibited higher HSP90 levels in muscle after a 48 h crowding stress. Crowding stress resulted in a decrease of myostatin-1ain brook trout white muscle but not red muscle, while, myostatin-1a and -2a levels increased in white muscle and myostatin-1b levels increased in red muscle in Atlantic salmon. In rainbow trout, no significant changes were detected in either muscle type, but myostatin-1awas upregulated in both white and red skeletal muscle in the closely related cutthroat trout. The variation in response to crowding suggests a complex and species-specific interaction between stress and the muscle gene regulation in these salmonids. Only Atlantic salmon and cutthroat trout exhibited increased muscle myostatin transcription, and also exhibited the largest increase in circulating glucose in response to crowding. These results suggest that species-specific farming practices should be carefully examined in order to optimize low stress culture conditions.

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  20. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, as a possible paratenic host for salmonid nematodes in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, Paola E; Kuhn, Jesper A; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Marcogliese, David J

    2016-03-01

    In Takvatn, a subarctic lake in northern Norway, 35 of 162 three-spined sticklebacks examined were infected with 106 specimens of third-stage larvae of Philonema oncorhynchi. The prevalence and mean intensity of P. oncorhynchi were 10 % and 2.0 in 2013 and 24 % and 3.0 in 2014, respectively. A single specimen of Cystidicola farionis was found in an additional sample. While the latter is considered an accidental infection, three-spined sticklebacks may function as paratenic hosts of P. oncorhynchi, potentially enhancing its transmission to salmonids due to their central role in the lacustrine food web of this subarctic lake.

  1. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia River. Volume 7: Monte-Carlo comparison of confidence internal procedures for estimating survival in a release-recapture study, with applications to Snake River salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowther, A.B.; Skalski, J.

    1996-06-01

    Confidence intervals for survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities of migrating juvenile salmonids can be computed from the output of the SURPH software developed at the Center for Quantitative Science at the University of Washington. These intervals have been constructed using the estimate of the survival probability, its associated standard error, and assuming the estimate is normally distributed. In order to test the validity and performance of this procedure, two additional confidence interval procedures for estimating survival probabilities were tested and compared using simulated mark-recapture data. Intervals were constructed using normal probability theory, using a percentile-based empirical bootstrap algorithm, and using the profile likelihood concept. Performance of each method was assessed for a variety of initial conditions (release sizes, survival probabilities, detection probabilities). These initial conditions were chosen to encompass the range of parameter values seen in the 1993 and 1994 Snake River juvenile salmonid survival studies. The comparisons among the three estimation methods included average interval width, interval symmetry, and interval coverage

  2. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo

  3. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  4. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mendel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While intensive fish production has many advantages, it also has a number of drawbacks as regards disease and stress. To date, there has been no conclusive review of disease resistance at Czech fish farms. The aim of the study was to describe briefly the existing salmonid breeding practice in the Czech Republic and to point out the trends and new possibilities gaining ground around Europe. However, the present situation in the Czech stocks is not rare at all and therefore it is used here as a model example representing numerous breeding practices in Europe. Stress and disease resistance in fish is polygenic and quantitative, making selection for such traits difficult. In recent years, however, fish breeding methods have developed rapidly, with the use of genetic analysis tools, for example, now allowing much greater selection accuracy. Gradual progress in understanding the importance of individual genetic markers offers many new options that can be utilised in breeding practice. New selection methods, such as quantitative trait loci (QTLs and genomic selection, are increasingly employed in European aquaculture. Next generation sequencing techniques now help in the finding of new and promising QTLs that can be used in assisted selection. This review maps the current progress in improving salmonid resistance to stress and disease in aquaculture and at the same time provides the breeders with a short overview of the latest tools of genetically controlled breeding and of the newest products available at the European market.

  5. Pathways of Barotrauma in Juvenile Salmonids Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Boyle’s Law vs. Henry’s Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brauner, Colin J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-06-01

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing by the turbine blade may experience rapid decompression, the severity of which can be highly variable and may result in a number of barotraumas. The mechanisms of these injuries can be due to expansion of existing bubbles or gases coming out of solution; governed by Boyle’s Law and Henry’s Law, respectively. This paper combines re-analysis of published data with new experiments to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and mortality for fish experiencing rapid decompression associated with hydroturbine passage. From these data it appears that the majority of decompression related injuries are due to the expansion of existing bubbles in the fish, particularly the expansion and rupture of the swim bladder. This information is particularly useful for fisheries managers and turbine manufacturers, demonstrating that reducing the rate of swim bladder ruptures by reducing the frequency of occurrence and severity of rapid decompression during hydroturbine passage could reduce the rates of injury and mortality for hydroturbine passed juvenile salmonids.

  6. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, A.L.; Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S.; Marius, M.; Dungait, J.A.J.; Smallman, D.J.; Dixon, E.R.; Stringfellow, A.; Sear, D.A.; Jones, J.I.; Naden, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable 13 C and 15 N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± road verges > septic tanks > farm manures

  7. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  8. The impact of the Sea Empress oil spill on the abundance of juvenile migratory salmonids in West Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Jones, F.H.; Wyatt, R.J.; Milner, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    No counting facilities for adult salmonids were operational in the rivers draining into the area of coast affected by the Sea Empress oil spill. There were therefore no direct means of determining any impact on the numbers of returning salmon and sea trout. However, a measure of salmon and trout fry abundance before and after (1997) the spill may provide evidence of an impact; on recruitment and abundance of adults. Approximately 10 years historical fry data were available from 53 sites on the Tywi and 41 sites on the Taf, as part of the Welsh Region Juvenile Salmonid Monitoring Programme (RJSMP). An assessment was undertaken by the Water Research Centre on the design of the survey and appropriate data analysis. Analysed data included: River Tywi salmon and trout fry densities 1985-1996, compared to 1997 and Teifi control 1986-1997. River Taf salmon and trout fry densities 1986-1996, compared to 1997 and Teifi control 1986-1997. The abundance of salmon and trout fry in 1997 were similar to previous years suggesting the Sea Empress oil spill did not have a major impact on recruitment. However, it is not possible to conclude unequivocally that returning salmon and sea trout were not affected by the spill. (author)

  9. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  10. Characterization of the live salmonid movement network in Ireland: Implications for disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, T; More, S J; Geoghegan, F; McManus, C; Hill, A E; Martínez-López, B

    2015-11-01

    Live fish movement is considered as having an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. For that reason, interventions for cost-effective disease prevention and control rely on a sound understanding of the patterns of live fish movements in a region or country. Here, we characterize the network of live fish movements in the Irish salmonid farming industry during 2013, using social network analysis and spatial epidemiology methods, and identify interventions to limit the risk of disease introduction and spread. In the network there were 62 sites sending and/or receiving fish, with a total of 130 shipments (84 arcs) comprising approx. 17.2 million fish during the year. Atlantic salmon shipments covered longer distances than trout shipments, with some traversing the entire country. The average shipment of Atlantic salmon was 146,186 (SD 194,344) fish, compared to 77,928 (127,009) for trout, however, variability was high. There were 3 periods where shipments peaked (February-April, June-September, and November), which were related to specific stages of fish. The network was disconnected and had two major weak components, the first one with 39 nodes (mostly Atlantic salmon sites), and the second one with 10 nodes (exclusively trout sites). Correlation between in and out-degree at each site and assortativity coefficient were slightly low and non-significant: -0.08 (95% CI: -0.22, 0.06) and -0.13 (95% CI: -0.36, 0.08), respectively, indicating random mixing with regard to node degree. Although competing models also produced a good fit to degree distribution, it is likely that the network possesses both small-world and scale-free topology. This would facilitate the spread and persistence of infection in the salmon production system, but would also facilitate the design of risk-based surveillance strategies by targeting hubs, bridges or cut-points. Using Infomap community detection algorithms, 2 major communities were identified within the giant weak

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  12. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  13. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ∼7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile

  15. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  16. Significance of selective predation and development of prey protection measures for juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River reservoirs. Annual progress report, February 1993--February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish

  17. Improved primer sequences for the mitochondrial ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 segments in salmonid fishes : application to RFLP analysis of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1998-01-01

    New specific primers for the mtDNA segments ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 designed from the rainbow trout sequence, improved PCR amplification for salmonid fishes. RFLP analysis revealed restriction site variation for all three segments in Atlantic salmon. Eleven haplotypes were detected in a screening...

  18. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  19. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids into reservoirs above high-head dams is affected by the suitability of the reservoir habitat for rearing and the interactions of the resident fish with introduced fish. We evaluated the predation risk to anadromous salmonids considered for reintroduction in Merwin Reservoir on the North Fork Lewis River in Washington State for two reservoir use-scenarios: year-round rearing and smolt migration. We characterized the role of the primary predators, Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis and tiger muskellunge (Northern Pike Esox lucius × Muskellunge E. masquinongy), by using stable isotopes and stomach content analysis, quantified seasonal, per capita predation using bioenergetics modeling, and evaluated the size and age structures of the populations. We then combined these inputs to estimate predation rates of size-structured population units. Northern Pikeminnow of FL ≥ 300 mm were highly cannibalistic and exhibited modest, seasonal, per capita predation on salmonids, but they were disproportionately much less abundant than smaller, less piscivorous, conspecifics. The annual predation on kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (in biomass) by a size-structured unit of 1,000 Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 300 mm was analogous to 16,000–40,000 age-0 spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha rearing year-round, or 400–1,000 age-1 smolts migrating April–June. The per capita consumption of salmonids by Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 200 mm was relatively low, due in large part to spatial segregation during the summer and the skewed size distribution of the predator population. Tiger muskellunge fed heavily on Northern Pikeminnow, other nonsalmonids, and minimally on salmonids. In addition to cannibalism within the Northern Pikeminnow population, predation by tiger muskellunge likely contributed to the low recruitment of larger (more piscivorous) Northern Pikeminnow, thereby decreasing the risk of predation to

  20. Enhanced invertebrate prey production following estuarine restoration supports foraging for multiple species of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Estuaries provide crucial foraging resources and nursery habitat for threatened populations of anadromous salmon. As such, there has been a global undertaking to restore habitat and tidal processes in modified estuaries. The foraging capacity of these ecosystems to support various species of out-migrating juvenile salmon can be quantified by monitoring benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrate prey communities. Here, we present notable trends in the availability of invertebrate prey at several sites within a restoring large river delta in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Three years after the system was returned to tidal influence, we observed substantial additions to amphipod, copepod, and cumacean abundances in newly accessible marsh channels (from 0 to roughly 5,000–75,000 individuals/m2). In the restoration area, terrestrial invertebrate colonization was dependent upon vegetative cover, with dipteran and hymenopteran biomass increasing 3-fold between 1 and 3 years post-restoration. While the overall biodiversity within the restoration area was lower than in the reference marsh, estimated biomass was comparable to or greater than that found within the other study sites. This additional prey biomass likely provided foraging benefits for juvenile Chinook, chum, and coho salmon. Primary physical drivers differed for benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrates, and these invertebrate communities are expected to respond differentially depending on organic matter exchange and vegetative colonization. Restoring estuaries may take decades to meet certain success criteria, but our study demonstrates rapid enhancements in foraging resources understood to be used for estuary-dependent wildlife.

  1. Effect of Migration Pathway on Travel Time and Survival of Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Johnson, Gary E.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Hughes, Michael S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2012-02-01

    Off-channel areas (side channels, tidal flats, sand bars, and shallow-water bays) may serve as important migration corridors through estuarine environments for salmon and steelhead smolts. Relatively large percentages (21-33%) of acoustic-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts were detected migrating through off-channel areas of the Columbia River estuary in 2008. The probability of survival for off-channel migrants (0.78-0.94) was similar to or greater than the survival probability of main channel migrants (0.67-0.93). Median travel times were similar for all species or run types and migration pathways we examined, ranging from 1-2 d. The route used by smolts to migrate through the estuary may affect their vulnerability to predation. Acoustic-tagged steelhead that migrated nearest to avian predator nesting colonies experienced higher predation rates (24%) than those that migrated farthest from the colonies (10%). The use of multiple migration pathways may be advantageous to out-migrating smolts because it helps to buffer against high rates of mortality, which may occur in localized areas, and helps to minimize inter- and intraspecific competition.

  2. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A.L., E-mail: adrian.collins@adas.co.uk [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S. [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Marius, M. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dungait, J.A.J. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Smallman, D.J. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dixon, E.R. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Stringfellow, A. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Sear, D.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jones, J.I. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Naden, P.S. [CEH Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); damaged road verges (28 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); septic tanks (22 ± < 1%; full range 0–50%), and; farm yard manures/slurries (11 ± < 1%; full range 0–61%). The reported procedure provides a promising basis for understanding the key sources of interstitial sediment-bound organic matter

  3. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  4. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  6. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  7. An epidemic model for the interactions between thermal regime of rivers and transmission of Proliferative Kidney Disease in salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Strepparava, Nicole; Hartikainen, Hanna; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans (Fredericella sultana) and salmonids as primary and secondary hosts, respectively. Incidence and mortality, which can reach up to 90-100%, are known to be strongly related to water temperature. PKD has been present in brown trout population for a long time but has recently increased rapidly in incidence and severity causing a decline in fish catches in many countries. In addition, environmental changes are feared to cause PKD outbreaks at higher latitude and altitude regions as warmer temperatures promote disease development. This calls for a better comprehension of the interactions between disease dynamics and the thermal regime of rivers, in order to possibly devise strategies for disease management. In this perspective, a spatially explicit model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host metacommunities is proposed. The model aims at summarizing the knowledge on the modes of transmission of the disease and the life-cycle of the parasite, making the connection between temperature and epidemiological parameters explicit. The model accounts for both local population and disease dynamics of bryozoans and fish and hydrodynamic dispersion of the parasite spores and hosts along the river network. The model is time-hybrid, coupling inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics, the former being described in a continuous time domain, the latter seen as time steps of a discrete time domain. In order to test the model, a case study is conducted in river Wigger (Cantons of Aargau and Lucerne, Switzerland), where data about water temperature, brown trout and bryozoan populations and PKD prevalence are being collected.

  8. Introduction de salmonidés en milieu vierge (Îles Kerguelen, Subantarctique : enjeux, résultats, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVAINE P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les îles Kerguelen (Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises sont, à l'origine, vierges de toute espèce de poisson d'eau douce. Les quelques espèces de Salmonidés, introduites à la fin des années cinquante dans le cadre d'une politique d'occupation et de mise en valeur du Territoire, se sont acclimatées à l'environnement subantarctique et naturalisées avec plus ou moins de succès en fonction de leurs stratégies adaptatives respectives. Objet d'un suivi scientifique continu, ces populations apparaissent comme d'excellents modèles pour des études de génétique et de dynamique des populations. Les phénomènes de colonisation, limités dans un premier temps à l'augmentation régulière des densités de population et une extension rapide intra-rivière, ont connu un développement spectaculaire depuis les années quatre-vingt, à la suite des modifications importantes du climat local, dont l'influence sur les populations a été multiple. La vaste superficie de Kerguelen et les caractéristiques de ses réseaux hydrographiques permettent d'envisager de continuer à tirer parti positivement des introductions passées de Salmonidés, sur les plans scientifique et de mise en valeur du territoire, tout en développant une politique de protection des écosystèmes aquatiques et terrestres conforme à l'évolution actuelle des mentalités.

  9. Salmonids surveys, number of juvenile fish, fork length, and species diversity conducted in the Little Campbell Creek watershed, Alaska from 2010-11-01 to 2011-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0148761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past few years biologists and other researchers have encountered noticeable fish die-offs, mostly of young salmonid, in various stretches of Little Campbell...

  10. Genomic arrangement of salinity tolerance QTLs in salmonids: A comparative analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Joseph D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait locus (QTL studies show that variation in salinity tolerance in Arctic charr and rainbow trout has a genetic basis, even though both these species have low to moderate salinity tolerance capacities. QTL were observed to localize to homologous linkage group segments within putative chromosomal regions possessing multiple candidate genes. We compared salinity tolerance QTL in rainbow trout and Arctic charr to those detected in a higher salinity tolerant species, Atlantic salmon. The highly derived karyotype of Atlantic salmon allows for the assessment of whether disparity in salinity tolerance in salmonids is associated with differences in genetic architecture. To facilitate these comparisons, we examined the genomic synteny patterns of key candidate genes in the other model teleost fishes that have experienced three whole-genome duplication (3R events which preceded a fourth (4R whole genome duplication event common to all salmonid species. Results Nine linkage groups contained chromosome-wide significant QTL (AS-2, -4p, -4q, -5, -9, -12p, -12q, -14q -17q, -22, and −23, while a single genome-wide significant QTL was located on AS-4q. Salmonid genomes shared the greatest marker homology with the genome of three-spined stickleback. All linkage group arms in Atlantic salmon were syntenic with at least one stickleback chromosome, while 18 arms had multiple affinities. Arm fusions in Atlantic salmon were often between multiple regions bearing salinity tolerance QTL. Nine linkage groups in Arctic charr and six linkage group arms in rainbow trout currently have no synteny alignments with stickleback chromosomes, while eight rainbow trout linkage group arms were syntenic with multiple stickleback chromosomes. Rearrangements in the stickleback lineage involving fusions of ancestral arm segments could account for the 21 chromosome pairs observed in the stickleback karyotype. Conclusions Salinity tolerance in

  11. Erection of Ceratonova n. gen. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) to encompass freshwater species C. gasterostea n. sp. from threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and C. shasta n. comb. from salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, S D; Foott, J S; Bartholomew, J L

    2014-10-01

    Ceratonova gasterostea n. gen. n. sp. is described from the intestine of freshwater Gasterosteus aculeatus L. from the Klamath River, California. Myxospores are arcuate, 22.4 ± 2.6 μm thick, 5.2 ± 0.4 μm long, posterior angle 45° ± 24°, with 2 sub-spherical polar capsules, diameter 2.3 ± 0.2 μm, which lie adjacent to the suture. Its ribosomal small subunit sequence was most similar to an intestinal parasite of salmonid fishes, Ceratomyxa shasta (97%, 1,671/1,692 nucleotides), and distinct from all other Ceratomyxa species (<85%), which are typically coelozoic parasites in the gall bladder or urinary system of marine fishes. We propose erection of genus Ceratonova to contain both intestinal, freshwater species and reassign the salmonid parasite as Ceratonova shasta n. comb.

  12. A simple model that identifies potential effects of sea-level rise on estuarine and estuary-ecotone habitat locations for salmonids in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  13. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  14. Are brown trout Salmo trutta fario and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss two of a kind? A comparative study of salmonids to temperature-influenced Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Segner, H; Wahli, T; Strepparava, N

    2018-02-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes high mortalities of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at elevated water temperatures. Here the aim was to compare the temperature-dependent modulation of T. bryosalmonae in the two salmonid host species, which display different temperature optima. We used a novel experimental set-up in which we exposed brown trout and rainbow trout to an identical quantified low concentration of T. bryosalmonae for a short time period (1 hr). We followed the development of the parasite in the fish hosts for 70 days. PKD prevalence and parasite kinetics were assessed using qPCR. Exposures were performed at temperatures (12°C and 15°C) that reflect an environmental scenario that may occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. T. bryosalmonae infection was confirmed earliest in brown trout kept at 15°C (day 7 post-exposure) while, in all other groups, T. bryosalmonae was not confirmed until day 15 post-exposure. Moreover, significantly greater infection prevalence and a faster increase of parasite intensity were observed in brown trout kept at 15°C than in all other groups. These results indicate that PKD is differentially modulated by water temperature in related host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  16. Risk assessment for the reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams, Northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Breyta, Rachel B.; Haskell, Craig A.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hatten, James R.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2017-09-12

    The Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT; Spokane, Colville, Kootenai, Coeur d’Alene, and Kalispel Tribes) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife want to reintroduce anadromous salmonids to their historical range to restore ecosystem function and lost cultural and spiritual relationships in the upper Columbia River, northeastern Washington. The UCUT contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to assess risks to resident taxa (existing fish populations in the reintroduction area upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams) and reintroduced salmon associated with reintroduction. We developed a risk assessment framework for reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. To accomplish this goal, we applied strategies identified in previous risk assessment frameworks for reintroduction. The risk assessment is an initial step towards an anadromous reintroduction strategy. An initial list of potential donor sources for reintroduction species was developed from previous published sources for Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) donors in the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River, British Columbia; an ecological risk assessment of upper Columbia River hatchery programs on non-target taxa of concern; and a review of existing hatchery programsDuring two workshops, we further identified and ranked potential donor sources of anadromous Redband Trout (steelhead; O. mykiss), Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon (O. nerka), and Coho Salmon (O. kisutch). We also identified resident fish populations of interest and their primary habitat, location, status, and pathogen concerns to determine the potential risks of reintroduction. Species were deemed of interest based on resource management and potential interactions (that is, genetics, competition, and predation) with introduced species. We developed tables of potential donors by species and characterized potential sources (hatchery and natural origins), populations (individual runs

  17. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF PRE-LARVAE OF THREE SALMONIDS SPECIES AT ONE-DAY AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Barylo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and analyze the morphometric and some biochemical parameters of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in post-embryonic period under the conditions of "Rybnyi Potik” farm in the Transcarpathian region for further use of the obtained data in scientific and practical works related to the cultivation of the juveniles of valuable salmonid species. Methodology. One-day free embryos (pre-larvae of brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout we used as study materials. Morphometric parameters we studied by the methods of N. O. Lange, E. N. Dmitrieva. The content of total lipids was determined in accordance with Folch. in the tissuesm, which were taken for biochemical studies. Separate classes of lipids were received by thin layer chromatography. Findings. We carried out a comparative analysis of morphometric measurements and biochemical parameters of one-day pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout based on the obtained data. We investigated morphometric and biochemical specific features of pre-larvae in post-embryonic period and showed the species differences of morphometric measurements. Significant differences were observed between the content of lipids in the body and yolk sac of free embryos. In particular, a higher content of phospholipids and triglycerides was observed in the body of brook trout compared to brown trout. We also recorded higher contents of mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol, non-etherified fatty acids (NEFA, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters in the yolk sac of brook trout. Compared to brown trout, rainbow trout had a significant increase in mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol and NEFA in both body and yolk sac as well higher levels of total lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters were registered in yolk sac. Originality. For the first time we carried out and compared the specific features of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in the

  18. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  19. Climate-induced trends in predator–prey synchrony differ across life-history stages of an anadromous salmonid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donovan A.; Kovach, Ryan; Vulstek, Scott C.; Joyce, John E.; Tallmon, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Differential climate-induced shifts in phenology can create mismatches between predators and prey, but few studies have examined predator–prey mismatch across multiple life-history stages. We used long-term data from a warming stream with shifting salmonid migration timings to quantify intra-annual migration synchrony between predatory Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and Pacific salmon prey and examined how predator–prey synchrony has been influenced by climate change. We demonstrate that Dolly Varden have become increasingly mismatched with spring downstream migrations of abundant pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) juveniles. However, Dolly Varden have remained matched with fall upstream migrations of spawning Pacific salmon, including coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and pink salmon. Downstream predator–prey migration synchrony decreased over time and with higher temperatures, particularly with pink salmon. In contrast, upstream migration synchrony was temporally stable and increased with rising temperatures. Differing trends in Dolly Varden predator–prey synchrony may be explained by the direct use of salmon to cue upstream migration, but not downstream migration. Overall, we show that climate change can have differing impacts on predator–prey synchrony across life-history stages.

  20. A novel liquid medium for the efficient growth of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and optimization of culture conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Henríquez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the bacterium that causes Piscirickettsiosis, a systemic disease of salmonid fish responsible for significant economic losses within the aquaculture industry worldwide. The growth of the bacterium for vaccine formulation has been traditionally accomplished by infecting eukaryotic cell lines, a process that involves high production costs and is time-consuming. Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to culture pure P. salmonis in a blood containing (cell-free medium. In the present work we demonstrate the growth of P. salmonis in a liquid medium free from blood and serum components, thus establishing a novel and simplified bacteriological medium. Additionally, the new media reported provides improved growth conditions for P. salmonis, where biomass concentrations of approximately 800 mg cell dry weight L(-1 were obtained, about eight times higher than those reported for the blood containing medium. A 2- level full factorial design was employed to evaluate the significance of the main medium components on cell growth and an optimal temperature range of 23-27°C was determined for the microorganism to grow in the novel liquid media. Therefore, these results represent a breakthrough regarding P. salmonis research in order to optimize pure P. salmonis growth in liquid blood and serum free medium.

  1. Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the eastern Sierra Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondolf, G.M.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Felando, T.

    1991-01-01

    Interest in small hydroelectric development (< 5 MW) has recently focused attention on steep streams and the resident trout populations they contain. High-gradient boulder-bed streams have been the sites of relatively few studies of salmonid spawning habitat, although they have geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics - and therefore gravel distributions - that are quite different from the more commonly described lower-gradient channels. The authors documented gravel distribution in seven high-gradient stream reaches in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Gravels occurred only in locations characterized by relatively low shear stress; they formed small pockets in sites of low divergence and larger deposits upstream of natural hydraulic controls. In 1986 (a wet year), all tracer gravels placed in gravel pockets at nine sites on four streams were completely swept away, and substantial scour, fill, and other channel changes occurred at many sites. In 1987 (a dry year), tracer gravels and the channel cross sections were generally stable. Periodic mobility of gravel may explain why brown trout Salmo trutta are more abundant than rainbow trout Oncorhychus mykiss in the study reaches, where high flows occur every May and June during snowmelt. Brown trout are fall spawners, and their fry emerge long before the high snowmelt flows, whereas rainbow trout are spring spawners whose eggs are in the gravel, and thus vulnerable to scour, during snowmelt flows

  2. A Polyprotein-Expressing Salmonid Alphavirus Replicon Induces Modest Protection in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. In this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (SAV, was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of IPN virus proteins. The large open reading frame of segment A, encoding the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH, as well as pVP2, were cloned and expressed by the SAV replicon in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214 and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC cells. The replicon constructs pSAV/polyprotein (pSAV/PP and pSAV/pVP2 were used to immunize Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar by a single intramuscular injection and tested in a subsequent IPN virus (IPNV challenge trial. A low to moderate protection against IPN was observed in fish immunized with the replicon vaccine that encoded the pSAV/PP, while the pSAV/pVP2 construct was not found to induce protection.

  3. Spiral swimming behavior due to cranial and vertebral lesions associated with Cytophaga psychrophila infections in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Groff, J.M.; Morrison, J.K.; Yasutake, W.T.; Holt, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    C. psychrophila infections of the cranium and anterior vertebrae in salmonid fishes were associated with ataxia, spiral swimming along the axis of the fish, and death. The syndrome was observed in 2-10% of underyearling coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, and steelhead trout S. gairdneri at several private, state, and federal hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, USA, between 1963 and 1987. Affected fish did not recover and ultimately died. Histological examination consistently revealed subacute to chronic periostitis, osteitis, meningitis, and ganglioneuritis. Inflammation and periosteal proliferation of the anterior vertebrae at the junction of the vertebral column with the cranium with extension into the cranial case was a consistent feature. The adjacent nervous tissue, particularly the medulla, was often compressed by the proliferative lesion, and this may have caused the ataxia. Though bacteria were seldom observed in these lesions. C. psychrophilawas isolated in culture from the cranial cavity of all affected fish that were tested. Epidemiological observations suggested that this bacterium is the causative agent because the spiral swimming behaviour and lesions were observed only in populations that had recovered from acute C. psychrophila infections.

  4. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  5. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  6. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2001-10-01

    equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

  7. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility study for evaluating cumulative exposure of downstream migrant juvenile salmonids to total dissolved gas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, C.S.; Dauble, D.D.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Don't throw the baby out with the bathwater: identifying and mapping paralogs in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, France

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic genomes contain a large fraction of gene duplicates (or paralogs) as a result of ancient or recent whole-genome duplications (Ohno 1970; Jaillon et al. 2004; Kellis et al. 2004). Identifying paralogs with NGS data is a pervasive problem in both ancient polyploids and neopolyploids. Likewise, paralogs are often treated as a nuisance that has to be detected and removed (Everett et al. 2012). In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Waples et al. (2015) show that exclusion might not be necessary and how we may miss out on important genomic information in doing so. They present a novel statistical approach to detect paralogs based on the segregation of RAD loci in haploid offspring and test their method by constructing linkage maps with and without these duplicated loci in chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Fig.1). Their linkage map including the resolved paralogs shows that these are mostly located in the distal regions of several linkage groups. Particularly intriguing is their finding that these homoeologous regions appear impoverished in transposable elements (TE). Given the role that TE play in genome remodelling, it is noteworthy that these elements are of low abundance in regions showing residual tetrasomic inheritance. This raises the question whether re-diploidization is constrained in these regions and whether they might have a role to play in salmonid speciation. This study provides an original approach to identifying duplicated loci in species with a pedigree, as well as providing a dense linkage map for chum salmon, and interesting insights into the retention of gene duplicates in an ancient polyploid. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  11. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  12. Approach, passage, and survival of juvenile salmonids at Little Goose Dam, Washington: Post-construction evaluation of a temporary spillway weir, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Braatz, A.C.; Hansel, H.C.; Fielding, S.D.; Haner, P.V.; Hansen, G.S.; Shurtleff, D.J.; Sprando, J.M.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study of dam passage and survival of radio-tagged juvenile salmonids after installation of a temporary spillway weir (TSW) at Little Goose Dam, Washington, in 2009. The purpose of the study was to document fish passage and survival when the dam was operated with the TSW in place. Spillway weirs are one of several methods used to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. Each spillway weir design is based on the concept of providing an overflow weir with a depth more similar to the natural migration depth of juvenile salmonids than conventional spill bays. Little Goose Dam was the last of the four lower Snake River dams to have a spillway weir installed. This was the first year that some form of surface passage device was operating at all Snake River and Columbia River dams between Lewiston, Idaho, and the Columbia River estuary. The study design stipulated that a total of 30 percent of the river discharge would continuously be passed over the TSW and the conventional spill bays, and this percentage was achieved. The TSW also was to be operated at the 'low crest' elevation during the spring and the 'high crest' elevation during the summer, but the TSW was only operated at the low crest elevation during this study. Behavior, passage, and survival of spring and summer juvenile salmonid migrants passing through Little Goose Dam were examined using radio telemetry. Survival was estimated using the Route Specific Survival Model (RSSM) by releasing tagged fish near Central Ferry State Park 21 kilometers upstream of the dam and in the tailrace approximately 0.5 kilometer downstream of the dam. From April 18 to May 21, 2009, 1,520 yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 1,517 juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) were radio tagged and released. From June 6 to July 5, 2009, 4,251 subyearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) were radio tagged and released. Release dates of subyearling Chinook salmon were selected to avoid 'reservoir

  13. System-wide significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and evaluation of predation control measures. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Poe, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This project had three major goals. The first was to assist the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with predation indexing as part of an effort to estimate the relative magnitude of juvenile salmonid losses to northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin. The second goal was to evaluate the northern squawfish control program and test critical assumptions about mid-reservoir predation processes. The final goal was to determine mechanisms underlying northern squawfish recruitment and factors affecting year-class strength

  14. Investigation of head burns in adult salmonids: Phase 1: Examination of fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, R.

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain

  15. Turbulence investigation and reproduction for assisting downstream migrating juvenile salmonids, Part II of II: Effects of induced turbulence on behavior of juvenile salmon, 2001-2005 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Farley , M.; Hansen, G.; Morse , J.; Rondorf, D.

    2005-01-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  16. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  17. The ecology of fish parasites with particular reference to helminth parasites and their salmonid fish hosts in Welsh rivers: a review of some of the central questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J D

    2002-01-01

    Ecological studies carried out in Welsh rivers on the feeding behaviour of salmonid fish, their helminth parasites and intermediate hosts in the early 1950s and in 1998 have been used as a basis to review the literature dealing with the following questions. First, how are the helminth populations dispersed in space-time? Second, to what extent are the distributional patterns and the life history strategies of the parasites influenced by physicochemical factors? Third, to what extent are populations of helmith parasites in salmonid fish influenced by host characteristics including the genome, sex, age, size, social position and Feeding behaviour? Fourth, are the populations of parasites regulated in a density-dependent manner? Fifth, do the parasites influence the survival and wellbeing of their salmonid hosts and the evolution of sex? Sixth, to what extent is the parasite community influenced by environmental changes including those of an anthropogenic nature and can the parasites be used as bioindicators of pollution? As with most parasites the helminth species found were highly overdispersed thus making it necessary to undertake a log10 (1 + x) conversion for statistical analyses. Statistical analyses confirm that the genome, age and sex of salmonid fish hosts, the station and seasonal change in radiation levels were significant factors in predicting the number of parasites. The evidence given supports the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour and habitat selection by the host fish, their position in the social hierarchy and the overdispersed nature of the transmission sites are the key factors in causing differences in the parasitic fauna related to host species, age, size and sex. Differences in the helminth parasite community related to station can be explained on the basis of differences in water types, sediments and chemistry. Although the evidence presented is in accord with the consensus view that temperature is correlated with seasonal changes in the

  18. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 )-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 ) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl 2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 . CaCl 2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl -  L -1 (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl 2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg 2+ cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl 2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  20. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  1. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  2. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  3. L'hybridation dans les populations naturelles de salmonidés dans le Sud-Ouest de l'Europe et en milieu expérimental

    OpenAIRE

    BEALL E.; MORAN P.; PENDAS A.; IZQUIERDO J.; GARCIA VAZQUEZ E.; GLISE S.; VIGNES J. C.; BARRIERE L.

    1997-01-01

    L'hybridation interspécifique entre le saumon atlantique et la truite commune dans la nature a été mise en évidence dans différents pays d'Europe et au Canada. Une étude a été entreprise pour examiner son incidence dans des populations de salmonidés de certaines rivières des Asturies (nord de l'Espagne) et du sud-ouest de la France. Elle a été complétée par des expériences en milieu contrôlé pour déterminer les causes et les conditions de la disparition des barrières comportementales permetta...

  4. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  5. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b

  6. Coupling between stress coping style and time of emergence from spawning nests in salmonid fishes: Evidence from selected rainbow trout strains (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Correlations between behavioral and physiological traits, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been demonstrated in numerous animal groups. Such trait variations often cluster in two contrasting styles, with animals characterized as either proactive or reactive. In natural populations....../shyness, dominance, and metabolic rate; resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In farmed fish populations, however the relation between emergence and stress coping styles seems to be absent, an effect which has been related to lack of selection pressure during emergence. In the present...... study two rainbow trout strains genetically selected as LR (low-responsive) and HR (high-responsive) trout, characterized with proactive (LR) and reactive (HR) stress coping traits, was used to further investigate the relationship between the time of emergence and stress coping style in salmonid fishes...

  7. Successive oral immunizations against Piscirickettsia salmonis and infectious salmon anemia virus are required to maintain a long-term protection in farmed salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eTobar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011-2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was measured by the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against SRS and ISAv, first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as booster. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600-800 degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies (above 2750 ng/mL for ISAv and 3500 ng/mL for SRS was maintained for a period of 800 degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000 pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting the close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, a protective status during the whole productive cycle.

  8. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  9. Economic Assimilation and Outmigration of Immigrants in West-Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing earnings of observed immigrants workers, the literature on the economic assimilation of immigrants has generally overlooked two potentially important selectivity issues.First, earnings of immigrant workers may di¿er substantially from those of non-workers.Second, earnings of immigrants

  10. The relationship between survival of Columbia River fall chinook salmon and in-river environmental factors -- Analysis of historic data for juvenile and adult salmonid production: Phase 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Townsend, R.L.; Donnelly, R.F.; Hilborn, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    This project analyzes in greater detail the coded-wire-tag (CWT) returns of Priest Rapids Hatchery fall chinook for the years 1976--1989 initially begun by Hilborn et al. (1993a). These additional analyses were prompted by suggestions made by peer reviews of the initial draft report. The initial draft and the peer review comments are included in this final report (Appendices A and B). The statistical analyses paired Priest Rapids stock with potential downriver reference stocks to isolate in-river survival rates. Thirty-three potential reference stocks were initially examined for similar ocean recovery rates; the five stocks with the most similar recovery patterns (i.e., Bonneville Brights, Cowlitz, Gray's River, Tanner Creek, and Washougal) to the Priest Rapids stock were used in the subsequent analysis of in-river survival. Three alternate forms of multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationship between predicted in-river survival and ambient conditions. Analyses were conducted with and without attempts to adjust for smolt transportation at McNary Dam. Independent variables examined in the analysis included river flows, temperature, turbidity, and spill along with the total biomass of hatchery releases in the Columbia-Snake River Basin

  11. Bilan des introductions de salmonidés dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELACOSTE M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les introductions de Salmonidés ont été importantes au cours des 60 dernières années dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées. Six espèces de Salmonidés ont été introduites dans des milieux qui, pour la plupart, étaient vierges de populations piscicoles : la truite commune (Salmo trutta L., la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, l'omble de fontaine (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, l'omble chevalier (Salvelinus alpinus L., le cristivomer (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum et le splake (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush. Dans de très nombreux cas, ces introductions ont abouti à des acclimatations. En revanche, les naturalisations sont beaucoup plus rares. Seules les espèces lacustres (cristivomer et omble chevalier se sont naturalisées dans la majorité des lacs où elles ont été introduites. Les conditions de reproduction constituent le facteur clé permettant d'expliquer la naturalisation des espèces. En ruisseau, il faut y ajouter la compétition avec l'espèce indigène (la truite commune, la pression halieutique ainsi que les conditions hivernales très rigoureuses. Les incidences écologiques des introductions sur les populations de truites communes indigènes sont faibles. En revanche, elles ne sont pas négligeables pour les populations de batraciens. Cette politique d'introduction a largement participé au développement de l'halieutisme dans ces milieux d'altitude. En cela, les introductions ont parfaitement répondu aux objectifs halieutiques qu'on leur avait fixés. L'acquisition de connaissances sur l'ensemble de la chaîne pyrénéenne constitue aujourd'hui une étape incontournable pour une politique de gestion globale des introductions.

  12. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  13. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  14. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  15. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  16. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  17. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998 . A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations

  18. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  19. Selective precipitation reaction: a novel diagnostic test for tissue pathology in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, infected with salmonid alphavirus (SAV3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braceland, M; Tinsley, J; Cockerill, D; Bickerdike, R; McLoughlin, M F; Eckersall, P D

    2017-08-01

    While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9. The assay has been optimized for molarity, pH, temperature and wavelength so that the precipitation can be measured as the change in optical density at 340 nm (Δ 340 ). Application of the SPR assay to serum samples from a cohabitation trial of SAV infection in salmon showed that the Δ 340 in infected fish rose from undetectable to a maximum at 6 weeks post-infection correlating with histopathological score of pancreas, heart and muscle damage. This test may have a valuable role to play in the diagnostic evaluation of stock health in salmon. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  1. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Habitat Restoration Projects with Emphasis on Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary, 2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-11-01

    -listed salmon populations and native species using the CRE. The program's underlying principles are: (1) projects are founded on the best available ecological restoration science, implemented in an ecosystem context, and developed with the intent to restore relevant ecological processes; (2) projects incorporate adaptive management practices with testable hypotheses to track ecological responses to a given restoration effort; and (3) projects are implemented in a coordinated, open process and scientific results from monitoring and evaluation are communicated widely and readily accessible. With this goal and these principles in mind, we developed an approach for CRE habitat restoration. The intent of this document is to provide a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. The stepwise approach to CRE habitat restoration outlined is somewhat general and broad because the available scientific information is incomplete, e.g., juvenile salmon usage of various CRE wetland habitats. As new data become available, a more specific, detailed plan than was possible here can be produced as an outgrowth of this document. In conclusion, this document provides a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. As more experience is gained with CRE habitat restoration and scientific uncertainties are resolved, this document should be used as a basis for a detailed habitat restoration plan that specifically addresses (1) which habitat types offer the greatest ecological benefit to salmon, (2) the location of potential sites that if restored would likely provide these habitat types, and (3) how and when the restoration work should be done. This document supports the use of adaptive management so that all elements of salmonid habitat restoration

  2. Perturbation in protein expression of the sterile salmonid hybrids between female brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Senda, Yoshie; Abe, Syuiti

    2013-05-01

    Most males and females of intergeneric hybrid (BM) between female brook trout (Bt) Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon (Ms) Oncorhynchus masou had undeveloped gonads, with abnormal germ cell development shown by histological examination. To understand the cause of this hybrid sterility, expression profiles of testicular proteins in the BM and parental species were examined with 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Compared with the parental species, more than 60% of differentially expressed protein spots were down-regulated in BM. A total of 16 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated proteins were identified in BM. Up-regulated were transferrin and other somatic cell-predominant proteins, whereas down-regulated were some germ cell-specific proteins such as DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa. Other pronouncedly down-regulated proteins included tubulins and heat shock proteins that are supposed to have roles in spermatogenesis. The present findings suggest direct association of the observed perturbation in protein expression with the failure of spermatogenesis and the sterility in the examined salmonid hybrids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of potential reference genes for stability of expression in two salmonid cell lines after infection with either Piscirickettsia salmonis or IPNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bols Niels C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the limited number of species specific antibodies against fish proteins, differential gene expression analyses are vital for the study of host immune responses. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most powerful tools for this purpose. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the method will depend on the careful selection of genes whose expression are stable and can be used as internal controls for a particular experimental setting. Findings The expression stability of five commonly used housekeeping genes [beta-actin (ACTB, elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A, ubiquitin (UBQ, glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tubulin alpha (TUBA] were monitored in salmonid cell lines CHSE-214 and RTS11 after infection with two of the most fastidious fish pathogens, the facultative bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the aquabirnavirus IPNV (Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus. After geNorm analysis, UBQ and EF1A appeared as the most stable, although EF1A was slightly upregulated at late stages of P. salmonis infection in RTS11. ACTB instead, showed a good performance in each case, being always considered within the three most stable genes of the panel. In contrast, infection-dependent differential regulation of GAPDH and TUBA was also demonstrated. Conclusion Based on the data presented here with the cell culture models CHSE-214 and RTS11, we suggest the initial choice of UBQ, ACTB and EF1A as reference genes in qRT-PCR assays for studying the effect of P. salmonis and IPNV on the host immune response.

  4. Using real-time PCR and Bayesian analysis to distinguish susceptible tubificid taxa important in the transmission of Myxobolus cerebralis, the cause of salmonid whirling disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, Nikolaos; Rizzo, Donna M; Lamb, Ryan D; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant

  5. Application of Biota Dose Assessment Committee Methodology to Assess Radiological Risk to Salmonids in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, Ted M.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Protective guidance for biota in the U.S. Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota is based on population level protection guides of 10 or 1 mGy.d-1, respectively. Several 'ecologically significant units' of Pacific salmon are listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Middle Columbia Steelhead unit is endangered and the adult steelhead spawn in the reach. The reach also supports one of the largest spawning populations of fall chinook salmon in the Northwest. The existence of the major spawning areas in the Hanford Reach has focused considerable attention on their ecological health by the U.S. Department of Energy, other federal and state regulatory agencies, and special interest groups. Dose assessments for developing salmonid embryos were performed for the hypothetical exposure to tritium, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes at specific sites on the Hanford Reach. These early life stages are potentially exposed in some areas of the Hanford Reach to radiological contaminants that enter the river via shoreline seeps and upwelling through the river substrate. At the screening level, one site approached the dose guideline of 10 mGy.d-1 established with the RAD-BCG methodology and exceeded a precautionary benchmark of 2.5 mGy.d-1. Special status of listed species affords these populations more consideration when assessing potential impacts of exposure to radionuclides and other contaminants associated with the Hanford Site operations. The evolution of dose benchmarks for aquatic organisms and consideration of precautionary principal and cumulative impacts are discussed in this paper.

  6. The Long-Term Effects of Large Wood Placement on Salmonid Habitat in East Fork Mill Creek, Redwood National and State Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D. L.; Stubblefield, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The conservation and recovery of anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus sp.) depend on stream restoration and protection of freshwater habitats. Instream large wood dictates channel morphology, increase retention of terrestrial inputs such as organic matter, nutrients and sediment, and enhances the quality of fish habitat. Historic land use/land cover changes have resulted in aquatic systems devoid of this component. Restoration by placement of large wood jams is intended to restore physical and biological processes. An important question for scientists and managers, in addition to the initial effectiveness of restoration, is the persistence and fate of this type of project. In this study we compare channel change and large wood attributes on the East Fork of Mill Creek, a tributary of the Smith River in northern California, eight years after a major instream wood placement effort took place. Our results are compared with previously published data from before and one year after the restoration. Preliminary results suggest the dramatic increase in spawning gravel abundance and large wood accumulation observed in the earlier study have persisted. From 2008 to 2016 a reduction in median sediment size, ranging from 103-136 percent, has been observed in a majority of the sites. The sites have continued to grow in size and influence by racking floating wood from upstream and destabilizing proximate banks of riparian alder, increasing both instream large wood volume (5-196 %) and floodplain connectivity. Preliminary results also show a decrease in residual pool depth and an increase in pool length which may be attributed to floodplain connectivity. Changes to the following attributes are evaluated: 1) wood loading (total site wood volume, total wood volume in active channel, and wood piece count); 2) percent pool cover by large wood; 3) residual pool depth; 4) upstream sediment aggradation; 5) floodplain connectivity; and 6) mean sediment size directly above and below large

  7. Toward a Rapid Synthesis of Field and Desktop Data for Classifying Streams in the Pacific Northwest: Guiding the Sampling and Management of Salmonid Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprak, A.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Weber, N. P.; Trahan, N. C.; Jordan, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    River managers often seek to understand habitat availability and quality for riverine organisms within the physical template provided by their landscape. Yet the large amount of natural heterogeneity in landscapes gives rise to stream systems which are highly variable over small spatial scales, potentially complicating site selection for surveying aquatic habitat while simultaneously making a simple, wide-reaching management strategy elusive. This is particularly true in the rugged John Day River Basin of northern Oregon, where efforts as part of the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program to conduct site-based surveys of physical habitat for endangered steelhead salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are underway. As a complete understanding of the type and distribution of habitat available to these fish would require visits to all streams in the basin (impractical due to its large size), here we develop an approach for classifying channel types which combines remote desktop GIS analyses with rapid field-based stream and landscape surveys. At the core of this method, we build off of the River Styles Framework, an open-ended and process-based approach for classifying streams and informing management decisions. This framework is combined with on-the-ground fluvial audits, which aim to quickly and continuously map sediment dynamics and channel behavior along selected channels. Validation of this classification method is completed by on-the-ground stream surveys using a digital iPad platform and by rapid small aircraft overflights to confirm or refine predictions. We further compare this method with existing channel classification approaches for the region (e.g. Beechie, Montgomery and Buffington). The results of this study will help guide both the refinement of site stratification and selection for salmonid habitat monitoring within the basin, and will be vital in designing and prioritizing restoration and management strategies tailored to the distribution of river styles found

  8. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D; Brown, Richard S; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Skalski, John R; Townsend, Richard L; Trumbo, Bradly A; Ahmann, Martin L; Renholds, Jon F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival.

  9. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish

  10. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  11. L'hybridation dans les populations naturelles de salmonidés dans le Sud-Ouest de l'Europe et en milieu expérimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available L'hybridation interspécifique entre le saumon atlantique et la truite commune dans la nature a été mise en évidence dans différents pays d'Europe et au Canada. Une étude a été entreprise pour examiner son incidence dans des populations de salmonidés de certaines rivières des Asturies (nord de l'Espagne et du sud-ouest de la France. Elle a été complétée par des expériences en milieu contrôlé pour déterminer les causes et les conditions de la disparition des barrières comportementales permettant le maintien de l'isolement reproducteur. Les hypothèses de travail étaient que l'hybridation pouvait être favorisée par le comportement de «sneaker» des tacons mâles précoces et par les repeuplements en juvéniles des deux espèces. Les résultats obtenus confirment que l'hybridation entre la truite et le saumon est un phénomène répandu, qui peut affecter localement des fractions significatives des populations (9,4 % sur la rivière Narcea dans les Asturies. Dans l'aire originelle de distribution des deux espèces, le croisement s'effectue dans le sens femelle saumon x mâle truite. Dans les conditions normales de sympatrie, les barrières d'isolement reproducteur pré-appariement paraissent solides en raison du comportement agressif du mâle conspécifique dominant qui parvient à écarter efficacement les mâles compétiteurs hétérospécifiques. En l'absence de mâle conspécifique, l'hybridation peut avoir lieu. Cependant, les femelles modifient leur comportement, ralentissent leur activité de frai et le succès reproducteur, particulièrement chez la truite, diminue. Par ailleurs, les hypothèses de travail ne sont pas vérifiées. Pour éviter l'hybridation, il est recommandé au gestionnaire de veiller à la qualité et à la quantité des zones de reproduction, de maintenir l'équilibre des populations de géniteurs et de limiter les repeuplements en sujets non autochtones.

  12. Juvenile Salmonid Necropsy Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  13. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  14. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Salmonid behavior and water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally T. Sauter; John McMillan; Jason B. Dunham

    2001-01-01

    Animals react not only to immediate changes in their environment but also to cues that signal long-term changes to which they must adapt to survive. A proximate factor stimulates an animal’s immediate behavioral response, whereas what is known as an ultimate factor causes an animal to adjust its behavior to evolving conditions, thereby increasing its fitness and...

  16. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume 10: Instructional guide to using program CaptHist to create SURPH files for survival analysis using PTAGIS data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhagen, P.; Skalski, J.

    1997-12-01

    The SURPH program is a valuable tool for estimating survivals and capture probabilities of fish outmigrations on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Using special data files, SURPH computes reach to reach statistics for any release group passing a system of detection sites. Because the data must be recorded for individual fish, PIT tag data is best suited for use as input. However, PIT tag data as available from PTAGIS comes in a form that is not ready for use as SURPH input. SURPH requires a capture history for each fish. A capture history consists of a series of fields, one for each detection site, that has a code for whether the fish was detected and returned to the river, detected and removed, or not detected. For the PTAGIS data to be usable by SURPH it must be pre-processed. The data must be condensed down to one line per fish with the relevant detection information from the PTAGIS file represented compactly on each line. In addition, the PTAGIS data file coil information must be passed through a series of logic algorithms to determine whether or not a fish is returned to the river after detection. Program CaptHist was developed to properly pre-process the PTAGIS data files for input to program SURPH. This utility takes PTAGIS data files as input and creates a SURPH data file as well as other output including travel time records, detection date records, and a data error file. CaptHist allows a user to download PTAGIS files and easily process the data for use with SURPH

  17. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  18. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  19. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1984 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-07-01

    The extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir was determined. Salmonids were the single most important food item by weight for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the restricted zones at McNary tailrace and John Day forebay during all sampling periods. Salmonids accounted for 18.1% of the weight in the diet of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1984 which was at least twice that found in previous years. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) salmonids contributed little to their diet whereas for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fish accounted for 64.1% of the weight in their diet with salmonids responsible for approximately half of this weight. An intensive search of the fisheries literature was conducted to review various fish capture and control techniques which might have potential as predation control measures for the major predators of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system. Most prey protection measures were judged to have high potential and direct predator control measures were judged to have moderate or low potential.

  20. Studies on Some Productive and Reproductive Performance in Female Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss and Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta Fario at Four Years of Age, From Fiad-Telcişor Salmonids Complex, Bistriţa-Năsăud County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences regarding the various species of fish or aquatic organisms are highly variable. The criteria by which they orient are represented by: the price, organoleptic characteristics, healing and nutritional properties of meat. Today it is known that a high consumption of fish meat has a beneficial role in human health. Moreover, statistics indicates a high level of life expectancy in countries with tradition in terms of fish consumption, e.g. NorthEuropean and Asian countries. Statistics shows a high consumption of ocean fish and different species of salmonid family. The culture and intensive fish farming represents an alternative to the requirements of the fish market. The salmonids farmers focus their efforts to obtain high yields of high quality, in conditions of maximum economic efficiency. In Romania, the predominant specie encountered in salmonis farms is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. It is successfully reared because of its plasticity and resistance to changes in environmental conditions and disease, and efficient feed-conversion. For restocking mountain water with biological material, some trout farms operate successfully brown trout (Salmo trutta fario, a less effective specie for meat production, due to slow growth and development and low resistance to changing environmental factors. Profitability of fish production depends on the propagation processes, fish growth and developments, and supplying optimal environmental conditions for enhancement of the biological potential. The artificial reproduction of salmonids, involves several technological operations for achieving outstanding results on fisheries production. Of these operations, critical is the selection and improvement of breeding.

  1. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  2. Fish distribution studies near N Reactor, Summer 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes field studies that were initiated in July 1983 to provide estimates of the relative distribution of late-summer outmigrant juvenile salmonids and juvenile resident fish upstream of the N Reactor 009 Outfall. Chinook salmon are among the fish species most sensitive to thermal effects, and impacts to the juvenile outmigrant populations are of particular concern to state and federal regulatory and fisheries management agencies. Therefore, the distribution studies were conducted from late July through September, a period when high ambient river temperatures and low river flows make these salmonid populations most susceptible to thermal effects. In addition, data were not available on the spatial distribution of outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon in late summer. Information on the relative distribution of resident fish populations was also gathered. Previous studies of midstream distribution of juvenile resident fish were limited to a description of ichthyoplankton populations (Beak Consultants, Inc. 1980 Page et al. 1982), and no data were available on vertical or horizontal distribution of juvenile resident fish species near N Reactor. Relative densities and spatial distribution estimates of juvenile salmonid and resident fish species will be used in conjunction with laboratory thermal effects studies (Neitzel et al. 1984) and with plume characterization studies (Ecker et al. 1983) to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge on fish populations near N Reactor.

  3. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Thim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV glycoprotein (G was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing

  4. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. All Kinds of Potential: Women and Out-Migration in an Atlantic Canadian Coastal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Rural researchers have found that women leave rural communities at a higher rate than men. Rural education researchers have also found that young women are significantly more successful in formal education than their male counterparts. Few studies though attempt to explain why this is so. This work presents data and analysis from two studies of…

  6. To stay or not to stay? Out-migration of immigrants from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2007-01-01

    A major portion of migration flows are temporary, ending with return migration to the home country or migration to a third country. However, the propensity to return differs according to migrants' countries of origin. This paper presents a discussion of the theoretical approaches to return...... migration and a brief survey of the actual flows in Denmark. We then present a panel data set of immigrants to Denmark covering the years 1986 - 1995 and run a number of logit models where return migration is related to individual background factors. Our research shows significant differences in decisions...... of return depending on country of origin, age at entry, education, and family ties. One of the most important determinants is found to be a migrant's success, or lack thereof, regarding labour market integration. This research suggests that policy instruments such as education, training, and temporary wage...

  7. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  8. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  9. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  10. Outplanting Anadromous Salmonids, A Lilterature Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Eugene M.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents a list of more than 200 references on topics associated with offstation releases of hatchery stocks of anadromous fish used to supplement or reestablish wild rearing. The narrative briefly reviews influences of genetics, rearing density of fish in the natural environment, survival rates observed from outplanted stocks, and estimation procedures for stocking rates and rearing densities. We have attempted to summarize guidelines and recommendations for fishery managers to consider. Based on tagging studies, a typical smolt release from a Willamette River hatchery would return 0.29% of the smolts to the stream of release as adults. Catch to escapement ratios for adult Willamette chinook vary widely between broods, but on average two fish are caught for each fish that escapes. The catch is about evenly divided between offshore and freshwater harvest. British Columbia is the primary location of offshore harvest, and the lower Willamette River is the primary location of freshwater harvest. Review of departmental policy indicates that only Willamette stock spring chinook are currently acceptable for use in a proposed outplant study within the Willamette basin. Further, most Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife district management biologists would prefer not to transfer any stocks of spring chinook between drainage subbasins. State fishery managers identified 16 Willamette basin streams as being suitable for supplementation with spring chinook from hatcheries. We reviewed the potential for rearing salmon in reservoirs throughout the basin. Use of the Carmen-Smith spawning channel, which was constructed on the upper McKenzie River in 1960, has generally declined with the decline in populations of chinook salmon in this river. The Carmen-Smith channel still provides a spawning place for those relatively few adult chinook that still return each year, but more fishery benefits may result from other uses of this facility. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  12. Nécrose pancréatique infectieuse des salmonidés : évaluation de méthodes destinées à couper la transmission par l'oeuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORSON M.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Des ovules de truites Arc-en-Ciel ont été fécondés par des spermatozoïdes de la même espèce traités par l'iode suivant différents protocoles afin de couper la transmission de la nécrose pancréatique infectieuse (NPI des salmonidés. L'efficacité de l'iode a été évaluée en parallèle par neutralisation du virus en 1 mn. Le protocole conseillé pour la solution d'iode disponible dans le commerce (ovules égouttés, puis recouverts de solution- iodée et sperme ajouté immédiatement a d'abord été utilisé. A pH compris entre 5 et 8 et pour des concentrations en iode de 15, 25 et 35 mg/l, le pourcentage de fécondation est inférieur à 10 et ne remonte qu'à pH 9 (69 % pour 25 mg/l. Par contre, l'efficacité contre le virus décroît rapidement pour des pH supérieurs à 7, et aucun pH n'a permis de concilier efficacité et innocuité. Le même protocole'utilisé avec 10 spermes individuels a montré des différences de sensibilité individuelle marquées (pourcentages de fécondation de 1,6 à 37 % pour 25 mg/l d'iode à pH8, qui ne sont pas en corrélation avec la qualité des spermes appréciée par la concentration de la protéine de membrane 42 kDa dans le liquide séminal. Les différents essais de préincubation du sperme (de quelques secondes à 1 minute ont donné des rendements de fécondation nuls, sauf pour un large excès de sperme, qui entraînait aussi la perte de l'efficacité de l'iode contre le virus. Deux expériences de transmission expérimentale ont été réalisées en incubant les spermatozoïdes avec du virus concentré. L'élimination systématique des oeufs morts et anormaux suivie d'une désinfection externe des oeufs (50 mg/l d'iode, 15 mn avant l'éclosion n'a pas permis dé couper la transmission, ce qui laisse supposer que le virus peut être transmis sans infecter l'embryon de façon létale.

  13. Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant spring/summer yearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.L.; Yasuda, D.; Skalski, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a post-season analysis of the accuracy of the 1996 predictions from the program RealTime. Observed 1996 migration data collected at Lower Granite Dam were compared to the predictions made by RealTime for the spring outmigration of wild spring/summer chinook. Appendix A displays the graphical reports of the RealTime program that were interactively accessible via the World Wide Web during the 1996 migration season. Final reports are available at address http://www.cqs.washington.edu/crisprt/. The CRISP model incorporated the predictions of the run status to move the timing forecasts further down the Snake River to Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary Dams. An analysis of the dams below Lower Granite Dam is available separately

  14. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  15. Inactivation de deux virus pathogènes pour les salmonidés (virus de la nécrose pancréatique infectieuse et de la septicémie hémorragique virale par les rayons ultraviolets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAISSE G.

    1980-07-01

    Full Text Available Le virus de la Nécrose Pancréatique Infectieuse (N.P.I. et le virus de la Septicémie Hémorragique Virale (S.H.V ont été dilués dans de l'eau claire, puis inactivés par passage à différents débits dans un appareil U.V., fabriqué au Laboratoire. Le titrage d'échantillons de l'effluent a permis le calcul d'une D.L. 90 de 10 000 µWs cm-2 pour le virus de la S.H.V. Le virus de la N.P.I a montré une plus grande résistance, avec une D.L. 80 de 330 000 µWs cm-2. Dans les conditions de la Salmoniculture, la protection des écloseries à l'aide des U.V. contre les virus européens des Salmonidés ne peut être pratiquée que dans le cas du virus de la S.H.V. et non contre le virus de la N.P.I.

  16. Shifting perceptions of food security and land in the context of labour out-migration in rural Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartaula, H.N.; Niehof, A.; Visser, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of the livelihoods of people living in the eastern part of the subtropical plains of Nepal, known as the terai. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in the survey and further data were obtained through focus group discussions, in-depth

  17. Environmental Assessment : Squawfish Management Program : Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to decrease the number of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in reservoirs in the Columbia River system. The goal of the Squawfish Management Program is to reduce losses of outmigrating juvenile salmon and steelhead (salmonids) to northern squawfish predation. The objective is to reduce the number of northern squawfish that feed on juvenile salmonids (smolts) by 10 to 20 percent to alter the age and size structure of the northern squawfish population. The hypothesis, based on computer modeling, indicates that sustained northern squawfish harvest (5 to 10 years) and the resultant population restructuring may reduce losses of juvenile salmonids to predation by up to 50 percent or more within 10 years. The proposed action would target northern squawfish 11 inches and longer, the size in which northern squawfish being preying significantly on juvenile salmonids. BPA proposes to fund three types of fisheries to harvest northern squawfish. BPA also proposes to fund monitoring activities of these fisheries to determine whether desired or other results occur. The three fisheries methods proposed are: (1) commercial Tribal fishing; (2) sport reward fishing; and (3) fishing from restricted areas of each dam ( dam angling''). These fisheries were tested in 1990 and 1991.

  18. Implementación, validación y aplicación de un nuevo método para la determinación de oxitetraciclina por HPLC en tejido muscular de salmonídeos Implementation, validation, and application of a new HPLC method to determine oxytetracycline in salmonid muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se implementa y valida un método para identificar y cuantificar la oxitetraciclina en músculo de salmón, cuantificar los niveles de recuperación de oxitetraciclina y estudiar su fármaco cinética en diferentes órganos de salmones. La implementación correspondió a la detección y cuantificación de residuos del antibiótico en el tejido muscular de salmonídeos. El principio de la metodología HPLC incluyó la determinación de una serie de soluciones representativas de los estándares utilizados en la fortificación de las muestras. El tiempo de retención fue de 5,7 min. La validación del método, busca confirmar y documentar que los resultados entregados por el método implementado sean confiables. Para esto se llevaron a cabo análisis de parámetros tales como: selectividad, precisión, exactitud, sensibilidad e incertidumbre. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que el porcentaje de recuperación, es de un 96%. El coeficiente de correlación (R de la curva de calibrado es 0,9946 y el coeficiente de variación 1,86%.A method for identifying and quantifying oxytetracycline in salmon muscle, for quantifying oxytetracycline recovery levels, and for studying its pharmacokinetic in different organs of salmonids was implemented and validated. During implementation, antibiotic residues were detected and quantified in salmon muscle tissue. The principle of the HPLC methodology included determining a series of representative solutions of the standards, used to fortify the samples. The retention time was 5.7 min. The validation of the method sought to confirm and document the reliability of the results obtained with this method. For this, several parameters (selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, uncertainty were analyzed. The results obtained indicated 96% recovery. The coefficient of correlation (R of the calibration curve was 0.9946 and the coefficient of variation was 1.86%.

  19. Smolt Passage Behavior and Flow-Net Relationship in the Forebay of John Day Dam, 1984-1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1985-12-01

    The migration routes of downstream migrant salmonids in the forebay of John Day Dam were defined and assessed in relation to current velocities and water turbidity and temperature. Forebay current patterns were obtained from current meters at fixed sampling stations, the distribution of outmigrants was determined from purse seine sampling, and migration routes of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead were identified by radio telemetry techniques. All species of emigrating salmonids alter their distribution across the forebay as they approach the dam. Fish abundance was positively correlated with water clarity. There was no evidence to suggest that the migration routes were in response to current patterns in the forebay. Radio telemetry studies demonstrated that a certain segment of yearling chinook salmon approaching the dam are predisposed to spill passage (Washington side of the river) by virtue of their lateral position across the forebay. A new application of radio tag methodology was assessed and found to be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of spill for bypassing outmigrant salmon. A program system and cartographic model was developed which displays for any specified hour forebay current patterns at prevailing river flows and dam operations. The system can be used at other dam sites where investigations may wish to detail forebay current patterns.

  20. Trapping and transportation of adult and juvenile salmon in the lower Umatilla River in northeast Oregon, 1995--1996 -- Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program. Annual progress report, October 1995--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.C.; Duke, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation; Statistical Support for Life-cycle Studies, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the statistical analysis and consulting activities performed under Contract No. 00004134, Project No. 199105100 funded by Bonneville Power Administration during 2003. These efforts are focused on providing real-time predictions of outmigration timing, assessment of life-history performance measures, evaluation of status and trends in recovery, and guidance on the design and analysis of Columbia Basin fish and wildlife studies monitoring and evaluation studies. The overall objective of the project is to provide BPA and the rest of the fisheries community with statistical guidance on design, analysis, and interpretation of monitoring data, which will lead to improved monitoring and evaluation of salmonid mitigation programs in the Columbia/Snake River Basin. This overall goal is being accomplished by making fisheries data readily available for public scrutiny, providing statistical guidance on the design and analyses of studies by hands-on support and written documents, and providing real-time analyses of tagging results during the smolt outmigration for review by decision makers. For a decade, this project has been providing in-season projections of smolt outmigration timing to assist in spill management. As many as 50 different fish stocks at 8 different hydroprojects are tracked and real-time to predict the 'percent of run to date' and 'date to specific percentile'. The project also conducts added-value analyses of historical tagging data to understand relationships between fish responses, environmental factors, and anthropogenic effects. The statistical analysis of historical tagging data crosses agency lines in order to assimilate information on salmon population dynamics irrespective of origin. The lessons learned from past studies are used to improve the design and analyses of future monitoring and evaluation efforts. Through these efforts, the project attempts to provide the fisheries community with reliable analyses

  2. Microhabitat selection of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg on different salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Martinussen, Torben; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Parasitten Gyrodactylus salaris vises at formere sig med forskellig succes på forskellige laksefisk. Desuden tager parasitten ophold på forskellige områder på fiskens overflade, hvilket kan afspejle forskellige responsmønstre i fiskens hud.......Parasitten Gyrodactylus salaris vises at formere sig med forskellig succes på forskellige laksefisk. Desuden tager parasitten ophold på forskellige områder på fiskens overflade, hvilket kan afspejle forskellige responsmønstre i fiskens hud....

  3. Bird Distribution and Abundance - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Thermal plume residence and temperature exposure of salmonid fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Romberg, G.P.; Thommes, M.M.; Prepejchal, W.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive echo-location technique was used to estimate the density-distribution patterns of fish and to determine the influence of discharge design and location on fish attraction. Studies were conducted between 1972 and 1975 at the Point Beach and Zion nulcear power plants and Waukegan fossil-fuel power plant on Lake Michigan. Preliminary inspection of results indicates seasonal attraction of abundant species, such as alewife, trout, and salmon. In general, fish densities in the plume area tend to be elevated relative to unheated areas during spring and early summer. Power plant location and discharge type apparently affect the magnitude and timing of attraction to discharges. Fish in plume areas generally are observed at elevated temperatures or near temperature interfaces. Data analyses include conventional approaches to detect differences in mean densities over time and space and recent developments in time-series analysis. Predictability of fish responses will depend on the identification of temporal and spatial distribution patterns

  5. Optimal size at seaward migration in an anadromous salmonid

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Bror; Jonsson, Marius; Jonsson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the probabilistic reaction norm was calculated for length at different ages of smolting before seaward migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawning in the Norwegian River Imsa. The reaction norm was compared with the optimal length at smolting estimated as the product of survival and female fecundity on the return, given their length at smolting. Logistic regression analysis on pre-migratory and migratory fish was used to estimate the probabilistic reaction norm. Length at...

  6. Disease management mitigates risk of pathogen transmission from maricultured salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Simon R. M.; Bruno, David W.; Madsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    that increased risk of exposure to neighbouring farms is inversely related to distance from and directly related to biomass at the source of infection. Epidemiological techniques integrating data from oceanography, diagnostics and pathogen shedding rates and viability contribute to improved understanding...... management thresholds. For wild populations, risk of pathogen spillback is estimated from farm-based epidemiological data; however, validation, particularly for ISAV and SAV, is required using direct surveillance....... of pathogen transmission pathways among farms and permit the designation of areas of risk associated with sources of infection. Occupation of an area of risk may increase the likelihood of exposure, infection and disease among susceptible fish. Disease mitigation in mariculture occurs at 2 scales: area...

  7. Assessing connectivity in salmonid fishes with DNA microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Neville; Jason Dunham; Mary Peacock

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity is a key consideration for the management and conservation of any species, but empirical characterizations of connectivity can be extremely challenging. Assessments of connectivity require biologically realistic classifications of landscape structure (Kotliar and Wiens 1990), and an understanding of how landscape structure affects migration, dispersal, and...

  8. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging...... device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 mu g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results...... concentration in rainbow trout fillets....

  9. Salmonid Reproductive Migration and Effects on Sexual Maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashida, K.; Fukaya, K.; Palstra, A.P.; Ueda, H.

    2013-01-01

    Salmon has amazing abilities to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for reproduction. Reproductive homing migration was investigated by two different research approaches from behavioural biology to endocrinology using chum salmon in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two

  10. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  11. Use of ozone in a water reuse system for salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.C.; Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A water reuse system is described in which ozone is used in addition to biological filters to remove toxic metabolic wastes from the water. The system functions at a higher rate of efficiency than has been reported for other reuse systems and supports excellent growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  12. AFSC/ABL: Salmonid migrations at Auke Creek, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auke Lake system has endemic populations of pink, chum, sockeye and coho salmon, and supports populations of Dolly Varden char and cutthroat and steelhead trout....

  13. Abundance and distribution of northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Rieman, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors used mark-recapture and catch-per-unit effort data to estimate abundances and distributions of three potential predators on juvenile salmonids migrating through John Day Reservoir in 1984-1986. The northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis was the most abundant predator (estimated population: 85, 316), followed by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu (34,954) and walleye Stizostedion vitreum (15,168). Because of uncertainty in sampling and assumption of the mark-recapture estimator, the combined abundance of these three predators could lie between 50,000 and 500,000. They believe, however, that bias is probably negative, and that any errors should result in conservative estimates. Northern squawfish were common reservoir-wide, but large concentrations occurred immediately below McNary Dam near the head of John Day Reservoir. Walleyes were largely restricted to the upper third of the reservoir, whereas the number of smallmouth bass increased progressively downriver. As judged by abundance and distribution, northern squawfish have by far the greatest potential for predation on juvenile salmonids. They also expect predation to be unevenly distributed in time and space as a result of variations in the number and distribution of predators

  14. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Washington Department of Fisheries

    1987-01-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  15. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  16. Dredged Material Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. McNary Reservoir and Lower Snake River Reservoirs. Appendix C: Economic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...; for managment of dredged material from these reservoirs; and for maintenance of flow conveyance capacity at the most upstream extent of the Lower Granite reservoir for the remaining economic life of the dam and reservoir project (to year 2074...

  17. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  18. Does cortisol manipulation influence outmigration behaviour, survival and growth of sea trout? A field test of carryover effects in wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    For anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta), the transition from life in freshwater to the marine environment is an inherently challenging and dangerous period characterized by high levels of mortality. As such, smoltification is a relevant life-history phase to examine how physiological state, in ...

  19. Streamflow effects on spawning, rearing, and outmigration of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) predicted by a spatial and individual-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Sale, M.J.; Cardwell, H.E.; Deangelis, D.L.; Bevelhimer, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The thread posed to Pacific salmon by competing water demands is a great concern to regulators of the hydropower industry. Finding the balance between fish resource and economic objectives depends on our ability to quantify flow effects on salmon production. Because field experiments are impractical, simulation models are needed to predict the effects of minimum flows on chinook salmon during their freshwater residence. We have developed a model to simulate the survival and development of eggs and alevins in redds and the growth, survival, and movement of juvenile chinook in response to local stream conditions (flow, temperature, chinook and predator density). Model results suggest that smolt production during dry years can be increased by raising spring minimum flows

  20. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River: March 1, 1994--June 15, 1994; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, B.L.; Miller, A.C.; Kucera, P.A.; Blenden, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout

  1. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and determine status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from the McNary Dam. Annual progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiningen, K.T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1994 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on subadult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of subadult and adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River

  2. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  3. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiningen, Kirk T. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (US)

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  4. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin; Volume XII; A Multinomial Model for Estimating Ocean Survival from Salmonid Coded Wire-Tag Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Kristen E.; Skalski, John R.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the development of a stochastic model using coded wire-tag (CWT) release and age-at-return data, in order to regress first year ocean survival probabilities against coastal ocean conditions and climate covariates.

  5. POPs data for salmonids and macroinvertebrates from Glacier Bay, Alaska - Measuring persistent organic pollutants in resident salmonids and benthic macroinvertebrates in streams near Glacier National Park, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2007 pilot study was initiated by the University of Alaska Southeast in which baseline levels of contaminants, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and...

  6. Trapping and transportation of adult and juvenile salmon in the lower Umatilla River in northeast Oregon, 1996-1997. Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program. Annual progress report, October 1996 - September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.; Duke, B.B.

    1997-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 30, 1996 to August 26, 1997. A total of 2,477 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 646 adult, 80 jack, and 606 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 618 adult and 24 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,194 adult and four jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 22 summer steelhead; 18 adult and two jack fall chinook; five adult coho; and 407 adult and three jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,245 summer steelhead; 70 adult, 51 jack and 520 subjack fall chinook; 593 adult and 24 jack coho; and 1,130 adult spring chinook released at Threemile Dam I In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 551 adult and 25 jack fall chinook; and 600 adult spring chinook were collected for broodstock. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts, The canal was open for a total of 210 days between December 16, 1996 and July 30, 1997. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 175 days and were trapped on 35 days, An estimated 1,675 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5), Approximately 80% of the juveniles transported were salmonids, No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from October 4 to November 1, 1996 and from March 26 to July 7, 1997. The juvenile trap was not operated this year. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  8. Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Kevin S. McKelvey; Taylor M. Wilcox; Daniel M. Bingham; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kellie J. Carim; Matthew R. Campbell; Matthew P. Corsi; Dona L. Horan; David E. Nagel; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted...

  9. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Clements

    Full Text Available There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead (O. mykiss with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  10. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... of Reclamation, Bay-Delta Office, 801 I Street, Suite 140, Sacramento, CA 95814-2536; fax to 916-414..., California Department of Water Resources, 901 P Street, Room 411A, Sacramento, CA 95814, 916-651-9623, fax 916- 376-9688, or email [email protected]ca.gov . Public Disclosure Before including your address...

  11. Tagging, Mux, smolt, habitat and flow data - Movement and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in Small Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is part of the Washington State Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) Program. Using passive inductive transponder (PIT) tags and remote stationary...

  12. Microhabitat selection of Gyrodactylus salaris  with reference to susceptibility status of the salmonid host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    Five strains of salmon Salmo salar and a strain of Danish rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were experimentally infected with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris (Lærdalselva strain, Norway). All fish were hatchery-reared and the genetic origins were from the East Atlantic: River Conon (Scotland......), Storå (western Denmark) and Ätran (western Sweden) and from the Baltic: River Lule and Ume (Sweden). The rainbow trout used were from a Danish fish farm. Three replicate aquaria infested with G. salaris were established containing 10 fish of every strain. The numbers of parasites were assessed...... on anesthetized fish once a week from week 0 to week 8 and concurrently the location of every parasite on each of twelve regions on the fish was recorded. The mean abundance of G. salaris steadily increased on the East Atlantic Conon, Storå and Ätran strains until the end of the experiment. The mean abundance...

  13. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Øyvind J; Mjøs, Svein; Valdebenito, Samuel; Ilardi, Pedro; Battaglia, Juan; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylund, Are

    2015-07-14

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes serious fish diseases such RTFS and BCWD, affecting the aquaculture industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines are not available and control of the disease depends on the use of antibiotics. Reliable methods for detection and identification of different isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were analyzed. The results were compared with previous work on the same pathogen using MLST for genetic differentiation. The VNTR analysis gave a separation between the F. psychrophilum isolates supporting the results of previous MLST work. A higher diversity was found among the Chilean isolates compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide geographical distribution of identical isolates in Norway. But, this could also be a result of movement of smolts and embryos. The selected VNTRs are stable genetic markers and no variation was observed after several passages on agar plates at different temperatures. These VNTRs are important additions for genotyping of F. psychrophilum isolates. Future studies on VNTRs of F. psychrophilum should include isolates from more host species from a wider geographical area. To get a more robust genotyping the VNTRs should be used in concert with MLST. Future studies of isolates with high and low virulence should focus on identifying virulence markers using VTNRs and MLST.

  14. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes serious fish diseases such RTFS and BCWD, affecting the aquaculture industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines are not available and control of the disease depends on the use of antibiotics. Reliable methods for detection and identification of differen...

  15. Distribution, growth, and condition of salmonids in the central California Current Ecosystem.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Ecology Division of NOAA’s SWFSC conducts annual surveys of salmon and their ocean habitat in the coastal waters of northern California and southern...

  16. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  17. Fight and air exposure times of caught and released salmonids from the South Fork Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Curtis J.; Schill, Daniel J.; Quist, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Catch-and-release regulations are among the most common types of fishing regulations. In recent years, concerns have arisen regarding the exposure of fish to air during catch-and-release angling. The purpose of our study was to quantify the length of time angled fish were exposed to air by anglers in a typical catch-and-release fishery and relate it to the lengths of time reported to produce negative effects. In total, 312 individual anglers were observed on the South Fork Snake River, Idaho, from May through August 2016. Fight time varied from 1.1 s to 230.0 s, and average fight time was 40.0 s (SD = 36.8). Total air exposure times varied from 0.0 s to 91.8 s and averaged 19.3 s (SD = 15.0). Though not statistically significant, a trend in reduced fight times was observed when anglers were guided and increased air exposure times when a net was used and a picture was taken. Results of the current study suggest that anglers expose fish to air for periods that are much less than those reported to cause mortality.

  18. Single-dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of antigen-specific salmonid antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed on the basis of testing a single dilution of serum to quantify the level of antibody to the p57 protein of Renibaclerium salmoninarum in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The levels of antibody were interpolated from a standard curve constructed by relating the optical densities (OD) produced by several dilutions of a high-titer rainbow trout (O. mykiss) antiserum to the p57 protein. The ELISA OD values produced by as many as 36 test sera on each microplate were compared with the standard curve to calculate the antigen-specific antibody activity. Repeated measurements of 36 samples on 3 microplates on each of 6 assay dates indicated that the mean intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.68% (range, 0-23%) and the mean interassay CV was 8.29% (range, 4-16%). The antibody levels determined for the serum sample from 24 sockeye salmon vaccinated with a recombinant p57 protein generally were correlated with the levels determined by endpoint titration (r2 = 0.936) and with results from another ELISA that was based on extrapolation of antibody levels from a standard curve (r2 = 0.956). The single-dilution antibody ELISA described here increases the number of samples that can be tested on each microplate compared with immunoassays based on analysis of several dilutions of each test serum. It includes controls for interassay standardization and can be used to test fish weighing <3 g.

  19. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Helena; Vendramin, Niccolò; Taksdal, Torunn

    2017-01-01

    A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search...

  20. Climate vulnerability of native cold-water salmonids in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Scott Spaulding; Cameron A. Thomas; Scott A. Barndt; Matthew C. Groce; Dona Horan; David E. Nagel

    2018-01-01

    During the 21st century, climate change is expected to alter aquatic habitats throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains, intermountain basins, and western Great Plains. Particularly in montane watersheds, direct changes are likely to include warmer water temperatures, earlier snowmelt-driven runoff, earlier declines to summer baseflow, downhill movement of perennial...

  1. marine survival ecosystem indicators - Estimating the ecosystem indicators of anadromous salmonids in the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project is to develop a simple approach for estimating the marine survival and causes of trends in survival. Data is a summary of ecosystem...

  2. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  3. The genetic profiles of two salmonid populations from Romania obtained through nuclear markers analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Nechifor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Salmonidae fish family is well represented in Romanian fauna, with a total of six species in the wild and reared in fish farms. Among them, the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario can be found in all major Romanian river basins. However, anthropogenic activities might disrupt salmonids’ habitats, so that inbreeding and genetic isolation might easily occur in the wild populations. We analyzed two wild brown trout populations from rivers targeted by anthropogenic activities, by using nuclear markers and genotyping in order to observe their genetic structure. We analyzed nine microsatellites and we observed their alleles frequencies, number of private alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity, as well as their population structure. The two populations are not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most of the loci and the inbreeding coefficient for both populations suggests a heterozygote deficit. Further sequencing data are needed in order to have a better view upon their complete genetic structure.

  4. Niche characteristics explain the reciprocal invasion success of stream salmonids in different continents

    OpenAIRE

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2007-01-01

    An ability to understand and predict invasions is elemental for controlling the detrimental effects of introduced organisms on native biota. In eastern North America, European brown trout generally dominates over, and eventually replaces, the native brook trout. We show here that in northern Europe the pattern of replacement between these two species is reversed: when transferred to North European streams, brook trout spread extensively and partially replaced the native brown trout. The effec...

  5. Origin of fin-clipped salmonids collected at two thermal discharges on Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Thommes, M.M.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1974-01-01

    Fin clips observed on fish collected during tagging studies at the Point Beach and Waukegan thermal discharges were recorded and the data were tabulated by species. Using fin clip and fish size, attempts were made to identify probable stocking locations and dates from agency records. Data are presented for lake trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, and Coho salmon. Tables are presented to show probable stocking locations and dates

  6. Effect of plume residence on the accumulation of 137Cs by Lake Michigan salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Edwards, J.

    1974-01-01

    Brown trout, rainbow trout, and chinook salmon were tagged with temperature-sensitive tags and released back into the Point Beach discharge area. Gamma spectral analysis detected only 137 Cs and 40 K in the fish samples. A comparison of mean 137 Cs concentrations in all groups for 1971 and 1973 showed that 1971 levels were significantly higher than 1973 levels

  7. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  8. Plasticity in probabilistic reaction norms for maturation in a salmonid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kentaro; Tsuboi, Jun-ichi; Nagasawa, Toru

    2009-10-23

    The relationship between body size and the probability of maturing, often referred to as the probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN), has been increasingly used to infer genetic variation in maturation schedule. Despite this trend, few studies have directly evaluated plasticity in the PMRN. A transplant experiment using white-spotted charr demonstrated that the PMRN for precocious males exhibited plasticity. A smaller threshold size at maturity occurred in charr inhabiting narrow streams where more refuges are probably available for small charr, which in turn might enhance the reproductive success of sneaker precocious males. Our findings suggested that plastic effects should clearly be included in investigations of variation in PMRNs.

  9. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in three salmonid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter

    2012-01-01

    . simplex larvae were attached to the digestive tract (stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine), while the majority of larvae found in rainbow trout were located between the pyloric caeca. In Baltic salmon, nematodes were dispersed in and on spleen, head kidney, liver, swim bladder and musculature. Encapsulation...... differed between species. S. salar (Baltic salmon) showed the highest number of successfully established nematodes, whereas S. trutta (brown trout) and O. mykiss (rainbow trout) had a higher natural resistance. Microhabitat selection of nematodes differed according to fish species. In brown trout, A...... reactions for IgM-bearing cells in the inflammatory tissue connected with nematodes. CD8+ cells were detected in all three species and MHCII-bearing cells were found associated with encapsulated A. simplex in rainbow trout and brown trout, but not in Baltic salmon. Physiological, immunological...

  10. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  11. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-08-01

    Despite the substantial declines in distribution and abundance that the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri has experienced over the past century, quantitative evaluations of existing population sizes over broad portions of its historical range have not been made. In this study, we estimate trout abundance throughout the Upper Snake River basin in Idaho (and portions of adjacent states), based on stratified sample extrapolations of electrofishing surveys conducted at 961 study sites, the vast majority of which (84%) were selected randomly. Yellowstone cutthroat trout were the most widely distributed species of trout (caught at 457 study sites), followed by brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (242 sites), rainbow trout O. mykiss and rainbow x cutthroat hybrids (136 sites), and brown trout Salmo trutta (70 sites). Of the sites that contained cutthroat trout, more than half did not contain any other species of trout. Where nonnative trout were sympatric with cutthroat trout, brook trout were most commonly present. In the 11 Geographic Management Units (GMUs) where sample size permitted abundance estimates, there were about 2.2 million trout {ge}100 mm, and of these, about one-half were cutthroat trout. Similarly, we estimated that about 2.0 million trout <100 mm were present, of which about 1.2 million were cutthroat trout. The latter estimate is biased low because our inability to estimate abundance of trout <100 mm in larger-order rivers negated our ability to account for them at all. Cutthroat trout were divided into approximately 70 subpopulations but estimates could be made for only 55 subpopulations; of these, 44 subpopulations contained more than 1,000 cutthroat trout and 28 contained more than 2,500 cutthroat trout. Using a logistic regression model to predict the number of spawning cutthroat trout at a given study site, we estimate that an average of about 30% of the cutthroat trout {ge}100 mm are spawners. We compared visually-based phenotypic assessments of hybridization with subsequent genetic analyses from 55 of the study sites and found that: (1) genetic analysis corroborated our visual determination that hybridization was absent at 37 of 55 sites; (2) at the seven sites where we visually failed to discern genetically-detected hybridization, the percent of rainbow trout alleles in the population was low (<1 %) at all but two locations; and (3) where we detected hybridization both visually and genetically (11 sites), levels of introgression were positively correlated between methods (r{sub 2} = 0.65). Based on this strong agreement, we phenotypically classified cutthroat trout as ''pure'' and ''{ge}90% pure'' at 81% and 90%, respectively, of the study sites within these GMUs. Our results suggest that, despite the presence of nonnative threats (genetic and competitive) in much of their current range in Idaho, Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations remain widely distributed and appear healthy in several river drainages in the Upper Snake River basin. Nevertheless, ongoing efforts to secure core cutthroat trout populations, protect areas from further nonnative invasions, and restore disturbed habitat are recommended for further protection of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho.

  12. Epidémiologie de la furonculose des salmonidés.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUBOIS-DARNAUDPEYS A.

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available L'antagonisme bactérien dû à la flore d'accompagnement est le seul facteur jouant un rôle dans la dynamique des populations de A. salmonicida. L'action lytique des bactériophages ou de Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus est inactive sur cette bactérie.

  13. Understanding Existing Salmonid Habitat Availability and Connectivity to Improve River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; Yager, E.; Tonina, D.; Benjankar, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest river restoration is common for salmon conservation. Mangers need methods to help target restoration to problem areas in rivers to create habitat that meets a species' needs. Hydraulic models and habitat suitability curves provide basic information on habitat availability and overall quality, but these analyses need to be expanded to address habitat quality based on the accessibility of habitats required for multiple life stages. Scientists are starting to use connectivity measurements to understand the longitudinal proximity of habitat patches, which can be used to address the habitat variability of a reach. By evaluating the availability and quality of habitat and calculating the connectivity between complementary habitats, such as spawning and rearing habitats, we aim to identify areas that should be targeted for restoration. To meet these goals, we assessed Chinook salmon habitat on the Lemhi River in Idaho. The depth and velocity outputs from a 2D hydraulic model are used in conjunction with locally created habitat suitability curves to evaluate the availability and quality of habitat for multiple Chinook salmon life stages. To assess the variability of the habitat, connectivity between habitat patches necessary for different life stages is calculated with a proximity index. A spatial representation of existing habitat quality and connectivity between complimentary habitats can be linked to river morphology by the evaluation of local geomorphic characteristics, including sinuosity and channel units. The understanding of the current habitat availability for multiple life stage needs, the connectivity between these habitat patches, and their relationship with channel morphology can help managers better identify restoration needs and direct their limited resources.

  14. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-01

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate (1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; (2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and (3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  15. Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Bryant

    2009-01-01

    General circulation models predict increases in air temperatures from 1◦C to 5◦C as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise during the next 100 years. Thermal regimes in freshwater ecosystems will change as air temperatures increase regionally. As air temperatures increase, the distribution and intensity of precipitation will change which will in turn...

  16. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would be beneficial to anglers and the nonfishing public alike.

  17. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    are coding for immunological factors and tissue regeneration. Locale, inflammatory responses were seen as strong up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8 in both groups of fish, but it was more pronounced in infected fish. Expression of the toll-like receptors showed induction of TLR-5m following infection, but TLR-9...

  18. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival Proportions at John Day Dam, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Khan, Fenton; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, J. R.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2011-09-28

    The overall purpose of the acoustic telemetry study at JDA during 2009 was to determine the best configuration and operation for JDA prior to conducting BiOp performance standard tests. The primary objective was to determine the best operation between 30% and 40% spill treatments. Route-specific and JDA to TDA forebay survival estimates, passage distribution, and timing/behavior metrics were used for comparison of 30% to a 40% spill treatments. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of TSWs installed in spill bays 15 and 16 and to estimate fish survival rates and passage efficiencies under 30% and 40% spill-discharge treatments each season.

  19. Classification of Astaxanthin Colouration of Salmonid Fish using Spectral Imaging and Tricolour Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    capturing, tricolour CIELAB measurement, and manual SalmoFan inspection. Furthermore it was tested whether the best predictions come from measurements of the steak or the fillet of the fish. Methods used for classication were linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA......The goal of this study was to investigate if it is possible to differentiate between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) having been fed with natural or synthetic astaxanthin. Three different techniques were used for visual inspection of the surface colour of the fish meat: multi-spectral image...

  20. Susceptibility of salmonid fish to poisons under estuarine conditions. I. Zinc sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Wakeford, A C

    1964-01-01

    The resistance of yearling rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon smolts to zinc sulphate increases with salinity up to 30-40 percent sea water, in which these species can withstand for 2 days respectively 15 and 13 times as much zinc sulphate as on fresh water. Further increase in salinity to 72 percent sea water reduces tolerance for the zinc salt. Salmon smolts were more susceptible to zinc poisoning than trout in fresh water and at all salinities tested.

  1. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  2. Sustainability assessment of salmonid feed using energy, classical exergy and eco-exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Jorgensen, S.E.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of the environmental impact of feed products is of paramount importance for salmon farming. This article explores the potential to compare three thermodynamically based ecological indicators. The environmental impact of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) and fish oil with alternative

  3. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked in the upper reaches of the river. This study represents an improved approach over more commonly applied assessments that focus on the impact of impoundment on wetted area or river length. Simpler approaches often lack ecological and hydrological detail leading to over- or underestimation of the impacts of river regulation on connectivity depending on the relative quality of available habitat. Our work aims to integrate hydrological and ecological aspects into a spatially explicit connectivity framework. Such an approach can help to better identify those areas most important to the conservation of fish habitat, inform sustainable management of hydropower schemes, and aid cost-efficient river restoration and management efforts.

  4. Bigger is not better: cortisol-induced cardiac growth and dysfunction in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ida B.; Sandblom, Erik; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    show that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated with cortisol in the diet for 45 days have enlarged hearts with lower maximum stroke volume and cardiac output. In accordance with impaired cardiac performance, overall circulatory oxygen-transporting capacity was diminished as indicated by reduced...

  5. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Brooke E. Penaluna; Jason B. Dunham; Carlos Garcia de Leaniz; Doris Soto; Ian A. Fleming; Daniel Gomez-Uchida; Gonzalo Gajardo; Pamela V. Varga; Jorge León-Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including...

  6. Effect of commercially available egg cures on the survival of juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, S.; Chitwood, R.; Schreck, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    There is some concern that incidental consumption of eggs cured with commercially available cures for the purpose of sport fishing causes mortality in juvenile salmon. We evaluated this by feeding juvenile spring Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) with eggs cured with one of five commercially available cures. We observed significant levels of mortality in both pre-smolts and smolts. Depending on the experiment, 2, 3, or 4 of the cures were associated with mortality. Mortality tended to be higher in the smolts than in the parr, but there was no clear species effect. The majority of mortality occurred within the first 10 d of feeding. Removal of sodium sulfite from the cure significantly reduced the level of mortality. Soaking the eggs prior to feeding did not reduce mortality. We observed a clear relationship between the amount of cured egg consumed each day and the survival time. We conclude that consumption of eggs cured with sodium sulfite has the potential to cause mortality in juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon in the wild.

  7. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  8. Effects of vitamin nutrition on the immune response of hatchery-reared salmonids. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, D.; Holmes, J.; Kaattari, S.; Yui, M.; Jones, T.

    1985-09-01

    Results demonstrate that immunological assays. Lymphocytes from both of the major lymphoid organs (spleen and anterior kidney) produce significant in vitro antibody responses to the antigen, trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide. These cells also demonstrate significant mitogenic stimulation (proliferation) in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, and to a novel mitogen, Vibrio anguillarum extract. As an assessment of cell-mediated immunity, we have found that lymphocytes are capable of responding in a mixed lymphocyte reaction as demonstrated by increased incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Results also indicate that phagocytosis can be quantified by the uptake of radioiodinated Renibacterium salmoninarum and that production of migration inhibition factor (MIF)-like activity can be induced in immunized animals. Polyclonal activation of chinook lymphocytes was elicited by both Vibrio anguillarum extract and E. coli lipopolysaccharide. Groups of spring chinook salmon were fed a formula diet containing five dietary levels of pyridoxine (15, 30, 60, 120, and 1500 mg/kg diet). Data collected on growth and feed efficiency in the first eighteen weeks show no significant difference between these formulations. 46 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  10. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2002-11-01

    We investigated factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT), the abundance of all trout, and species richness in several drainages in the upper Snake River basin in Idaho. A total of 326 randomly selected sites were visited within the four study drainages, and of these, there was sufficient water to inventory fish and habitat in 56 of the sites in the Goose Creek drainage, 64 in the Raft River drainage, 54 in the Blackfoot River drainage, and 27 in the Willow Creek drainage. Fish were captured in 36, 55, 49, and 22 of the sites, respectively, and YCT were present at 17, 37, 32, and 13 of the sites, respectively. There was little consistency or strength in the models developed to predict YCT presence/absence and density, trout density, or species richness. Typically, the strongest models had the lowest sample sizes. In the Goose Creek drainage, sites with YCT were higher in elevation and lower in conductivity. In the Raft River drainage, trout cover was more abundant at sites with YCT than without YCT. In the Blackfoot River drainage, there was less fine substrate and more gravel substrate at sites with YCT than at sites without YCT. In the Willow Creek drainage, 70% of the sites located on public land contained YCT, but only 35% of private land contained YCT. The differences in variable importance between drainages suggests that factors that influence the distribution of YCT vary between drainages, and that for the most part the variables we measured had little influence on YCT distribution. n sites containing YCT, average cutthroat trout density was 0.11/m{sup 2}, 0.08/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.08/m{sup 2} in the Goose Creek, Raft River, Blackfoot River, and Willow Creek drainages, respectively. In sites containing trout in general, average total trout density in these same drainages was 0.16/m{sup 2}, 0.15/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.10/m{sup 2}. Models to predict YCT density, total trout density, and species richness were either weak (i.e., explained little variation) or contained small sample sizes. Based on our results, it appears that factors other than those we measured are affecting fish populations in these drainages.

  11. Host specificity and geographical distribution of Eubothrium in European salmonid fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman; Shinn, A. P.; Šnábel, V.; Hanzelová, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2003), s. 255-262 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Grant - others:Vedecká grantová agentúra MŠ SR a SAV(SK) VEGA2/1020/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Pseudophyllidea * fish parasites Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  12. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Batten, G.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Elder, T.; Etherington, D. J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Miracle, Ann L.; Mitchell, T. D.; Prather, K.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Royer, Ida; Seaburg, Adam; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-06-21

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for tagged yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during spring 2011. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a paired-release survival model.

  13. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Royer, Ida M.; Khan, Fenton; Cushing, Aaron W.; Etherington, D. J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Elder, T.; Batton, George; Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts and juvenile steelhead tagged with JSATS acoustic micro-transmitters as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during 2010. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a single-release survival estimate model.

  14. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  15. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.; Contor, Craig C.; Hoverson, Eric (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2005-10-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). UBNPMEP is coordinated with two ODFW research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. Our project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 19000500, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 198902401, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects comprehensively monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. Table 1 outlines relationships with other BPA supported projects. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan (ODFW and CTUIR 2004), the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (Schwartz & Cameron Under Revision). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPPC 2004). The need for monitoring the natural production of salmonids in the Umatilla River

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  18. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  19. Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2008 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne H.; Schricker, Jaym' e; Ruzychi, James R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2009-02-13

    The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations remain depressed relative to historic levels and limited information is available for steelhead life history. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects have been implemented in the basin to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival. However, these projects often lack effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed programmatic or watershed (status and trend) information to help evaluate project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts as well as meet some data needs as index stocks. Our continued monitoring efforts to estimate salmonid smolt abundance, age structure, SAR, smolts/redd, freshwater habitat use, and distribution of critical life states will enable managers to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the level of emphasis by the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Independent Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB), Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP), NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (OWEB). Each of these groups have placed priority on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. The objective is to estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer

  20. Fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring designs for estimating fish passage using stratified random and systematic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Hoffman, A.; Ransom, B.H.; Steig, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five alternate sampling designs are compared using 15 d of 24-h continuous hydroacoustic data to identify the most favorable approach to fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring of salmonid outmigrants. Four alternative aproaches to systematic sampling are compared among themselves and with stratified random sampling (STRS). Stratifying systematic sampling (STSYS) on a daily basis is found to reduce sampling error in multiday monitoring studies. Although sampling precision was predictable with varying levels of effort in STRS, neither magnitude nor direction of change in precision was predictable when effort was varied in systematic sampling (SYS). Furthermore, modifying systematic sampling to include replicated (e.g., nested) sampling (RSYS) is further shown to provide unbiased point and variance estimates as does STRS. Numerous short sampling intervals (e.g., 12 samples of 1-min duration per hour) must be monitored hourly using RSYS to provide efficient, unbiased point and interval estimates. For equal levels of effort, STRS outperformed all variations of SYS examined. Parametric approaches to confidence interval estimates are found to be superior to nonparametric interval estimates (i.e., bootstrap and jackknife) in estimating total fish passage. 10 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  1. Gauging resource exploitation by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in restoring estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Woo, Isa; Hodgson, Sayre; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Nakai, Glynnis

    2018-01-01

    In the context of delta restoration and its impact on salmonid rearing, success is best evaluated based on whether out-migrating juvenile salmon can access and benefit from suitable estuarine habitat. Here, we integrated 3 years of post-restoration monitoring data including habitat availability, invertebrate prey biomass, and juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) physiological condition to determine whether individuals profited from the addition of 364 ha of delta habitat in South Puget Sound, Washington, United States. Productivity in the restored mudflat was comparable to reference sites 3 years after dike removal, surpassing a mean total of 6 million kJ energy from invertebrate prey. This resulted from the development of a complex network of tidal channels and a resurgence in dipteran biomass that was unique to the restoration area. Consequently, a notable shift in invertebrate consumption occurred between 2010 and 2011, whereby individuals switched from eating primarily amphipods to dipteran flies; however, dietary similarity to the surrounding habitat did not change from year to year, suggesting that this shift was a result of a change in the surrounding prey communities. Growth rates did not differ between restored and reference sites, but catch weight was positively correlated with prey biomass, where greater prey productivity appeared to offset potential density-dependent effects. These results demonstrate how the realized function of restoring estuarine habitat is functionally dependent. High prey productivity in areas with greater connectivity may support healthy juvenile salmon that are more likely to reach the critical size class for offshore survival.

  2. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken; Duke, Bill

    2008-12-31

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the bypass was closed and the trap opened. An estimated 64 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland trapping facility. Approximately 25.8% of the fish transported were salmonids. In addition, one

  3. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation

  4. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  5. A Project Approach to Teaching Aquaculture and Entrepreneurial Skills in the Cage Culture of Salmonids Program at the Marine Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Edgar; Smith, Boyd

    Between September and December 1986, the Marine Institute in Newfoundland, Canada, used a "projects approach" to train aquaculture workers for 10 new salmon farms to be opened in spring 1987 by a producers' cooperative. The projects approach combined instruction in the aquaculture skills needed to operate a salmon farm and the entrepreneurial…

  6. External morphological differences between Crepidostomum farionis and Crepidostomum metoecus (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae), parasites of salmonids, as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2002), s. 211-217 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * Crepidostomum * surface morphology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.515, year: 2002

  7. Ultrastructure of the body wall of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae) in relation to the histopathology of this nematode in salmonids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2003), s. 100-108 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1262/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  8. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  9. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and passage at water diversions on the lower Umatilla River. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.A.; Knapp, S.M.; Carmichael, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities

  10. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  11. Survival estimates - Survival estimates for the passage of juvenile salmonids through Snake and Columbia River dams and reservoirs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This BPA-funded study provides estimates of smolt survival and travel time through individual reaches and reaches combined in the Snake and Columbia Rivers...

  12. Temperature - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  13. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  14. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  15. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program Population Estimates for Juvenile Salmonids in Nason Creek, WA ; 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Matthew; Murdoch, Keely [Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-07-20

    This report summarizes juvenile coho, spring Chinook, and steelhead salmon migration data collected at a 1.5m diameter cone rotary fish trap on Nason Creek during 2008; providing abundance and freshwater productivity estimates. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate the number of emigrants. Trapping began on March 2, 2008 and was suspended on December 11, 2008 when snow and ice accumulation prevented operation. During 2008, 0 brood year (BY) 2006 coho, 1 BY2007 coho, 906 BY2006 spring Chinook, 323 BY2007 fry Chinook, 2,077 BY2007 subyearling Chinook, 169 steelhead smolts, 414 steelhead fry and 2,390 steelhead parr were trapped. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages. A total of 2,639 spring Chinook, 2,154 steelhead and 12 bull trout were implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. Most PIT tagged fish were used for trap efficiency trials. We were unable to identify a statistically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency, thus, pooled efficiency estimates specific to species and trap size/position were used to estimate the number of fish emigrating past the trap. We estimate that 5,259 ({+-} 359; 95% CI) BY2006 Chinook, 16,816 ({+-} 731; 95% CI) BY2007 Chinook, and 47,868 ({+-} 3,780; 95% CI) steelhead parr and smolts emigrated from Nason Creek in 2008.

  16. Growth of salmonid fishes from heated and unheated areas of Lake Michigan: as measured by RNA-DNA ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Smith, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Relative growth rate comparisons were made between tagged thermal plume resident fish and fish collected from two ambient temperature areas (control). Plume fish were tagged, released and subsequently recaptured in the thermal discharge area of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (near Two Rivers, Wisconsin). Total tag days indicated minimum residence time and temperature-sensitive tags gave estimates of time spent at discharge temperatures. Growth rate estimates were based on RNA-DNA ratios in epaxial muscle samples taken from brown and rainbow trout and chinook salmon. Mean RNA-DNA ratios of plume rainbow trout and chinook salmon were not significantly different from mean ratios of combined control groups for each species. The mean ratio of plume brown trout was significantly higher than that of combined control fish. Significant differences between mean ratios of control groups for each species suggest considerable natural variability in growth rates among individuals of a population. (U.S.)

  17. Patterns of variation and covariation in the shapes of mandibular bones of juvenile salmonids in the genus Oncorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sawyer; Couture, Ryan B.; McKibben, Natasha S.; Nichols, James T.; Richardson, Shannon E.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY What is the nature of evolutionary divergence of the jaw skeleton within the genus Oncorhynchus? How can two associated bones evolve new shapes and still maintain functional integration? Here, we introduce and test a ‘concordance’ hypothesis, in which an extraordinary matching of the evolutionary shape changes of the dentary and angular articular serves to preserve their fitting together. To test this hypothesis, we examined morphologies of the dentary and angular articular at parr (juvenile) stage, and at three levels of biological organization – between salmon and trout, between sister species within both salmon and trout, and among three types differing in life histories within one species, O. mykiss. The comparisons show bone shape divergences among the groups at each level; morphological divergence between salmon and trout is marked even at this relatively early life history stage. We observed substantial matching between the two mandibular bones in both pattern and amount of shape variation, and in shape covariation across species. These findings strongly support the concordance hypothesis, and reflect functional and/or developmental constraint on morphological evolution. We present evidence for developmental modularity within both bones. The locations of module boundaries were predicted from the patterns of evolutionary divergences, and for the dentary, at least, would appear to facilitate its functional association with the angular articular. The modularity results suggest that development has biased the course of evolution. PMID:26372063

  18. Fine structure of the female reproductive ducts of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), from salmonid fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04; Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * ultrastructure * female reproductive system Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  19. Salmonids, stream temperatures, and solar loading--modeling the shade provided to the Klamath River by vegetation and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Chickadel, C. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying approaches to characterize the thermal regulation of water and the dynamics of cold water refugia. High temperatures have physiological impacts on anadromous fish species. Factors affecting the presence, variability, and quality of thermal refugia are known, such as riverine and watershed processes, hyporheic flows, deep pools and bathymetric factors, thermal stratification of reservoirs, and other broader climatic considerations. This research develops a conceptual model and methodological techniques to quantify the change in solar insolation load to the Klamath River caused by riparian and floodplain vegetation, the morphology of the river, and the orientation and topographic characteristics of its watersheds. Using multiple scales of input data from digital elevation models and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derivatives, different analysis methods yielded three different model results. These models are correlated with thermal infrared imagery for ground-truth information at the focal confluence with the Scott River. Results from nonparametric correlation tests, geostatistical cross-covariograms, and cross-correlograms indicate that statistical relationships between the insolation models and the thermal infrared imagery exist and are significant. Furthermore, the use of geostatistics provides insights to the spatial structure of the relationships that would not be apparent otherwise. To incorporate a more complete representation of the temperature dynamics in the river system, other variables including the factors mentioned above, and their influence on solar loading, are discussed. With similar datasets, these methods could be applied to any river in the United States—especially those listed as temperature impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act—or international riverine systems. Considering the importance of thermal refugia for aquatic species, these methods can help investigate opportunities for riparian restoration, identify problematic reaches unlikely to provide good habitat, and simulate changes to solar loading estimates from alternative landscape configurations.

  20. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume 1; Oregon Subbasins Below Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CIS project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project plan will provide that perspective.

  1. In vitro infection of salmonid epidermal tissues by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of two rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), to infect fish skin was investigated by in vitro infection of excised tissues. Virus replication was determined by plaque assay of homogenized tissue extracts, and the virus antigen was detected by immunohistology of tissue sections. Gill, fin, and ventral abdominal skin tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that had been infected in vitro with a virulent strain of IHNV (193–110) produced substantial increases in virus titer within 24 h. Titers continued to increase up until day 3 of incubation; by this time, virus had increased 1,000-fold or more. This increase in IHNV titer occurred in epidermal tissues of fingerlings and of older fish. In another experiment, IHNV replicated in excised rainbow trout tissues whether the fish had been subject to prior infection with a virulent strain of IHNV (Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium isolate) or whether the fish had been infected previously with an attenuated strain of the virus (Nan Scott Lake, with 100 passes in culture). A virulent strain of VHSV (23/75) replicated effectively in excised gill tissues and epidermal tissues of rainbow trout and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha; however, the avirulent North American strain of VHSV (Makah) replicated poorly or not at all.

  2. Distinct hormonal regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase genes in the salmonid gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    the a1a (freshwater (FW) isoform) and the a1b  seawater (SW) isoform) by cortisol, Gh, prolactin (Prl) and Igf 1. Injection with cortisol into FW salmon increased a1a expression, while Gh had no effect. Conversely, both cortisol and Gh stimulated a1b expression, and a significant synergy was observed....... igf1 expression was increased by Gh in both gill and liver, and inhibited by cortisol in the liver. Gill Igf1 and Gh receptor expression increased in response to cortisol. Injection with Prl into SW salmon compromised their hypo-osmoregulatory performance, selectively reduced the expression of the a1b...... isoform and decreased enzymatic NaC,KC-atpase activity in the gill. Cortisol and Prl reduced gill and liver igf1 expression, and both hormones stimulated gill Igf1 receptor expression. In a short-term experiment with incubation of FW gill cell suspensions, cortisol stimulated a1a and a1b expression, while...

  3. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SALMONIDS FROM WESTERN U.S. NATIONAL PARKS AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH AGE AND MACROPHAGE AGGREGATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in aquatic foodwebs and its effects on aquatic biota are of growing concern both for the health of the fish and the piscivores that prey upon them. This is of particular concern for western U.S. National Parks because it is known that mountainous and Arctic a...

  4. Piscirickettsia salmonis Imbalances the Innate Immune Response to Succeed in a Productive Infection in a Salmonid Cell Line Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Álvarez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease called "salmon rickettsial syndrome". Attempts to control this disease have been unsuccessful, because existing vaccines have not achieved the expected effectiveness and the antibiotics used fail to completely eradicate the pathogen. This is in part the product of lack of scientific information that still lacks on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to overcome infected-cell responses and survive to induce a productive infection in macrophages. For that, this work was focused in determining if P. salmonis is able to modify the expression and the imbalance of IL-12 and IL-10 using an in vitro model. Additionally, we also evaluated the role the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin had in the control of this pathogen in infected cells. Therefore, the expression of IL-10 and IL-12 was evaluated at earlier stages of infection in the RTS11 cell line derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss macrophages. Simultaneously, the hepcidin expression and location was analyzed in the macrophages infected with the pathogen. Our results suggest that IL-10 is clearly induced at early stages of infection with values peaking at 36 hours post infection. Furthermore, infective P. salmonis downregulates the expression of antimicrobial peptide hepcidin and vesicles containing this peptide were unable to merge with the infective bacteria. Our results suggest that P. salmonis is able to manipulate the behavior of host cytokines and likely might constitute a virulence mechanism that promotes intracellular bacterial replication in leukocytes cells lines of trout and salmon. This mechanism involves the generation of an optimum environment for the microorganism and the downregulation of antimicrobial effectors like hepcidin.

  5. Rising from the ashes: Changes in salmonid fish assemblages after 30 months of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Mailén; Macchi, Patricio J; Vigliano, Pablo; Juarez, Santiago; Rechencq, Magalí; Baker, Matthew; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Crowl, Todd

    2016-01-15

    Events such as volcanic eruptions may act as disturbance agents modifying the landscape spatial diversity and increasing environmental instability. On June 4, 2011 the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex located on Chile (2236 m.a.s.l., 40° 02' 24" S- 70° 14' 26" W) experience a rift zone eruption ejecting during the first day 950 million metric tons into the atmosphere. Due to the westerly winds predominance, ash fell differentially upon 24 million ha of Patagonia Argentinean, been thicker deposits accumulated towards the West. In order to analyze changes on stream fish assemblages we studied seven streams 8, 19 and 30 months after the eruption along the ash deposition gradient, and compare those data to pre eruption ones. Habitat features and structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate food base of fish was studied. After the eruption, substantial environmental changes were observed in association with the large amount of ash fallout. In western sites, habitat loss due to ash accumulation, changes in the riparian zone and morphology of the main channels were observed. Turbidity was the water quality variable which reflected the most changes throughout time, with NTU values decreasing sharply from West to East sites. In west sites, increased Chironomid densities were recorded 8 months after the initial eruption as well as low EPT index values. These relationships were reversed in the less affected streams farther away from the volcano. Fish assemblages were greatly influenced both by habitat and macroinvertebrate changes. The eruption brought about an initial sharp decline in fish densities and the almost total loss of young of the year in the most western streams affecting recruitment. This effect diminished rapidly with distance from the emission center. Thirty months after the eruption, environmental changes are still occurring as a consequence of basin wide ash remobilization and transport.

  6. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. The only change in survey methods in 2000 was the shortening (in river miles) of surveys on the North Fork of the Teanaway River and the shifting of start and stop dates for river drifts and hotspot surveys. Primary avian predators in 2000 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (10 April-30 June) was 163,475 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented 6.0% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 2000 smolt migration season. Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 7,654 kg between 10 Apr and 30 Aug, 2000. Seventy-three percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers.

  7. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Jánová, K.; Palíková, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2018), s. 35-45 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1510077 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brook trout * disease resistance * genomic selection * marker assisted selection * molecular breeding * quantitative trait loci * rainbow trout Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2016

  8. Species replacement by a nonnative salmonid alters ecosystem function by reducing prey subsidies that support riparian spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Fausch, K.D.; Baxter, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of a native species by a nonnative can have strong effects on ecosystem function, such as altering nutrient cycling or disturbance frequency. Replacements may cause shifts in ecosystem function because nonnatives establish at different biomass, or because they differ from native species in traits like foraging behavior. However, no studies have compared effects of wholesale replacement of a native by a nonnative species on subsidies that support consumers in adjacent habitats, nor quantified the magnitude of these effects. We examined whether streams invaded by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in two regions of the Rocky Mountains, USA, produced fewer emerging adult aquatic insects compared to paired streams with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii), and whether riparian spiders that depend on these prey were less abundant along streams with lower total insect emergence. As predicted, emergence density was 36% lower from streams with the nonnative fish. Biomass of brook trout was higher than the cutthroat trout they replaced, but even after accounting for this difference, emergence was 24% lower from brook trout streams. More riparian spiders were counted along streams with greater total emergence across the water surface. Based on these results, we predicted that brook trout replacement would result in 6-20% fewer spiders in the two regions. When brook trout replace cutthroat trout, they reduce cross-habitat resource subsidies and alter ecosystem function in stream-riparian food webs, not only owing to increased biomass but also because traits apparently differ from native cutthroat trout. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  10. From Drought to Flood: Biological Responses of Large River Salmonids and Emergent Management Challenges Under California's Extreme Hydroclimatic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    2017-12-01

    California's hydroclimatic regime is characterized by extreme interannual variability including periodic, multi-year droughts and winter flooding sequences. Statewide, water years 2012-2016 were characterized by extreme drought followed by likely one of the wettest years on record in water year 2017. Similar drought-flood patterns have occurred multiple times both in the contemporary empirical record and reconstructed climate records. Both the extreme magnitude and rapid succession of these hydroclimatic periods pose difficult challenges for water managers and regulatory agencies responsible for providing instream flows to protect and recover threatened and endangered fish species. Principal among these riverine fish species are federally listed winter-run and spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Central Valley steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the pelagic species Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). Poor instream conditions from 2012-2016 resulted in extremely low abundance estimates and poor overall fish health, and while fish monitoring results from water year 2017 are too preliminary to draw substantive conclusions, early indicators show continued downward population trends despite the historically wet conditions. This poster evaluates California's hydroclimatic conditions over the past decade and quantifies resultant impacts of the 2012-2016 drought and the extremely wet 2017 water year to both adult escapement and juvenile production estimates in California's major inland salmon rivers over that same time span. We will also examine local, state, and federal regulatory actions both in response to the extreme hydroclimatic variability and in preparation for future drought-flood sequences.

  11. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  12. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  13. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-07-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

  14. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1988-12-01

    Smolt outmigration was monitored at Wapatox on the Naches River and Prosser on the lower Yakima. The spring outmigration at Wapatox was estimated to be smolts. The survival from egg to smolt was calculated using the 1986 redd counts and the 1988 smolt outmigration at Prosser. The smolt to adult survival was calculated based on the 1983 smolt outmigration estimated at Prosser and the 1984 return of jacks (3 year old fish), the 1985 return of four year old adults, and the 1986 return of five year old fish to the Yakima River. 13 refs., 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. Comparison of the yields of downstream migrant salmonids before and after logging and road construction on the South Fork Caspar Creek, Mendocino County

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Graves; James W. Burns

    1970-01-01

    Yields of juvenile steelhead rainbow trout Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii) and silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) emigrants were compared in South Fork Caspar Creek, a small coastal stream in Mendocino County, California, before and after construction of a logging road along the stream in the summer of 1967. Numbers, lengths, and age class structures were compared....

  16. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  17. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration Behavior and Escapement in the Bonneville Reservoir and Lower Columbia River Monitored Using the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    sea lions (Zalophus californicus, Eumetopias jubatus) or white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the tailrace, moved to spawning tributaries...and management of three parasitic lampreys of North America. Fisheries 35:580-594. Close, D. A., M. Fitzpatrick, and H. Li. 2002. The ecological

  18. An expert panel approach to assessing potential effects of bull trout reintroduction on federally listed salmonids in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White

    2012-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...

  19. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  20. Quantifying the effectiveness of conservation measures to control the spread of anthropogenic hybridization in stream salmonids: a climate adaptation case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Boyer, Matthew; Jones, Leslie A.; Steed, Amber; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the effectiveness of management actions to mitigate the effects of changing climatic conditions (i.e., climate adaptation) can be difficult, yet critical for conservation. We used population genetic data from 1984 to 2011 to assess the degree to which ambient climatic conditions and targeted suppression of sources of nonnative Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have influenced the spread of introgressive hybridization in native populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii lewisi. We found rapid expansion in the spatial distribution and proportion of nonnative genetic admixture in hybridized populations from 1984 to 2004, but minimal change since 2004. The spread of hybridization was negatively correlated with the number of streamflow events in May that exceeded the 75th percentile of historic flows (r = −0.98) and positively correlated with August stream temperatures (r = 0.89). Concomitantly, suppression data showed a 60% decline in catch per unit effort for fish with a high proportion of Rainbow Trout admixture, rendering some uncertainty as to the relative strength of factors controlling the spread of hybridization. Our results illustrate the importance of initiating management actions to mitigate the potential effects of climate change, even where data describing the effectiveness of such actions are initially limited but the risks are severe.

  1. Studies on the levels of Cs-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident in salmonid fish, its prey organisms and environment, in some alpine lakes of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, J.; Neumann, G.; Notter, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fallout from the Chernobyl accident resulted in heavy surface contamination in areas of middle and northern Sweden. One of the most heavily affected regions was an approx. 5000 km 2 alpine district at the border to Norway. Shortly after the accident, the levels of Cs-137 and other radionuclides began to rise in two dominating fish species of the region, the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L. In July 1986 a research program started with the ultimate goal of understanding the mechanisms of transport for radionuclides through the food chain to fish, and, if possible, to give a forecast of the future development of the Cs-137 contamination. It comprises measurements of mainly Cs-137, Cs-134 and K-40 in 8 lakes within the area. The measurements have been performed at five occasions during the period July 1986 until October 1987. The preliminary results concerning Cs-137 show: - A large increase in levels of bottom sediments. A decrease in levels of water. A strong decrease in levels of phytoplankton, zooplankton, Gammarus and Mysis during autumn 1986, and a stabilization during 1987. In same lakes, however, another increase was recorded during 1987. That Mysis originally has the highest levels of all food items. That the levels of brown trout and Arctic char increased steadily during 1986 and showed a tendency of stabilization or slight decrease during 1987. That brown trout generally show higher levels than Arctic char and reaches its highest levels in lakes with introduced Mysis

  2. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  3. PTAGIS - Development of Large PIT-Tag Antennas to Estimate Migration Timing and Survival for Adult Salmonids near Pile Dikes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We continued research and development of a passive PIT-tag detection system along a pile dike in the estuary (rkm 70). Target fish for this system are returning...

  4. Identifying Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitats to Guide River Restoration for Existing Schemes and Mitigate Adverse Effects of Future Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, B.; Geris, J.; Malcolm, I.; Wilkinson, M.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    A decrease in longitudinal connectivity in riverine ecosystems resulting from the construction of transverse barriers has been identified as a major threat to biodiversity. For example, Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) have a seasonal variety of hydraulic habitat requirements for their different life stages. However, hydropower impoundments impact the spatial and temporal connectivity of natural habitat along many salmon rivers in ways that are not fully understood. Yet, these changes may affect the sustainability of habitat at local and regional scales and so ultimately the conservation of the species. Research is therefore needed both to aid the restoration and management of rivers impacted by previous hydropower development and guide new schemes to mitigate potentially adverse effects. To this end we assessed the effects of hydropower development on the flow related habitat conditions for different salmon life stages in Scottish rivers at different spatial scales. We used GIS techniques to map the changes in structural connectivity at regional scales, applying a weighting for habitat quality. Next, we used hydrological models to simulate past and present hydrologic conditions that in turn drive reach-scale hydraulic models to assess the impacts of regulation on habitat suitability in both space and time. Preliminary results indicate that: 1) impacts on connectivity depend on the location of the barrier within the river network; 2) multiple smaller barriers may have a potentially lower impact than a single larger barrier; 3) there is a relationship between habitat and connectivity where losing less but more suitable habitat potentially has a disproportionally large impact; 4) the impact of flow regulation can lead to a deterioration of habitat quality, though the effects are spatially variable and the extent of the impact depends on salmon life stage. This work can form a basis for using natural processes to perform targeted and cost-effective restoration of rivers.

  5. Stomach contents of Salmonids caught in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean from from 10 May 1958 to 24 August 1958 (NODC Accession 7200236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present report is an extension of earlier data reports embodying data related to high sea salmon fishing by Canadian exploratory fishing vessels. The catches...

  6. Managing Environmental Flows for Impounded Rivers in Semi-Arid Regions- A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Approach for the Assessment of River Habitat for Salmonid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Flanagan, J.; Guo, Q.; Harmon, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Balancing ecosystem health in water-scarce, agriculturally dominated river basins remains a challenge. In dry water years, maintaining conditions for restored and sustained indigenous fish populations (a frequently used indicator for ecosystem health) is particularly challenging. Competing human demands include urban and agricultural water supplies, hydropower, and flood control. In many semi-arid regions, increasing drought intensity and frequency under future climate scenarios will combine with population increases to water scarcity. The goal of this work is to better understand how reservoir releases affect fish habitat and overall river aquatic ecosystem quality. Models integrating a diverse array of physical and biological processes and system state are used to forecast the river ecosystem response to changing drivers. We propose a distributed parameter-based Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) approach for assessing fish habitat quality. Our river ecosystem HSI maps are based on a combination of the following: (1) In situ data describing stream flow and water quality conditions; (2) Spatial observations, including surveyed cross-sections, aerial imagery and digital elevation maps (DEM) of the river and its riparian corridor; and (3) Simulated spatially distributed water depths, flow velocities, and temperatures estimated from 1D and 2D river flow and temperature models (HEC-RAS and CE-QUAL-W2, respectively). With respect to (2), image processing schemes are used to classify and map key habitat features, namely riparian edge and shallow underwater vegetation. HSI maps can be modified temporally to address specific life cycle requirements of indicator fish species. Results are presented for several reaches associated with the San Joaquin River Restoration Project, focusing on several components of the Chinook salmon life cycle. HSI maps and interpretations are presented in the context of a range of prescribed reservoir release hydrographs linked to California water year descriptors (wet, dry, critical low, etc.). Implications are discussed with respect to effective reservoir operation (requisite flow releases and temperature) and restorative actions (e.g., riparian vegetation) in the context of habitat suitability.

  7. Earning their stripes: The potential of tiger trout and other salmonids as biological controls of forage fishes in a western reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra; Thiede, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining a balance between predator and prey populations can be an ongoing challenge for fisheries managers, especially in managing artificial ecosystems such as reservoirs. In a high-elevation Utah reservoir, the unintentional introduction of the Utah Chub Gila atraria and its subsequent population expansion prompted managers to experimentally shift from exclusively stocking Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to also stocking tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah (hereafter, Cutthroat Trout) as potential biological control agents. We measured a combination of diet, growth, temperature, and abundance and used bioenergetic simulations to quantify predator demand versus prey supply. Utah Chub were the predominant prey type for tiger trout, contributing up to 80% of the diet depending on the season. Utah Chub represented up to 70% of the total diet consumed by Cutthroat Trout. Although Utah Chub dominated the fish biomass in the reservoir, we still estimated abundances of 238,000 tiger trout, 214,000 Cutthroat Trout, and 55,000 Rainbow Trout. Consequently, when expanded to the population level of each predator, tiger trout and Cutthroat Trout consumed large quantities of Utah Chub on an annual basis: tiger trout consumed 508,000 kg (2,660 g/predator) of the standing prey population, and Cutthroat Trout consumed an estimated 322,000 kg (1,820 g/predator). The estimated combined consumption by Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout exceeded the estimate of Utah Chub annual production. As such, our results suggest that the high rates of piscivory exhibited by Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout in artificial lentic ecosystems are likely sufficient to effectively reduce the overall abundance of forage fishes and to prevent forage fishes from dominating fish assemblages. Collectively, this research provides the first documented findings on tiger trout ecology and performance, which will aid managers in designing and implementing the best stocking strategy to optimize sport fish performance, control undesirable forage fish, and enhance and maintain angler satisfaction.

  8. Virulence of a chimeric recombinant infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus expressing the spring viraemia of carp virus glycoprotein in salmonid and cyprinid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Mérour, Emilie; Glenn, Jolene. A; Palmer, Alexander D.; Brémont, Michel; Kurath, Gael

    2018-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) are both rhabdoviruses of fish, listed as notifiable disease agents by the World Organization for Animal Health. Recombinant rhabdoviruses with heterologous gene substitutions have been engineered to study genetic determinants and assess the potential of these recombinant viruses for vaccine development. A recombinant IHNV (rIHNV), containing the full-length genome of a European IHNV strain, was modified by deleting the glycoprotein (G) gene and replacing it with a European SVCV G-gene to make the rIHNV-Gsvcv. The chimeric rIHNV-Gsvcv level of virulence in rainbow trout, common carp and koi was assessed, and its ability to induce a protective immune response in surviving koi against wild-type SVCV infection was tested. The rIHNV-Gsvcv infection of trout led to high mortality, ranging from 78% to 92.5%, after immersion. In contrast, no deaths occurred in juvenile common carp after infection with rIHNV-Gsvcv by either immersion or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Similarly, koi infected with rIHNV-Gsvcv via IP injection had little to no mortality (≤9%). Koi that survived initial infection with a high dose of recombinant virus rIHNV-Gsvcv were protected against a virulent SVCV challenge resulting in a high relative per cent survival of 82.5%.

  9. Novel antimicrobial activity of a dichloromethane extract obtained from red seaweed Ceramium rubrum (Hudson (Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae against Yersinia ruckeri and Saprolegnia parasitica, agents that cause diseases in salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurima Cortés

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: These results may constitute a basis for promising future applied research that could investigate the use of C. rubrum seaweed as a source of antimicrobial compounds against fish pathogens.

  10. Pumpkin seed cake as a fishmeal substitute in fish nutrition: effects on growth performance, morphological traits and fillet colour of two freshwater salmonids and two catfish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiling, Alexander Michael; Schwarz, Christiane; Gierus, Martin; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2018-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the digestibility of pumpkin seed cake (PSC) for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), and effects on performance and product quality traits of four different fish species when PSC partially replaced fishmeal in extruded diets. A digestibility trial was carried out to determine apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) of PSC fed to rainbow trout. In subsequent growth trials, effects on performance and morphological traits and fillet colour values of four different fish species [rainbow trout; brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814); African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822); and wels catfish, Silurus glanis (Linnaeus, 1758)] were evaluated when 60% of fishmeal protein of a reference diet was replaced by PSC protein (based on digestible CP). Nutrient ADC of PSC were high (CP: 89%, EE: 88% and GE: 84%). No significant effects on growth and only minor effects on fillet colour were detected in the trials. However, replacing fishmeal with PSC at the chosen level affected morphological traits and feed conversion in all four species to different extents. Replacement effects of PSC should be tested at lower levels of inclusion before conclusions are drawn on its suitability in fish diets.

  11. Effective number of breeders provides a link between interannual variation in stream flow and individual reproductive contribution in a stream salmonid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Andrew R; Coombs, Jason A; Cembrola, Matthew; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H; Letcher, Benjamin H

    2015-07-01

    The effective number of breeders that give rise to a cohort (N(b)) is a promising metric for genetic monitoring of species with overlapping generations; however, more work is needed to understand factors that contribute to variation in this measure in natural populations. We tested hypotheses related to interannual variation in N(b) in two long-term studies of brook trout populations. We found no supporting evidence for our initial hypothesis that N^(b) reflects N^(c) (defined as the number of adults in a population at the time of reproduction). N^(b) was stable relative to N^(C) and did not follow trends in abundance (one stream negative, the other positive). We used stream flow estimates to test the alternative hypothesis that environmental factors constrain N(b). We observed an intermediate optimum autumn stream flow for both N^(b) (R(2) = 0.73, P = 0.02) and full-sibling family evenness (R(2) = 0.77, P = 0.01) in one population and a negative correlation between autumn stream flow and full-sib family evenness in the other population (r = -0.95, P = 0.02). Evidence for greater reproductive skew at the lowest and highest autumn flow was consistent with suboptimal conditions at flow extremes. A series of additional tests provided no supporting evidence for a related hypothesis that density-dependent reproductive success was responsible for the lack of relationship between N(b) and N(C) (so-called genetic compensation). This work provides evidence that N(b) is a useful metric of population-specific individual reproductive contribution for genetic monitoring across populations and the link we provide between stream flow and N(b) could be used to help predict population resilience to environmental change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has been removed and anadromous fish have an opportunity to recolonize Buck Creek.

  13. Seasonal changes in habitat availability and the distribution and abundance of salmonids along a stream gradient from headwaters to mouth in coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Jack D. Sleeper; Dirk W. Lang

    2011-01-01

    Visual estimation techniques were used to quantify seasonal habitat characteristics, habitat use, and longitudinal distribution of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii and coho salmon O. kisutch in a coastal Oregon basin. At the channel unit scale, fish...

  14. Emploi de la fluméquine contre la furonculose des salmonidés : essais thérapeutiques et perspectives pratiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHEL C.

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of the fluméquine, a synthetic derivative of the « quinolones » family, has been recently recognized and has resulted in its common use in human and veterinary medicine. The availability of an artificial model of trout furunculosis allowed to test its curative properties in Aeromonas saimonicida infection. For this purpose, we have used 2 species of trout (Salmo gairdneri and S. trutta, and 2 pathogenic strains of which LD 50 ranged initially from 400 to 800 bacteria/fish, intramuscularly (IM. Fish, divided in 3 groups, received respectively 20 g, 40 g an 80 g of Flumix (fluméquine powder with 3 % of active component per 100 kg of b.w./day during 6 days, representing 1, 2 and 4 times the mammalian dose. The drug was stuck on dry pellets supplied twice a day as 1 % of b.w. Fingerlings were arranged in 30 subjects groups maintained in 15°C flow-through tanks, and experimentally infected by IM injection of about 1 or 10 LD 50. A preliminary administration of 200g/100kg of fish of Flumix was done on a sample during a fortnight and did not result in any observation of acute toxicity. A conspicuous protective effect of the drug was noticed in all cases the treatment was carried on at the same day as the infection. Differences between mortality percentages in controls and treated fish were about 60 p. 100, whatever the trout species ant the bacterial strain. Variations were of trifling importance according to the therapeutic doses, and when testing fish with high doses of pathogen ([MATH] 10 LD 50 the effect seemed better, resulting of the higher mortality of controls. In some cases, the treatment was started 20 hours after inoculation of Aeromonas. Except in one case, the protection was then very lowered, and this has been ascribed to the loss of appetite of diseased subjects In conclusion, the efficacy of fluméquine treatments in control of furunculosis is stated and some practical indications are given. The dose of 40g/100 kg of fish of fluméquine powder (40 g/kg of food when feeding at 1 % is recommended for fish, diet being distributed in 2 meals, and the rules of every other antimicrobial treatments being respected.

  15. Growth and survival of sea lampreys from metamorphosis to spawning in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, William D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Larval Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus live burrowed in stream bottoms and then metamorphose into their parasitic stage. Among larvae that metamorphose in a given year (i.e., parasitic cohort), autumn out-migrants (October–December) to the Laurentian Great Lakes can feed on fish for up to 6 months longer than spring outmigrants (March–May), which overwinter in streams without feeding. We evaluated whether the season of outmigration affected growth or survival of newlymetamorphosed Sea Lampreys in LakeHuron. Newlymetamorphosed individuals (n=2,718) from three parasitic cohorts were netted during their out-migration from BlackMallard Creek, Michigan, to LakeHuron during autumn 1997 through spring 2000; each out-migrant was injected with a sequentially numbered coded wire tag and was released back into the creek. After up to 18 months of feeding in the Great Lakes, 224 (8.2%) Sea Lampreys were recaptured (in 1999–2001) as upstream-migrating adults in tributaries to Lakes Huron and Michigan. Recovery rates of autumn and spring out-migrants as adults were 9.4% and 7.8%, respectively, and these rates did not significantly differ. Overwinter feeding (i.e., as parasites) by autumn out-migrants did not produce adult mean sizes greater than those of spring out-migrants. Because we detected no growth or survival differences between autumn and spring out-migrants, the capture of newly metamorphosed Sea Lampreys at any point during their out-migration should provide equal reductions in damage to Great Lakes fisheries. The absence of a difference in growth or survival between autumn and spring out-migrants is an aspect of Sea Lamprey life history that yields resiliency to this invasive parasite and complicates efforts for its control in the Great Lakes.

  16. Glimpses of women’s lives in rural Bihar: impact of male migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Datta (Amrita)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBihar has a rich history of out-migration from the state which goes back to as early as the 19th Century. However, in the last few decades, migration for work has increased manifold. The sheer scale of out-migration in contemporary Bihar is astounding. At any given point of time, as many

  17. The other side of migration in rural Nepal: sociocultural transformation and the women left behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartaula, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male labour out-migration and the process of sociocultural transformation in the places of origin. Taking an example from Nepal, it shows that male labour out-migration has increased women’s partici­pation in agriculture, more significantly so in

  18. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  19. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  20. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam, 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2010-07-31

    percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Run timing peaked in early December, but fish continued to pass the dam until the end of the study. Horizontal distribution data indicated that Sluice 1 is the preferred route for these fish during fallback through the dam. Diel distribution for steelhead was variable with no apparent distinct patterns. For Period 2, adult steelhead passage occurred on January 14 and 31 and February 2, 22, and 24. A total of 62 {+-} 40 (95% CI) steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes during December 16, 2009 to March 7, 2010. Horizontal distribution data indicated turbine unit 18 passed the majority of fish. Fish passage occurred during morning periods. Passage did not occur during afternoon or nighttime. For Period 3, the early spring study period, overwintering summer steelhead and early out-migrating steelhead kelt downstream passage occurred throughout the 34-day study period. A total of 1,985 {+-} 234 (95% CI) kelt-size targets were estimated to have passed through the powerhouse sluiceway. Ninety-nine percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Run timing peaked in late March and again in early April. Horizontal distribution indicated that Sluice 1 is the preferred route for these adult salmonids as they migrate downstream through the dam. Diel distribution for steelhead was variable with no apparent distinct patterns. The results of this study strongly suggest that operating the TDA sluiceway for steelhead passage (fallbacks and kelts) during the late fall, winter, and early spring months will provide an optimal, non-turbine route for these fishes to pass the dam.

  2. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  3. Climate refugia for salmon in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest t...

  4. The potential migration effect of rural hospital closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    to out-migration, although the hypothetical way of questioning leaves uncertainty about the actual scale of out-migration. Child families appear to be the most likely out-migrants. Elderly people may be hardest hit by a hospital closure, being most reliant on health care and least inclined to move away.......Rural hospital closures are high on the current health care agenda in Denmark. One raised concern is that rural hospital closures may further decrease population numbers in rural areas, as closures may induce some residents to move away from affected areas, i.e. closer to health care services...

  5. 77 FR 67794 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... after the Federal cleanup of the Monte Cristo Mining Area (mined from 1889 to 1907) for the Washington... purpose of the study is to count listed fish during their peak outmigrations and thereby determine how...

  6. 1 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(1): 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... Downstream communities have been neglected in dam construction planning process in Nigeria.. A survey ... Fanga, Bele, Bere, Gaba and Baru communities, using structured ... increased levels of out-migration of fishermen).

  7. Agricultural productivity, household poverty and migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Hajra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deltas are highly sensitive to erosion, flooding, and salinization with consequential agricultural productivity losses and out-migration, which is a preferred adaptive measure for the inhabitants of deltaic islands. This study investigates the associations between agricultural productivity decrease, household poverty and the probability of out-migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD. Using newly collected survey data from randomly selected households within the ISD, we analysed these relationships by means of descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results suggest the significant positive association between a decrease in agricultural productivity and out-migration. The results further show that ceteris paribus, out-migration is negatively associated with household poverty, which is likely to be explained by the effect of remittances. The results yield important policy implications at the local level and can contribute to the progress towards sustainable livelihoods in these deltaic islands.

  8. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimmer, Arnold F.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1998-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O.mykiss smolts during the 1996 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River

  9. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-02-12

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam.

  10. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  11. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Brown, Richard S.; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholds, Jon F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation dep...

  12. Salmonids fish census, fish size, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen data collected from Lawrence Creek, Van Duzen River watershed, California from 2015-12-14 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0148459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile coho salmon seek slow velocity areas as rivers rise during storm events. Studies have shown significant increase in juvenile coho salmon growth and survival...

  13. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i.e., early spring transition occurred, p < 0.05), (2) improved survival during strong downwelling conditions (Bakun units < -250). Survival decreased during weak downwelling conditions (Bakun units between -180 and -100). Strong to moderately strong correlations between January upwelling and April SST (r = 0.5), June SST (r = 0.6), and the North Pacific Index (NPI) of Aleutian Low strength (r > 0.7) suggest January is a period when important effects originate and play out over ensuing months. Significant inverse trend with survival (p < 0.05) was found for Bakun indices in December, indicating strong downwelling improved survival. Higher-than-average adult return rates were observed for cohorts from brood-years 1982-1983, strong El Nino years. Individual hatcheries were found to have unique age-class strength and age-at-return characteristics.

  14. POPs and stable isotopes in bird and forage fish tissues - Persistent organic pollutant levels in juvenile salmonids, forage fish and their avian predators from Puget Sound and the outer WA coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is examining contaminant loads of fish prey species of a resident marine bird (Rhinoceros Auklet) breeding in inland waters (Puget Sound) and in the...

  15. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowther, A.B.; Skalski, J.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

  16. Increased Levels of Harvest and Habitat Law Enforcement and Public Awareness for Anadromous Salmonids and Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin -- Demonstration Period, 1992--1994, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NeSmith, Frank (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Long, Mack (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Paks, Kalispell, MT); Matthews, Dayne (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin.

  17. Increased levels of harvest and habitat law enforcement and public awareness for anadromous salmonids and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin - Demonstration period, 1992-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin

  18. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The

  19. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  20. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  2. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  3. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  4. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR)

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the

  5. The Chief Joseph Hatchery Program 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Casey; Pearl, Andrea; Laramie, Matthew; Rohrback, John; Phillips, Pat; Wolf, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The Chief Joseph Hatchery is the fourth hatchery obligated under the Grand Coulee Dam/Dry Falls project, originating in the 1940s. Leavenworth, Entiat, and Winthrop National Fish Hatcheries were built and operated as mitigation for salmon blockage at Grand Coulee Dam, but the fourth hatchery was not built, and the obligation was nearly forgotten. After the Colville Tribes successfully collaborated with the United States to resurrect the project, planning of the hatchery began in 2001 and construction was completed in 2013. The monitoring program began in 2012 and adult Chinook Salmon were brought on station for the first time in June 2013. BPA is the primary funding source for CJH, and the Mid-Columbia PUDs (Douglas, Grant and Chelan County) have entered into cost-share agreements with the tribes and BPA in order to meet some of their mitigation obligations. The CJH production level was set at 60% in 2013 in order to train staff and test hatchery facility systems during the first year of operation. Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery (LNFH) provided 422 Spring Chinook broodstock in June, 2013; representing the official beginning of CJH operations. In July and August the CCT used a purse seine vessel to collect 814 summer/fall Chinook as broodstock that were a continuation and expansion of the previous Similkameen Pond program. In-hatchery survival for most life stages exceeded survival targets and, as of April 2014, the program was on track to exceed the 60% production target for its start-up year. The CJH monitoring project collected field data to determine Chinook population status, trend, and hatchery effectiveness centered on five major activities; 1) rotary screw traps (juvenile outmigration, natural-origin smolt PIT tagging) 2) beach seine (naturalorigin smolt PIT tagging) 3) lower Okanogan adult fish pilot weir (adult escapement, proportion of hatchery-origin spawners [pHOS], broodstock) 4) spawning ground surveys (redd and carcass surveys)(viable salmonid

  6. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  7. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  8. 77 FR 33717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... applied for in good faith; (2) if granted and exercised, would not operate to the disadvantage of the... public comment. Project 1 is a study on the summer ecology of juvenile salmonids in streams of the... is a study on the ecology of juvenile salmonids in Tomales Bay, Pescadero Lagoon, and the Eel River...

  9. 75 FR 76400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... issues permits based on findings that such permits: (1) Are applied for in good faith; (2) if granted and... the summer ecology of juvenile salmonids in streams of the Lagunitas Creek (Marin County) and... study on the ecology of juvenile salmonids in Tomales Bay, and Pescadero Lagoon and their overall...

  10. An assessment of the spatial scale of local adaptation in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): footprints of selection at microsatellite DNA loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Local adaptation is considered a paradigm in studies of salmonid fish populations. Yet, little is known about the geographical scale of local adaptation. Is adaptive divergence primarily evident at the scale of regions or individual populations? Also, many salmonid populations are subject to spaw...

  11. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... pigment as a color additive in the feed of salmonid fish to enhance the color of their flesh. DATES: The... for the safe use of paracoccus pigment as a color additive in the feed of salmonid fish to enhance the... of Food and Drugs, and redelegated to the Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, notice is given...

  12. Stress and disease resilience differences related to emergence time for first feeding in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Madsen, Lone; Andersen, Nikolaj Reducha

    2018-01-01

    Salmonid individuals show a relatively high variability in the time required to abandon the gravel nest where they hatch, the so-called "emergence time". Different behavioral and physiological traits have been shown to be associated to that emergence time in wild salmonids. In general, early- and...

  13. 77 FR 41167 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are consistent with the... research to be conducted in Lagunitas Creek in Marin County, CA. The primary objectives to which ESA-listed salmonids may be taken are to provide baseline data on salmonid presence, habitat use, and abundance in...

  14. Conservation and Management for Fish-eating Birds and Endangered Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. D. Roby; K. Collis; D. E. Lyons

    2005-01-01

    A conflict involving piscivorous birds and salmonids in the Pacific Northwest pits the conservation of protected migratory waterbirds against the restoration of Columbia Basin salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The Columbia River Avian Predation Project is a cooperative, collaborative research project...

  15. 75 FR 33634 - Klamath Hydroelectric Settlement Agreement, Including Secretarial Determination on Whether to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... satisfied, and whether, in his judgment, Facilities Removal (i) will advance restoration of the salmonid... whether removal of four dams owned by PacifiCorp: (1) Will advance the restoration of the salmonid...-flowing condition and allow full volitional passage of fish is in the public interest, will advance...

  16. Evaluation of a stream channel-type system for southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Bryant; P.E. Porter; S.J. Paustian

    1991-01-01

    Nine channel types within a hierarchical channel-type classification system (CTCS) were surveyed to determine relations between salmonid densities and species distribution, and channel type. Two other habitat classification systems and the amount of large woody debris also were compared to species distribution and salmonid densities, and to stream channel types....

  17. ADULT COHO SALMON AND STEELHEAD USE OF BOULDER WEIRS IN SOUTHWEST OREGON STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The placement of log and boulder structures in streams is a common and often effective technique for improving juvenile salmonid rearing habitat and increasing fish densities. Less frequently examined has been the use of these structures by adult salmonids. In 2004, spawner densi...

  18. Geographical Network Analysis and Spatial Econometrics as Tools to Enhance Our Understanding of Student Migration Patterns and Benefits in the U.S. Higher Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the extent to which student outmigration outside the 4-year sector takes place and posits that the benefits from attracting non-resident students exist regardless of sector of enrollment. The study also provides empirical evidence about the relevance of employing geographical network analysis (GNA) and spatial econometrics in…

  19. A Profile of Agricultural Education Teachers with Exemplary Rural Agricultural Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinert, Seth B.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2017-01-01

    Rural entrepreneurship education programs may be a great tool for enhancing rural livelihoods and r