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Sample records for salmonella typhi co-infection

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella typhi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing patterns of Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi isolates. Fifteen isolates of each microorganism were collected from three hospitals located in Dar es Salaam region within a 3-month period in the year 2005. Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi ...

  2. Quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    over Asia and Africa) emerged from Southeast Asia and then spread to other regions of the world [13]. Travellers also played a significant role in spreading the resistant. Salmonella Typhi, especially to the developed world [16,. 17]. The quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhi is not only prevalent in hospital settings but also in ...

  3. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

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    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  4. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  5. Quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The human restricted bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhi is the major cause of typhoid fever (or enteric fever), a characteristic severe systemic illness [1]. In 2010, typhoid fever accounted for an estimated global burden of. 27 million new cases and 200,000 deaths [2]. For over two decades, S. enterica ...

  6. Ludwig's angina by Salmonella Typhi: a clinical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R K; Sharma, S; Madan, P; Sharma, N

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  7. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

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    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  8. Behaviour of temperate phage Mu in Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M; Gama, M J; Richelle, J; Martuscelli, J

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a convenient system for genetic analysis of Salmonella typhi exploiting the properties of the mutator phage Mu. In spite of the fact that wild-type Salmonella typhi strains do not allow Mu to form plaques on them, we have shown that these strains are actually sensitive to the phage. It proved possible to use Mu to induce mutations and to promote intra- and interspecific genetic transfer, without having to introduce the phage into the bacteria by means other than infection. Furthermore, we isolated Salmonella typhi derivatives on which Mu formed plaques, and studied the behaviour of Mu in these and wild-type strains.

  9. Effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  10. A Rare Case of Salmonella typhi Meningitis in an Eleven Month Old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are infrequent causes of childhood meningitis. Most reports of Salmonella typhi meningeal infections are confined to neonates. A rare instance of S. typhi in an otherwise healthy eleven month old infant is being reported. Keywords: Salmonella typhi, meningitis, infant.

  11. Variable carbon catabolism among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

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    Lay Ching Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is strictly a human intracellular pathogen. It causes acute systemic (typhoid fever and chronic infections that result in long-term asymptomatic human carriage. S. Typhi displays diverse disease manifestations in human infection and exhibits high clonality. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of S. Typhi in its human host during acute and chronic infections remain largely unknown and are therefore the main objective of this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain insight into the intracellular lifestyle of S. Typhi, a high-throughput phenotypic microarray was employed to characterise the catabolic capacity of 190 carbon sources in S. Typhi strains. The success of this study lies in the carefully selected library of S. Typhi strains, including strains from two geographically distinct areas of typhoid endemicity, an asymptomatic human carrier, clinical stools and blood samples and sewage-contaminated rivers. An extremely low carbon catabolic capacity (27% of 190 carbon substrates was observed among the strains. The carbon catabolic profiles appeared to suggest that S. Typhi strains survived well on carbon subtrates that are found abundantly in the human body but not in others. The strains could not utilise plant-associated carbon substrates. In addition, α-glycerolphosphate, glycerol, L-serine, pyruvate and lactate served as better carbon sources to monosaccharides in the S. Typhi strains tested. CONCLUSION: The carbon catabolic profiles suggest that S. Typhi could survive and persist well in the nutrient depleted metabolic niches in the human host but not in the environment outside of the host. These findings serve as caveats for future studies to understand how carbon catabolism relates to the pathogenesis and transmission of this pathogen.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the pathogenesis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid, is host restricted to humans. S. Typhi has a monophyletic population structure, indicating that typhoid in humans is a relatively new disease. Antimicrobial usage is reshaping the current S. Typhi global population and may be driving the emergence of a specific haplotype, H58, that is well adapted to transmission in modern settings and is able to resist antimicrobial killing more efficiently than other S. Typhi. Evidence gathered through genomics and functional studies using the mouse and in vitro cell systems, together with clinical investigations, has provided insight into the mechanisms that underpin the pathogenesis of human typhoid and host restriction. Here we review the latest scientific advances in typhoid research and discuss how these novel approaches are changing our understanding of the disease.

  13. Gangrene of the limb complicating Salmonella typhi Septicaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the metatarsophalangeal joints two months after admission. This report is to alert clinicians about this rare complication of a common curable disease with a view to anticipating the possibility of it occurring as well as considering appropriate preventive measures. Keywords: Gangrene, foot, Salmonella typhi, septicaemia ...

  14. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Introduction. Despite the introduction of several serological tests,[1-7] Widal test is commonly applied for diagnosis of typhoid fever. As the typhi antigen is shared by a large number of organisms from the Salmonella genus and other related organisms,[1,2,8] a positive. Widal test is therefore likely ...

  15. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anaerobic conditions are frequently encountered by pathogens invading the gastrointestinal tract due to low/limiting oxygen conditions prevalent in the small intestine. This anaerobic stress has been suggested to enhance the virulence of gut pathogens. In the present stud...... dismutase (SOD) and catalase. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure of S. Typhi to anaerobic conditions enhances its virulence....

  16. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

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    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  17. Salmonella paratyphi C: genetic divergence from Salmonella choleraesuis and pathogenic convergence with Salmonella typhi.

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    Wei-Qiao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes or acquired similar pathogenic traits independently (by convergent processes. Comparison of different typhoid agents with non-typhoidal Salmonella lineages will provide excellent models for studies on how similar pathogens might have evolved. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced a strain of S. paratyphi C, RKS4594, and compared it with previously sequenced Salmonella strains. RKS4594 contains a chromosome of 4,833,080 bp and a plasmid of 55,414 bp. We predicted 4,640 intact coding sequences (4,578 in the chromosome and 62 in the plasmid and 152 pseudogenes (149 in the chromosome and 3 in the plasmid. RKS4594 shares as many as 4346 of the 4,640 genes with a strain of S. choleraesuis, which is primarily a swine pathogen, but only 4008 genes with another human-adapted typhoid agent, S. typhi. Comparison of 3691 genes shared by all six sequenced Salmonella strains placed S. paratyphi C and S. choleraesuis together at one end, and S. typhi at the opposite end, of the phylogenetic tree, demonstrating separate ancestries of the human-adapted typhoid agents. S. paratyphi C seemed to have suffered enormous selection pressures during its adaptation to man as suggested by the differential nucleotide substitutions and different sets of pseudogenes, between S. paratyphi C and S. choleraesuis. CONCLUSIONS: S. paratyphi C does not share a common ancestor with other human-adapted typhoid agents, supporting the convergent evolution model of the typhoid agents. S. paratyphi C has diverged from a common ancestor with S. choleraesuis by accumulating genomic novelty during adaptation to man.

  18. Vaccination of active component US military personnel against Salmonella Typhi.

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    Porter, Chad K; Sorrell, Tia; Mitra, Indrani; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-03-27

    Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes. Clinical outcomes were assessed for four weeks post vaccination. Adverse event rates and odds ratios were estimated across the two vaccine types. A total of 1.9million predominately male military personnel received 3.6 million S. Typhi vaccinations with 94.3% of vaccinees receiving the Vi capsule vaccine though variability in the vaccine administered was observed. Receipt of other vaccinations in the 6months surrounding the S. Typhi vaccine was common. Rates of nausea (195 per 100,000 vaccinations), headache (13 per 100,000 vaccinations) and fever (40 per 100,000 vaccinations) were significantly higher following Vi capsule vaccination compared to receipt of Vivotif (130, 2, 10 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively). In contrast the rates of rash and non-infectious diarrhea (186 and 426 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively) were increased in those receiving Vivotif compared to the Vi capsule vaccine. The US military is a major consumer of S. Typhi vaccines. The parenterally administered vaccine appears to be more amenable, though we were limited in our ability to assess the reasons for its higher usage. While we observed a higher rate of several adverse events in subjects receiving the intramuscular vaccination, the overall rate of these events was low. Future studies assessing more long-term health outcomes are warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

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    Jain, Swati, E-mail: swatijain.iitd@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, Sruti, E-mail: sruticiitd@gmail.com; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal, E-mail: harpal2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi (India)

    2016-05-15

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core–shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10{sup −19} g or 21 × 10{sup 4} bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 2} cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal

    2016-05-01

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core-shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10-19 g or 21 × 104 bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 102 cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.

  1. Salmonella typhi in the democratic republic of the congo: fluoroquinolone decreased susceptibility on the rise.

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    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS has rarely been reported in Central Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo, Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5-19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines.

  2. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  3. Prevalence and susceptibility of salmonella Typhi and salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Blood samples collected from presumptive typhoid fever patients from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Federal College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that attended two private clinics (Salama Clinics and Savanna Polyclinics) in Zaria were cultured for Salmonella species and identified ...

  4. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkhill, J.; Dougan, G.; James, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans with an annual global burden of approximately 16 million cases, leading to 600,000 fatalities(1). Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface o...... plasmid of Yersinia pestis....

  5. An evaluation of purified Salmonella Typhi protein antigens for the serological diagnosis of acute typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Trinh van, Tan; Tran Tuan, Anh; Klemm, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Voong Vinh, Phat; Pham Thanh, Duy; Ho Ngoc Dan, Thanh; Pham Duc, Trung; Langat, Pinky; Martin, Laura B.; Galan, Jorge; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw; de Jong, Hanna K.; Maude, Rapeephan R.; Fukushima, Masako; Wijedoru, Lalith; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Faiz, Abul; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Dougan, Gordon; Parry, Christopher M.; Baker, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a challenge. Aiming to develop a typhoid diagnostic we measured antibody responses against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) protein antigens and the Vi polysaccharide in a cohort of Bangladeshi febrile patients. IgM against 12 purified antigens and the Vi polysaccharide

  6. a rare case of salmonella typhi meningitis in an eleven month old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella typhi is a rare cause of purulent meningitis. Since the earliest reviews on true typhoid meningitis by Cole in 1904 and Bayne Jones in 1917,sporadic case reports, mainly involving children have appeared in the literature. Only 9 cases of S. typhi meningitis in adults have been documented in the English literature.

  7. Physiological and Immunological Regulations in Caenorhabditis elegans Infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2014-03-01

    Studies pertaining to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection by utilizing model systems failed to mimic the essential aspects of immunity induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, as the determinants of innate immunity are distinct. The present study investigated the physiological and innate immune responses of S. Typhi infected Caenorhabditis elegans and also explored the Ty21a mediated immune enhancement in C. elegans. Ty21a is a known live vaccine for typhoidal infection in human beings. Physiological responses of C. elegans infected with S. Typhi assessed by survival and behavioral assays revealed that S. Typhi caused host mortality by persistent infection. However, Ty21a exposure to C. elegans was not harmful. Ty21a pre-exposed C. elegans, exhibited significant resistance against S. Typhi infection. Elevated accumulation of S. Typhi inside the infected host was observed when compared to Ty21a exposures. Transcript analysis of candidate innate immune gene (clec-60, clec-87, lys-7, ilys-3, scl-2, cpr-2, F08G5.6, atf-7, age-1, bec-1 and daf-16) regulations in the host during S. Typhi infection have been assessed through qPCR analysis to understand the activation of immune signaling pathways during S. Typhi infections. Gene silencing approaches confirmed that clec-60 and clec-87 has a major role in the defense system of C. elegans during S. Typhi infection. In conclusion, the study revealed that preconditioning of host with Ty21a protects against subsequent S. Typhi infection.

  8. A Case Report of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi

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    Hatice Beyazal Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi are a rare condition. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, urinary burning, and bloody urine. Based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluations, the patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for two weeks. After the treatment, the patient's clinical and laboratory findings improved. Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella Typhi concomitant with acute hemorrhagic cystitis is very rare and might be difficult to diagnose. Infectious agents such as Salmonella Typhi should be considered when acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis are detected in adult patients with no underlying diseases.

  9. A Case Report of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazal Polat, Hatice; Beyazal, Mehmet; Beyazal Çeliker, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi are a rare condition. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, urinary burning, and bloody urine. Based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluations, the patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for two weeks. After...

  10. Radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of active compounds

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    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Chiasson, F.; Borsa, J.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in ground beef was evaluated in the presence of 18 active compounds. Medium fat ground beef (23% fat) was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi and each active compound was added separately at various concentrations. For E. coli, the most efficient compounds were trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol and thyme. For S. typhi, the most efficient compounds was trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol. The addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, carvacrol and ascorbic acid had no effect on the irradiation sensitivity of E. coli. For S. typhi, only ascorbic acid had no effect.

  11. Active protection of mice against Salmonella typhi by immunization with strain-specific porins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isibasi, A; Ortiz-Navarrete, V; Paniagua, J; Pelayo, R; González, C R; García, J A; Kumate, J

    1992-01-01

    NIH mice were immunized with between 2.5 and 30 micrograms of two highly purified porins, 34 kDa and 36 kDa, isolated from the virulent strain Salmonella typhi 9,12, Vi:d. Of mice immunized with 10 micrograms of porins, 90% were protected against a challenge with up to 500 LD50 (50% lethal doses) of S. typhi 9,12,Vi:d and only 30% protection was observed in mice immunized with the same dose of porins but challenged with the heterologous strain Salmonella typhimurium. These results demonstrate the utility of porins for the induction of a protective status against S. typhi in mice.

  12. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  13. Protection against Salmonella typhi infection in mice after immunization with outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi 9,12,d, Vi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isibasi, A; Ortiz, V; Vargas, M; Paniagua, J; González, C; Moreno, J; Kumate, J

    1988-11-01

    The current studies were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce protection against challenge with the bacteria in mucin. OMPs were isolated as described by Schnaitman (J. Bacteriol. 108:553-556, 1971) and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunization with as little as 30 micrograms of OMPs conferred 100% protection to mice challenged with up to 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of two strains of S. typhi (9,12,d, Vi and Ty2). In addition, 30% protection against challenge with up to 500 LD50 of Salmonella typhimurium was achieved. Immunization with LPS at doses equivalent to those found in the OMPs was considerably inferior to the OMPs in the induction of an immune status. Moreover, LPS was effective only when the challenge was performed with S. typhi 9,12,d, Vi (40% protection to 100 LD50). An antiserum raised in rabbits reacted mainly against the bands of the molecular weights corresponding to the so-called porins contained in the OMP preparation as shown by Western blotting (immunoblotting). This rabbit antiserum protected 100% of mice against challenge with 100 LD50 of either strain of S. typhi and 80% of mice against challenge with the same LD50 of S. typhimurium. These results indicate the usefulness of OMPs in the induction of active immunity against S. typhi in mice.

  14. Ekstrak Pegagan Meningkatkan Titer Antibodi Mencit Setelah Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT INCREASE ANTIBODY TITER IN MICE AFTER SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the ability of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica in enhancing antibodyresponse of C. asiatica treated mice following Salmonella typhi (S. typhi infections. It is therefore expectedthat herbal drug such as  C. asiatica  can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent and to curesalmonellosis both in animals and human. Experimental laboratory studies were conducted usingCompletely Factorial Randomized Design. Mice were divided into four groups and they were treatedrespectively with destilated water (negative control, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day of  C. asiaticaextract. The treatment was conducted daily for two weeks  and the mice were inoculated with 105 cells/mlof  S. typhi. The antibody response were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAon first day, second week and fourth week  after S. typhi infections.  The result showed that treatment ofmice with C. asiatica extract significantly (p<0,05 enhanced antibody titer of Balb/c mice after S. typhiinfections. The highest antibody titer was observed at four weeks after S. typhi infections with 500 mg/kgBW/day (94,0370 ± 1,69 IU.

  15. Modification Of Carry-Blair Transport Media For Storage Salmonella typhi

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    Yati Supriatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine transport media modification as alternative media to replace Carry Blair. One type of transport media that often use to carry faeces specimens suspected to contain Salmonella typhi is Carry-Blair media. Studies have been conducted experimentally by storing Salmonella typhi on alternative transport media with Peptone composition, disodium Phosphate, Sodium chloride, Calcium chloride, which is made using a semi-solid and Carry-Blair as a control. Three variety of storage was done (0 hour,6 hours,9 hours at a temperature 4⁰-8⁰C and then Salmonella typhi was inoculated in Salmonella Shigella Agar using spread plate technique incubated during 24 hours at 37⁰C, counted the number of colonies by the plate count method using the colony counter. The results of ANOVA could be concluded that modification media could be use as alternative media replace Carry-Blair at 6 hours. Based on regression correlation test was assumed that the Salmonella typhi bacteria still life at less than 11 hours 54 minutes.

  16. Protection against Salmonella typhi infection in mice after immunization with outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi 9,12,d, Vi.

    OpenAIRE

    Isibasi, A.; ORTIZ,V; Vargas, M.; Paniagua, J; GONZÁLEZ, C.1,3; Moreno, J.; Kumate, J.

    1988-01-01

    The current studies were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce protection against challenge with the bacteria in mucin. OMPs were isolated as described by Schnaitman (J. Bacteriol. 108:553-556, 1971) and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunization with as little as 30 micrograms of OMPs conferred 100% protection to mice challenged with up to 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of two strain...

  17. IMPACT OF FOOD AND FOLATE SUPPLEMENTATION DURING Salmonella TYPHI INFECTION IN Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is an instructive and suitable model for studying pathogenesis of almost all human pathogens. Salmonella Typhi is gram-negative facultative intracellular anaerobe that causes several pathetic infections. Necessary enriched nutrient ingestion during pathological conditions may reduce the harshness of the infection. We investigated the impact of folate and food supplementation during S. Typhi infection on the model system, C. elegans. Our data indicated that folate supplementation (10 µg increases the lifespan of S. Typhi infected C. elegans up to 20%. In combination with laboratory food source E. coli OP50, folate increases the infected the worm’s lifespan to 40%. The wild type C. elegans infected by S. Typhi died with the LT50 of 60 ± 12 h. The LT50 of S. Typhi infected folt-1 mutant strain VC959 was 96 ± 6 h. However, the folate supplemented mutant worms exhibited an extended life with LT50 of 120 ± 6 h. The short time exposure and pharyngeal pumping studies confirmed that folt-1 mutant worm exhibited increased survival rate during pathogenic course at significant level when compared to wild-type. Our data revealed that folt-1 plays a significant role in host defense system against S. Typhi infection and the folate supplementation in combination with food increases the host survival during S. Typhi infection.

  18. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  19. OPTIMATION OF 48 KHZ ULTRASONIC WAVE DOSE FOR THE INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA TYPHI

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    Dwi May Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonic dose exposure which could decrease the viability of Salmonella typhi by using the variation of exposure time (15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes and volume of bacterial suspension (2, 4, 6, and 8 ml at constant power. The sample used was Salmonella typhi. Ultrasonic wave transmitter was a piezoelectric tweeter with 0,191 watts of power and 48 kHz frequency generated by the signal generator. Piezoelectric tweeter was a kind of transducer which converted electrical energy into ultrasonic energy. This research was an experimental laboratory with a completely randomized design. The decrease of bacterial percentage was calculated by using TPC (Total Plate Count. Data were analyzed by using One Way Anova. The results showed that the variation of exposure time and volume of bacterial suspension gave significant effect on the percentage of Salmonella typhi kill. The most optimal of ultrasonic dose exposure to kill Salmonella typhi was 281.87 J/ml with 100% bacterial kill.

  20. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  1. Non-typhi salmonella in children with severe malaria | Oundo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19,118 (7.3%) and 342/1,820 (19%) respectively. Non-typhi salmonella consisted of 260/1,395 (18.6%) of the positive blood cultures and 92/324 (28.4%) of the stool cultures out of which a total of 101 NTS occurred in children with severe ...

  2. Gold nanoparticles as efficient antimicrobial agents for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

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    Lima Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is imperative to eliminate bacteria present in water in order to avoid problems in healthy. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi bacteria are two common pollutants and they are developing resistance to some of the most used bactericide. Therefore new biocide materials are being tested. Thus, gold nanoparticles are proposed to inhibit the growth of these two microorganisms. Results Gold nanoparticles were supported onto clinoptilolite, mordenite and faujasite zeolites. Content of gold in materials varied between 2.3 and 2.8 wt%. The size, dispersion and roughness of gold nanoparticles were highly dependent of the zeolite support. The faujasite support was the support where the 5 nm nanoparticles were highly dispersed. The efficiency of gold-zeolites as bactericides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi was determined by the zeolite support. Conclusions Gold nanoparticles dispersed on zeolites eliminate Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi at short times. The biocidal properties of gold nanoparticles are influenced by the type of support which, indeed, drives key parameters as the size and roughness of nanoparticles. The more actives materials were pointed out Au-faujasite. These materials contained particles sized 5 nm at surface and eliminate 90–95% of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi colonies.

  3. Molecular Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

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    Arunava Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the major causative agent for typhoidial fever around the globe among human population reported till date. Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated from humans with Typhoidial fever by biochemical, phenotypical and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Methodology and Results: A total of 16 clinical samples were collected from the same numbers of patients (7 males and 9 females from Coimbatore, Erode and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu and were processed via broth enrichment methods for isolation and identification of the causative agent S. enterica serovar Typhi. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of S. Typhi from 16 samples. The biotyping of the isolates showed that all the isolates belonged to biotype IV. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of invA (Invasion gene, 244bp, tyv (Tyveloseepimerase gene, 615 bp, fliC-d (Phage-1 flagellin gene for d-antigen, 750 bp and viaB (Vi antigen gene, 439bp in all 16 clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test that was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents, showed 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study confirmed the association of virulent strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi from Typhoidial fever among human population and suggested that PCR based diagnostic could be very useful for the rapid detection of S. Typhi isolates. Present study emphasized the use of antibiotic like chloramphenicol or in combination with other antibiotics for the effective control of S. Typhi.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Food borne diseases are a global public health problem. Food handlers play a major role for the transmission of food borne diseases. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of intestinal parasites, S. typhi carrier rate and risk factors among food handlers at Bahir Dar town.

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food borne diseases are a global public health problem. Food handlers play a major role for the transmission of food borne diseases. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of intestinal parasites, S. typhi carrier rate and risk factors among food handlers at Bahir Dar town. Methods: A ...

  6. Clearance and tissue distribution of intravenously injected Salmonella typhi polysaccharide in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Isibasi, A.; Jimenez, E.; Kumate, J.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of Freeman polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi with blood and tissues of rabbits was studied by radioimmunoassay. After intravenous injection of 1.0 mg of S. typhi Freeman polysaccharide, a rapid clearance phase (t1/2, 6.0 min) was followed by a slower clearance period (t1/2, 55.2 min). These results suggest first, that the distribution of whole lipopolysaccharide is a function of how the polysaccharides are handled by the host; further, that the O side chain determines how and...

  7. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

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    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  8. A 23-year retrospective investigation of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi isolated in a tertiary Kathmandu hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Raphaël M; Basnyat, Buddha; Shrestha, Poojan; Prajapati, Krishna G; Dongol, Sabina; Sharma, Paban K; Koirala, Samir; Darton, Thomas C; Dolecek, Christiane; Thompson, Corinne N; Thwaites, Guy E; Baker, Stephen G; Karkey, Abhilasha

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A), the causative agents of enteric fever, have been routinely isolated organisms from the blood of febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley since the early 1990s. Susceptibility against commonly used antimicrobials for treating enteric fever has gradually changed throughout South Asia since this time, posing serious treatment challenges. Here, we aimed to longitudinally describe trends in the isolation of Salmonella enterica and assess changes in their antimicrobial susceptibility in Kathmandu over a 23-year period. We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardised microbiological data from April 1992 to December 2014 at a single healthcare facility in Kathmandu, examining time trends of Salmonella-associated bacteraemia and the corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolated organisms. Over 23 years there were 30,353 positive blood cultures. Salmonella enterica accounted for 65.4% (19,857/30,353) of all the bacteria positive blood cultures. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were the dominant serovars, constituting 68.5% (13,592/19,857) and 30.5% (6,057/19,857) of all isolated Salmonellae. We observed (i) a peak in the number of Salmonella-positive cultures in 2002, a year of heavy rainfall and flooding in the Kathmandu Valley, followed by a decline toward pre-flood baseline by 2014, (ii) an increase in the proportion of S. Paratyphi in all Salmonella-positive cultures between 1992 and 2014, (iii) a decrease in the prevalence of MDR for both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi, and (iv) a recent increase in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi isolates. Our work describes significant changes in the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica in the Kathmandu Valley during the last quarter of a century. We highlight the need to examine current treatment protocols for enteric fever and suggest a change from fluoroquinolone monotherapy to combination therapies of

  9. A 23-year retrospective investigation of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi isolated in a tertiary Kathmandu hospital.

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    Raphaël M Zellweger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovars Typhi (S. Typhi and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A, the causative agents of enteric fever, have been routinely isolated organisms from the blood of febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley since the early 1990s. Susceptibility against commonly used antimicrobials for treating enteric fever has gradually changed throughout South Asia since this time, posing serious treatment challenges. Here, we aimed to longitudinally describe trends in the isolation of Salmonella enterica and assess changes in their antimicrobial susceptibility in Kathmandu over a 23-year period.We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardised microbiological data from April 1992 to December 2014 at a single healthcare facility in Kathmandu, examining time trends of Salmonella-associated bacteraemia and the corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolated organisms.Over 23 years there were 30,353 positive blood cultures. Salmonella enterica accounted for 65.4% (19,857/30,353 of all the bacteria positive blood cultures. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were the dominant serovars, constituting 68.5% (13,592/19,857 and 30.5% (6,057/19,857 of all isolated Salmonellae. We observed (i a peak in the number of Salmonella-positive cultures in 2002, a year of heavy rainfall and flooding in the Kathmandu Valley, followed by a decline toward pre-flood baseline by 2014, (ii an increase in the proportion of S. Paratyphi in all Salmonella-positive cultures between 1992 and 2014, (iii a decrease in the prevalence of MDR for both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi, and (iv a recent increase in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi isolates.Our work describes significant changes in the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica in the Kathmandu Valley during the last quarter of a century. We highlight the need to examine current treatment protocols for enteric fever and suggest a change from fluoroquinolone monotherapy to combination therapies

  10. Lack of efflux mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

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    Sylvie eBaucheron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates from human patients in France displaying different levels of resistance to quinolones or fluoroquinolones were studied for resistance mechanisms to these antimicrobial agents. All resistant isolates carried either single or multiple target gene mutations (i.e. in gyrA, gyrB, or parC correlating with the resistance levels observed. Active efflux, through upregulation of multipartite efflux systems, has also been previously reported as contributing mechanism for other serovars. Therefore, we investigated also the occurrence of non-target gene mutations in regulatory regions affecting efflux pump expression. However, no mutation was detected in these regions in both Typhi and Paratyphi isolates of this study. Besides, no overexpression of the major efflux systems was observed for these isolates. Nevertheless, a large deletion of 2334 bp was identified in the acrS-acrE region of all S. Typhi strains but which did not affect the resistance phenotype. As being specific to S. Typhi, this deletion could be used for specific molecular detection purposes. In conclusion, the different levels of quinolone or FQ resistance in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A seem to rely only on target modifications.

  11. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.

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    Kathryn E Holt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005.the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene.the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.

  12. [Multifocal osteoarticular infection caused by Salmonella non typhi in a child with sickle cell disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, B; Couëc, M-L; Lorrot, M; Launay, E; Gras-Le Guen, C

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary hemoglobinopathy. Its course is marked by vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), episodes of acute hemolytic anemia on a background of chronic hemolytic anemia, and severe infections. A 2-year-old child with sickle cell disease presented with severe sepsis caused by Salmonella non typhi. Control of the sepsis was difficult, with multifocal osteomyelitis and arthritis, which required prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. Prolonged treatment was complicated by cardiorespiratory arrest and severe neurological damage, as well as nosocomial infections. Osseous articular infections caused by Salmonella non typhi are a common complication in children with sickle cell disease, which need to be promptly recognized. Management remains a great concern. The clinical case reported herein is original in its multifocal evolution. It illustrates the vulnerability of patients with sickle cell disease and the need for urgent and intensive care in the case of infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of TaqMan® real-time PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Naghoni, Ali; Farshad, Shohreh; Lashini, Hadi; Najafi, Ali; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Mammina, Caterina

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the performances of a newly designed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using TaqMan® probes to detect Salmonella Typhi. TaqMan® real-time PCR assays were performed by designed primers and probe based on the staG gene for detecting S. Typhi. The specificity of the assay was evaluated on 15 Salmonella serovars. The analytical specificity was evaluated on 20 non-Salmonella microorganisms. The analytical sensitivity was assessed using decreasing DNA quantities of S. Typhi ATCC 19430. Finally the detection capability of the TaqMan® real-time PCR assay on isolates recovered from patients with Salmonella infections was compared to the conventional PCR assay. Only S. Typhi strain had positive results when subjected to the assay using Typhi-specific real-time PCR. No amplification products were observed in real-time PCR with any of the non-Salmonella microorganisms tested. The TaqMan® real-time PCR was more sensitive than the conventional PCR. In conclusion, we found that the easy-to-use real-time PCR assays were faster than conventional PCR systems. The staG-based TaqMan® real-time PCR assay showed to be specific and sensitive method for the safe and rapid detection of the S. Typhi.

  14. Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.

  15. Clinically and Microbiologically Derived Azithromycin Susceptibility Breakpoints for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Dolecek, Christiane; Karkey, Abhilasha; Gupta, Ruchi; Turner, Paul; Dance, David; Maude, Rapeephan R.; Ha, Vinh; Tran, Chinh Nguyen; Thi, Phuong Le; Be, Bay Pham Van; Phi, La Tran Thi; Ngoc, Rang Nguyen; Ghose, Aniruddha; Dongol, Sabina; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Duy Pham; Thanh, Tuyen Ha; Moore, Catrin E.; Sona, Soeng; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama; Anh, Ho Van; Van, Sach Nguyen; Tinh, Hien Tran; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen; Thwaites, Guy; Faiz, Mohamed Abul; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul; Basnyat, Buddha; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Azithromycin is an effective treatment for uncomplicated infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A (enteric fever), but there are no clinically validated MIC and disk zone size interpretative guidelines. We studied individual patient data from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antimicrobial treatment in enteric fever in Vietnam, with azithromycin used in one treatment arm, to determine the relationship between azithromycin treatment response and the azithromycin MIC of the infecting isolate. We additionally compared the azithromycin MIC and the disk susceptibility zone sizes of 1,640 S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A clinical isolates collected from seven Asian countries. In the RCTs, 214 patients who were treated with azithromycin at a dose of 10 to 20 mg/ml for 5 to 7 days were analyzed. Treatment was successful in 195 of 214 (91%) patients, with no significant difference in response (cure rate, fever clearance time) with MICs ranging from 4 to 16 μg/ml. The proportion of Asian enteric fever isolates with an MIC of ≤16 μg/ml was 1,452/1,460 (99.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.9 to 99.7) for S. Typhi and 207/240 (86.3%; 95% CI, 81.2 to 90.3) (P azithromycin disk identified S. Typhi isolates with an MIC of ≤16 μg/ml with a sensitivity of 99.7%. An azithromycin MIC of ≤16 μg/ml or disk inhibition zone size of ≥13 mm enabled the detection of susceptible S. Typhi isolates that respond to azithromycin treatment. Further work is needed to define the response to treatment in S. Typhi isolates with an azithromycin MIC of >16 μg/ml and to determine MIC and disk breakpoints for S. Paratyphi A. PMID:25733500

  16. Pola Resistensi Salmonella typhi yang Diisolasi dari Ikan Serigala (Hoplias malabaricus terhadap Antibiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waode Santa Monica

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to know the resistant pattern of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi isolated from wolf fish (Hoplias malabaricus to antibiotics in Bali Safari and Marine Park. S. typhi was isolated from fecal swab collected from the illness fish. The S. typhi was confirmed with MicrogenTM GN A ID test’s method. The antibiotic sensitivity of the S. typhi was tested using streptomycin, gentamicin, penicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol according to the Kirby bouer method. The results showed that the isolate of S. typhi was resistant to penicillin and vancomycin, but sensitive to streptomycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  17. Activation of Salmonella Typhi-specific regulatory T cells in typhoid disease in a wild-type S. Typhi challenge model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A McArthur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD and those who were not (No TD. TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin α4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1. We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases.

  18. Activation of Salmonella Typhi-specific regulatory T cells in typhoid disease in a wild-type S. Typhi challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available vaccines are moderately efficacious, and identification of immunological responses associated with protection or disease will facilitate the development of improved vaccines. We investigated S. Typhi-specific modulation of activation and homing potential of circulating regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow and mass cytometry using specimens obtained from a human challenge study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from volunteers pre- and at multiple time-points post-challenge with wild-type S. Typhi. We identified differing patterns of S. Typhi-specific modulation of the homing potential of circulating Treg between volunteers diagnosed with typhoid (TD) and those who were not (No TD). TD volunteers demonstrated up-regulation of the gut homing molecule integrin α4ß7 pre-challenge, followed by a significant down-regulation post-challenge consistent with Treg homing to the gut. Additionally, S. Typhi-specific Treg from TD volunteers exhibited up-regulation of activation molecules post-challenge (e.g., HLA-DR, LFA-1). We further demonstrate that depletion of Treg results in increased S. Typhi-specific cytokine production by CD8+ TEM in vitro. These results suggest that the tissue distribution of activated Treg, their characteristics and activation status may play a pivotal role in typhoid fever, possibly through suppression of S. Typhi-specific effector T cell responses. These studies provide important novel insights into the regulation of immune responses that are likely to be critical in protection against typhoid and other enteric infectious diseases.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children with typhoid fever and serotype of Salmonella typhi in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirari Prasadajudio, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Lia Waslia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indonesia is known for high incidence of typhoid fever especially in children. This study aimed to observe antibiotic susceptibility in circulating Salmonella typhi serotypes in children with typhoid. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted. A total of 142 blood samples from children between 1-18 years old clinically diagnosed with suspected typhoid fever were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013 from six health centers in Jakarta. Confirmed cases were retrieved based on S. typhi isolate finding in blood culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated and PCR was used to detect S. typhi serotypes using fliB, fliC and aroC genes. Results: The prevalence of confirmed typhoid case based on isolate finding was 22 (15.5%. Twenty of S. typhi isolates expressed fliC gene carrying H:d allele, the other two expressed j allele, while only two samples expressed fliB, all showed no difference in pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions: Circulating serotypes found in typhoid children in Jakarta, Indonesia are still susceptible even to the firstline antimicrobials. Thus, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole are still recommended. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 29-35

  20. An evaluation of purified Salmonella Typhi protein antigens for the serological diagnosis of acute typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Trinh Van, Tan; Tran Tuan, Anh; Klemm, Elizabeth J; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Voong Vinh, Phat; Pham Thanh, Duy; Ho Ngoc Dan, Thanh; Pham Duc, Trung; Langat, Pinky; Martin, Laura B; Galan, Jorge; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw; de Jong, Hanna K; Maude, Rapeephan R; Fukushima, Masako; Wijedoru, Lalith; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Dondorp, Arjen M; Faiz, Abul; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J; Thwaites, Guy E; Dougan, Gordon; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a challenge. Aiming to develop a typhoid diagnostic we measured antibody responses against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) protein antigens and the Vi polysaccharide in a cohort of Bangladeshi febrile patients. IgM against 12 purified antigens and the Vi polysaccharide was measured by ELISA in plasma from patients with confirmed typhoid fever (n = 32), other confirmed infections (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 40). ELISAs with the most specific antigens were performed on plasma from 243 patients with undiagnosed febrile disease. IgM against the S. Typhi protein antigens correlated with each other (rho > 0.8), but not against Vi (rho 0.85, respectively. Applying a dynamic cut-off to patients with undiagnosed febrile disease suggested that 34-58% had an IgM response indicative of typhoid. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of several S. Typhi antigens; our assays give good sensitivity and specificity, but require further assessment in differing patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap Struktur Mikroskopis Hati Mencit Pasca Infeksi Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahma Tusta Bhirawa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (pegagan merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang memilikibanyak fungsi, salah satunya adalah sebagai imunostimulator, yang berarti dapatmerangsang tubuh untuk meningkatkan respon imun. Namun efek pegagan terhadapstruktur mikroskopis hati pasca diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (S.typhi belum pernahdilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak pegagan terhadapstruktur mikroskopis hati mencit yang diinfeksi S.typhi . Penelitian ini menggunakan 24ekor mencit jantan umur 8-12 minggu, yang dibagi menjadi 4 grup. P0 sebagai kontroldiberikan aquades, dan grup P1,P2, dan P3, masing-masing diberikan 125 mg/bb, 250kg/bb mg, 500 mg kg/bb. perlakuan diulang sebanyak 6 kali. Extrak pegagan diberikansecara oral selama 14 hari, pada hari ke 15 seluruh mencit diinfeksi dengan S.typhi,kemudian pada hari ke 14 semua mencit dinekropsi dan hati diambil untuk diprosespembuatan preparat dengan metode pewarnaan hematoxylin eosin (HE. Pengamatandilakukan terhadap gambaran mikroskopis berupa perdarahan, degenerasi vakuola, dannekrosis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan mencit yang tidak diberikan pegagan dengan mencityang diberikan pegagan dosis 125 mg/kg bb., memberikan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyataNamun mencit yang diberikan pegagan dosis 250 mg/kg bb, dan 500 mg/kg bb memberikangambaran mikroskopis yang berbeda nyata.

  2. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Sera from 50 healthy blood donors were compared for the presence of Salmonella agglutinins in various groups of patients with other febrile illnesses using Widal test in the division of Serology and Immunology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. The patient groups of other febrile illnesses ...

  3. PCR Method To Identify Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B among Salmonella Isolates from the Blood of Patients with Clinical Enteric Fever▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Haim; Diallo, Souleymane; Tennant, Sharon M.; Livio, Sofie; Sow, Samba O.; Tapia, Milagritos; Fields, Patricia I.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tamboura, Boubou; Kotloff, Karen L.; Lagos, Rosanna; Nataro, James P.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2008-01-01

    PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen “d,” “a,” or “b.” Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18367574

  4. The concurrent prevalence of chloramphenicol-sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi in Vellore, S. India.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudason, M. V.; John, R.; John, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    A multidrug resistant (MDR) variety of Salmonella typhi emerged as the cause of epidemic typhoid fever in some Asian countries including India, during the late 1980s. We faced the epidemic from April 1990 to the first quarter of 1993. However, during this period we continued to isolate chloramphenicol sensitive (CS) S. typhi also. The relative prevalences showed that the frequency of CS variety was unaffected by the epidemic of MDR variety. This is an unusual epidemiological pattern, which in...

  5. VNTR molecular typing of salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates in Kathmandu valley

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    B Acharya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typhoid fever continues to be a worldwide health problem, especially in developing countries. Effective epidemiological surveillance is needed to monitor the presence and spread of disease. Materials and Methods: Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR was performed for Salmonella enterica serovar typhi by multiplex-PCR in 28 Nepalese isolates of sporadic typhoid fever. Results: From all 28 total isolates, we could identify 12 VNTR profiles among the isolates, signifying multiple variants in circulation within the region. Conclusion: The VNTR-based typing assay for serovar typhi isolates can be used during an outbreak of enteric fever. The typing could eventually form the basis of an effective epidemiological surveillance system for developing rational strategies to control typhoid fever. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6026 JPN 2012; 2(3: 220-223

  6. Clearance and tissue distribution of intravenously injected Salmonella typhi polysaccharide in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isibasi, A; Jimenez, E; Kumate, J

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of Freeman polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi with blood and tissues of rabbits was studied by radioimmunoassay. After intravenous injection of 1.0 mg of S. typhi Freeman polysaccharide, a rapid clearance phase (t1/2, 6.0 min) was followed by a slower clearance period (t1/2, 55.2 min). These results suggest first, that the distribution of whole lipopolysaccharide is a function of how the polysaccharides are handled by the host; further, that the O side chain determines how and where lipopolysaccharide is cleared from the circulatory system; and finally, that Freeman polysaccharide regulates the toxicity of lipopolysaccharide by influencing its clearance from blood. PMID:6642672

  7. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Typhi as model organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Preeti; Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2012-01-01

    The lifestyle of intracellular pathogens has always questioned the skill of a microbiologist in the context of finding the permanent cure to the diseases caused by them. The best tool utilized by these pathogens is their ability to reside inside the host cell, which enables them to easily bypass the humoral immunity of the host, such as the complement system. They further escape from the intracellular immunity, such as lysosome and inflammasome, mostly by forming a protective vacuole-bound niche derived from the host itself. Some of the most dreadful diseases are caused by these vacuolar pathogens, for example, tuberculosis by Mycobacterium or typhoid fever by Salmonella. To deal with such successful pathogens therapeutically, the knowledge of a host-pathogen interaction system becomes primarily essential, which further depends on the use of a model system. A well characterized pathogen, namely Salmonella, suits the role of a model for this purpose, which can infect a wide array of hosts causing a variety of diseases. This review focuses on various such aspects of research on Salmonella which are useful for studying the pathogenesis of other intracellular pathogens. PMID:22722237

  8. The Hd, Hj, and Hz66 flagella variants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi modify host responses and cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Fernanda; Kay, Sally; Frankel, Gad; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; van de Vosse, Esther; van Dissel, Jaap T; Strugnell, Richard; Thwaites, Guy; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-22

    Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a monophyletic, human-restricted bacterium that exhibits limited phenotypic variation. S. Typhi from Indonesia are a notable exception, with circulating strains expressing diverse flagella antigens including Hj, Hd and Hz66. Hypothesizing that S. Typhi flagella plays a key role during infection, we constructed an S. Typhi fliC mutant and otherwise isogenic S. Typhi strains expressing the Hj, Hd, Hz66 flagella antigens. Phenotyping revealed differences in flagellum structure, strain motility and immunogenicity, but not in the ability of flagellated isolates to induce TLR5 activity. Invasion assays using epithelial and macrophage cell lines revealed differences in the ability of these S. Typhi derivatives to invade cells or induce cellular restructuring in the form of ruffles. Notably, the Hj variant induced substantial ruffles that were not fully dependent on the GTPases that contribute to this process. These data highlight important differences in the phenotypic properties of S. Typhi flagella variation and how they impact on the pathogenesis of S. Typhi.

  9. Interferon-γ and proliferation responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi proteins in patients with S. Typhi Bacteremia in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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    Alaullah Sheikh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human-restricted intracellular pathogen and the cause of typhoid fever. Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection. Despite this, there are limited data on cellular immune responses in humans infected with wild type S. Typhi.For this work, we used an automated approach to purify a subset of S. Typhi proteins identified in previous antibody-based immuno-affinity screens and antigens known to be expressed in vivo, including StaF-putative fimbrial protein-STY0202, StbB-fimbrial chaperone-STY0372, CsgF-involved in curli production-STY1177, CsgD- putative regulatory protein-STY1179, OppA-periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein precursor-STY1304, PagC-outer membrane invasion protein-STY1878, and conserved hypothetical protein-STY2195; we also generated and analyzed a crude membrane preparation of S. Typhi (MP. In comparison to samples collected from uninfected Bangladeshi and North American participants, we detected significant interferon-γ responses in PBMCs stimulated with MP, StaF, StbB, CsgF, CsgD, OppA, STY2195, and PagC in patients bacteremic with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. The majority of interferon-γ expressing T cells were CD4 cells, although CD8 responses also occurred. We also assessed cellular proliferation responses in bacteremic patients, and confirmed increased responses in infected individuals to MP, StaF, STY2195, and PagC in convalescent compared to acute phase samples and compared to controls. StaF is a fimbrial protein homologous to E. coli YadK, and contains a Pfam motif thought to be involved in cellular adhesion. PagC is expressed in vivo under the control of the virulence-associated PhoP-regulon required for intra-macrophage survival of Salmonella. STY2195 is a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function.This is the first analysis of cellular immune responses to purified S. Typhi antigens in patients with typhoid fever. These results indicate

  10. In vivo expression of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi genes in the blood of patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

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    Alaullah Sheikh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans.We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS, and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi transcripts expressed in the blood of five humans infected with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. In total, we detected the expression of mRNAs for 2,046 S. Typhi genes (44% of the S. Typhi genome in human blood; expression of 912 genes was detected in all 5 patients, and expression of 1,100 genes was detected in 4 or more patients. Identified transcripts were associated with the virulence-associated PhoP regulon, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the use of alternative carbon and energy sources, synthesis and transport of iron, thiamine, and biotin, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. The most highly represented group were genes currently annotated as encoding proteins designated as hypothetical, unknown, or unclassified. Of the 2,046 detected transcripts, 1,320 (29% of the S. Typhi genome had significantly different levels of detection in human blood compared to in vitro cultures; detection of 141 transcripts was significantly different in all 5 patients, and detection of 331 transcripts varied in at least 4 patients. These mRNAs encode proteins of unknown function, those involved in energy metabolism, transport and binding, cell envelope, cellular processes, and pathogenesis. We confirmed increased expression of a subset of identified mRNAs by quantitative-PCR.We report the first characterization of bacterial transcriptional profiles in the blood of patients with typhoid fever. S. Typhi is an important global pathogen whose restricted host range has greatly inhibited laboratory studies. Our results suggest that S. Typhi uses a largely uncharacterized genetic repertoire to survive within cells and utilize alternate

  11. Anti-biofilm efficacy of 100 MeV gold ion irradiated polycarbonate against Salmonella typhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Hareesh, K.; Bankar, A.; Sanjeev, G.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) films were irradiated by 100 MeV gold (Au7+) ions and characterized to study changes in its optical, chemical, surface morphology and thermal properties. UV-Visible spectroscopic results revealed the decrease in the optical band gap of PC after ion irradiation due to chain scission mainly at the carbonyl group which is corroborated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram study showed decrease in crystallinity of PC film after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopic results showed the micropores formation in PC which results in surface roughening. Differential scanning calorimetric results revealed decrease in glass transition temperature indicating the decrease in molecular weight of PC corroborated by rheometric studies. PC films irradiated by 100 MeV Au7+ ions showed increased anti-biofilm activity against the human pathogen, Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Morphology of S. typhi was changed due to stress of Au7+ irradiated PC. Cells length was increased with increasing fluences. The average cell length, cell volume and surface area was increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing ion fluences. Biofilm formation was inhibited ≈ 20% at lower fluence and 96% at higher fluence, which observed to be enhanced anti-biofilm activity in Au7+ irradiated PC.

  12. Non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe-LAMP for simple, colorimetric, and specific detection of Salmonella typhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozorgmehr, Ali; Yazdanparast, Razieh, E-mail: ryazdan@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollasalehi, Hamidreza [Shahid Beheshti University, Protein Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, we developed a non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for nanodiagnosis of bacterial typhoid fever source, Salmonella typhi. Therefore, a unique region in the S. typhi genomic DNA was targeted for LAMP amplification using a specific set of four precisely designed primers. Also, for specific colorimetric visualization of the amplicons, a thiolated oligonucleotide probe, complementary to the single-stranded loop region of the amplicons between F2 and F1C segments, was designed. The probe was bound to the surface of gold nanoparticles via covalent bonds. Increasing the salt concentration in the detection reaction medium led to aggregation of nanoprobes in the blank and the negative vessels in a time-dependent form. That was followed by a change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) leading to blue/black color that was observable by the naked eyes after about 5 min. Meanwhile, the original pink/red color was retained in the positive sample due to the large interparticle spaces and the stability against the ionic strength elevation which persisted for about 30 min. The whole process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection took less than 2 h with a sensitivity of 20 CFU/ml. The developed gold nanoprobe-LAMP could serve as a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for nanodiagnosis of S. typhi in point-of-need applications.

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap Gambaran Mikroskopis Usus Halus Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Md Chandra Arya PW

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh pemberian pegagan (Centella asiaticaterhadap gambaran mikroskopis usus halus mencit yang diinfeksi Salmonella typhi.Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel usus halus mencit jantan strain Balb/C yang berumur 2-3 bulan dengan berat badan berkisar antara 20-35 gram. Sebanyak 24 ekor mencit dipakaidalam penelitian, dibagi empat kelompok, yakni kelompok 1 sebagai kontrol diberikanaquades steril, kelompok 2 diberikan pegagan dengan dosis 125 mg/kg bb, kelompok 3diberikan pegagan 250 mg/kg bb, dan kelompok 4 diberikan pegagan 500 mg/kg bb.Setelah 14 hari seluruh mencit diinfeksi dengan S. typhi. Pada hari ke-15 dilakukannekropsi untuk pengambilan sampel berupa usus halus dan dibuat preparat histology,menggunakan pewarnaan Hematoxilin-Eosin. Selanjutnya dilakukan pengamatan diLaboratorium Histologi Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, terhadap gambaran mikroskopis yangmeliputi perubahan berupa : perdarahan, infiltrasi sel radang, dan deskuamasi epitel usushalus. Metode pewarnaan menggunakan Hematoxilin-Eosin. Data yang diperoleh dianalisisdengan Uji Kruskall-Wallis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian pegagan dengandosis 125 mg/kg bb dengan kontrol tidak berbeda nyata (p>0,05, apabila dibandingkandengan dosis pegagan250 mg/kg bb memberikan hasil yang berbeda nyata (p0,05. Hal ini berarti, pemberian ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiaticadengan dosis 250 mg/kg bb dapat mencegah perubahan gambaran mikroskopis usus halusakibat infeksi S. typhi.

  14. Non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe-LAMP for simple, colorimetric, and specific detection of Salmonella typhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Ali; Yazdanparast, Razieh; Mollasalehi, Hamidreza

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we developed a non-crosslinking gold nanoprobe loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for nanodiagnosis of bacterial typhoid fever source, Salmonella typhi. Therefore, a unique region in the S. typhi genomic DNA was targeted for LAMP amplification using a specific set of four precisely designed primers. Also, for specific colorimetric visualization of the amplicons, a thiolated oligonucleotide probe, complementary to the single-stranded loop region of the amplicons between F2 and F1C segments, was designed. The probe was bound to the surface of gold nanoparticles via covalent bonds. Increasing the salt concentration in the detection reaction medium led to aggregation of nanoprobes in the blank and the negative vessels in a time-dependent form. That was followed by a change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) leading to blue/black color that was observable by the naked eyes after about 5 min. Meanwhile, the original pink/red color was retained in the positive sample due to the large interparticle spaces and the stability against the ionic strength elevation which persisted for about 30 min. The whole process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection took less than 2 h with a sensitivity of 20 CFU/ml. The developed gold nanoprobe-LAMP could serve as a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for nanodiagnosis of S. typhi in point-of-need applications.

  15. Importance of Salmonella Typhi-Responsive CD8+ T Cell Immunity in a Human Typhoid Fever Challenge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~104 CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T effector memory cells at baseline. Early decreases of these cells in circulation following challenge were observed in both S. Typhi-responsive integrin α4β7- and integrin α4β7+ CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) cells, suggesting their potential to home to both mucosal and extra-intestinal sites. Participants with higher baseline levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T memory cells had a higher risk of acquiring disease, but among those who acquired disease, those with a higher baseline responses took longer to develop disease. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or absent S. Typhi-responsive T cells at baseline and no changes in circulation following challenge. These data highlight the importance of pre-existing S. Typhi-responsive immunity in predicting clinical outcome following infection with wild-type S. Typhi and provide novel insights into the complex mechanisms involved in protective immunity to natural infection in a stringent human model with a high challenge dose. They also contribute important information on the immunological responses to be assessed in the appraisal and selection of new generation typhoid vaccines.

  16. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi plasmid pR ST98 enhances intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death by suppressing autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyan He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Plasmid pR ST98 is a hybrid resistance-virulence plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi. Previous studies demonstrated that pR ST98 could enhance the virulence of its host bacteria. However, the mechanism of pR ST98-increased bacterial virulence is still not fully elucidated. This study was designed to gain further insight into the roles of pR ST98 in host responses. METHODS: Human-derived macrophage-like cell line THP-1 was infected with wild-type (ST8, pR ST98-deletion (ST8-ΔpR ST98, and complemented (ST8-c-pR ST98 S. typhi strains. Macrophage autophagy was performed by extracting the membrane-unbound LC3-I protein from cells, followed by flow cytometric detection of the membrane-associated fraction of LC3-II. Intracellular bacterial growth was determined by colony-forming units (cfu assay. Macrophage cell death was measured by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI staining. Autophagy activator rapamycin (RAPA was added to the medium 2 h before infection to investigate the effect of autophagy on intracellular bacterial growth and macrophage cell death after S. typhi infection. RESULTS: Plasmid pR ST98 suppressed autophagy in infected macrophages and enhanced intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death. Pretreatment with RAPA effectively restricted intracellular bacterial growth of ST8 and ST8-c-pR ST98, and alleviated ST8 and ST8-c-pR ST98-induced macrophage cell death, but had no significant effect on ST8-ΔpR ST98. CONCLUSIONS: Plasmid pR ST98 enhances intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death by suppressing autophagy.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Kolkata, India, and In Vitro Experiments on Effect of Combined Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication states the changing patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi isolates causing enteric fever in and around Kolkata, India. Among the isolates resistance to ampicillin (A, chloramphenicol (C, cotrimoxazole (Co and tetracycline (T were plasmid mediated; the plasmid was unstable in S. Typhi, and the other enteric bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris were found to be the potential source of dissemination of such plasmids into S. Typhi. The infection with such S. Typhi strains were successfully treated with ciprofloxacin (Cp: MICs 0.0075–0.075 μg mL−1 and/or ofloxacin (Ofx: MICs 0.0125–0.075 μg mL−1, but in the later course, the S. Typhi strains, showing resistance to nalidixic acid, developed low level of resistance to Cp and Ofx, causing the treatment failure. Thus, the treatment regimen was shifted to the third generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone (Ct and cefotaxime (Cf. Keeping in mind the anticipation of development of resistance to Ct/Cf, we prepared the treatment regimen for MDR enteric fever, based on the double-drug synergy tests in vitro; Cp-gentamycin (FICI 0.121–0.216 and Cp-trimethoprim (FICI 0.14–0.483 combinations were found effective against S. Typhi isolates having decreased sensitivity to cp (MICs: 0.5–1.25 μg mL−1.

  18. High-throughput bacterial SNP typing identifies distinct clusters of Salmonella Typhi causing typhoid in Nepalese children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holt, Kathryn E

    2010-05-31

    Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is an area of high incidence and the pediatric population appears to be at high risk of exposure and infection. Methods We recently defined the population structure of S. Typhi, using new sequencing technologies to identify nearly 2,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used as unequivocal phylogenetic markers. Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S. Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. Results Eight distinct S. Typhi haplotypes were identified during the 20-month study period, with 68% of isolates belonging to a subclone of the previously defined H58 S. Typhi. This subclone was closely associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, with all isolates from this group demonstrating a resistant phenotype and harbouring the same resistance-associated SNP in GyrA (Phe83). A secondary clone, comprising 19% of isolates, was observed only during the second half of the study. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of SNP typing for monitoring bacterial populations over a defined period in a single endemic setting. We provide evidence for genotype introduction and define a nalidixic acid resistant subclone of S. Typhi, which appears to be the dominant cause of severe pediatric typhoid in Kathmandu during the study period.

  19. A strand-specific RNA-Seq analysis of the transcriptome of the typhoid bacillus Salmonella typhi.

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    Timothy T Perkins

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available High-density, strand-specific cDNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq was used to analyze the transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. By mapping sequence data to the entire S. Typhi genome, we analyzed the transcriptome in a strand-specific manner and further defined transcribed regions encoded within prophages, pseudogenes, previously un-annotated, and 3'- or 5'-untranslated regions (UTR. An additional 40 novel candidate non-coding RNAs were identified beyond those previously annotated. Proteomic analysis was combined with transcriptome data to confirm and refine the annotation of a number of hpothetical genes. ssRNA-seq was also combined with microarray and proteome analysis to further define the S. Typhi OmpR regulon and identify novel OmpR regulated transcripts. Thus, ssRNA-seq provides a novel and powerful approach to the characterization of the bacterial transcriptome.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella typhi and its virulence in suspected typhoid blood samples through nested multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane; Kalaiselvi, Vellingiri; Chandramouleeswaran, Naganathan; Deepthi, Krishnan Nair Geetha; Brahmadathan, Kootallur Narayanan; Mani, Mariappa

    2017-08-01

    A nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was developed for the detection of virulent Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients suspected for typhoid fever. After the Widal test, two pairs of primers were used for the detection of flagellin gene (fliC) of S. typhi. Among them, those positive for fliC alone were subjected to identification of genes in Via B operon of Salmonella Pathogenesity Island (SPI-7) where four primer pairs were used to detect tviA and tviB genes. Among 250 blood samples tested, 115 were positive by fliC PCR; 22 of these were negative for tviA and tviB. Hence, the method described here can be used to diagnose the incidence of Vi-negative serovar typhi especially in endemic regions where the Vi vaccine is administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variable Responses to Carbon Utilization between Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of a Human Carrier Strain of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

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    Kalaivani Kalai Chelvam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is a foodborne pathogen that causes typhoid fever and infects only humans. The ability of S. Typhi to survive outside the human host remains unclear, particularly in human carrier strains. In this study, we have investigated the catabolic activity of a human carrier S. Typhi strain in both planktonic and biofilm cells using the high-throughput Biolog Phenotype MicroArray, Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC biofilm inoculator (96-well peg lid and whole genome sequence data. Additional strains of S. Typhi were tested to further validate the variation of catabolism in selected carbon substrates in the different bacterial growth phases. The analyzes of the carbon utilization data indicated that planktonic cells of the carrier strain, S. Typhi CR0044 could utilize a broader range of carbon substrates compared to biofilm cells. Pyruvic acid and succinic acid which are related to energy metabolism were actively catabolised in the planktonic stage compared to biofilm stage. On the other hand, glycerol, L-fucose, L-rhamnose (carbohydrates and D-threonine (amino acid were more actively catabolised by biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Notably, dextrin and pectin could induce strong biofilm formation in the human carrier strain of S. Typhi. However, pectin could not induce formation of biofilm in the other S. Typhi strains. Phenome data showed the utilization of certain carbon substrates which was supported by the presence of the catabolism-associated genes in S. Typhi CR0044. In conclusion, the findings showed the differential carbon utilization between planktonic and biofilm cells of a S. Typhi human carrier strain. The differences found in the carbon utilization profiles suggested that S. Typhi uses substrates mainly found in the human biliary mucus glycoprotein, gallbladder, liver and cortex of the kidney of the human host. The observed diversity in the carbon catabolism profiles among

  2. Salmonella Typhi-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cells play a dominant role in protection from typhoid fever in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major public health problem worldwide. Development of novel vaccines remains imperative, but is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the immune responses that correlate with protection. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which volunteers received ~10(3) cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. Twenty-one volunteers were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 1 year after challenge were exposed to three S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously five intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a). Herein we provide the first evidence that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi. Higher multifunctional S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses were associated with protection against typhoid and delayed disease onset. Moreover, following challenge, development of typhoid fever was accompanied by decreases in circulating S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T effector/memory (TEM) with gut homing potential, suggesting migration to the site(s) of infection. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or no changes in circulating S. Typhi-specific TEM. These studies provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

  3. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

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    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  4. Induction of resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi under ciprofloxacin selective pressure

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    Sushila Dahiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (hereafter S. Typhi is an important public health problem in India. There has been an increase in the number of reported clinical failures to ciprofloxacin treatment but the data on possible mechanism of failure are limited. One mechanism that has been widely reported and found associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, is the mutations in target genes in QRDR (quinolone resistance determining region. It is hypothesized that mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV result in therapeutic failure under selective pressure of antibiotic while the patient is on treatment. We undertook in vitro sequential selection studies to expose the clinical isolates of S. Typhi to different concentration of ciprofloxacin to study the role of antibiotic selective pressure in the development of mutations in QRDR. Methods: Total 26 clinical isolates were divided in to two parts: part I included six isolates obtained from three patients with relapse of enteric fever and part II included 20 isolates with different ciprofloxacin MIC levels. For in vitro induction of mutation experiment, five S. Typhi isolates were selected which included three NAS (nalidixic acid sensitive and 2 NAR (nalidixic acid resistant S. Typhi. These isolates were grown under increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin and mutations acquired in QRDR of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE were investigated by sequencing. Results: For the isolates included in the part I of the study, it was found that the MIC to ciprofloxacin increased in the isolates obtained during the relapse of enteric fever as compare to the first isolate. All isolates had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 without additional mutation in the second isolate. In the second part of the study, the nine isolates with varying MICs to ciprofloxacin also had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 and another six had triple mutations

  5. Differential roles for pathogenicity islands SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhi with murine and human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Rodrigo A; Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia A; Amaya, Fernando A; Urrutia, Ítalo M; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A

    2017-02-15

    Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. Because the interaction with macrophages is a critical step in Salmonella pathogenicity, in this study we investigated the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264.7) and human (THP-1) macrophages. Our results showed that SPI-13 was required for internalization of S. Enteritidis in murine but not human macrophages. On the other hand, SPI-8 was not required for the interaction of S. Typhi with human or murine macrophages. Of note, the presence of an intact copy of SPI-13 in a S. Typhi mutant carrying a deletion of SPI-8 did not improve its ability to be internalized by, or survive in human or murine macrophages. Altogether, our results point out to different roles for SPI-13 and SPI-8 during Salmonella infection. While SPI-13 contributes to the interaction of S. Enteritidis with murine macrophages, SPI-8 is not required in the interaction of S. Typhi with murine or human macrophages. We hypothesized that typhoid serovars have lost SPI-13 and maintained SPI-8 to improve their fitness during another phase of human infection.

  6. A multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing assay for detecting mutations that result in decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Song, Yajun

    2010-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become a major problem for the successful therapy of human infections caused by Salmonella enterica, especially the life-threatening typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. METHODS: By using Luminex xTAG beads, we developed a rapid, reliable and cost-effective multiplexed genotyping assay for simultaneously detecting 11 mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parE of S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A that result in nalidixic acid resistance (Nal(R)) and\\/or decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. RESULTS: This assay yielded unambiguous single nucleotide polymorphism calls on extracted DNA from 292 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (Nal(R) = 223 and Nal(S) = 69) and 106 isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi A (Nal(R) = 24 and Nal(S) = 82). All of the 247 Nal(R) Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were found to harbour at least one of the target mutations, with GyrA Phe-83 as the most common one (143\\/223 for Salmonella Typhi and 18\\/24 for Salmonella Paratyphi A). We also identified three GyrB mutations in eight Nal(S) Salmonella Typhi isolates (six for GyrB Phe-464, one for GyrB Leu-465 and one for GyrB Asp-466), and mutations GyrB Phe-464 and GyrB Asp-466 seem to be related to the decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility phenotype in Salmonella Typhi. This assay can also be used directly on boiled single colonies. CONCLUSIONS: The assay presented here would be useful for clinical and reference laboratories to rapidly screen quinolone-resistant isolates of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, and decipher the underlying genetic changes for epidemiological purposes.

  7. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Proietti, D; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Rappuoli, R; Szu, S; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2011-01-17

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM(197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM(197) proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM(197) appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap Gambaran Mikroskopis Limpa Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi

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    I Gede Oka Budiawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ekstrak pegagan terhadap gambaran histologis limpa mencit yang diinfeksi Salmonella typhi. Mencit sebanyak 24 ekor dibagi empat kelompok, yakni kelompok I (P0 sebagai kontrol diberikan aquades steril, kelompok II (P1 diberikan pegagan dengan dosis 125 mg/kg bb, kelompok III (P2 diberikan pegagan 250 mg/kg bb, dan kelompok IV (P3 diberikan pegagan 500 mg/kg bb. Setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak 6 kali. Pegagan di berikan setiap hari selama 14 hari. Setelah 14 hari seluruh mencit diinfeksi S.typhi. Pada hari ke-15 dilakukan nekropsi untuk pengambilan sampel berupa limpa dan dibuat preparat histologi. Pengamatan preparat dilakukan di Laboratorium Histologi, meliputi persentase nekrosis. Metote pewarnaan menggunakan Haematoxylin Eosin (HE. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan Uji Kruskal-Wallis. Hasil analisis menunjukan gambaran  mikroskopis limpa mencit yang diberikan pegagan dosis 500 mg/kg bb berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan limpa mencit yang diberikan pegagan dosis 125 mg/kg bb, 250 mg/kg bb dan mencit yang tidak diberikan pegagan.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica Terhadap Gambaran Mikroskopis Ginjal Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi

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    Komang Ariya Hendrayana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh pemberian pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap gambaran mikroskopis ginjal mencit yang telah diinfeksi  Salmonella typhi. Penelitian menggunakan 24 ekor  mencit jantan berumur 8 – 12 minggu, dengan berat badan 20 – 35 gram, dibagi menjadi empat perlakuan dengan enam kali ulangan, yaitu kelompok P0 dengan pemberian aquades steril, kelompok P1 dengan pemberian pegagan 125 mg/kg bb, kelompok P2 dengan pemberian pegagan 250 mg/kg bb, dan kelompok P3 dengan pemberian 500 mg/kg bb. Setelah 14 hari seluruh mencit diinfeksi dengan S. typhi. Pada hari ke 15 dilakukan nekropsi untuk pengambilan sampel berupa ginjal dan dibuat preparat histologi. Selanjutnya dilakukan pengamatan terhadap gambaran mikroskopis yang meliputi perubahan : infiltrasi sel radang, perdarahan, degenerasi vakuola dan nekrosis. Metode pewarnaan menggunakan Haematoxylin dan Eosin (HE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan P0 berbeda nyata dengan P1, P2, dan P3. Demikian juga dengan derajat kerusakan ginjal tersebut. Semakin tinggi dosis pegagan yang diberikan semakin berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan struktur mikroskopis ginjal.

  10. Enhancing chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in vitro activity by Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaf extract, alone, and in combination with chloramphenicol (C) and trimethoprim (Tm) against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of tulsi, O. sanctum, leaf (TLE; 500 μg) for 23 S. typhi isolates was determined following agar diffusion. The C (30 μg) and Tm (5 μg) activity alone and in combination with TLE (250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) for the agents was recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated. The S. typhi isolates (n=23), which were resistant to both C (ZDI 6 mm) and Tm (ZDI 6 mm), had TLE (500 μg) ZDIs 16-24 mm. The ZDIs of C and Tm were increased up to 15-21 mm and 17-23 mm, respectively, when TLE (250 μg) was added to the C and Tm discs. The GIIs ranged 0.789-1.235 and 0.894-1.352, due to combined activity against S. typhi isolates, of C and TLE and Tm and TLE, respectively. The data suggest that TLE, in combination with C and Tm, had synergistic activity for S. typhi isolates, and hence O. sanctum is potential in combating S. typhi drug resistance, as well promising in the development of non-antibiotic drug for S. typhi infection. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of a murine monoclonal antibody to capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi

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    Fátima Reyes-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hybridoma technology has enabled the development of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against many antigens. Mabs have several applications in the field of basic research, diagnosis, immunotherapy and vaccine manufacturing processes. Mabs-producing hybridomas against the capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi were obtained, after intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsular polysaccharide Vi conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, and subsequent fusion of lymphocytes isolated of the spleen and myeloma cells SP2/O. A Mab was selected, partially characterized, and named as 4G3E11. The isotype of this Mab was IgG1. It was proved by means of a sandwich ELISA that the 4G3E11 Mab reacts with different concentrations of polysaccharide in samples of the vax-TyVi® vaccine. The Mab obtained in this research could be useful as reagent for the detection and quantitation of polysaccharide Vi in typhoid vaccines.

  12. POTENSI Salmonella typhi YANG DILEMAHKAN DENGAN SINAR ULTRAVIOLET SEBAGAI VAKSIN ALTERNATIF

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    Andreas Putro Ragil Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium and causes typhoid fever in humans. The success rate of Berma Vivotif Ty21a vaccine in Indonesia is only 33-66%, while in other countries have been reached up to 100%. The research was conducted in order to determine the potency of local isolate bacteria to stimulate the immune response and the impact of different exposure frequencies on the immune response and the different immune response time when administered by UV-inactivated vaccine.. The results showed that the antibody titer of local isolates irradiated by UV light 10x was 88.76 ± 33.06 IU/mL at week 4 with the lowest antibody titer values about 11.15 ± 9.18 IU/mL was found in the negative control.

  13. Molecular typing of Salmonella typhi strains from Dhaka (Bangladesh) and development of DNA probes identifying plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); S.K. Saha; W.J. van Leeuwen (Wibeke); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSeventy-eight Salmonella typhi strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 from patients living in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were subjected to phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 fingerprinting, and PCR fingerprinting. The collection displayed a high degree of genetic

  14. Immuno-fluorescence based Vi capsular polysaccharide detection for specific recognition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Satish K; Vinayaka, Aaydha C; Rishi, Dharam B; Rishi, Praveen; Suri, C Raman

    2014-09-02

    Typhoid fever is a life threatening bacterial infection that remains a major global health concern. This continued high burden associated with significant morbidity and mortality rate demands specific and rapid detection technique. This work reports a new sandwich type fluorescence immunoassay format using polymyxin B, a cationic receptor molecule, as a binder agent while anti-Vi antibody served as the capturing agent for specifically detecting Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Anti-Vi IgG antibody raised against Vi-BSA conjugate revealed affinity of 7.779nM(-1) signifying immunodominancy of O-acetyls groups in Vi polysaccharide. The detection limit of the developed assay was around 10(1) cellsmL(-1) of Vi expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) equal to 0.97. Positive response obtained for all the tested serovar Typhi clinical isolates as well as the pathogen spiked blood samples recommended specificity and accuracy of Vi antigen as a biomarker during typhoid fever. The intra- and inter-assay precision with Vi spiked samples were satisfactory revealing coefficient of variance (CV%) with a mean of 4.05% and 5.97% respectively. This may be the novel attempt and constructive report on the fluorescence based detection of Vi antigen of serovar Typhi in the epidemic as well as pandemic outbreaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Asghar, Samra; Naeem, Tahir; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aneela, Syeda; Hussain, Shabbir

    2013-07-01

    Alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. Natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. Typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (MDR) bugs of Salmonella typhi. Due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. Mango leaves have been Reported for various medicinal effects like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antiallergic etc. Objective of present study was to investigate anti-typhoid properties of acetone mango leaf extract (AMLE) against antibiotic sensitive and MDR S. typhi isolates. A total of 50 isolates of S. typhi including MDR (n=30) and antibiotic sensitive (n=20) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) were used as quality control strains. AMLE was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion screening method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), by agar dilution technique. Zone of inhibition (mm) of AMLE against MDR and antibiotic sensitive isolates was 18±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi.

  16. [A case with fever of unknown origin during treatment for malaria: multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Kemal; Yavuzdemir, Sükran; Cesur, Salih; Levent, Belkis; Esen, Berrin; Willke, Ayşe

    2005-01-01

    Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella serotype Typhi, leading to endemic or epidemic outbreaks in tropical/ subtropical countries (especially in India, Southeast Asia, Central and South Africa). In this report, a 27 years old male patient with malaria has been presented. The patient was diagnosed to have malaria while working in Afghanistan, and received malaria treatment since one month. He admitted to our hospital because of still continuing high fever, and other complaints (weight loss, night sweats, weakness, anorexia). His fever was 39.5 degrees C at admission, and blood smears were negative for Plasmodium sp. On the third day of admission, rose spots were detected on the skin of the abdomen and chest, and group agglutination tests gave positive results for S. Typhi O (titer: 1/800), and S. Typhi H (titer: 1/3200). Blood cultures revealed growth of Salmonella enterica serotip Typhi. The isolate was found to be resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracyclin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated successfully with ciprofloxacin for 14 days.

  17. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Typhi Isolated in Thailand before and after the Introduction of a National Immunization Program.

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    Zoe A Dyson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations of S. Typhi. Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a national typhoid immunization program that was implemented in Thailand in 1977 in response to a large outbreak; the program was highly effective in reducing typhoid case numbers. Thai isolates were highly diverse, including 10 distinct phylogenetic lineages or genotypes. Novel prophage and plasmids were also detected, including examples that were previously only reported in Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli. The majority of S. Typhi genotypes observed prior to the immunization program were not observed following it. Post-vaccine era isolates were more closely related to S. Typhi isolated from neighbouring countries than to earlier Thai isolates, providing no evidence for the local persistence of endemic S. Typhi following the national immunization program. Rather, later cases of typhoid appeared to be caused by the occasional importation of common genotypes from neighbouring Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. These data show the value of WGS in understanding the impacts of vaccination on pathogen populations and provide support for the proposal that large-scale typhoid immunization programs in endemic areas could result in lasting local disease elimination, although larger prospective studies are needed to test this directly.

  18. Cross-Reactivity of Rapid Salmonella Typhi IgM Immunoassay in Dengue Fever Without Co-Existing Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Ali, Farhan; Satti, Siddique Akbar

    2015-12-04

    Dengue fever is endemic in developing nations worldwide with as many as 500,000 annual cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis early in the disease course is essential for prompt identification and treatment of severe complications of the dengue virus infection (DVI). We identified cross-reactivity of a rapid IgM test for typhoid fever in patients with febrile illnesses that were determined to be due to dengue virus. All patients with documented DVI during a recent epidemic in Pakistan also underwent diagnostic testing for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The diagnosis of DVI was made based on clinical findings and the positive results for dengue non-structural protein 1 antigen (NS1Ag) and/or dengue IgM antibody (anti-D IgM) during the acute phase of febrile illness. Patients with positive test results for Salmonella typhi (S. Typhi) IgM also had their blood cultures done. In the group of 322 patients with clinical and serological evidence of DVI, 107 also tested positive for S. Typhi IgM. Blood cultures were negative for S. Typhi bacteria in all patients. Principal disease features included fever, headache, myalgia, retro-orbital pain, and a rash accompanied by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Comparisons of clinical and routine laboratory findings between the S. Typhi-positive and negative groups showed no significant differences. Patients testing positive for both NS1Ag and anti-D IgM were significantly more likely to test positive for S. Typhi IgM, even in the absence of typhoid fever. No routine antibiotics were used and all patients survived. One-third of a large group of patients with primary DVI also demonstrated false positive results for typhoid fever. Cross-reactivity of a rapid immunoassay for typhoid fever has not been previously reported in DVI or any other flavivirus infections. Until these findings can be further evaluated, clinicians should be cautious in

  19. Factors Associated with Encephalopathy in Patients with Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Bacteremia Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel T.; Bogetz, Jori; Itoh, Megumi; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Pietroni, Mark A. C.; Ryan, Edward T.; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2012-01-01

    To characterize clinical correlates of typhoid fever-associated encephalopathy, we performed a retrospective chart review of patients with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteremia who were hospitalized at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from February of 2009 to June of 2011. Of 207 patients bacteremic with Salmonella Typhi who were ≥ 5 years of age, we identified 43 (21%) patients with encephalopathy. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with encephalopathy more often presented at ages of 10–24 years and had severe dehydration, low oxygen saturation, high respiratory rate, low leukocyte count, low platelet count, and Widal flagellar H agglutinin (TH) titer ≥ 1:640 compared with typhoid patients without encephalopathy. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age, dehydration, leukocyte count, and Widal TH titer were independently associated with encephalopathy. Our findings suggest that age, severity of disease, and immune responses are associated with encephalopathy during Salmonella Typhi bacteremia, perhaps reflecting the impact of prominent inflammatory responses. PMID:22492156

  20. Isolasi karakterisasi dan pengelompokan strain Salmonella typhi asal Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya Nusa Tenggara Timur berdasarkan sifat-sifat fenotip

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    Charis Amarantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is highly endemic in the South-West Sumba Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The incidence rate of the diseases is high estimated at 725/100,000. It is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The clinical symptoms of the disease are extremely diverse, starting from the mild form to severe ones with the most feared complication being perforation within the small intestine. Therefore, it is important to perform isolation, characterization, and grouping of S. typhi strains from the blood culture in order to determined definitely diagnosis and the different phenotypic characteristics in the community. Isolation was done in selective and differential media: BacT/ALERT FA culture media, Selenite Cystine Broth, Chromocult Coliform Agar, MacConkey Agar, andSalmonella Shigella Agar. The typical colony of Salmonella was confirmed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Urea agar, and L-Lysinedecarboxylation media. Phenotypic characteristics of all isolates were identified using API 20E and API 50CHE diagnostics. Based on biochemical characteristics the result showed that 18 strains obtained from different geographical origins were diverse. Four strains have similarity value 100% while the remained strains have similarity value 86.3-98.4%. All of the strains were categorized in the species of S. typhi.

  1. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency.

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    Fadel, M A; Mohamed, S A; Abdelbacki, A M; El-Sharkawy, A H

    2014-08-01

    Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves (ELF-EMW-ELF-EM) at resonance frequency. Isolated Salmonella typhi was subjected to square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) with different modulation frequencies from two generators with constant carrier frequency of 10 MHz, amplitude of 10 Vpp, modulating depth ± 2 Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V m(-1) at 37°C. Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. typhi exposed to 0·8 Hz QAMW for a single exposure for 75 min. Dielectric relaxation, TEM and DNA results indicated highly significant changes in the molecular structure of the DNA and cellular membrane resulting from the exposure to the inhibiting EM waves. It was concluded that finding out the inhibiting resonance frequency of ELF-EM waves that deteriorates Salm. typhi growth will be promising method for the treatment of Salm. typhi infection either in vivo or in vitro. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria

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    N. U. Adabara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0% samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%, Shigella; 6 (10.0%, E. coli; 3 (5.0%, Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%, Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%, and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%. Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.

  3. A novel method to generate Salmonella Typhi Ty21a ghosts exploiting the λ phage holin-endolysin system.

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    Won, Gayeon; Kim, Boram; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-07-18

    Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S. Typhi Ty21a strain designated JOL1675. The in vitro expression of endolysin (~17.76 kDa) in the subsequent JOL1675 vaccine construct when grown under lysis inducible conditions was validated by immunoblotting. In scanning electron microscopy analysis, surface transmembrane tunnels and a collapsed body were visualized in the ghosts. Following 48 h of lysis, no viable JOL1675 cells remained, indicating that lysis of all cells was achieved. Subcutaneous immunizations of mice with the JOL1675 ghosts produced significantly increasing titers of serum IgG and vaginal wash secretory IgA antibodies against JOL1675 outer membrane proteins during the observational period. Further, serum collected at 6 weeks post-immunization of rabbits exhibited effective bactericidal activity against wild type S. Typhi in the presence of complement. These data showed that JOL1675 ghosts are highly immunogenic and elicit humoral and mucosal responses expected to correlate with protective immunity against S. typhi. Collectively, our findings support the conclusion that incorporating a λ phage holin-endolysin-mediated lysis construct into S. Typhi is an efficient strategy for developing a novel and safe non-living typhoid vaccine candidate.

  4. Priming of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi-specific CD8(+ T cells by suicide dendritic cell cross-presentation in humans.

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    Rosângela Salerno-Goncalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, the etiologic agent of typhoid fever, has aggravated an already important public health problem and added new urgency to the development of more effective typhoid vaccines. To this end it is critical to better understand the induction of immunity to S. Typhi. CD8(+ T cells are likely to play an important role in host defense against S. Typhi by several effector mechanisms, including killing of infected cells and IFN-gamma secretion. However, how S. Typhi regulates the development of specific CD8(+ responses in humans remains unclear. Recent studies in mice have shown that dendritic cells (DC can either directly (upon uptake and processing of Salmonella or indirectly (by bystander mechanisms elicit Salmonella-specific CD8(+ T cells.We report here that upon infection with live S. Typhi, human DC produced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha, but low levels of IL-12 p70 and IFN-gamma. In contrast, DC co-cultured with S. Typhi-infected cells, through suicide cross-presentation, uptake S. Typhi-infected human cells and release high levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12p70, leading to the subsequent presentation of bacterial antigens and triggering the induction of memory T cells, mostly CD3(+CD8(+CD45RA(-CD62L(- effector/memory T cells.This study is the first to demonstrate the effect of S. Typhi on human DC maturation and on their ability to prime CD8(+ cells and highlights the significance of these phenomena in eliciting adaptive immunity to S. Typhi.

  5. Recognition of nomenclatural standing of Salmonella typhi (Approved Lists 1980), Salmonella enteritidis (Approved Lists 1980) and Salmonella typhimurium (Approved Lists 1980), and conservation of the specific epithets enteritidis and typhimurium. Request for an opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, T; Kawamura, Y; Yabuuchi, E

    2000-03-01

    In 1994, the Judicial Commission of the ICSB announced that Le Minor and Popoff's Request for an Opinion in 1987 to designate Salmonella enterica sp. nov., nom. rev. as the type and only species of the genus Salmonella was denied. Thus, the current species of the genus Salmonella are Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella choleraesuis (including six subspecies) and Salmonella bongori, with the type species, S. choleraesuis (Smith 1894) Weldin 1927 (Approved Lists 1980). Because the decision of the Judicial Commission about the request by Le Minor in 1987 was suspended for 7 years, the non-validated name 'S. enterica' has been used among microbiologists and has caused confusion in the nomenclature of Salmonella. In order to overcome such confusion, and because of their importance as human pathogens, we herein propose to recognize the nomenclatural status of S. typhi, S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium as species and request to issue an Opinion to conserve the specific epithets enteritidis and typhimurium in the species names Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium.

  6. Multidrug Resistant Salmonella typhi in Asymptomatic Typhoid Carriers among Food Handlers in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu

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    Senthilkumar B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to screen Salmonella typhi in asymptomatic typhoid carriers and to find out drug resistance and ability of the strains to transmit drug resistance to other bacteria. Methods: Cultural characters, biochemical tests, antibiotic sensitivity test (disc diffusion, agarose gel electrophoresis, and conjugation protocols were done. Thirty five stool samples were collected from the suspected food handlers for the study. Results: Among 35 samples, (17.14% yielded a positive result. Out of these 4 (20.0% were women and 2 (13.33% were men. The isolates were tested with a number of conventional antibiotics viz, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimaxazole, rifampicin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and tetracycline. Five isolates were having the multidrug resistant character. Four (66.66% multidrug resistant isolates were found to have plasmids, while one (16.66% multidrug resistant isolate had no plasmid and the chromosome encoded the resistance. Only one strain (16.66% showed single antibiotic resistance in the study and had no plasmid DNA. The molecular weights of the plasmids were determined and found to be 120 kb.The mechanism of spreading of drug resistance through conjugation process was analyzed. In the conjugation studies, the isolates having R+ factor showed the transfer of drug resistance through conjugation, which was determined by the development of antibiotic resistance in the recipients. Conclusion: This study shows that drug resistant strains are able to transfer genes encoding drug resistance.

  7. Nanoparticle Fullerene (C60) demonstrated stable binding with antibacterial potential towards probable targets of drug resistant Salmonella typhi - a computational perspective and in vitro investigation.

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    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Parveen, Asma; Garka, Shruti

    2017-12-01

    Salmonella typhi, a Gram negative bacterium, has become multidrug resistant (MDR) to wide classes of antibacterials which necessitate an alarming precaution. This study focuses on the binding potential and therapeutic insight of Nano-Fullerene C60 towards virulent targets of Salmonella typhi by computational prediction and preliminary in vitro assays. The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi were collected and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed. The drug targets of pathogen were selected by rigorous literature survey and gene network analysis by various metabolic network resources. Based on this study, 20 targets were screened and the 3D structures of few drug targets were retrieved from PDB and others were computationally predicted. The structures of nanoleads such as Fullerene C60, ZnO and CuO were retrieved from drug databases. The binding potential of these nanoleads towards all selected targets were predicted by molecular docking. The best docked conformations were screened and concept was investigated by preliminary bioassays. This study revealed that most of the isolates of Salmonella typhi were found to be MDR (p C60 showed better binding affinity towards the drug targets when compared to ZnO and CuO. The preliminary in vitro assays suggested that 100 μg/L Fullerene C60 posses significant inhibitory activities and absence of drug resistance to this nanoparticle. This study suggests that Fullerene C60 can be scaled up as probable lead molecules against the major drug targets of MDR Salmonella typhi.

  8. Clinical application of a dot blot test for diagnosis of enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in patients with typhoid fever from Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Castro, N; Gotuzzo, E; Rodriguez, M; Guerra, H

    2000-03-01

    Clinical application of a dot blot test to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) (88% sensitivity and specificity) and IgM (12.1% sensitivity and 97% specificity) against flagellar antigen from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was performed in Peruvian and Colombian patients with typhoid fever. This test can be used as a good predictor of serovar Typhi infection in regions lacking laboratory facilities and in field studies.

  9. Survey of co-infection by Salmonella and oxyurids in tortoises

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    Dipineto Ludovico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella spp. and oxyurids are among the most prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents in reptiles. These organisms are routinely isolated in healthy tortoises, although heavy infections may cause significant pathology. Tortoises are considered a common source of reptile-associated salmonellosis, an important zoonosis reported worldwide. A survey of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and oxyurids in 53 tortoises was conducted in southern Italy and a possible correlation between the two pathogens was therefore investigated. Results Salmonella spp. and oxyurids were detected with a prevalence of 49.1 and 81.1%, respectively. A significant positive correlation between Salmonella spp. and oxyurids was demonstrated. However, confounding factors related to husbandry could have been involved in determining this correlation. Conclusions Our results suggest that caution should be exercised in translocation, husbandry, and human contact with tortoises and other exotic pets. Further studies on the epidemiology, molecular characterization and pathogenesis of Salmonella and oxyurids are needed to assess the actual impact of these organisms, as single or associated infections, on tortoises and on other exotic pets.

  10. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocol for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Class 1 integron

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    Juthika Mandal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocol for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and Class 1 integron, so as to aid rapid diagnosis of S. Typhi cases and help in the selection of treatment options based on the presence of the Class 1 integron that can carry resistance cassettes to a range of antibiotics. Methods: PCR for amplification of specific regions was done using fliC-d and intl primers and agarose gel electrophoresis was used for resolution of PCR products. Results: The fliC-d primer (S. Typhi specific amplified a 587 bp region and the intl primer (Class 1 integron specific amplified two bands approximately 500 and 550 bps. The developed method was specific for S. Typhi and did not amplify any products with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Conclusions: The developed multiplex PCR protocol can be used for rapid diagnosis and aid in proper treatment strategies for patients infected with S. Typhi.

  11. Molecular structure of alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M; Holden, Hazel M

    2004-10-15

    Dideoxysugars, which display biological activities ranging from mediating cell-cell interactions to serving as components in some antibiotics, are synthesized in various organisms via complex biochemical pathways that begin with the attachment of alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to either CTP or dTTP. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of the alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Salmonella typhi, which catalyzes the first step in the production of CDP-tyvelose. For this investigation, the enzyme was crystallized in the presence of its product, CDP-glucose. In contrast to previous reports, the enzyme exists as a fully integrated hexamer with 32-point group symmetry. Each subunit displays a "bird-like" appearance with the "body" composed predominantly of a seven-stranded mixed beta-sheet and the two "wings" formed by beta-hairpin motifs. These two wings mediate subunit-subunit interactions along the 3-fold and 2-fold rotational axes, respectively. The six active sites of the hexamer are situated between the subunits related by the 2-fold rotational axes. CDP-glucose is anchored to the protein primarily by hydrogen bonds with backbone carbonyl oxygens and peptidic NH groups. The side chains of Arg111 and Asn188 from one subunit and Glu178 and Lys179 from the second subunit are also involved in hydrogen bonding with the ligand. The topology of the main core domain bears striking similarity to that observed for glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol synthetase.

  12. [Elaboration of an immunosorbent for the purification of porins from Salmonella typhi 9, 12, Vi:d].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, R; Isibasi, A; Paniagua, J; Ortíz, V; Muy, M; González, C; Blanco, F; Islas, S; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    The current work was undertaken to purify porins of Salmonella typhi, which are outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that induce protection in mice against challenge with the bacteria in mucin. OMPs, isolated with a non-ionic detergent, had a 4% contamination with LPS (endotoxin) and molecular sizes ranging from 17 to 70 KDa. Porins (Mw 38-41 KDa) were isolated from OMPs preparative SDS-PAGE. Anti-porins antisera were raised in rabbits and specific IgG was purified, which was coupled to Sepharose-CNBr. This immunosorbent was used to purify LPS-free porins.

  13. Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Kelor terhadap Respons Imun Humoral pada Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (ACTIVITY OF KELOR LEAF EXTRACT ON HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MICE POST SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

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    Mohammad Hefni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the activity of  kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extract onhumoral immune response in mice infected with Salmonella typhi. Mice were divided into two groups : non-infected and infectedS. typhi groups. Each group was administered orally for 20 days with varied doses ofkelor leaf extract i.e. dose (0 mg/kg BW, dose 1 (14 mg/kg BW, dose 2 (42 mg /kg BW, and dose 3 (84 mg/kg BW.  Then all of the sample in infected groups were injected with 108 cells S. typhi. The humoralimmunity responses were determined by observing the number of lymphoid B cell (B220 and naive Thecell (CD4+CD62L+ by using software BD CellQuest Flowcytometry. The data were analysed using Two-Way ANOVA (P<0.05, with SPSS 16.0 for Windows.  The kelor leaf extract showed imunostimulatoryactivity by significantly improved the number of lymphocyte B cell (B220,  and naive Th Cell (CD4+CD62L+in mice infected with S. typhi.  The lower doses (dose of 14 mg/kg BW, and 42 mg/kg BW of kelor leafextracts was more effective than the highest dose (84 mg/kg BW. On the other  hand, the high dose showedimunosupresor activity on naive Teessor Th Cell.  However, immunosupressor activity on naïve Th cell wasobserved on the mice given the highest dose of extract.

  14. CRISPR is an optimal target for the design of specific PCR assays for salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A.

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    Laetitia Fabre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. However, the sensitivity and specificity of such assays must be demonstrated on large collections of strains representative of the targeted serotypes and all other bacterial populations producing similar clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Using a new family of repeated DNA sequences, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, as a serotype-specific target, we developed a conventional multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A from cultured isolates. We also developed EvaGreen-based real-time singleplex PCR assays with the same two sets of primers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for each protocol after validation of the assays on 188 serotype Typhi and 74 serotype Paratyphi A strains from diverse genetic groups, geographic origins and time periods and on 70 strains of bacteria frequently encountered in bloodstream infections, including 29 other Salmonella serotypes and 42 strains from 38 other bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS: The performance and convenience of our serotype-specific PCR assays should facilitate the rapid and accurate identification of these two major serotypes in a large range of clinical and public health laboratories with access to PCR technology. These assays were developed for use with DNA from cultured isolates, but with modifications to the assay, the CRISPR targets could be used in the development of assays for use with clinical and other samples.

  15. [Sensitivity to chlorine-containing disinfectants of Salmonella typhi strains with transmissible drug resistance].

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    Karmanova, G I; Morozova, N S; Emel'ianova, O I; Kibardina, N N

    1987-02-01

    Sensitivity of 201 S. typhi strains to antibiotics and chlorine containing disinfectants was studied. The strains were isolated in the regions of the Left Bank Ukraine. Among the typhoid cultures the proportion of R+ strains was on the whole equal to 29.3 per cent. Chloramine resistant strains amounted to 21.8 per cent. Among chloramine resistant strains the number of the cultures carrying R plasmids was 3 times higher than that of the strains sensitive to disinfectant. Simultaneous transfer of the R plasmid and chloramine resistance to the recipient strain suggested that resistance of the S. typhi strains to chloramine was of plasmid nature.

  16. Differential epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: a matched case control investigation in a highly endemic enteric fever setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkey, Abhilasha; Thompson, Corinne N; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines.

  17. Níveis de sensibilidade de enterobactérias, em particular Salmonella typhi, a rifamicina S.V.

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    Ivone R. Suassuna

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available Em face à predominante eliminação biliar da rifamicina S.V. atingindo concentrações muitas vêzes superiores aos níveis séricos obtidos com as doses terapêuticas, e pelo possível interêsse dessa verificação para o tratamento dos portadores biliares crônicos de Salmonella typhi determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória de 165 estirpes de enterobactérias, incluindo 77 amostras de S. typhi. Foi verificado que a maioria das cepas de Escherichia coli, Shigella e Proteus mirabilis correspondiam a uma concentração inibitória mínima entre 33 a 65 μg/ml. Entre 65 e 128 μg/ml foram determinadas as concetrações inibitórias mínimas da maioria das outras espécies de Proteus, de Providencia e de Klebsiella. Para Salmonella e Enterobacter o limite mínino de sensibilidade foi, em regra, igual ou superior a 128 μg/ml. Diferenças mais acentuadas de comportamento entre as enterobactérias foram observadas quanto à ação bactericida da rifamicidas S.V. De uma maneira geral, para E. coli e Shigella, as concentrações inibitórias mínimas já referidas. Para as espécies de Proteus e Providencia houve variação maior de comportamento, mas tendência a que o efeito bactericidas fôsse encontrado em concentrações que correspondiam a 4 vêzes as bacteriostáticas para as mesmas espécies. Finalmente, de modo pouco feliz para os propósitos visados, em Salmonella, com a inclusão de S. typhi, não foi atingido um efeito bactericida, com as mais altas concentrações usadas as quais corresponderam em média a 6 vêzes as concentrações bacteriostáticas para esse gênero.

  18. Oral Challenge with Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Induces Distinct Changes in B Cell Subsets in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

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    Franklin R Toapanta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi was recently established by the Oxford Vaccine Group. In this model, 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of participants developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD- 6-9 days post-challenge. TD was diagnosed in participants meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12h and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia endpoints. Changes in B cell subpopulations following S. Typhi challenge remain undefined. To address this issue, a subset of volunteers (6 TD and 4 who did not develop TD -NoTD- was evaluated. Notable changes included reduction in the frequency of B cells (cells/ml of TD volunteers during disease days and increase in plasmablasts (PB during the recovery phase (>day 14. Additionally, a portion of PB of TD volunteers showed a significant increase in activation (CD40, CD21 and gut homing (integrin α4β7 molecules. Furthermore, all BM subsets of TD volunteers showed changes induced by S. Typhi infections such as a decrease in CD21 in switched memory (Sm CD27+ and Sm CD27- cells as well as upregulation of CD40 in unswitched memory (Um and Naïve cells. Furthermore, changes in the signaling profile of some BM subsets were identified after S. Typhi-LPS stimulation around time of disease. Notably, naïve cells of TD (compared to NoTD volunteers showed a higher percentage of cells phosphorylating Akt suggesting enhanced survival of these cells. Interestingly, most these changes were temporally associated with disease onset. This is the first study to describe differences in B cell subsets directly related to clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild-type S. Typhi in humans.

  19. Oral Challenge with Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Induces Distinct Changes in B Cell Subsets in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R; Bernal, Paula J; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-06-01

    A novel human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently established by the Oxford Vaccine Group. In this model, 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of participants developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 6-9 days post-challenge. TD was diagnosed in participants meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. Changes in B cell subpopulations following S. Typhi challenge remain undefined. To address this issue, a subset of volunteers (6 TD and 4 who did not develop TD -NoTD-) was evaluated. Notable changes included reduction in the frequency of B cells (cells/ml) of TD volunteers during disease days and increase in plasmablasts (PB) during the recovery phase (>day 14). Additionally, a portion of PB of TD volunteers showed a significant increase in activation (CD40, CD21) and gut homing (integrin α4β7) molecules. Furthermore, all BM subsets of TD volunteers showed changes induced by S. Typhi infections such as a decrease in CD21 in switched memory (Sm) CD27+ and Sm CD27- cells as well as upregulation of CD40 in unswitched memory (Um) and Naïve cells. Furthermore, changes in the signaling profile of some BM subsets were identified after S. Typhi-LPS stimulation around time of disease. Notably, naïve cells of TD (compared to NoTD) volunteers showed a higher percentage of cells phosphorylating Akt suggesting enhanced survival of these cells. Interestingly, most these changes were temporally associated with disease onset. This is the first study to describe differences in B cell subsets directly related to clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild-type S. Typhi in humans.

  20. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R; Bernal, Paula J; Fresnay, Stephanie; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-). Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD-) were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h). Moreover, integrin α4β7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48 h and 96 h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi.

  1. The influence of MAP condition and active compounds on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi present in chicken breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Chiasson, F

    2004-10-01

    The efficiency of carvacrol, thymol, trans-cinnamaldehyde (Tc) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Tp) on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in chicken breast was determined. Chicken breast were dipped in a bath of working cultures of E. coli or S. typhi (5x10{sup 7} CFU/ml). Active compounds were added at the concentration corresponding to ((1)/(30)) of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Samples were packed under air and gamma irradiation was done at doses from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy. The efficiencies of the active compounds against E. coli were 32%, 10%, 3% and 0% for thymol, Tp and carvacrol, respectively. For S. typhi, the efficiencies in the chicken breast were 47%, 19%, 17% and 11% for Tc, Tp, carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Without active compounds, D{sub 10} values were 0.145 kGy for E. coli and 0.64 kGy for S. typhi as compared to 0.098 kGy for E. coli and 0.341 kGy for S. typhi in presence of Tc. Under modified atmospheric packaging condition and in presence of Tc, D{sub 10} values were reduced to 0.046 for E. coli and to 0.110 for S. typhi.

  2. [About problems of carriers of Salmonella typhi and paratyphi B under hygienic, epidemiologic and sociologic view (authors transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossmann, D

    1977-01-01

    The carriers of salmonella typhi and paratyphi B are the central figures of the epidemiology of typhoid illnesses. The files available at the medical authorities' office of the Hansestadt Lübeck, with regards to all 543 carriers registered up to 1972, have been analysed, and 102 of 108 carriers who were inhabitants of Lübeck on 31.10.72, have been interviewed in their lodgings.--Following results are mentionable: 1. 55 carriers have been traced during a hospital stay, 22 of them were under hospital treatment because of cholecystectomy. 2. The circle of persons to be obligated for medical examination as per $ 17 of the Federal Republic of Germany's law of epidemics has proved as too small. For instance two female carriers--known since years--did their job without any hindering as plates washer or waitress in restaurants. 3. 21 persons=4% of the patients excreted salmonellae in urine only. 4. 10% of the carriers of salmonella typhi and 16% of the carriers of salmonella paratypi B had in their faeces as least 5-years intervals of non-excretion. 5. The precentage of carriers with at least 5-years intervals of non-excretion in urine was significantly larger than the corresponding percentage in faeces. 6. Falling ill of 280 persons out of the environs of the carriers have been lead back to the latters. 73% of these infections were placed by the carriers before their detection through the medical authorities' office. 7. For 10 patients whose health was recreated excretion did not cease promptly after the cholecystecystectomy. Salmonellae had been found in the faeces for several months more, at two persons even two years after the operation. 8. For 8 carriers a final decision with regards to the success of cholecystectomy is impossible because they denied a duodenal soundation. 9. 123 persons of 23% of total 543 carriers had--before their ascertation--professions not allowed for those persons. Efforts for a successful job arrangement, possibly combined with a change in

  3. Stochastic simulation of endemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi: the importance of long lasting immunity and the carrier state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Saul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi remains a serious burden of disease, especially in developing countries of Asia and Africa. It is estimated that it causes 200,000 deaths per year, mainly in children. S. Typhi is an obligate pathogen of humans and although it has a relatively complex life cycle with a long lived carrier state, the absence of non-human hosts suggests that well targeted control methods should have a major impact on disease. Newer control methods including new generations of vaccines offer hope but their implementation would benefit from quantitative models to guide the most cost effective strategies. This paper presents a quantitative model of Typhoid disease, immunity and transmission as a first step in that process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stochastic agent-based model has been developed that incorporates known features of the biology of typhoid including probability of infection, the consequences of infection, treatment options, acquisition and loss of immunity as a result of infection and vaccination, the development of the carrier state and the impact of environmental or behavioral factors on transmission. The model has been parameterized with values derived where possible from the literature and where this was not possible, feasible parameters space has been determined by sensitivity analyses, fitting the simulations to age distribution of field data. The model is able to adequately predict the age distribution of typhoid in two settings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modeling highlights the importance of variations in the exposure/resistance of infants and young children to infection in different settings, especially as this impacts on design of control programs; it predicts that naturally induced clinical and sterile immunity to typhoid is long lived and highlights the importance of the carrier state especially in areas of low transmission.

  4. The effects of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis in vitro against Salmonella Typhi and their synergism with antibiotics acting on the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, R O; Fernandes, A; Bankova, V; Sforcin, J M

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, and the use of antibiotics is essential for controlling this infection; however, the excessive use of antibiotics may select resistant strains. Propolis is a honeybee product and its antimicrobial activity has been intensively investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible synergism between propolis (collected in Brazil and Bulgaria) and antibiotics acting on the ribosome (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and neomycin) against Salmonella Typhi in vitro. The synergism was investigated by using ½ and ¼ of the minimum inhibitory concentration for propolis and these antimicrobial agents, evaluating the number of viable cells according to the incubation time. Brazilian propolis showed a bacteriostatic action against S. Typhi, while Bulgarian propolis showed a bactericidal activity and a synergistic effect with the three antibiotics. Variations in the biological assays might be due to the differences in their chemical compositions. Based on the results, one may conclude that Bulgarian propolis showed an important antibacterial action, as well as a synergistic effect with antibiotics acting on the ribosome, which points out a possible therapeutic strategy evaluating the use of propolis preparations for the treatment of Salmonella Typhi infection.

  5. Quantification of Salmonella Typhi in water and sediments by molecular-beacon based qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Neetika; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Singh, Smriti; Shanker, Rishi; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2014-10-01

    A molecular-beacon based qPCR assay targeting staG gene was designed for specific detection and quantification of S. Typhi and validated against water and sediment samples collected from the river Ganga, Yamuna and their confluence on two days during Mahakumbha mela 2012-2013 (a) 18 December, 2012: before six major religious holy dips (Makar Sankranti, Paush Poornima, Mauni Amavasya, Basant Panchami, Maghi Poornima and Mahashivratri) (b) 10 February, 2013: after the holy dip was taken by over 3,00,00,000 devotees led by ascetics of Hindu sects at Sangam on 'Mauni Amavasya' (the most auspicious day of ritualistic mass bathing). The assay could detect linearly lowest 1 genomic equivalent per qPCR and is highly sensitive and selective for S. Typhi detection in presence of non specific DNA from other bacterial strains including S. Paratyphi A and S. Typhimurium. It has been observed that water and sediment samples exhibit S. Typhi. The mass holy dip by devotees significantly affected the water and sediment quality by enhancing the number of S. Typhi in the study area. The qPCR developed in the study might be helpful in planning the intervention and prevention strategies for control of enteric fever outbreaks in endemic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN EC2 AND ITS INTERFERENCE IN THE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN A MILK MATRIX

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    Yuri de Jesus Lopes de Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference can occur through various mechanisms, including the production of peroxides, acids, ammonia, bacteriolytic enzymes or bacteriocins. The strain Escherichia coli EC2 produces the antimicrobial substance (AMS EC2, able to inhibit different strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from food, as E. coli and Salmonella sp. The activity of AMS EC2 was lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, indicating the presence of an active proteinaceous compound, suggesting that it is a bacteriocin. The substance, renamed bacteriocin EC2, has its better production when the producer strain is grown on Casoy medium, at 37ºC and pH 6.0, without NaCl addition, but it is also able to be produced in milk. When co-cultivated in UHT milk with the producer strain E. coli EC2, the growth of the indicator strain Salmonella Typhi is totally inhibited within the first 4 hours of incubation, suggesting a potential application of bacteriocin EC2 in the control of Salmonella sp. e.g. in foods.

  7. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Jansen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+, harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi(+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi(+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi(+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi(- infected animals. C5.507 Vi(+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-α, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi(-. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88(-/- and was reduced in TLR4(-/- mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro.

  8. Genomic Dissection of Travel-Associated Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Originating from the Philippines: a One-Off Occurrence or a Threat to Effective Treatment of Typhoid Fever?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Mikoleit, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One unreported case of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was identified, whole-genome sequence typed, among other analyses, and compared to other available genomes of S. Typhi. The reported strain was similar to a previously published strain harbo...

  9. Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa K; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek J; Parkhill, Julian; Page, Andrew J; Feasey, Nicholas A; Kingsley, Robert A; Thomson, Nicholas R; Keane, Jacqueline A; Weill, François-Xavier; Edwards, David J; Hawkey, Jane; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E; Cain, Amy K; Hadfield, James; Hart, Peter J; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Klemm, Elizabeth J; Glinos, Dafni A; Breiman, Robert F; Watson, Conall H; Kariuki, Samuel; Gordon, Melita A; Heyderman, Robert S; Okoro, Chinyere; Jacobs, Jan; Lunguya, Octavie; Edmunds, W John; Msefula, Chisomo; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Kama, Mike; Jenkins, Kylie; Dutta, Shanta; Marks, Florian; Campos, Josefina; Thompson, Corinne; Obaro, Stephen; MacLennan, Calman A; Dolecek, Christiane; Keddy, Karen H; Smith, Anthony M; Parry, Christopher M; Karkey, Abhilasha; Mulholland, E Kim; Campbell, James I; Dongol, Sabina; Basnyat, Buddha; Dufour, Muriel; Bandaranayake, Don; Naseri, Take Toleafoa; Singh, Shalini Pravin; Hatta, Mochammad; Newton, Paul; Onsare, Robert S; Isaia, Lupeoletalalei; Dance, David; Davong, Viengmon; Thwaites, Guy; Wijedoru, Lalith; Crump, John A; De Pinna, Elizabeth; Nair, Satheesh; Nilles, Eric J; Thanh, Duy Pham; Turner, Paul; Soeng, Sona; Valcanis, Mary; Powling, Joan; Dimovski, Karolina; Hogg, Geoff; Farrar, Jeremy; Holt, Kathryn E; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid is a major global health threat affecting many countries where the disease is endemic. Here whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,832 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) identifies a single dominant MDR lineage, H58, that has emerged and spread throughout Asia and Africa over the last 30 years. Our analysis identifies numerous transmissions of H58, including multiple transfers from Asia to Africa and an ongoing, unrecognized MDR epidemic within Africa itself. Notably, our analysis indicates that H58 lineages are displacing antibiotic-sensitive isolates, transforming the global population structure of this pathogen. H58 isolates can harbor a complex MDR element residing either on transmissible IncHI1 plasmids or within multiple chromosomal integration sites. We also identify new mutations that define the H58 lineage. This phylogeographical analysis provides a framework to facilitate global management of MDR typhoid and is applicable to similar MDR lineages emerging in other bacterial species. PMID:25961941

  10. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  11. Identification and characterization of Salmonella typhi isolates from Southwest Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara based on 16S rRNA gene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARIS AMARANTINI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarantini C, Sembiring L, Kushadiwijaya H, Asmara W (2011 Identification and characterization of Salmonella typhi isolates from Southwest Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Biodiversitas 12: 1-6. The incidence rate of typhoid fever in the Southwest Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara was approximately about 725/100,000. In spite of such rate, there was not much known-yet about the molecular epidemiology of the disease. Thus, having accurate data and a strong discriminatory ability was crucial to scrutinize the molecular epidemiology of S. typhi with a molecular phylogenetic approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sixteen isolates representative of S. typhi from different geographical regions in Southwest Sumba District along with the reference strain S. typhi NCTC 786 had been identified and characterised based on 16S rRNA gene sequences using PCR amplification and sequencing. The 16S rRNA sequences data were aligned with the corresponding available S. typhi sequences retrieved from the NCBI database by using CLUSTAL X software. Phylogenetic trees were generated with PHYLIP software package. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the isolates belong to S. typhi species were suggested by their relativity with the type strain of S. typhi ATCC19430T. It was also found that the isolates which belong to S. typhi species formed several different centers of diversity within the 16S rRNA gene tree. Each clade consisted of the strains from different geographical places in the District. Thus, to conclude the inquiry, there was evident inter-geographical spread of the strains and it tended to spread further into more remote areas in the District.

  12. Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi recombinant outer membrane protein 28 induces humoral but non-protective immune response in rabbit

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    Anjani Saxena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi. Materials and Methods: Immune potential of recombinant Omp28 was tested in New Zealand Rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups, i.e., control and test group. Control group was injected with phosphate buffer saline with adjuvant while test group were injected with recombinant Omp28 along with adjuvant. Rabbits were bleed and serum was collected from each rabbit. Serum was tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for humoral response. Rabbits were challenged with virulent culture to test the protective immunity. Results: Humoral response was provoked at 15th day and maintained till 30th day. The mean ELISA titer at 15th day was 1 : 28000 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4472 and on the 30th day was 1 : 25866 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4127. Protective immune potential of Omp 28 was assessed by challenge studies in rabbits for which vaccinated and control rabbits were challenged with 109 cells of virulent culture of S. Typhi. In control group, out of six, no rabbit could survive after 48 days while in vaccinated group, three out of six rabbit were survived. Conclusion: Immunization of rabbit with recombinant Omp 28 induced a strong humoral response which was exhibited by high antibody titer in ELISA. Subsequently, intraperitoneal homologous challenge of the immunized New Zealand rabbit resulted in lack of significant protection. These findings indicate that Omp 28 though provoked the humoral immunity but could not provide the protective immunity in

  13. OmpR may regulate the putative YehU/YehT two-component system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi under hypotonic growth condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifang; Du, Hong; Ji, Xiaolan; Ni, Bin; Mao, Linxiang; Xu, Shungao; Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    2012-03-01

    Decreased expression (twofold) of a putative yehUTS operon of which yehUT encodes a putative YehU/YehT two-component system in the ompR mutant from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) GIFU10007 under hypotonic growth condition was observed by qRT-PCR. Purified recombinant protein OmpR(His6) of GIFU10007 was shown to bind the upstream region of the yehU gene by the gel-shift assay. In addition, the yehT deletion mutant (ΔyehT) displayed differential expression (twofold or higher) of 26 genes under the condition by the DNA microarray analysis. Altogether, OmpR might regulate the YehUT system in S. Typhi under hypotonic growth condition.

  14. An inducible and secreted eukaryote-like serine/threonine kinase of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi promotes intracellular survival and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeya, Nagaraja; Ta, Atri; Das, Sayan; Mandal, Rahul S; Chakrabarti, Oishee; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Ghosh, Amar N; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryote-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) constitute an important family of bacterial virulence factors. Genome analysis had predicted putative eSTKs in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, although their functional characterization and the elucidation of their role in pathogenesis are still awaited. We show here that the primary sequence and secondary structure of the t4519 locus of Salmonella Typhi Ty2 have all the signatures of eukaryotic superfamily kinases. t4519 encodes a ∼39-kDa protein (T4519), which shows serine/threonine kinase activities in vitro. Recombinant T4519 (rT4519) is autophosphorylated and phosphorylates the universal substrate myelin basic protein. Infection of macrophages results in decreased viability of the mutant (Ty2Δt4519) strain, which is reversed by gene complementation. Moreover, reactive oxygen species produced by the macrophages signal to the bacteria to induce T4519, which is translocated to the host cell cytoplasm. That T4519 may target a host substrate(s) is further supported by the activation of host cellular signaling pathways and the induction of cytokines/chemokines. Finally, the role of T4519 in the pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi is underscored by the significantly decreased mortality of mice infected with the Ty2Δt4519 strain and the fact that the competitive index of this strain for causing systemic infection is 0.25% that of the wild-type strain. This study characterizes the first eSTK of Salmonella Typhi and demonstrates its role in promoting phagosomal survival of the bacteria within macrophages, which is a key determinant of pathogenesis. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first study to describe the essential role of eSTKs in the in vivo pathogenesis of Salmonella spp. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by efflux pumps is a well-known phenomenon in infectious bacteria. Although much work has been carried out to characterize multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, such information is still lacking for many deadly pathogens. The aim...... conferred resistance to at least ten of the tested antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ethidium bromide, and acriflavine, including fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which were drugs of choice to treat S. Typhi infections...

  16. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bermudez-Brito

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down

  17. Cell-Free Culture Supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 Decreases Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Dendritic Cells Challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J.; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro

  18. Challenge of Humans with Wild-type Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Elicits Changes in the Activation and Homing Characteristics of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno-Goncalves, Rosângela; Luo, David; Fresnay, Stephanie; Magder, Laurence; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are rare in industrialized countries. However, they remain a major public health problem in the developing world with an estimated 26.9 million new cases annually and significant mortality when untreated. Recently, we provided the first direct evidence that CD8+ MAIT cells are activated and have the potential to kill cells exposed to S. Typhi, and that these responses are dependent on bacterial load. However, MAIT cell kinetics and function during bacterial infections in humans remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterize the human CD8+ MAIT cell immune response to S. Typhi infection in subjects participating in a challenge clinical trial who received a low- or high dose of wild-type S. Typhi. We define the kinetics of CD8+ MAIT cells as well as their levels of activation, proliferation, exhaustion/apoptosis, and homing potential. Regardless of the dose, in volunteers resistant to infection (NoTD), the levels of CD8+ MAIT cells after S. Typhi challenge fluctuated around their baseline values (day 0). In contrast, volunteers susceptible to the development of typhoid disease (TD) exhibited a sharp decline in circulating MAIT cells during the development of typhoid fever. Interestingly, MAIT cells from low-dose TD volunteers had higher levels of CD38 coexpressing CCR9, CCR6, and Ki67 during the development of typhoid fever than high-dose TD volunteers. No substantial perturbations on the levels of these markers were observed in NoTD volunteers irrespective of the dose. In sum, we describe, for the first time, that exposure to an enteric bacterium, in this case S. Typhi, results in changes in MAIT cell activation, proliferation, and homing characteristics, suggesting that MAIT cells are an important component of the human host response to bacterial infection.

  19. Evolution of Salmonella Typhi outer membrane protein-specific T and B cell responses in humans following oral Ty21a vaccination: A randomized clinical trial.

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    Juan Manuel Carreño

    Full Text Available Vaccination against complex pathogens such as typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella requires the concerted action of different immune effector mechanisms. Outer membrane proteins (Omps of Salmonella Typhi are potent immunogens, which elicit long-lasting and protective immunity. Here, we followed the evolution of S. Typhi OmpC and F-specific T and B cell responses in healthy volunteers after vaccination with the vaccine strain Ty21a. To follow humoral and cellular immune responses, pre- and post-vaccination samples (PBMC, serum and stool collected from 15 vaccinated and 5 non-vaccinated individuals. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed in peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. B cell and T cell activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed a significant increase of circulating antibody-secreting cells and maximal Omp-specific serum IgG titers at day 25 post vaccination, while IgA titers in stool peaked at day 60. Likewise, Omp-specific CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood showed the highest expansion at day 60 post vaccination, concomitant with a significant increase in IFN-γ and TNFα production. These results indicate that S. Typhi Omp-specific B cell responses and polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses evolve over a period of at least two months after application of the live attenuated vaccine. Moreover, these findings underscore the potential of S. Typhi Omps as subunit vaccine components.ISRCTN18360696.

  20. Immunoblot detection of class-specific humoral immune response to outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi in humans with typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ,V; Isibasi, A.; García-Ortigoza, E; Kumate, J.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported here were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce a humoral immune response in humans with typhoid fever. OMPs were isolated with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed protein bands with molecular size ranges from 17 to 70 kilodaltons; the major groups of proteins we...

  1. Overexpression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi recA gene confers fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli DH5α

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    M.A.M. Yassien

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant (STM1 was isolated from its parent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi clinical isolate. Unlike its parent isolate, this mutant has selective resistance to fluoroquinolones without any change in its sensitivity to various other antibiotics. DNA gyrase assays revealed that the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype of the STM1 mutant did not result from alteration of the fluoroquinolone sensitivity of the DNA gyrase isolated from it. To study the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance, a genomic library from the STM1 mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α and two recombinant plasmids were obtained. Only one of these plasmids (STM1-A conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. The chromosomal insert from STM1-A, digested with EcoRI and HindIII restriction endonucleases, produced two DNA fragments and these were cloned separately into pUC19 thereby generating two new plasmids, STM1-A1 and STM1-A2. Only STM1-A1 conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. Sequence and subcloning analyses of STM1-A1 showed the presence of an intact RecA open reading frame. Unlike that of the wild-type E. coli DH5α, protein analysis of a crude STM1-A1 extract showed overexpression of a 40 kDa protein. Western blotting confirmed the 40 kDa protein band to be RecA. When a RecA PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T and introduced into E. coli DH5α, the STM1-A11 subclone retained fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggest that overexpression of RecA causes selective fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli DH5α.

  2. Salmonella typhi: lisotipia VI e biotipificação em amostras oriundas de algumas regiões do Brasil Salmonella typhi: lysotype VI and biotyping in sample from some regions of Brazil

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    Ernesto Hofer

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se uma análise da distribuicão da frequência dos lisotipos VI e dos tipos fermentativos segundo o esquema de Kristensen, em 1.150 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas de diferentes regiões do Brasil (Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. No computo geral, observou-se a prevalência dos lisotipos A (38,1%; Ela (18,9%; amostras VI negativas (16,6%; D6 (8,7% I + IV (4,6%; T (2,3% e C1 (2,1% e a ocorrência de alguns tipos fágicos característicos para determinadas áreas (B3, C4 e 40 na Bahia; E1b, F2, G1 e L1 em São Paulo; E4 e 28 no Rio de Janeiro. Quanto a classificacão bioquímica, 55,2% das amostras caracterizaram-se no biotipo II (xilose e arabinose negativas, 44,2% no tipo fermentativo I (xilose positiva e arabinose negativas e 0,52% no tipo III (xilose e arabinose positivas, respectivamente.The frequency of Vi-phage types and fermentative types according to Kristensen's scheme was studied among 1,150 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from different areas in Brazil (states of Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. The most prevalent phage types encountered in this study were: A (38.1%; Ela (18.9%, D6 (8.7%, T (2.3% and C1 (2.1%, including categories of untypable strains (group I + IV-4.6%, and Vi negative (16.6%. There was,however, some types characteristics of particular areas (B3, C4, 40 from Bahia; Elb, F2,G1, L1 from São Paulo; E4 and 28 from Rio de Janeiro. In respect to the biochemical classification, 55.2% of the strains were classified as a biotype II (xylose and arabinose negative, 44,2% as of type I (xylose positive and negative0 and 0.52% as a type III (xylose and arabinose positive, respectively.

  3. [Epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella Typhi isolates in Guangxi, 1994-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliu; Kan, Biao; Yang, Jin; Lin, Mei; Yan, Meiying; Zeng, Jun; Quan, Yi; Liao, Hezhuang; Zhou, Lingyun; Jiang, Zhenling; Huang, Dehui

    2014-08-01

    Through analyzing the typhoid epidemics and to determine and monitor regional resistance characteristics of the shift of drug resistant profile on Salmonella (S.) Typhi, to understand the related epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and to provide evidence for the development of strategies, in Guangxi. Data of typhoid fever from surveillance and reporting system between 1994 to 2013 was collected and statistically analyzed epidemiologically. The susceptibility of 475 S. Typhi isolates from patients on ten antibiotics was tested by broth micro-dilution method and minimum inhibition concentration was obtained and interpreted based on the CLSI standard. From 1994 to 2013, a total of 57 928 cases of typhoid fever were reported in Guangxi province with an annual incidence of 6.29/100 000 and mortality as 0.03%. The higher incidence was observed in the population under 20 years of age. There was no significant difference on incidence between male and female, but farmers and students were among the hardest hit groups. More cases were seen from the northern part of the province. Cases appeared all year round with the peak from May to October. A total of 13 major outbreaks during 2001 to 2013 were reported and the main transmission route was water-borne. All the strains were sensitive to third generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and fluoroquinolones norfloxacin. The susceptibility rates to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin was around 98% but relative lower susceptible rate to ciprofloxacin was seen as 89.89% . The lowest susceptibility was found for streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole agents, with the rates as 67.73% and 65.89% , respectively. One strain was found to have been resistant to ciprofloxacin and another 47 isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Twenty eight isolates were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics and one displayed ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole tetracycline and

  4. Differential epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: a matched case control investigation in a highly endemic enteric fever setting.

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    Abhilasha Karkey

    Full Text Available Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting.A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection.Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines.

  5. Emergence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance in epidemic and non-epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi from Jordan.

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    Al-Sanouri, Tarek M; Paglietti, Bianca; Haddadin, Aktham; Murgia, Manuela; Bacciu, Donatella; Youssef, Mahammad; Rubino, Salvatore

    2008-08-30

    Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has not been adequately explored in Jordan. In this study we investigated antibiotic resistance patterns and resistance determinants coupled with fingerprint methods of forty-eight isolates of S. Typhi obtained from 113 patients with suspected enteric fever admitted at six governmental hospitals in different directorates in Jordan. Twenty-four isolates were from an outbreak of typhoid fever that occurred between October 2004 and January 2005, and another twenty-four were from sporadic cases from 2005. All isolates of S. Typhi were resistant to streptomycin. A multidrug resistant (MDR) pattern of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole with tetracycline and streptomycin (R-type ACCoTS) was found in 58% of the epidemic strains causing the outbreak and in 98% of the strains from sporadic cases. MDR isolates harbored a single IncHI1 plasmid containing a class 1 integron (dfrA7). Plasmid conjugation studies demonstrated a genetic transfer of resistance (ACCoT). S. Typhi isolates were all sensitive to fluoroquinolones and cefotaxime, the alternative drugs recommended for treatment of typhoid fever. The genomic analysis using PFGE showed: a) the outbreak was caused by an introduced circulating clone with/without an MDR plasmid, and b) isolates from the sporadic cases from 2005 are the same MDR clone that persisted and spread in the country. The emergence of MDR S. Typhi strains is a majorn important public health issue in Jordan. This study should guide selection of effective antibiotic therapy for the treatment of typhoid and monitoring of the spread of MDR of S. Typhi.

  6. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alan W.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C.; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  8. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

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    Franklin R Toapanta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD- 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-. Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD- were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h. Moreover, integrin α4β7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48 h and 96 h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi.

  9. Genotypic characterization of Salmonella typhi by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting provides increased discrimination as compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S; Schreiber, E; Thong, K L; Pang, T; Altwegg, M

    2000-06-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a recently developed, PCR-based high resolution fingerprinting method that is able to generate complex banding patterns which can be used to delineate intraspecific genetic relationships among bacteria. In the present study, AFLP was evaluated for its usefulness in the molecular typing of Salmonella typhi in comparison to ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six S. typhi isolates from diverse geographic areas (Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Chile, Papua New Guinea and Switzerland) gave unique, heterogeneous profiles when typed by AFLP, a result which was consistent with ribotyping and PFGE analysis. In a further study of selected S. typhi isolates from Papua New Guinea which caused fatal and non-fatal disease previously shown to be clonally related by PFGE, AFLP discriminated between these isolates but did not indicate a linkage between genotype with virulence. We conclude that AFLP (discriminatory index=0.88) has a higher discriminatory power for strain differentiation among S. typhi than ribotyping (DI=0.63) and PFGE (DI=0.74).

  10. Synergistic antimicrobial effect of nisin and p-cymene on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in vitro and on ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are a major cause of typhoid fever, leading to public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Nisin and rho-cymene were tested in this study for their antimicrobial activity against S. Typhi at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Nisin and rho-cymene, when used separately, did not inhibit the bacterium at either temperature. A synergistic antimicrobial effect between both compounds was observed when they were used simultaneously. This synergism was greater at 37 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. The lowest concentrations of nisin and rho-cymene required for complete inhibition of S. Typhi at 37 degrees C were 0.3 ppm and 1.5 ppm, respectively, and 0.3 ppm and 2.5 ppm at 4 degrees C. The potential of nisin and rho-cymene to control an S. Typhi population on ready-to-eat Thai-style pork sausage was also examined. The compounds were able to eliminate the contaminating bacterium with concentrations depending on the bacterial cell number on the food.

  11. Core-linked LPS expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen in live Salmonella Typhi vaccine vector Ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De Qi; Cisar, John O; Osorio, Manuel; Wai, Tint T; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2007-08-14

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. Antibodies against Shigella serotype-specific O-polysaccharide (O-Ps) have been shown to be host protective. In this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were PCR-amplified from S. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. Deletion analysis showed that eight rfb ORFs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this O-Ps. A tandemly-linked rfb-rfp gene cassette was cloned into low copy plasmid pGB2 to create pSd1. Avirulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Ty21a harboring pSd1 synthesized S. Typhi 9, 12 LPS as well as typical core-linked S. dysenteriae 1 LPS. Animal immunization studies showed that Ty21a (pSd1) induces protective immunity against high stringency challenge with virulent S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617. These data further demonstrate the utility of S. Typhi Ty21a as a live, bacterial vaccine delivery system for heterologous O-antigens, supporting the promise of a bifunctional oral vaccine for prevention of shigellosis and typhoid fever.

  12. Validation and application of an ELISA for the quantification of IgG antibodies against Salmonella Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide

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    Yanet Martin-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the quantification of IgG antibodies against the Vi polysaccharide of this bacteria was developed as a part of the stages of Research and Development of a conjugate vaccinal candidate against Salmonella Typhi. The results of the validation process are presented in this paper, in which the interval and linearity of the curve, the intra- and inter-assay precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and robustness were determined. The calibration curve generated with an internal standard serum provided a good fit to a polynomial function and an interval between 1/100 and 1/3200 dilutions. The coefficients of variation in the precision and robustness tests and the percentages of recovered were in intervals established for each one (≤10%, ≤20% and 90-110%, respectively. The assay presented an optimal specificity, obtaining OD signals above 1.3 for positive sera against Vi and low for sera against unrelated antigens. The results support the use of this quantitative ELISA in immunogenicity assays for batch release of Vi conjugates. Likewise, they support their use for the immunogenicity evaluation of Vi polysaccharide formulations and Vi polysaccharide conjugates to proteins in phases of research and development

  13. Anthrax protective antigen delivered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a protects mice from a lethal anthrax spore challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Manuel; Wu, Yanping; Singh, Sunil; Merkel, Tod J; Bhattacharyya, Siba; Blake, Milan S; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2009-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been associated with adverse effects. In this study, we modified the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) gene for optimal expression and stability, linked it to an inducible promoter for maximal expression in the host, and fused it to the secretion signal of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin protein (HlyA) on a low-copy-number plasmid. This plasmid was introduced into the licensed typhoid vaccine strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, and was found to be genetically stable. Immunization of mice with three vaccine doses elicited a strong PA-specific serum immunoglobulin G response with a geometric mean titer of 30,000 (range, 5,800 to 157,000) and lethal-toxin-neutralizing titers greater than 16,000. Vaccinated mice demonstrated 100% protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with aerosolized spores of B. anthracis 7702. The ultimate goal is a temperature-stable, safe, oral human vaccine against anthrax infection that can be self-administered in a few doses over a short period of time.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  15. Investigations of binding mode insight in Salmonella typhi type-III secretion system tip protein (SipD: A molecular docking and MD simulation study

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    Gopinath Samykannu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a Gram-negative pathogen that utilizes type three secretion systems (TTSS to translocate virulence factors into host cells. This causes a wide variety of diseases mainly gastroenteritis and typhoid fever in both humans and animals. Salmonella invasive protein D (SipD is a tip protein, attached to the needle protein and interacts with translocon complex. Exploring the molecular mechanisms of SipD may aid in better understanding about secretion, translocators and transmission of environmental signals of Salmonella. In this study, SipD sequence (Q56136 was retrieved from Uniprot for which three-dimensional (3D structure was modelled with the help of I-TASSER server. The modelled structure was subjected to molecular docking using Glide. About 25 compounds of T3SS inhibitors were chosen after literature studies and docking was performed. It was evident that polyol product Caminoside A possessed (≤-5 kcal/mol the best interaction with SipD and therefore this complex was subjected to molecular dynamic simulation for interaction stability analysis. The simulation results showed that Caminoside A binding was highly stable (life time of 80% with SipD and Asn318 interaction was more significant for the protein-ligand complex stability. These results will provide new knowledge for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against Salmonella typhi.

  16. Fifth Percentile Cutoff Values for Antipneumococcal Polysaccharide and Anti-Salmonella typhi Vi IgG Describe a Normal Polysaccharide Response

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    Heidi Schaballie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSerotype-specific antibody responses to unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV evaluated by a World Health Organization (WHO-standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA are the gold standard for diagnosis of specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SAD. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI has proposed guidelines to interpret the PPV response measured by ELISA, but these are based on limited evidence. Additionally, ELISA is costly and labor-intensive. Measurement of antibody response to Salmonella typhi (S. typhi Vi vaccine and serum allohemagglutinins (AHA have been suggested as alternatives. However, there are no large cohort studies and cutoff values are lacking.ObjectiveTo establish cutoff values for antipneumococcal polysaccharide antibody response, anti-S. typhi Vi antibody, and AHA.MethodsOne hundred healthy subjects (10–55 years were vaccinated with PPV and S. typhi Vi vaccine. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 3–4 weeks after vaccination. Polysaccharide responses to 3 serotypes were measured by WHO ELISA and to 12 serotypes by an in-house bead-based multiplex assay. Anti-S. typhi Vi IgG were measured with a commercial ELISA kit. AHA were measured by agglutination method.ResultsApplying AAAAI criteria, 30% of healthy subjects had a SAD. Using serotype-specific fifth percentile (p5 cutoff values for postvaccination IgG and fold increase pre- over postvaccination, only 4% of subjects had SAD. One-sided 95% prediction intervals for anti-S. typhi Vi postvaccination IgG (≥11.2 U/ml and fold increase (≥2 were established. Eight percent had a response to S. typhi Vi vaccine below these cutoffs. AHA titer p5 cutoffs were ½ for anti-B and ¼ for anti-A.ConclusionWe establish reference cutoff values for interpretation of PPV response measured by bead-based assay, cutoff values for S. typhi Vi vaccine responses, and normal values for AHA. For the first time, the

  17. Fifth Percentile Cutoff Values for Antipneumococcal Polysaccharide and Anti-Salmonella typhi Vi IgG Describe a Normal Polysaccharide Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaballie, Heidi; Bosch, Barbara; Schrijvers, Rik; Proesmans, Marijke; De Boeck, Kris; Boon, Mieke Nelly; Vermeulen, François; Lorent, Natalie; Dillaerts, Doreen; Frans, Glynis; Moens, Leen; Derdelinckx, Inge; Peetermans, Willy; Kantsø, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Bossuyt, Xavier; Meyts, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Serotype-specific antibody responses to unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) evaluated by a World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the gold standard for diagnosis of specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SAD). The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) has proposed guidelines to interpret the PPV response measured by ELISA, but these are based on limited evidence. Additionally, ELISA is costly and labor-intensive. Measurement of antibody response to Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) Vi vaccine and serum allohemagglutinins (AHA) have been suggested as alternatives. However, there are no large cohort studies and cutoff values are lacking. To establish cutoff values for antipneumococcal polysaccharide antibody response, anti-S. typhi Vi antibody, and AHA. One hundred healthy subjects (10-55 years) were vaccinated with PPV and S. typhi Vi vaccine. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 3-4 weeks after vaccination. Polysaccharide responses to 3 serotypes were measured by WHO ELISA and to 12 serotypes by an in-house bead-based multiplex assay. Anti-S. typhi Vi IgG were measured with a commercial ELISA kit. AHA were measured by agglutination method. Applying AAAAI criteria, 30% of healthy subjects had a SAD. Using serotype-specific fifth percentile (p5) cutoff values for postvaccination IgG and fold increase pre- over postvaccination, only 4% of subjects had SAD. One-sided 95% prediction intervals for anti-S. typhi Vi postvaccination IgG (≥11.2 U/ml) and fold increase (≥2) were established. Eight percent had a response to S. typhi Vi vaccine below these cutoffs. AHA titer p5 cutoffs were ½ for anti-B and ¼ for anti-A. We establish reference cutoff values for interpretation of PPV response measured by bead-based assay, cutoff values for S. typhi Vi vaccine responses, and normal values for AHA. For the first time, the intraindividual consistency of all three methods is

  18. Optimization of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Otimização da reação de amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico - reação em cadeia da polimerase para tipagem molecular de Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhi

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    Bianca Ramalho Quintaes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the RAPD reaction for characterizing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains was studied in order to ensure the reproducibility and the discriminatory power of this technique. Eight Salmonella serovar Typhi strains isolated from various regions in Brazil were examined for the fragment patterns produced using different concentrations of DNA template, primer, MgCl2 and Taq DNA polymerase. Using two different low stringency thermal cycle profiles, the RAPD fingerprints obtained were compared. A set of sixteen primers was evaluated for their ability to produce a high number of distinct fragments. We found that variations associated to all of the tested parameters modified the fingerprinting patterns. For the strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi used in this experiment, we have defined a set of conditions for RAPD-PCR reaction, which result in a simple, fast and reproducible typing method.A otimização da reação de RAPD para a caracterização de cepas de Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhi foi estudada com o objetivo de assegurar a reprodutibilidade e o poder discriminatório desta técnica. Oito cepas de Salmonella sorovar Typhi isoladas de algumas regiões do Brasil foram usadas para examinar os padrões de fragmentação produzidos quando foram empregadas concentrações diferentes do DNA molde, do iniciador, do MgCl2 e da enzima Taq DNA polimerase. Com a utilização de dois diferentes perfis de ciclos termais de baixa estringência, foram comparados os padrões de bandeamento obtidos. Um conjunto de dezesseis iniciadores foi avaliado quanto à capacidade de produzir elevado número de fragmentos distintos. Observou-se que variações associadas a todos os parâmetros testados modificaram os padrões de bandeamento. Para as amostras de Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhi utilizadas neste experimento, definiu-se um conjunto de condições para a reação de RAPD-PCR que resultou num método de tipagem simples, rápido e

  19. An outpatient, ambulant-design, controlled human infection model using escalating doses of Salmonella Typhi challenge delivered in sodium bicarbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A V; Kerridge, Simon A; Kingsley, Robert A; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J; Sztein, Marcelo B; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%-75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ≥38°C sustained ≥12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Two dose levels (10(3) or 10(4) colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control.

  20. An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A. V.; Kerridge, Simon A.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Methods. Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ≥38°C sustained ≥12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Results. Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Conclusions. Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control. PMID:24519873

  1. Slide Coagglutination for Salmonella typhi Antigens in Broths Inoculated with Feces from Typhoid Fever Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    hoeae, N. meningitidis and Lancefield groups sis of typhoid fever were history of fever for A, B, D and G streptococci (Danielsson and at least seven...SUKSANoNG, M. and DAJANT, A.S., (1977). 144. -a .. . ’U 532 Vol. 12 No. 4 December 1981 U U UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When...Twelve of these later seroconverted to Salmonella 0 -j DO A’In 1473 UNCLASSIFIED .over SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P-G--(W fte - .Entered.) F

  2. Co-infection of Avian Leukosis Virus and Salmonella pullorum with the Preliminary Eradication in Breeders of Chinese Local “ShouGuang” Chickens

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    Jian Qiang Huang, Jing Kai Xin, Cui Mao, Feng Zhong and Jia Qian Chai*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the infection status and to finish the preliminary eradication of avian leukosis virus (ALV and Salmonella pullorum (SP in breeders of Chinese local “ShouGuang” chickens. ALV antigen and antibody was tested via ELISA, and SP antibody was detected by serum plate agglutination test (SPAT. The etiology and pathology was also studied. The ALV-P27 antigen, ALV-A/B and SP antibody positive chickens were eliminated in turn, and then the negative were retained as the breeder flocks. The results showed that the positive rate of antigen to ALV-P27, antibody to ALV-A/B, ALV-J and SP was 57.8, 6.7, 0 and 17.8% in this breeder farm, respectively. The co-infection of ALV and SP was confirmed and the positive rate of both SP and ALV-P27 or ALV-A/B was 10 and 1%, respectively. There were obvious tumor nodules and lymphoid tumor cells in the comb, liver and spleen of the co-infected chickens. The degenerative and atrophic ovarian follicles, inflammatory cell infiltration in muscle biopsies were also found. The elimination rate of ALV-p27, ALV-A/B and SP positive chickens was 55.4, 13 and 6.1%, respectively. The final amount of the breeder conservation was 309 chickens. In conclusion, the co-infection of ALV-B and SP was found and more emphasis should be given on its prevention; the preliminary eradication of “ShouGuang” breeder chickens was finished.

  3. Differing Burden and Epidemiology of Non-Typhi Salmonella Bacteremia in Rural and Urban Kenya, 2006–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabu, Collins; Breiman, Robert F.; Ochieng, Benjamin; Aura, Barrack; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey; Ongus, Juliette R.; Fields, Patricia; Mintz, Eric; Burton, Deron; Oundo, Joe; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. Methods As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006–2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. Results NTS accounted for 60/155 (39%) of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3%) in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban) and 64% (rural) of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults). In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. Conclusions NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa. PMID:22363591

  4. Development of an Acid-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a Attenuated Vector For Improved Oral Vaccine Delivery.

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    Madushini N Dharmasena

    Full Text Available The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC. Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues. However, the ECC was selected as a more practical delivery format for both packaging/shipping and vaccine administration ease. We have sought to increase Ty21a acid-resistance to allow for removal from the ECC and immune enhancement. To improve Ty21a acid-resistance, glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes (GAD; responsible for Shigella spp. survival at very low pH were cloned on a multi-copy plasmid (pGad under a controllable arabinose-inducible promoter. pGad enhanced acid survival of Ty21a by 5 logs after 3 hours at pH 2.5, when cells were pre-grown in arabinose and under conditions that promote an acid-tolerance response (ATR. For genetically 100% stable expression, we inserted the gad genes into the Ty21a chromosome, using a method that allowed for subsequent removal of a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Further, both bacterial growth curves and survival assays in cultured human monocytes/macrophages suggest that neither the genetic methods employed nor the resulting acid-resistance conferred by expression of the Gad proteins in Ty21a had any effect on the existing attenuation of this vaccine strain.

  5. Development of an Acid-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a Attenuated Vector For Improved Oral Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Madushini N; Feuille, Catherine M; Starke, Carly Elizabeth C; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Stibitz, Scott; Kopecko, Dennis J

    The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues. However, the ECC was selected as a more practical delivery format for both packaging/shipping and vaccine administration ease. We have sought to increase Ty21a acid-resistance to allow for removal from the ECC and immune enhancement. To improve Ty21a acid-resistance, glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes (GAD; responsible for Shigella spp. survival at very low pH) were cloned on a multi-copy plasmid (pGad) under a controllable arabinose-inducible promoter. pGad enhanced acid survival of Ty21a by 5 logs after 3 hours at pH 2.5, when cells were pre-grown in arabinose and under conditions that promote an acid-tolerance response (ATR). For genetically 100% stable expression, we inserted the gad genes into the Ty21a chromosome, using a method that allowed for subsequent removal of a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Further, both bacterial growth curves and survival assays in cultured human monocytes/macrophages suggest that neither the genetic methods employed nor the resulting acid-resistance conferred by expression of the Gad proteins in Ty21a had any effect on the existing attenuation of this vaccine strain.

  6. Differing burden and epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella bacteremia in rural and urban Kenya, 2006-2009.

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    Collins Tabu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. RESULTS: NTS accounted for 60/155 (39% of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3% in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban and 64% (rural of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults. In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa.

  7. PARTICIPACION DE LOS MARCOS DE LECTURA STY1362, STY1364 y STY1365 DE SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR TYPHI EN LA INTERACCION CON EL MACROFAGO HUMANO Y LA ENVOLTURA BACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    RODAS GARRIDO, PAULA

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica incluye a un amplio grupo de microorganismos Gram-negativos y patógenos intracelulares facultativos que infectan un amplio rango de hospederos y causan una variedad de enfermedades que van desde una gastroenteritis limitada hasta una severa infección sistémica. De ellos, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infecta exclusivamente al ser humano y ha demostrado ser un patógeno altamente adaptado a su hospedero, siendo el agente etiológico de la fiebre tifoidea...

  8. DNA biosensor for detection of Salmonella typhi from blood sample of typhoid fever patient using gold electrode modified by self-assembled monolayers of thiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryapratiwi, Windha Novita; Paat, Vlagia Indira; Gaffar, Shabarni; Hartati, Yeni Wahyuni

    2017-05-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are currently being developed in order to handle various clinical problems in diagnosing infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, or viruses. On this research, voltammetric DNA biosensor using gold electrode modified by thiols with self-assembled monolayers had been developed to detect a certain sequence of Salmonella typhi DNA from blood sample of typhoid fever patient. Thiol groups of cysteamines (Cys) and aldehyde groups from glutaraldehydes (Glu) were used as a link to increase the performance of gold electrode in detecting guanine oxidation signal of hybridized S. typhi DNA and ssDNA probe. Standard calibration method was used to determine analytical parameters from the measurements. The result shown that, the detection of S. typhi DNA from blood sample of typhoid fever patient can be carried out by voltammetry using gold electrode modified by self-assembled monolayers of thiols. A characteristic oxidation potential of guanine using Au/Cys/Gluwas obtained at +0.17 until +0.20 V. Limit of detection and limit of quantification from this measurements were 1.91μg mL-1 and 6.35 μg mL-1. The concentration of complement DNA from sample was 6.96 μg mL-1.

  9. Characterization of Citrobacter sp. line 328 as a source of Vi for a Vi-CRM(197) glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Pisoni, Ivan; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan J; Martin, Laura B

    2012-11-26

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever with over 22 million cases and over 200,000 deaths reported annually. A vaccine is much needed for use in young children and the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH) is developing a conjugate vaccine which targets S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide. Here we describe a method suitable for industrial scale production of the Vi antigen based on expression by a Citrobacter line. We optimized the production of Vi by selecting a suitable Citrobacter strain (Citrobacter 328) that yields high and stable expression of Vi in chemically defined medium under industrial-scale fermentation conditions. Vi-CRM197 made using Vi from Citrobacter 328 elicited high anti-Vi antibody levels in mice and rabbits. Citrobacter 328 is a suitable strain for production of Vi for conjugate anti-Typhi vaccines. Being a BSL-1 organism, which grows in defined medium and stably produces high yields of Vi, it offers excellent potential for safe production of inexpensive vaccines for populations at risk of typhoid fever.

  10. Immunoblot detection of class-specific humoral immune response to outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi in humans with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, V; Isibasi, A; García-Ortigoza, E; Kumate, J

    1989-07-01

    The studies reported here were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce a humoral immune response in humans with typhoid fever. OMPs were isolated with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed protein bands with molecular size ranges from 17 to 70 kilodaltons; the major groups of proteins were those that correspond to the porins and OmpA of gram-negative bacteria. Rabbit antiserum to OMPs or to S. typhi recognized OMPs after absorption with lipopolysaccharide. Sera from patients with typhoid fever contained immunoglobulin M antibodies which reacted with a protein of 28 kilodaltons and immunoglobulin G antibodies which reacted mainly with the porins, as determined by immunoblotting. These results indicate that the porins are the major immunogenic OMPs from S. typhi and that the immune response induced in the infection could be related to the protective status.

  11. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  12. The Development and Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

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    Fenxia Fan

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever remains a public health threat in many countries. A positive result in traditional culture is a gold-standard for typhoid diagnosis, but this method is time consuming and not sensitive enough for detection of samples containing a low copy number of the target organism. The availability of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which offers high speed and simplicity in detection of specific targets, has vastly improved the diagnosis of numerous infectious diseases. However, little research efforts have been made on utilizing this approach for diagnosis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by targeting a single and specific gene. In this study, a LAMP assay for rapid detection of S. Typhi based on a novel marker gene, termed STY2879-LAMP, was established and evaluated with real-time PCR (RT-PCR. The specificity tests showed that STY2879 could be amplified in all S. Typhi strains isolated in different years and regions in China, whereas no amplification was observable in non-typhoidal strains covering 34 Salmonella serotypes and other pathogens causing febrile illness. The detection limit of STY2879-LAMP for S. Typhi was 15 copies/reaction in reference plasmids, 200 CFU/g with simple heat-treatment of DNA extracted from simulated stool samples and 20 CFU/ml with DNA extracted from simulated blood samples, which was 10 fold more sensitive than the parallel RT-PCR control experiment. Furthermore, the sensitivity of STY2879-LAMP and RT-PCR combining the traditional culture enrichment method for simulated stool and blood spiked with lower S. Typhi count during the 10 h enrichment time was also determined. In comparison with LAMP, the positive reaction time for RT-PCR required additional 2-3 h enrichment time for either simulated stool or blood specimens. Therefore, STY2879-LAMP is of practical value in the clinical settings and has a good potential for application in developing regions due to its easy-to-use protocol.

  13. Validation of a traditional preparation against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi and its protective efficacy in S. Typhimurium infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Bag, Paromita; Vaidya, Shatrughna Prasad; Dutta, Shanta

    2018-01-17

    Shorea robusta Gaertn has been used for skin and intestinal ailments in Indian Traditional medicine; while two tribal communities used its tender leaves in 'Meyadi-bukhar' or long-term fever. This prompted us to validate the aqueous and methanol extracts of Shorea robusta tender leaves against wild- and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and growth inhibition were determined using disc diffusion, agar-and-broth dilution, dose- and time-response assays, along with the safety and protective efficacy in Balb/C mice, infected with S. Typhimurium. The MIC of the extract was 256-450 μg/ml against S. Typhi isolates, and 700 μg/ml for mouse virulent S. Typhimurium, while MBC was ≤512-1024 μg/ml. The growth curve revealed that the extract was bactericidal at 4-6 h of exposure. Toxicity study showed that the extract was safe up to 3000 mg/kg (p.o.). Moreover, it significantly (p > 0.01) protect the challenged (1.4 × 10 8  cfu/ml) mice at 93.75 (i.p.) and 300 mg/kg (p.o.) dose, compared to the infection control (distilled water treatment group). Collectively, our results confirmed the antibacterial potential of the test extracts against MDR-isolates of S. Typhi. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Dri-Dot OMPs Salmonella Typhi in Suspected Typhoid Fever Patients as an Immunodiagnostic Kit

    OpenAIRE

    Natzir, Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    - Background. Several studies have identified a protein of OMP S. Typhi. The protein is highly immunogenic and can be recognize whole cells of S. Typhi. The aims of the study was to evaluate the Dri-dot OMPs immunoreactivity in typhoid fever suspected patients. Method. Samples obtained from Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, lbnu Sina Hospital, and Haji Hospital of Makassar from February to November 2014. Their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated against blood culture method as the ...

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Bioactive Compounds and Bioautographic Studies of Whole Plant Extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to carry out preliminary investigation of bioactive compounds and bioautographic studies of whole plant extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tukey HSD test of hierarchy for the effect of different solvents crude extract on bacterial isolates indicates the methanol extract as the most bioactive. The Tukey HSD analysis also showed that the bioactivities of the crude extracts of the various parts of Euphorbia pulcherrima were part dependent and the whole plant was the most bioactive. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia pulcherrima has been shown in this work to contain phytochemicals which have shown remarkable activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bioactivities against the test organisms were due to the combined effects of the compounds separated on TLC plates. Families of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, and steroids that were detected in the extracts were identified by GC-MS. The various classes of phytochemicals in the E. pulcherrima plant provided the antimicrobial potency of the plant.

  16. Detection of blaCTX-M Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in a Tertiary Care Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Aishwarya; Shanthi, Mariappan; Sekar, Uma

    2017-09-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella are an important public health threat in tropical and subtropical countries. Due to the emergence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant salmonellae) in the late 1980s, fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins became the drugs of choice. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone due to the production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin have emerged resulting in treatment failure. The Cefotaximase (CTX-M) type ESBLs are the most widespread beta lactamase among Enterobacteriaceae including salmonellae. To detect the presence of blaCTX-M in salmonellae causing human infections. Detection of qnr genes to identify the coexistence of blaCTX-M and qnr gene. The study included 103 consecutive, non-repetitive salmonellae isolated from clinical specimens obtained from July 2015- June 2016 which were identified up to species level by conventional/automated methods. Susceptibility to various classes of antimicrobial agents was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was determined by agar dilution method. The results were interpreted in accordance with Clinical & Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) (guidelines 2015. Detection of the ESBL phenotype was performed by the combined disk method. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of all isolates was performed using group specific primers to characterize the presence of blaCTX-M, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS. Of the 103 study isolates two isolates of Salmonella typhi were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and had a MIC of 128μg/ml. PCR amplification and sequencing detected the presence of blaCTX-M-15 in these two isolates. These two isolates exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro but qnr gene was not detected in these isolates. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins among salmonellae is a

  17. Lose to win: marT pseudogenization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival to H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A P; Villagra, N A; Urrutia, I M; Valenzuela, L M; Talamilla-Espinoza, A; Hidalgo, A A; Rodas, P I; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Paredes-Sabja, D; Mora, G C; Fuentes, J A

    2016-11-01

    The difference in host range between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) can be partially attributed to the gain of functions, to the loss of functions (i.e. pseudogenization), or to a combination of both processes. As previously reported, the loss of functions by pseudogenization may play a role in bacterial evolution, especially in host-restricted pathogens such as S. Typhi. The marT-fidL operon, located at the SPI-3, encodes the MarT transcriptional regulator and a hypothetical protein (i.e. FidL) with no significant similarities to known proteins, respectively. Even though predicted S. Typhimurium FidL exhibit 99.4% identity with S. Typhi FidL, marT has been annotated as a pseudogene in S. Typhi. In this work, we found that S. Typhi expressing S. Typhimurium marT-fidL exhibited an increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a decreased survival in presence of H 2 O 2 . Moreover, we found that that the presence of a functional copy of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi resulted in a repression of surV (STY4039), an ORF found in the S. Typhi SPI-3 but absent from S. Typhimurium SPI-3, that contribute to the resistance to H 2 O 2 by decreasing the accumulation of ROS. Finally, we observed that the presence of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi negatively affected the survival inside macrophage-like cells, but not in epithelial cells, after 24h post infection. Therefore, this work provides evidence arguing that marT pseudogenization in Salmonella Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival against H 2 O 2 , and inside human macrophage-like cells. This is a good example of how the loss of functions (marT pseudogenization) and the gain of functions (presence of surV) might contribute to phenotypic changes improving virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of reduced graphene oxide-hybridized ZnO thin films on the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swe Jyan; Yeoh, Soo Ling; Lee, Kian Mun; Lai, Chin Wei; Abdul Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-08-01

    The immobilization of photocatalyst nanoparticles on a solid substrate is an important aspect for improved post-treatment separation and photocatalyst reactor design. In this study, we report the simple preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-hybridized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a one-step electrochemical deposition, and investigated the effect of rGO-hybridization on the photoinactivation efficiency of ZnO thin films towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) as target bacterial pathogens. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the formation of geometric, hexagonal flakes of ZnO on the ITO glass substrate, as well as the incorporation of rGO with ZnO in the rGO/ZnO thin film. Raman spectroscopy indicated the successful incorporation of rGO with ZnO during the electrodeposition process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy indicates that rGO hybridization with ZnO increases the amount of oxygen vacancies, evidenced by the shift of visible PL peak at 650 to 500nm. The photoinactivation experiments showed that the thin films were able to reduce the bacterial cell density of Staph. aureus and S. Typhi from an initial concentration of approximately 10(8) to 10(3)CFU/mL within 15min. The rGO/ZnO thin film increased the photoinactivation rate for S. aureus (log[N/No]) from -5.1 (ZnO) to -5.9. In contrast, the application of rGO/ZnO thin film towards the photoinactivation of S. Typhi did not improve its photoinactivation rate, compared to the ZnO thin film. We may summarise that (1) rGO/ZnO was effective to accelerate the photoinactivation of S. aureus but showed no difference to improve the photoinactivation of S. Typhi, in comparison to the performance of ZnO thin films, and (2) the photoinactivation in the presence of ZnO and rGO/ZnO was by ROS damage to the extracellular wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Myristica fragrans seed (nutmeg) extract and its antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar; Sivaji, Ilakkia; Kandasamy, Selvam; Duraisamy, Senbagam; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs. The functional molecules present in the M. fragrans seed extract and their interaction with the AgNPs were identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver nanoparticle and diameter was calculated using Scherrer's equation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 25 nm. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) according to agar well diffusion, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), and IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%). The results confirm that bacterial growth was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the cytotoxic effect of biosynthesized AgNPs on rat spleenocytes was analyzed. Thus, it is suggested that the nutmeg-biosynthesized AgNPs could be a lead drug and used effectively to control the MDR S. Typhi, thereby reducing public health issues and environmental pollution.

  20. Exploring insights for virulent gene inhibition of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus areus by potential phytoligands via in silico screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Jayaprakash, Nisha; Bharadwaj, Navya; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    In our recent studies on prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogens in Byramangala reservoir, Karnataka, India, we identified Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae which had acquired multiple drug resistance (MDR) and emerged as superbugs. Hence, there is a pressing demand to identify alternative therapeutic remedies. Our study focused on the screening of herbal leads by structure-based virtual screening. The virulent gene products of these pathogens towards Kanamycin(aph), Trimethoprim(dfrA1), Methicillin (mecI), and Vancomycin (vanH) were identified as the probable drug targets and their 3D structures were predicted by homology modeling. The predicted models showed good stereochemical validity. By extensive literature survey, we selected 58 phytoligands and their drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties were computationally predicted. The inhibitory properties of these ligands against drug targets were studied by molecular docking. Our studies revealed that Baicalein from S. baicalensis (baikal skullcap) and Luteolin from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) were identified as potential inhibitors against aph of S. typhi. Resveratrol from Vitis vinifera (grape vine) and Wogonin from S. baicalensis were identified as potential inhibitors against dfrA1 of S. typhi. Herniarin from Herniaria glabra (rupture worts) and Pyrocide from Daucus carota (Carrot) were identified as the best leads against dfrA1 of V. cholerae. Taraxacin of T. officinale (weber) and Luteolin were identified as potential inhibitors against Mec1. Apigenin from Coffee arabica (coffee) and Luteolin were identified as the best leads against vanH of S. aureus. Our findings pave crucial insights for exploring alternative therapeutics against MDR pathogens.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and sequence analysis of DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Richa; Thakare, Ritesh; Amrin, N; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Chopra, Sidharth; Dhole, Tapan Nirodhechand

    2016-08-01

    We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 typhoidal Salmonella isolates recovered from blood cultures and also investigate the association of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility with mutations in the genes coding for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in 55 isolates. The study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 at a tertiary care centre in north India. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test. Genotypic characterization included the screening of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR. DNA sequence analysis was done for 55 isolates. Out of 100 isolates recovered 80 were S. Typhi, 18 were Paratyphi A and two were Paratyphi B. Eighty two percent (66/80) of S. Typhi and 15/18 S. Paratyphi A showed decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. The most common mutation in gyrA led to a change at codon 83 of serine to phenylalanine (n=37) or tyrosine (n=12). Five S. Typhi isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 12, 16, 24 and 32 μg/ml) had a second mutation at codon 87 in the gyrA gene changing aspartate to asparagine. There is a need to urgently review the use of fluoroquinolones for the management of enteric fever in endemic areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of Lactobacilli against enteropathogenic infection of Salmonella typhi: In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaya, Basem; Hamzawy, Mohamed A; Khalil, Mahmoud A F; Tawkol, Wael M; Sabit, Hussein

    2015-12-01

    Salmonellosis-induced diarrhea, is one of the commonest cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Using of probiotics is viewed as a promising means for reducing the pathogenic loads of bacterial infection. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of isolated lactobacillus strains against the enteropathogenic effect of S. Typhi. Different Lactobacillus strains were isolated from 13 dairy products. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different bacterial strains. Six groups of CD1 mice were treated for 8 days as follows: group (1) untreated control; group (2) was challenged with single inoculation S. typhi, and groups (3) and (4) were treated with Lactobacillus plantarum (LA5) or Lactobacillus paracsi (LA7) for 7 days, respectively. Groups (5) and (6) were challenged with S. typhi, and then treated with either LA5 or LA 7 for 7 days, respectively. Isolated Lactobacillus showed antimicrobial activity against wide range of bacterial strains. Salmonellosis showed high widal titer, induced significant disturbance of TNF and IL-1β, while sever changes of the histological patterns of the intestinal villi and hepatocytes have been illustrated. LA5 or LA7 succeeded to eradicate typhoid infection, restore the values of inflammatory cytokines to typical levels of control group, and improve histological pictures of intestinal and hepatic tissues. It can be concluded that lactobacilli are promising candidate in protection and eradication against bacterial infection induced by S. Typhi due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908 expressing the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum: strain construction and safety and immunogenicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C; Hone, D; Noriega, F R; Tacket, C O; Davis, J R; Losonsky, G; Nataro, J P; Hoffman, S; Malik, A; Nardin, E; Sztein, M B; Heppner, D G; Fouts, T R; Isibasi, A; Levine, M M

    1994-04-01

    rcsp, encoding amino acids 21-398 of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), under control of tacP was integrated into the chromosomal delta aroC locus of attenuated delta aroC, delta aroD Salmonella typhi CVD 908. By immunoblot and ELISA, rCSP expression was greater from a multicopy plasmid than from the single chromosomal gene. CVD 908 omega (delta aroC1019::tacP-rcsp) was well tolerated by 10 volunteers who were fed two doses of 5 x 10(7) organisms 8 days apart. Seven subjects excreted the vaccine strain for 1-3 days. All subjects developed serologic responses to O and H antigens of the live vector, whereas 3 vaccinees responded to the foreign antigen: 1 developed an 80-fold rise in serum anti-sporozoite antibody, another had a 4-fold rise in antibody to a recombinant portion of CSP (residues 309-345), while a third vaccinee developed CSP-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. This is the first report of attenuated S. typhi eliciting a human serologic or a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to a foreign protein. Improved foreign gene expression should enhance immunogenicity.

  4. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potency of Lasianthera africana (BEAUV and Heinsia crinata (G. Taylor on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy, I. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the potency of many African medical plants against microorganisms is scanty, and in the current wave of antimicrobial resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs, there is need to search for plants that could be resistance-free and affordable. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of the extracts of Lasianthera africana (E1 and Heinsia crinata (E2 in combination with chloramphenicol, on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphlococcus aureus and Candida albicans. For this purpose, the dilution sensitivity and disc diffusion techniques were respectively applied in determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the plant extracts, and the sensitivities of the organisms to the plant extracts and their combinations with chloramphenicol. L. africana and H. crinata showed very high antimicrobial activity against all the test organisms. In combination, the effect of E1 on E. coli and S. typhi was completely antagonized by that of E2, whereas additive effect on S. aureus and C. albicans was observed, indicating that the combination of E1 and E2 might be effective against gram positive pathogenic organisms. The combination of either plant extract with chloramphenicol produced synergistic effect on only C. albicans. The smaller MIC of E2 indicated greater effectivity than E1. It is concluded that the additive effect produced by the combination of the two plant extracts, and the synergic effect from the combination of any of the extracts with chloramphenicol, offer alternative therapy to gram positive bacterial infections and candidiasis respectively.

  5. Influence of subinhibitory-concentration (sub-MIC Cefetoxime on biofilm formation. SEM study of ESBL-producing Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Narasanna, Manjunath Chavadi, Ajaykumar Oli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, we have analyzed ESBL-producing S. typhi’s capability in forming a significant amount of biofilm on plastic and glass surface, and the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm development at subinhibitory (Sub-MIC concentration. Methods: Nine strains of cefetoxime-mediated ESBL-producing S. typhi were used in the study. S. typhi formed biofilm on plastic and glass materials; it was demonstrated using micro titre plate (MTP and standard test tube methods. Comparative study of the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm formation in its MIC (128 µg/ml and at sub-MIC (64 µg/ml was demonstrated by microtitre plate method. The biofilm production was observed in SEM images, statistical analysis (ANOVA showed significant increase in cell surface and volume due to the influence of Cefetoxime. Results: Of the nine selected isolates, two S. typhi strains, namely BST 51 and BST 130, produced relatively strong biofilm in the presence of cefetoxime at sub-MIC level (64 µg/ml, comparatively weak biofilm formation at MIC level (128 µg/ml. Typical morphological changes were observed in cefetoxime-resistant strains, S. typhi BST 51 and BST 130, in comparison to cefetoxime-sensitive strain S. typhi BST 63 used as a control. We found an increase in surface and volume of a cell in response to cefetoxime and statistical data (ANOVA proved that resistant strains were significantly different from control strains. Conclusion: The above study clearly shows that cefetoxime at sub-MIC level efficiently induces biofilm formation and promotes changes in morphology of the cell. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 67-75

  6. Salmonella enterica Serotype Napoli is the First Cause of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis in Lombardy, Italy (2010-2014), and Belongs to Typhi Subclade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo, Pol; Gori, Maria; Zolin, Anna; Amato, Ettore; Ciceri, Giulia; Bossi, Anna; Pontello, Mirella

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Napoli (S. Napoli) is currently emerging in Europe and particularly in Italy, where in 2014 it caused a large outbreak associated with elevated rates of bacteremia. However, no study has yet investigated its invasive ability and phylogenetic classification. Here, we show that between 2010 and 2014, S. Napoli was the first cause of invasive salmonellosis affecting 40 cases out of 687 (invasive index: 5.8%), which is significantly higher than the invasive index of all the other nontyphoidal serotypes (2.0%, p < 0.05). Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an invasive isolate revealed that S. Napoli belongs to Typhi subclade in clade A, Paratyphi A being the most related serotype and carrying almost identical pattern of typhoid-associated genes. This work presents evidence of invasive capacity of S. Napoli and argues for reconsideration of its nontyphoidal category.

  7. Lisotipia Vi e classificação bioquímica de amostras de Salmonella typhi isoladas no Estado da Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente investigação, os autores estudaram a distribuição dos lisótipos Ví, tipos fermentativos e tetrationato-redutase, em 110 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas no período de 1966-1970, no Estado da Guanabara. Para estabelecer uma melhor configuração epidemiológica dos resultados, fez-se a divisão do Estado em seis regiões, respectivamente as zonas Sul, Centro, Norte, da E. F. Central, da E. F. Leopoldina e rural. Obteve-se no cômputo geral, a prevalência dos lisótipos A (59,09%, E 1a (19,09%, T (7,27% e amostras Vi negativas (4,55%. Verificou-se ainda, que cerca de 70,90% das culturas foram classificadas no tipo fermentativo II, segundo esquema de Kristensen e 95,42% das amostras revelaram-se positivas na prova de detecção da tetrationato-redutase.In the present investigation, the authors have studied the distribution of lysotypes, fermentative types and tetrathionate- reductase in 110 strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated from hemocultures during the period 1966-1970, in the State of Guanabara, Brazil. In order to establish a better epidemiological configuration of the results, this study has been divided and effected in the six following regions: south, middle, north at the Central Railway, the Leopoldina Railway and the rural district. As a general outcome a predomination of the lysotypes A, E 1a, T and negative Vi strains has been obtained. It has stil been verified that 70,90% of the cultures were classified fermentative type Ii and that 95,42% of the strains were tetrathionate-reductase positives.

  8. Screening of some medicinal plants used in south-west Nigerian traditional medicine for anti-Salmonella typhi activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, K O; Mendie, U E; Smith, S T; Oyefolu, A O; Coker, A O

    2005-01-01

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of several ailments of both microbial and non-microbial origins were tested on multi-drug resistant S. typhi (MDR) strains of which six of them were active. The results revealed that both the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Terminalia avicennioides, Momordica balsamina, Combretum paniculatum and Trema guineensis were effective on the MDR-S. typhi strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranging from 9.60 to 14 mcg/ml and 24 to 33 mcg/ml, respectively. Whereas, only the aqueous extracts of Morinda lucida and Ocimum gratissimum were found to be active against this pathogen with MIC and MBC values of 9.60 and 24 mcg/ml for M. lucida, 40 and 55 mcg/ml for O. gratissimum, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference (P > 0.05) between the activity of each plant extract and the decoctions prepared from them. All the six active plants showed positive reactions to alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones but in variable degrees. All but M. balsamina, indicated the presence of saponin.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a Burundian refugee camp: implications for control of a Salmonella typhi outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahimana, Marie-Rosette; Ngoc, Candide Tran; Olu, Olushayo; Nyamusore, Jose; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Dassanayake, Lakruwan; Rusanganwa, André

    2017-01-01

    A Salmonella typhi outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ongoing typhoid fever preventive interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Mahama Refugee Camp of Kirehe District, Rwanda from January to February 2016. Data were obtained through administration of a structured KAP questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using STATA software. A total of 671 respondents comprising 264 (39.3%) males and 407 (60.7%) females were enrolled in the study. A comparison of hand washing practices before and after institution of prevention and control measures showed a 37% increase in the proportion of respondents who washed their hands before eating and after using the toilet (p practices. The findings of this study underline the need for bolstering up health education and hygiene promotion activities in Mahama and other refugee camp settings.

  10. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The DNA static curvature has a role in the regulation of the ompS1 porin gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Miguel Angel; Merino, Enrique; Oropeza, Ricardo; Téllez, Juan; Calva, Edmundo

    2009-07-01

    The DNA static curvature has been described to play a key role as a regulatory element in the transcription process of several bacterial genes. Here, the role of DNA curvature in the expression of the ompS1 porin gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is described. The web server mutacurve was used to predict mutations that diminished or restored the extent of DNA curvature in the 5' regulatory region of ompS1. Using these predictions, curvature was diminished by site-directed mutagenesis of only two residues, and curvature was restored by further mutagenesis of the same two residues. Lowering the extent of DNA curvature resulted in an increase in ompS1 expression and in the diminution of the affinity of the silencer proteins H-NS and StpA for the ompS1 5' regulatory region. These mutations were in a region shown not to contain the H-NS nucleation site, consistent with the notion that the effect on expression was due to changes in DNA structural topology.

  12. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with both Salmonella typhiand non-typhi salmonella. (NTS) is common among children in many African countries. Salmonella typhi predominates among older children and adults with the typical localising features of enteric fever. Nontyphoid salmonellae species are more often reported among children under 5 ...

  13. Inhibitory Activity of Lactid Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tape Waterlily Seed to Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, and E.coli and Its’ Susceptibility to Antibiotic, Bile Salt and Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe inhibitory activity of LAB isolated from tape waterlily seed to enteric pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, E.coli ATCC 25922 and it’s susceptibility to antibiotic, in bile salt and under acidic condition. Microbia in the tape ( a fermented product of waterlily seed to showed were Streptococcus thermophilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (IKH-2 and Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Streptococcus thermophillus showed inhibition against the growth of Shigella disentri with inhibition zones 16,28 mm, but did not against the growth of V. Cholera, S. typhi, E.coli. Pediococcus pentosaceus inhibit Vibrio cholera, dan Salmonella thypi with inhibition zones 18,59 mm dan 7,91 mm. So that, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inhibit Salmonella thypi with zones inhibits average 8,25 mm. Chloramfenicol at 0.05 mg concentrations did not show inhibition against the growth of isolated Streptococcus thermophillus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. These isolates could survive too in bile salt (2% and acidified media (pH 3.   Keyword : The tape of  waterlily seed, LAB, probiotic and enteric pathogenic   KEMAMPUAN PENGHAMBATAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI TAPE BIJI TERATAI TERHADAP PATOGENIK ENTERIK (VIBRIO CHOLERA, SALMONELLA THYPI, SHIGELLA DISENTRI, E. COLI, ANTIBIOTIK, KETAHANANNYA TERHADAP BILE SALT DAN ASAM   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan penghambatan bakteri asam laktat yang diisolasi dari tape biji teratai terhadap patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, E. Coli ATCC 25922, antibiotik, bile salt dan asam. Jenis bakteri yang diketahui tumbuh selama fermentasi tape biji teratai adalah Streptococcus thermopilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus(IKH-2, dan Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Pengamatan terhadap uji penghambatan patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, dan E. Coli ATCC

  14. Clinicopathological profile of salmonella typhi and paratyphi infections presenting as Fever of unknown origin in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Ramdas, Anita; Varghese, Renu G'Boy; Padhi, Somanath; Shrimanth, Bhairappa; Chidambaram, Saranya; Anandhalakshmi, S; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not uncommon in tropical countries. We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of patients hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Seven of 88 (8%) cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were isolated from six cases and one case respectively. Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67%) of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi A and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia, and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia. In addition, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory.

  15. Crl binds to domain 2 of σ(S) and confers a competitive advantage on a natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, Véronique; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Norel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    The RpoS sigma factor (σ(S)) is the master regulator of the bacterial response to a variety of stresses. Mutants in rpoS arise in bacterial populations in the absence of stress, probably as a consequence of a subtle balance between self-preservation and nutritional competence. We characterized here one natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty19). We show that the rpoS allele of Ty19 (rpoS(Ty19)) led to the synthesis of a σ(S)(Ty19) protein carrying a single glycine-to-valine substitution at position 282 in σ(S) domain 4, which was much more dependent than the wild-type σ(S) protein on activation by Crl, a chaperone-like protein that increases the affinity of σ(S) for the RNA polymerase core enzyme (E). We used the bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system to demonstrate that Crl bound to residues 72 to 167 of σ(S) domain 2 and that G282V substitution did not directly affect Crl binding. However, this substitution drastically reduced the ability of σ(S)(Ty19) to bind E in a surface plasmon resonance assay, a defect partially rescued by Crl. The modeled structure of the Eσ(S) holoenzyme suggested that substitution G282V could directly disrupt a favorable interaction between σ(S) and E. The rpoS(Ty19) allele conferred a competitive fitness when the bacterial population was wild type for crl but was outcompeted in Δcrl populations. Thus, these results indicate that the competitive advantage of the rpoS(Ty19) mutant is dependent on Crl and suggest that crl plays a role in the appearance of rpoS mutants in bacterial populations.

  16. RpoE promotes invasion and intracellular survival by regulating SPI-1 and SPI-2 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifang; Jia, Yanwei; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Shungao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Huang, Xinxiang; Du, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the role of RpoE during the later stage of hyperosmotic stress in Salmonella. Expressions of SPI-1 and SPI-2 under hyperosmotic stress for 120 min were investigated by a microarray, and the invasion and intracellular survival of wild-type and ΔrpoE strains were compared. The global differential expression of bacterial proteins between the wild-type and ΔrpoE strains was examined after 120 min of hyperosmotic stress. SPI-1 and SPI-2 were repressed, and the invasion and intracellular survival were defected in the ΔrpoE strain. Thirteen bacterial-associated proteins and 11 secreted proteins differed significantly between the wild-type and ΔrpoE strains. RpoE may promote invasion and intracellular survival by regulating the expression of SPI-1 and SPI-2.

  17. Identification and characterization of a gene stp17 located on the linear plasmid pBSSB1 as an enhanced gene of growth and motility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear plasmid pBSSB1 mediates the flagellar phase variation in H:z66 positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. The gene named stp17 (S. Typhi plasmid number 17 gene is located on pBSSB1 and encodes the protein STP17. The expression pattern at the protein-level and function of STP17 remains unknown. In this study, the recombinant protein STP17His6 was expressed, successfully purified and used to prepare the polyclonal anti-STP17 antibody. We detected protein-level expression of stp17 in S. Typhi and further investigated the protein expression characteristics of stp17 in different growth phases by western blot analysis. The effects of STP17 on bacterial growth and motility were analyzed. In addition, the structure of STP17 was predicted on line and the active site of STP17 was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. The results showed that STP17 was expressed stably in the wild type strain of S. Typhi. STP17 expression at the protein level peaks when cultures reach an OD600 value of 1.2. The growth rate and motility of the Δstp17 strain were significantly decreased compared with the wild type strain (P<0.05 and this phenotype was restored in the stp17 complementary strain. Moreover, the growth rate and motility of the stp17 over-expression strain was greater than the wild type strain. STP17 contains nine Helix segments, six Stand segments and some Coil segments in the secondary structural level. The top-ranked 3-D structure of STP17 predicted by I-TASSER contains a putative ATPase domain and the amino acid residues of GLY16, GLY19, LYS20, ASN133, LYS157 and LYS158 may be the active site residues of STP17. Finally, STP17 was able to catalyze the ATP to ADP reaction, suggesting that STP17 may be an ATPase. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the protein expression characteristics of STP17 in S. Typhi, showing that STP17 promotes bacterial growth and motility, which may be associated with its potential ATPase

  18. Transient Loss of Protection Afforded by a Live Attenuated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Vaccine in Mice Co-infected with Malaria.

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    Jason P Mooney

    Full Text Available In immunocompetent individuals, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS are associated with gastroenteritis, however, there is currently an epidemic of NTS bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for invasive NTS bloodstream in African children. Here we investigated whether a live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine could be protective in mice, in the setting of concurrent malaria. Surprisingly, mice acutely infected with the nonlethal malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL exhibited a profound loss of protective immunity to NTS, but vaccine-mediated protection was restored after resolution of malaria. Absence of protective immunity during acute malaria correlated with maintenance of antibodies to NTS, but a marked reduction in effector capability of Salmonella-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Further, increased expression of the inhibitory molecule PD1 was identified on memory CD4 T cells induced by vaccination. Blockade of IL-10 restored protection against S. Typhimurium, without restoring CD4 T cell effector function. Simultaneous blockade of CTLA-4, LAG3, and PDL1 restored IFN-γ production by vaccine-induced memory CD4 T cells but was not sufficient to restore protection. Together, these data demonstrate that malaria parasite infection induces a temporary loss of an established adaptive immune response via multiple mechanisms, and suggest that in the setting of acute malaria, protection against NTS mediated by live vaccines may be interrupted.

  19. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ltrR-ompR-ompC-ompF genes are involved in resistance to the bile salt sodium deoxycholate and in bacterial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, J M; Becerra-Lobato, N; Rebollar-Flores, J E; Medina-Aparicio, L; Carbajal-Gómez, E; Zavala-García, M L; Vázquez, A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, R M; Olvera, L; Encarnación, S; Martínez-Batallar, A G; Calva, E; Hernández-Lucas, I

    2014-06-01

    A characterization of the LtrR regulator, an S. Typhi protein belonging to the LysR family is presented. Proteomics, outer membrane protein profiles and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that LtrR is required for the synthesis of OmpR, OmpC and OmpF. DNA-protein interaction analysis showed that LtrR binds to the regulatory region of ompR and then OmpR interacts with the ompC and ompF promoters inducing porin synthesis. LtrR-dependent and independent ompR promoters were identified, and both promoters are involved in the synthesis of OmpR for OmpC and OmpF production. To define the functional role of the ltrR-ompR-ompC-ompF genetic network, mutants in each gene were obtained. We found that ltrR, ompR, ompC and ompF were involved in the control of bacterial transformation, while the two regulators and ompC are necessary for the optimal growth of S. Typhi in the presence of one of the major bile salts found in the gut, sodium deoxycholate. The data presented establish the pivotal role of LtrR in the regulatory network of porin synthesis and reveal new genetic strategies of survival and cellular adaptation to the environment used by Salmonella. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. SALMONELLA TYPHI SPONDYUTIS: AN UNUSUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Her low back pain had become disabling to the extent that she could not walk. On admission she was frail, emaciated and malnourished but apyrexial. ... specific treatment but the low back pain became incapacitating. Anterior spinal fusion resulted in relief from pain. Since the patient suffered from low back pain for 15.

  1. Treatment of enteric fever in children on the basis of current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchanda V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recent reports indicate decreased susceptibility of S. typhi to fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin. Chloramphenicol has been suggested as first line therapy of enteric fever in many studies. This is a prospective study that describes the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of S. typhi and S. paratyphi A causing bacteraemia in children and reports therapeutic failure to ciprofloxacin and evaluates the possible use of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporins as first line therapy in the treatment of enteric fever in children. Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2005 in a superspeciality children hospital at New Delhi. A total of 56 S. typhi and five S. paratyphi A isolates were obtained among the 673 blood cultures performed. Antimicrobial testing was done using disk diffusion technique (NCCLS method for 13 antimicrobials and MICs were calculated for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime. Analysis of data was done using WHONET software. Results: All 56 isolates of S. typhi were sensitive to amoxycillin+clavulanate, gentamicin, cefixime, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Multidrug resistance (MDR, resistance to three drugs was seen in 22 cases (39% and resistance to five drugs was seen in 12 cases (21%. Only two isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol (3%. MIC 90 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were 1.0 mg/ml, 4.0 mg/ml, 64 mg/ml and 0.125 mg/ml respectively. All S. paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol and resistant to nalidixic acid.MIC distribution data for chloramphenicol revealed elevated MIC but still in susceptible range. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for further clinical studies to evaluate response to chloramphenicol in such cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility data and MIC distribution favour use of ampicillin as a drug of choice for the treatment of enteric fever

  2. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Celina; Gibani, Malick M; Moore, Maria; Juel, Helene B; Jones, Elizabeth; Meiring, James; Harris, Victoria; Gardner, Jonathan; Nebykova, Anna; Kerridge, Simon A; Hill, Jennifer; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Blohmke, Christoph J; Yu, Ly-Mee; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi. In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation, and an unmasked team of nurses administered the vaccines. Following oral ingestion of S Typhi, participants were assessed with daily blood culture over a 2-week period and diagnosed with typhoid infection when meeting pre-defined criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants diagnosed with typhoid infection (ie, attack rate), defined as persistent fever of 38°C or higher for 12 h or longer or S Typhi bacteraemia, following oral challenge administered 1 month after Vi-vaccination (Vi-TT or Vi-PS) compared with control vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324751, and is ongoing. Between Aug 18, 2015, and Nov 4, 2016, 112 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 34 to the control group, 37 to the Vi-PS group, and 41 to the Vi-TT group. 103 participants

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1 depends on LeuO, H-NS, and specific growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Hernández, A L; Hernández-Lucas, I; De la Cruz, M A; Olvera, L; Morett, E; Medina-Aparicio, L; Ramírez-Trujillo, J A; Vázquez, A; Fernández-Mora, M; Calva, E

    2012-05-01

    The assT gene encodes an arylsulfate sulfotransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes sulfuryl transfer from phenolic sulfate to a phenolic acceptor. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1, the assT gene is located upstream of the dsbL and dsbI genes, which are involved in a disulfide bond formation required for its activation. The assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster forms an operon transcribed by a LeuO-dependent promoter, in rich medium A (MA). Interestingly, in the absence of cloned leuO and in a ΔleuO background, two transcription start sites were detected for assT and two for dsbL-dsbI in minimal medium. The H-NS nucleoid protein repressed the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI LeuO-dependent operon, as well as of the assT transcriptional units. Thus, the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster depends on the global regulatory proteins LeuO and H-NS, as well as on specific growth conditions.

  4. Determinación de la relación clonal de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi recuperados en el programa de vigilancia por el laboratorio de EDA en Colombia durante el período 1997-2003 mediante la electroforesis en campo pulsado

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    Hidalgo Marylin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La tipificación molecular de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi es necesaria para complementar los análisis epidemiológicos de las fiebres entéricas en Colombia. El objetivo del trabajo fue establecer la relación genética de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi recuperados durante el período 1997-2003, en varias regiones del país. Se utilizaron 58 aislamientos de S. typhi, tres de S. paratyphi A, dos de S. paratyphi B y 1 de S. paratyphi C, recibidos por el programa de vigilancia de EDA del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS. Para determinar la relación genética se empleó la electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado y se calculó un dendrograma; para evaluar la asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos y las características de los aislamientos, como datos
    demográficos de los pacientes, tipo de muestra, año y procedencia, se utilizó un análisis de correspondencias. Los datos de S. typhi se analizaron en conjunto con 15  islamientos tipificados anteriormente en el INS. Se obtuvieron 36 patrones electroforéticos, 31/36 (86,1%, representados en 68/73 (93,1% aislamientos, estuvieron relacionados genéticamente. Los patrones S.Ty0001 y S.Ty0012 predominaron en el país. En el análisis de correspondencias, no se encontró asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos y las características de los aislamientos. Los aislamientos de S. paratyphi A estuvieron relacionados genéticamente mientras que los de S. paratyphi B no guardaron relación. A pesar de la considerable heterogeneidad de los aislamientos colombianos de Salmonella typhi, definida por el número de patrones electroforéticos, la mayoría de ellos guardan una relación genética, sugiriendo un origen común de los mismos.

  5. Co-infection of malaria and typhoid fever in a tropical community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stool culture was used as an additional diagnostic test for typhod fever. The study indicated that ... The difference in the Pasmodium falciprum parasteamia and Salmonella antibody titre was only significant using Widal test. Diagnosis of typhoid ... Keywords: Co-infection, Plasmodium, Salmonella, Malaria, Typhoid fever ...

  6. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

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    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  7. HIV and co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  8. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed S. Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  9. Control of Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa: Is There a Role for Human Challenge Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibani, M.M.; Jin, C.; Darton, T.C.; Pollard, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Salmonella disease in Africa is a major public health concern. With evidence of the transcontinental spread of the Salmonella Typhi H58 haplotype, improved estimates of the burden of infection and understanding of the complex interplay of factors affecting disease transmission are needed to assist with efforts aimed at disease control. In addition to Salmonella Typhi, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella are increasingly recognized as an important cause of febrile illness and mortality i...

  10. Quinolones in the treatment of Salmonella carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Noriega, E; Andrade-Villanueva, J; Amaya-Tapia, G

    1989-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella typhi are commonly followed by a chronic carrier state despite positive clinical and initial bacteriologic responses. The use of primary antibiotics like chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has several major drawbacks, including in some instances the failure to prevent the carrier state. The appearance worldwide of strains with multiple resistance to the most commonly used regimens has prompted the search for new forms of therapy. Among the agents studied have been third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones, which are active in vitro against bacterial enteropathogens like S. typhi. Resolution of chronic carriage of S. typhi and other salmonellae is difficult, and regimens commonly fail (including those that combine antibiotic administration with removal of the gallbladder). In addition to being active in vitro against Salmonella species, the newer quinolones adequately penetrate the intestinal lumen, liver, bile, and gallbladder. Initial experience with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in oral treatment of the chronic S. typhi carrier state in adults has been promising.

  11. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  12. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  13. Deteksi Kuman Salmonella Pada Ayam Goreng Yang Dijual Di Warung Makan Dan Pola Kepekaan Terhadap Berbagai Zat Antibiotika

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Syuriati; Suryani, Lilis

    2008-01-01

    There are many types of bacteria that cause food poisoned. One of the bacterias is Salmonella typhi. This type of bacteria mostly inhabit the farm animals or wild animals. Mostly bacterias on cats, dogs, rats, flies and cockroaches defile chickens, meat, eggs and raw milk. Salmonella typhi defiles riped foods during storage and serving. Researches meant to detect Salmonella presence on foods sold at restaurants in Yogyakarta are rarely conducted. This research was in demand to find out the sa...

  14. High incidence of co-infection with Malaria and Typhoid in febrile HIV infected and AIDS patients in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, E; Ihongbe, J C; Okogun, G R A; Inyang, N J

    2009-04-01

    This survey was designed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Salmonella Typhi among febrile HIV/AIDS patients in Ekpoma. Malaria and typhoid risk factors in Ekpoma included occupation, poor health facilities and poor sanitation. Malaria and typhoid are highly prevalent among Ekpoma HIV/AIDS patients.

  15. Salmonellae carrier status of food vendors in Kumasi, Ghana | Feglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Screening of 258 (230 females of 28 males) healthy food vendors for Salmonella typhi, and S. paratyphi A, B, and C, using stool culture, the widal test, and standard microbiological identification methods. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of chronic typhoidal Salmonellae carriers among food vendors in ...

  16. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eOrf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection, and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterised by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models suggest that hemolysis causes the susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Evidence from animal models implicates hemolysis in the impairment of a variety of host defence mechanisms, including macrophage dysfunction, neutrophil dysfunction and impairment of adaptive immune responses. One mechanism supported by evidence from animal models and human data, is the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in bone marrow, which impairs the ability of developing neutrophils to mount a competent oxidative burst. As a result, dysfunctional neutrophils become a new niche for replication of intracellular bacteria. Here we critically appraise and summarize the key evidence for mechanisms which may contribute to these very specific combinations of co-infections, and propose interventions to ameliorate this risk.

  17. Survival of Salmonella Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae in dehydrated infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James B; Sharma, Devang; Siddique, Nusrat; Hao, Yun-Yun D; Strain, Errol A; Blodgett, Robert J; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F

    2011-08-01

    Powdered infant formula has previously been linked to the transmission of various bacterial pathogens in infants resulting in life-threatening disease and death. Survival studies of 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae, in powdered infant formula have not been previously studied despite the potentially devastating consequences from ingestion of these organisms, particularly by newborns, in case of a natural or deliberate contamination event. Therefore, to better predict the risk of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae infection from consumption of infant formula, the present study was undertaken to determine survival of these microorganisms in dry infant formula under varying atmospheric conditions. A 2-strain cocktail of S. Typhi and a 3-strain cocktail of S. dysenteriae were stored for up to 12 wk in dehydrated infant formula in an ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. Viable counts of S. Typhi at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 2.9- and 1.69-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. Viable counts of S. dysenteriae at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 0.81- and 0.42-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. These results show that S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae can remain viable for prolonged periods of time in powdered infant formula, and the presence of nitrogen enhances survival. Our goal in this work was to study the survival of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae in dehydrated storage conditions in infant formula. This interest is partially generated by the possibility of using these 2 microorganisms to deliberately contaminate the food supply. The outcome of this study will help us to have a better idea how to respond and react to the risk of deliberate food contamination. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  18. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    ... infections and 635,000 CHIKV infections were reported in this region in 2015 (4,5). However, details of the frequency of co-infection are lacking (1), although a recent study involving 173 samples from Nicaragua that were positive for either virus found a co-infection rate of 22% (6). Co-infections might be frequently missed by surveillance ...

  19. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei; Liu, Qing; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Kang; Yi, Jie; Luo, Ying; Hu, Yunlong; Han, Yue; Kong, Qingke

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C...

  20. Application of BAX system, Tecra Unique Salmonella test, and a conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella in ready-to-eat and raw foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P-Y; Kwok, K K; Kam, K M

    2007-07-01

    To compare the BAX system, the Tecra Unique Salmonella test, and a conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella in various foods. Ready-to-eat and raw foods were inoculated with Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, Salmonella serotype Typhi, or Salmonella serotype Derby. Incubated pre-enrichment cultures were examined using the BAX system, the Tecra Unique Salmonella test, and a conventional culture method. Salmonella could be detected in all ready-to-eat food samples inoculated with S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, or S. Derby, with any of the three test methods. However, false negatives were obtained with the Tecra test and the culture method when samples with higher background flora were inoculated with S. Typhi. Sensitivity test results suggested the two rapid tests performed as well as the culture method in the detection of 10(1) CFU of S. Typhimurium in 25-g cooked or raw food. The BAX system and the Tecra Unique Salmonella test demonstrated results comparable with those of the culture method in the detection of Salmonella serotypes used except S. Typhi. This is the first evaluation of the BAX system, the Tecra Unique Salmonella test, and a culture method in the detection of Salmonella in a variety of western and oriental foods.

  1. Co-infection alters population dynamics of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Hanna; Barrès, Benoit; Vale, Pedro F; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-08

    Co-infections by multiple pathogen strains are common in the wild. Theory predicts co-infections to have major consequences for both within- and between-host disease dynamics, but data are currently scarce. Here, using common garden populations of Plantago lanceolata infected by two strains of the pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis, either singly or under co-infection, we find the highest disease prevalence in co-infected treatments both at the host genotype and population levels. A spore-trapping experiment demonstrates that co-infected hosts shed more transmission propagules than singly infected hosts, thereby explaining the observed change in epidemiological dynamics. Our experimental findings are confirmed in natural pathogen populations-more devastating epidemics were measured in populations with higher levels of co-infection. Jointly, our results confirm the predictions made by theoretical and experimental studies for the potential of co-infection to alter disease dynamics across a large host-pathogen metapopulation.

  2. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  3. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. ...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolated from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to emerging resistance to traditional antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, azithromycin is increasingly used for the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. In the present study, 696 isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella collected from human...

  5. multiorgan involvement due to salmonella typhi: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the right costal margin, uniform and non tender; all other systems were normal Laboratory investigations revealed: total leukocyte count. 13 000/mm3 with a normal .... Theme: Best Practices in Paediatrics. For more information, contact: Kenya Paediatrics Association, Hurlingham Park,. 1 st Floor, Apt. C4, Off Argwings ...

  6. Pattern of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... point of sample collection was Akaraugo Hospital, Ikenegbu, Owerri,. Imo state. All the samples were packed well on ice pack and taken to the Nigeria Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Yaba, Lagos state for isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility test and plasmid DNA isolation. Isolation. A loop full of each ...

  7. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are major health problems worldwide. HCV/HIV co-infection has been shown to increase the frequency of liver disease and also maternal-fetal transmission of HCV. Little data exist on the prevalence of co-infection of these viruses in ...

  8. Management of BU-HIV co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Ford, N.; Vitoria, M.; Christinet, V.; Comte, E.; Calmy, A.; Stienstra, Y.; Eholie, S.; Asiedu, K.

    BACKGROUND Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking. METHODS Initiated by WHO, a panel of experts in BU and HIV management developed

  9. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  10. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Chris; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis; Adams, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  11. Salmonella enterica serovar Ohio septic arthritis and bone abscess in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Hideaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-typhi Salmonella species cause severe extra-intestinal focal infection after occult bacteremia. Although the number of cases of non-typhi salmonellosis is increasing worldwide among patients with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, infection is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. We report a case of septic arthritis and bone abscess due to a rare non-typhi Salmonella organism that developed after a prolonged asymptomatic period. Case presentation A 44-year-old Japanese immunocompetent man presented with acute-onset left knee pain and swelling. He had no history of food poisoning, and his most recent travel to an endemic area was 19 years ago. Salmonella enterica serovar Ohio was identified from samples of bone abscess and joint tissue. Arthrotomy and necrotic tissue debridement followed by intravenous ceftriaxone was successful. Conclusions Non-typhi Salmonella species only rarely cause extra-intestinal focal infections in immunocompetent patients. Our case suggests that non-typhi Salmonella species can cause severe focal infections many years after the occult bacteremia associated with food poisoning.

  12. Viral Co-infection and Leprosy Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R L; Machado, Lídia M; Shibuya, Mayume; Rego, Jamile; Johnson, Warren D; Glesby, Marshall J

    2015-01-01

    The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses. Cohort study in 245 leprosy subjects from Bahia, Brazil. Patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until at least the end of multidrug therapy. Viral co-infection was detected in 36 out of the 245 patients (14.7%). Specific co-infection rates were 10.6% for HBV, 2.9% for HIV, 2.5% for HTLV-1 and 0.8% for HCV. All four groups of co-infected patients had higher rates of neuritis and nerve function impairment compared to non co-infected leprosy subjects. The relapse rate was also higher in the co-infected group (8.3%) versus patients without co-infection (1.9%); relative risk 4.37, 95% confidence interval 1.02-18.74. Leprosy patients should be screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV-1 co-infections. Besides contributing to better health care, this measure will facilitate the early detection of severe complications through targeting of higher risk patients.

  13. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into an expression vector ... recombinant protein can be used to detect specific anti-Vi antibody produced by typhoid patients. Overall, the His-Vi ... E-mail: khchua@um.edu.my. Tel.:603-. 79676607.

  14. Trends of Multiple Drug Resistance in Salmonella Enterica Serovar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This study assessed the trends in antibiotic resistance in 235 Salmonella typhi stains isolated by standard procedures from blood and/stool samples of hospitalized patients from 1997 to 2003. All the isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the following antibiotics: chloramphenicol, ...

  15. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmitted helminthes afflict most-at-risk populations in endemic communities in the developing world. Aim: This study investigated S. haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted helminthes, and host risk factors in two communities in the ...

  16. Typing of Typhoidal Salmonella Using Extraction of Water Soluble Whole Cell Proteins and Analysing by SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Salmonella is one of the most important genus of Enterobacteriacea family. The aim of this study was typing of typhoidal Salmonella by SDS-PAGE and comparing the results with those of serotyping method.Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 reference strains of Salmonella species, 5 reference strains of Enterobacteriacea family and 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella that were previously collected from laboratories of Hamadan medical centers were studied. Serotyping of strains were performed by Biomereux and Difco monovalent antisera. Whole-cell proteins of strains were also separated on 10% poly acrylamide gel. Gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue and analyzed by densitometry. Results: Of 100 cases of Salmonella species, 43 cases (43% were S. typhi, 20 cases (20% were S. typhymurium, 12 cases (12% were S. para typhi B, 10 cases (10% were S. para typhi C, S. para typhi A 1 case (1% and other cases were non-typhoidal Salmonella. The results of serotyping were compared with the results obtained by SDS-PAGE. Many protein bands from 220 KDa to 18.5 KDa were detected by SDS-PAGE and they were used to differentiate the strains. S. typhi serotypes were divided into 5 sub-species and S. para typhi B and C were divided each into 3 sub-species. Protein profiles of the reference strains of Salmonella were compared with protein profiles of Enterobacteriaceae species and showed some differences in major protein bands, however, they had a very similar protein band in 43 KDa area. Conclusion: Since our data was able to divide Salmonella species to sub-types and differentiate them from Enterobacteriacea species, we concluded that analsying SDS-PAGE profile of water soluble whole-cell proteins can be used for typing of these organisms and it is comparble with serotyping, nevertheless, further researches are needed to establish SDS-PAGE method and to replace it with serotyping method.

  17. Co-infection in children with bloody diarrhea caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: data of the North Italian HUS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardissino, Gianluigi; Possenti, Ilaria; Salardi, Stefania; Tel, Francesca; Colombo, Elisa; Testa, Sara; Daprai, Laura; Picicco, Damiano; Colombo, Rosaria Maria; Torresani, Erminio

    2014-08-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury in children often caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enterocolitis. In a screening program for STEC infection in children with bloody diarrhea in northern Italy for early diagnosis of HUS, co-infection with Salmonella or Campylobacter was documented in as many as 35.6% of Shiga toxin-positive patients. It is speculated that infection by Salmonella or Campylobacter may increase the risk of STEC enterocolitis and therefore of HUS. The isolation of microorganisms (other then STEC) in HUS should not be necessarily regarded as the etiological agent for the thrombotic microangiopathy.

  18. Clinical indicators for bacterial co-infection in Ghanaian children with P. falciparum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available Differentiation of infectious causes in severely ill children is essential but challenging in sub- Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to determine clinical indicators that are able to identify bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children in rural Ghana. In total, 1,915 severely ill children below the age of 15 years were recruited at Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in Ghana between May 2007 and February 2011. In 771 (40% of the children malaria parasites were detected. This group was analyzed for indicators of bacterial co-infections using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses with 24 socio-economic variables, 16 terms describing medical history and anthropometrical information and 68 variables describing clinical symptoms. The variables were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In 46 (6.0% of the children with malaria infection, bacterial co-infection was detected. The most frequent pathogens were non-typhoid salmonellae (45.7%, followed by Streptococcus spp. (13.0%. Coughing, dehydration, splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukocytosis were positively associated with bacteremia. Domestic hygiene and exclusive breastfeeding is negatively associated with bacteremia. In cases of high parasitemia (>10,000/μl, a significant association with bacteremia was found for splenomegaly (OR 8.8; CI 1.6-48.9, dehydration (OR 18.2; CI 2.0-166.0 and coughing (OR 9.0; CI 0.7-118.6. In children with low parasitemia, associations with bacteremia were found for vomiting (OR 4.7; CI 1.4-15.8, severe anemia (OR 3.3; CI 1.0-11.1 and leukocytosis (OR 6.8 CI 1.9-24.2. Clinical signs of impaired microcirculation were negatively associated with bacteremia. Ceftriaxone achieved best coverage of isolated pathogens. The results demonstrate the limitation of clinical symptoms to determine bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children. Best clinical indicators are dependent on the

  19. Persistent, triple-virus co-infections in mosquito cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malasit Prida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that insects and crustaceans can carry simultaneous, active infections of two or more viruses without showing signs of disease, but it was not clear whether co-infecting viruses occupied the same cells or different cells in common target tissues. Our previous work showed that successive challenge of mosquito cell cultures followed by serial, split-passage resulted in stabilized cultures with 100% of the cells co-infected with Dengue virus (DEN and an insect parvovirus (densovirus (DNV. By addition of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE, we tested our hypothesis that stable, persistent, triple-virus co-infections could be obtained by the same process. Results Using immunocytochemistry by confocal microscopy, we found that JE super-challenge of cells dually infected with DEN and DNV resulted in stable cultures without signs of cytopathology, and with 99% of the cells producing antigens of the 3 viruses. Location of antigens for all 3 viruses in the triple co-infections was dominant in the cell nuclei. Except for DNV, this differed from the distribution in cells persistently infected with the individual viruses or co-infected with DNV and DEN. The dependence of viral antigen distribution on single infection or co-infection status suggested that host cells underwent an adaptive process to accommodate 2 or more viruses. Conclusions Individual mosquito cells can accommodate at least 3 viruses simultaneously in an adaptive manner. The phenomenon provides an opportunity for genetic exchange between diverse viruses and it may have important medical and veterinary implications for arboviruses.

  20. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Rückerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2 similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell.

  1. HIV co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result. The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was 7.7%, while that of HIV/HCV co-infection was 5.2%. No child was co-infected with all three viruses. Children who were co-infected with HCV were more likely to be older than 5 years. There was no significant association between co-infection with either of the hepatitis ...

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 36 HIV/HCV co-infected isolates (22 from volunteer blood donors and 14 from people living with HIV/AIDS not yet on antiretroviral treatment) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques that involved RT-PCR, gene/TOPO cloning, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and ...

  3. Review of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and HIV Co-Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a review of pulmonary tuberculosis in pregnancy with special emphasis on co-infection with HIV and the situation in Sub Saharan Africa. PTB in conjunction with HIV has significantly impacted maternal morbidity, mortality and poor pregnancy outcomes in Sub Saharan Africa. Active tuberculosis is often asymptomatic ...

  4. HBV, HIV CO-INFECTION AT KISUMU DISTRICT HOSPITAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-12-12

    Dec 12, 2004 ... HIV positive patients due to depressed cell mediated immunity. This causes predominant hepatocytolysis and worsens the liver disease (6,11,12). A study done in. Mexico showed that co-infection with HBV and HIV is high among homosexuals, which was also associated with severe liver disease (13-16).

  5. HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and gender of the studied population and whether the purulent meningitis is primary or as a co infection with HIV. Journal of Medical and ... rial inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. It mostly affects .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by gender. Variable. Total. (n = 621).

  6. Consequences of symbiont co-infections for insect host phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Parker, Benjamin J; Hrček, Jan; Kavanagh, James C; Wellham, Peter A D; Godfray, H Charles J

    2017-05-25

    Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of endosymbiotic bacteria within an aphid host influence the outcome of symbiosis for both symbiont and host. We first asked whether different combinations of facultative symbiont species or strains can exist in stable co-infections. We then investigated whether the benefits that facultative bacteria confer on their hosts (protection against natural enemies) are enhanced, reduced or unaltered by the presence of a co-infecting symbiont. We asked this both for co-infecting symbionts that confer different phenotypes on their hosts (protection against fungal pathogens vs. parasitoid wasps) and symbionts with overlapping functions. Finally, we investigated the additional survival costs to aphids of carrying multiple infections of symbiont species or strains, and compared symbiont titres in double and single infections. We found that stable co-infections were possible between all of the combinations of facultative symbiont species (Regiella insecticola + Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella + Rickettsiella sp., Regiella + Spiroplasma sp.) and strains (Hamiltonella) that we studied. Where symbionts provided protection against different natural enemies, no alteration in protection was observed in the presence of co-infections. Where symbionts provided protection against the same natural enemy, the level of protection corresponded to the higher of the two symbionts present. In some instances, aphid hosts suffered additional survival costs when hosting double infections. In the case of Hamiltonella, however, infection with multiple strains of the same symbiont led to lower symbiont titres than single infections, and actually improved aphid

  7. Antibiogram pattern of Salmonella in blood samples of enteric fever patients at Lalitpur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraj Gurung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of isolation blood stream serotypes of enteric fever pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy. Methods: Samples were examined by microbiological techniques to identify the causative agent and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods and interpreted as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among 403 blood samples, 76 (18.85% showed growth for Salmonella isolates. Distribution of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolates were found to be 54% and 46% respectively. Among 76 Salmonella isolates, 28 (36.84% were from male and remaining 48 (63.15% were from female belonging to all age-groups. Multidrug-resistance was found to be 17% among the Salmonella isolates. Nalidixic acid resistance was 73.68% in Salmonella with higher proportion in Salmonella paratyphi A (85.7% in comparison to Salmonella typhi (63.42%. Salmonella isolates demonstrated 100% susceptibility to azithromycin, ceftriazone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and imipenem. Conclusions: The need of continual surveillance of resistance levels to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern for Salmonella isolates is sustained with discouragement in misuse of antibiotics prior to prescription as multidrugresistance-nalidixic acid resistant strains.

  8. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  9. Modeling malaria and typhoid fever co-infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Jones M; Wang, Feng-Bin; Vaidya, Naveen K

    2015-06-01

    Malaria and typhoid are among the most endemic diseases, and thus, of major public health concerns in tropical developing countries. In addition to true co-infection of malaria and typhoid, false diagnoses due to similar signs and symptoms and false positive results in testing methods, leading to improper controls, are the major challenges on managing these diseases. In this study, we develop novel mathematical models describing the co-infection dynamics of malaria and typhoid. Through mathematical analyses of our models, we identify distinct features of typhoid and malaria infection dynamics as well as relationships associated to their co-infection. The global dynamics of typhoid can be determined by a single threshold (the typhoid basic reproduction number, R0(T)) while two thresholds (the malaria basic reproduction number, R0(M), and the extinction index, R0(MM)) are needed to determine the global dynamics of malaria. We demonstrate that by using efficient simultaneous prevention programs, the co-infection basic reproduction number, R0, can be brought down to below one, thereby eradicating the diseases. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in the Eastern Province of Kenya to quantify the possible false diagnosis resulting from this co-infection. In Kenya, despite having higher prevalence of typhoid, malaria is more problematic in terms of new infections and disease deaths. We find that false diagnosis-with higher possible cases for typhoid than malaria-cause significant devastating impacts on Kenyan societies. Our results demonstrate that both diseases need to be simultaneously managed for successful control of co-epidemics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  11. Lysogeny and Bacteriocinogeny in Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus Pyocyaneus and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Ibrahim Mohamed Shabana "Flora of acopharynx in Allergic and Bacterial Rhinitis with Special Stress on Neisseria Spesies". 5. J . Blham Metuwie uSerology...almunelli typhi-murii Related to Txvo- Uutbretaks of Food Poisgoning in NE.Ypt.’ JLl-JLzhar Miedical JuuruEJ "Iln Press). Phag Patterns of Salmonella

  12. Co-infections and Pathogenesis of KSHV-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhani eThakker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 is one of the several carcinogenic viruses that infect humans. KSHV infection has been implicated in the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, and multicentric Castleman’s Disease (MCD. While KSHV infection is necessary for the development of KSHV associated malignancies, it is not sufficient to induce tumoriegenesis. Evidently, other co-factors are essential for the progression of KSHV induced malignancies. One of the most important co-factors, necessary for the progression of KSHV induced tumors, is immune suppression that frequently arises during co-infection with HIV and also by other immune suppressants. In this mini-review, we discuss the roles of co-infection with HIV and other pathogens on KSHV infection and pathogenesis.

  13. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  14. Melioidosis and pulmonary tuberculosis co-infection in a diabetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Anup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is endemic in South East Asian countries and North Australia. Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from several parts of South India. Melioidosis may manifest as chronic pneumonia mimicking tuberculosis and generally be seen as a single entity. We report the first case of melioidosis and pulmonary tuberculosis co-infection in a diabetic patient. The causative agents were identified using standard methods and the patient recovered after completion of the recommended antibiotic therapy. Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in India. Though melioidosis and tuberculosis present with similar clinical picture, co-infections are rare. Hence, increased awareness among clinicians and microbiologists can help in diagnosing the disease even when there is no clinical suspicion.

  15. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy...... and Strongyloides stercoralis infections were less common, each recorded at a prevalence of HIV-positive than the PTB- patients (43.6% v. 62.6%; PHIV-positive had a significantly lower prevalence (12.1% v. 25%; P... intensity (49 v. 123 eggs/g; P=0.003) of hookworm infection than the HIV-negative. The PTB patients in the study area were, however, still frequently co-infected with HIV and with parasitic infections that may increase morbidity and accelerate the progression of HIV disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  16. Epidemic increase in Salmonella bloodstream infection in children, Bwamanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoba, M-F; De Boeck, H; Ifeka, B B; Dawili, J; Lunguya, O; Vanhoof, R; Muyembe, J-J; Van Geet, C; Bertrand, S; Jacobs, J

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but few data are available from Central-Africa. We documented during the period November 2011 to May 2012 an epidemic increase in invasive Salmonella bloodstream infections in HGR Bwamanda, a referral hospital in Equateur Province, DR Congo. Salmonella spp. represented 90.4 % (103 out of 114) of clinically significant blood culture isolates and comprised Salmonella Typhimurium (54.4 %, 56 out of 103), Salmonella Enteritidis (28.2 %, 29 out of 103) and Salmonella Typhi (17.5 %, 18 out of 103), with Salmonella Enteritidis accounting for most of the increase. Most (82 out of 103, 79.6 %) isolates were obtained from children Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were 14 months (14 days to 64 years) and 19 months (3 months to 8 years) respectively. Clinical presentation was non-specific; the in-hospital case fatality rate was 11.1 %. More than two thirds (69.7 %, 53 out of 76) of children Salmonella isolates as well as 6/18 (33.3 %) Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to the first-line oral antibiotics amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol), one (1.0 %) Salmonella Typhimurium had decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility owing to a point mutation in the gyrA gene (Gly81Cys). Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (MLVA) analysis of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates revealed closely related patterns comprising three major and four minor profiles, with differences limited to one out of five loci. These data show an epidemic increase in clonally related multidrug-resistant Salmonella bloodstream infection in children in DR Congo.

  17. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E. Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. Methods. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Results. Between 1998 and 2014, 167 028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10 139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Conclusions. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. PMID:26449953

  18. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2015-11-01

    The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Between 1998 and 2014, 167,028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10,139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. HIV co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection was 5.2%. No child was co-infected with all three viruses. Children who were co-infected with HCV were more likely to be older than 5 years. There was no significant association between co-infection with either of the hepatitis viruses and ...

  20. Salmonella Osteomyelitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAnearney, S; McCall, D

    2015-01-01

    .... Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia...

  1. TB-HIV co-infection in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, M J; Sebhatu, M; Weldegergis, T; Tesfazion, A; Borgdorff, M W

    2007-07-01

    We assessed the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identified risk factors for HIV infection in smear-positive TB patients diagnosed by the TB programme in Eritrea. Of 365 notified TB patients, 220 (60.3%) could be traced and provided a blood sample that was tested. Of these, 26 (11.8%, 95%CI 7.6-16.1) were HIV-infected. Risk factors were age, urban residence and schooling level. The data indicate that, starting with the urban areas, it is time for Eritrea to introduce HIV testing of all TB patients.

  2. Diagnosis of opportunistic infections: HIV co-infections - tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley; da Silva, Pedro; Boehme, Catharina C; Stevens, Wendy; Gilpin, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation. This review describes advances in diagnosing TB, especially among HIV co-infected individuals, highlights national program's uptake, and impact on patient care. The TB diagnostic landscape has been transformed over the last 5 years. Molecular diagnostics such as Xpert MTB/RIF, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) resistance to rifampicin, has revolutionized TB control programs. WHO endorsed the use of Xpert MTB/RIF in 2010 for use in HIV/TB co-infected patients, and later in 2013 for use as the initial diagnostic test for all adults and children with signs and symptoms of pulmonary TB. Line probe assays (LPAs) are recommended for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in sputum smear-positive specimens and mycobacterial cultures. A second-line line probe assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB Assays such as the urine lateral flow (LF)-lipoarabinomannan (LAM), can be used at the point of care (POC) and have a niche role to supplement the diagnosis of TB in seriously ill HIV-infected, hospitalized patients with low CD4 cell counts of less than 100 cells/μl. Polyvalent platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular) and GeneXpert (Cepheid) offer potential for integration of HIV and TB testing services. While the Research and Development (R&D) pipeline appears to be rich at first glance, there are actually few leads for true POC tests that would allow for earlier TB diagnosis or rapid, comprehensive

  3. Lymphocytic proliferative response to outer-membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C R; Isibasi, A; Ortiz-Navarrete, V; Paniagua, J; García, J A; Blanco, F; Kumate, J

    1993-01-01

    Porins isolated from Salmonella typhi have been demonstrated to protect against the challenge with this bacteria in mice. The mechanism has not been clarified, but could be associated with activation of both humoral and cellular immunity. In order to evaluate the induction of specific T cell responses, the lymphocytic proliferation to porins isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli was examined by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay in mice immunized with three different antigens: acetone-killed S. typhimurium, its porins, or outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) isolated from S. typhi. Higher proliferative responses were observed in mice immunized with porins and OMPs compared with those which received the acetone-killed bacteria. Although cross-reactivity was observed between porins, they were not mitogenic. Moreover, porins were able to activate T lymphocytes isolated from mice immunized with S. typhi OMPs. These results suggest that T cell activation, through the release of lymphokines, may play a role in the induction of protective immunity with porins.

  4. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  5. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Warashina, Wesley R; Sturgeon, Michele M; Buchholz, Arlene E; Olmsted, Gregory K; Park, Sarah Y; Effler, Paul V; Karpathy, Sandor E

    2008-10-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  6. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Warashina, Wesley R.; Sturgeon, Michele M.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Olmsted, Gregory K.; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.; Karpathy, Sandor E.

    2008-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

  7. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...... properties, physiology, classification, and nomenclature. Thereafter, the epidemiology of the organism is introduced, including the routes of transmission. Finally, the disease salmonellosis, the virulence mechanisms, and the occurrence in different types of food are described....

  8. High prevalence of co-infection between human papillomavirus (HPV) 51 and 52 in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Bolaños, Jazbet; Rivera-Domínguez, Jessica Alejandra; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel

    2017-08-08

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the genesis of cervical carcinoma. The co-infection among HPV genotypes is frequent, but the clinical significance is controversial; in Mexico, the prevalence and pattern of co-infection differ depending on the geographic area of study. We analyzed the mono- and co-infection prevalence of multiple HPV genotypes, as well as preferential interactions among them in a Mexico City sample population. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Cervical cytology samples from 1163 women and 166 urethral scraping samples of men were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. The detection of HPV infection was performed using the hybrid capture and the genotyping was by PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52). 36% of women were HPV-positive and the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 51, 52, 16, and 33 (42, 38, 37, and 34%, respectively). The prevalence of co-infection was higher (75.37%) than mono-infection in women HPV positives. All genotypes were co-infected with HPV 16, but the co-infection with 51-52 genotypes was the most frequent combination in all cases. The co-infection was very common; each HPV genotype showed different preferences for co-infection with other genotypes, HPV 51-52 co-infection was the most frequent. The HPV 16, 33, 51 and 52 were the most prevalent and are a public health concern to the Mexican population.

  9. Poor biofilm-forming ability and long-term survival of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Girish; Aheto, Komi; Shirtliff, Mark E; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an enteric pathogen that causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis, forms biofilms on different surfaces. In sub-Saharan Africa, Salmonella Typhimurium of a novel sequence type (ST) 313 was identified and produces septicemia in the absence of gastroenteritis. No animal reservoir has been identified, and it is hypothesized that transmission occurs via human to human. In this study, we show that invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 strains from Mali are poor biofilm producers compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains, which are found worldwide and are known to be associated with gastroenteritis. We evaluated biofilms using crystal violet staining, examination of the red, dry and rough morphotype, pellicle formation and a continuous flow system. One month-old Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 colonies survived in the absence of exogenous nutrients and were highly resistant to sodium hypochlorite treatment compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313. This study for the first time demonstrates the comparative biofilm-forming ability and long-term survival of clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains are strong biofilm producers and can survive desiccation compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 that form weak biofilms and survive poorly following desiccation. Our data suggest that like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 lack mechanisms that allow it to persist in the environment. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Invasive Salmonella infections in areas of high and low malaria transmission intensity in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Holly M; Lester, Rebecca; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Todd, Jim E; Kinabo, Grace D; Philemon, Rune; Amos, Ben; Morrissey, Anne B; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A

    2014-03-01

     The epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) differs, and prevalence of these pathogens among children in sub-Saharan Africa may vary in relation to malaria transmission intensity.  We compared the prevalence of bacteremia among febrile pediatric inpatients aged 2 months to 13 years recruited at sites of high and low malaria endemicity in Tanzania. Enrollment at Teule Hospital, the high malaria transmission site, was from June 2006 through May 2007, and at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), the low malaria transmission site, from September 2007 through August 2008. Automated blood culture, malaria microscopy with Giemsa-stained blood films, and human immunodeficiency virus testing were performed.  At Teule, 3639 children were enrolled compared to 467 at KCMC. Smear-positive malaria was detected in 2195 of 3639 (60.3%) children at Teule and 11 of 460 (2.4%) at KCMC (P Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 11 (0.3%) children at Teule and 6 (1.3%) at KCMC (P = .008). With NTS excluded, the prevalence of bacteremia at Teule was 5.0% and at KCMC 4.1% (P = .391).  Where malaria transmission was intense, invasive NTS was common and Salmonella Typhi was uncommon, whereas the inverse was observed at a low malaria transmission site. The relationship between these pathogens, the environment, and the host is a compelling area for further research.

  11. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    e. Biochemical screening and serological tests for Salmonellae. Identification of Salmonella species was done biochemically. Triple sugar Iron (TSI) agar motility, urease and citrate utilization tests were also used to screen the isolates before serologic testing was performed. (Cheesbrough, 2002; Perilla, 2003). Triple sugar ...

  12. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals ...

  13. Study on the promotion of bacterial biofilm formation by a Salmonella conjugative plasmid and the underlying mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the pRST98 plasmid, originally isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, on biofilm (BF formation, we carried out in vitro experiments using S. Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli. We further explored the effects of pRST98 in vivo by establishing two animal models, a tumor-bearing mouse model and a mouse urethral catheter model. Moreover, we examined the relationship between the quorum-sensing (QS system and pRST98-mediated BF formation. These studies showed that pRST98 enhanced BF formation in different bacteria in vitro. In both animal models, pRST98 promoted BF formation and caused more severe pathological changes. It was previously reported that Salmonella senses exogenous N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs through the regulatory protein SdiA and regulates the expression of genes including the virulence gene rck, which is located on the virulence plasmid of some serotypes of Salmonella. In this study, we confirmed the locus of the rck gene on pRST98 and found that AHLs increased rck expression in pRST98-carrying strains, thereby enhancing bacterial adherence, serum resistance and bacterial BF formation. In conclusion, the Salmonella conjugative plasmid pRST98 promotes bacterial BF formation both in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism may relate to the AHL-SdiA-Rck signaling pathway.

  14. HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients seeking care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients seeking care at health facilities in Tanzania. ... there have been few studies conducted in resource limited settings to ascertain the interaction of parasitic co-infection where HIV/AIDS management largely depends on CD4+ T lymphocyte cells counts and WHO clinical staging.

  15. Prevalence and clinical correlates of Schistosoma mansoni co-infection among malaria infected patients, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getie, Sisay; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Workineh, Meseret; Worku, Ligabaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Beyene

    2015-09-28

    In Ethiopia, where malaria and schistosomiasis are co-endemic, co-infections are expected to be high. However, data about the prevalence of malaria-schistosomiasis co-infection and their clinical correlation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni co-infection and associated clinical correlates in malaria patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 at Chwahit Health Center, in northwest Ethiopia. Blood film positive malaria patients (N = 205) were recruited for the study. Clinical, parasitological, hematological, and biochemical parameters were assessed from every study participant. Stool samples were also collected and processed with Kato-Katz technique to diagnose and classify intensity of Schistosoma mansoni. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and malaria co-infection was 19.5%. The age group of 16-20 years old was significantly associated with co-infection. Co-infected patients with a moderate-heavy egg burden of Schistosoma mansoni had significantly high mean Plasmodium parasitemia. On the other hand, age group of 6-10 years old and moderate-heavy Schistosoma mansoni co-infection were significantly associated with severe malaria. Prevalence of malaria and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection in the study area was considerably high. Severity of malaria and parasitemia of Plasmodium were associated with certain age groups and intensity of concurrent Schistosoma mansoni. Further study is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of interaction between malaria and Schistosoma mansoni.

  16. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection.

  17. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  18. Prevalence and immune status of HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/HBV co-infection places patients at high risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality and the interaction of the two viruses can further complicate treatment. Pregnant women are especially at high risk for increased morbidity and mortality due to infection, and information about HIV/HBV co-infection in pregnant women is ...

  19. High prevalence of HIV and malaria co-infection in urban Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives were to determine the prevalence of HIV/malaria co-infection and to determine and compare the prevalence of some parasitological, haematological and clinical parameters between co-infection and mono-infection with HIV or malaria in the study population. Information was collected on HIV serostatus, and ...

  20. Effect of Hepatitis-B Virus Co-Infection on CD4 Cell Count and Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CD4 count, Hepatitis B surface antigen, Serum albumin, total Protein, and liver enzymes were determined using standard techniques. Results: The prevalence of HIV and HBV co-infection was 37%. The mean serum ALT and ALP were significantly higher in the co- infected patients (P-values <0.05). The mean CD4 ...

  1. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  2. Suppression of dendritic cell and T-cell activation by the pRST⁹⁸ Salmonella plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Jin, Qili; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuyan; Huang, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella evades host immune response via the expression of a variety of pathogenic factors. The 'pRST98' plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is involved in conferring the multidrug‑resistance and virulence of S. typhi. However, its specific effect on host‑cell function has remained elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of immune responses. The present study therefore aimed to investigate whether pRST98 may target DCs involved in mediating the adaptive immune response. In vivo experiments with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium χ3337 and χ3337/pRST98 revealed that pRST98 may influence multiple important functions of murine DCs, including maturation, survival and cytokine production. In addition, pRST98 markedly contributed to decreasing T‑cell activation. These data suggested that by targeting the aforementioned functions of DCs, pRST98 may partially overturn the adaptive immune defense mechanisms of the host, which are required for elimination of this pathogen from infected tissues. This may contribute to the evasion of host adaptive immune responses by S. Typhi and therefore provide a target for the prevention and treatment of typhoid fever.

  3. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes.

  4. Antibodies in Action: Role of Human Opsonins in Killing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Janet C.; Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.

    2011-01-01

    Although vaccines have been available for over a century, a correlate of protection for typhoid fever has yet to be identified. Antibodies are produced in response to typhoid infection and vaccination and are generally used as the gold standard for determining vaccine immunogenicity, even though their role in clearance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infections is poorly defined. Here, we describe the first functional characterization of S. Typhi-specific antibodies following vaccination with a new vaccine, M01ZH09 (Ty2 ΔaroC ΔssaV). We determined that postvaccination sera increased the uptake of wild-type S. Typhi by human macrophages up to 2.3-fold relative to prevaccination (day 0) or placebo samples. These results were recapitulated using immunoglobulins purified from postvaccination serum, demonstrating that antibodies were largely responsible for increases in uptake. Imaging verified that macrophages internalized 2- to 9.5-fold more S. Typhi when the bacteria were opsonized with postvaccination sera than when the bacteria were opsonized with day 0 or placebo sera. Once inside macrophages, the survival of S. Typhi was reduced as much as 50% when opsonized with postvaccination sera relative to day 0 or placebo serum samples. Lastly, bactericidal assays indicated that antibodies generated postvaccination were recognized by complement factors and assisted in killing S. Typhi: mean postvaccination bactericidal antibody titers were higher at all time points than placebo and day 0 titers. These data clearly demonstrate that there are at least two mechanisms by which antibodies facilitate killing of S. Typhi. Future work could lead to improved immunogenicity tests associated with vaccine efficacy and the identification of correlates of protection against typhoid fever. PMID:21628517

  5. Control of Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa: Is There a Role for Human Challenge Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibani, Malick M; Jin, Celina; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive Salmonella disease in Africa is a major public health concern. With evidence of the transcontinental spread of the Salmonella Typhi H58 haplotype, improved estimates of the burden of infection and understanding of the complex interplay of factors affecting disease transmission are needed to assist with efforts aimed at disease control. In addition to Salmonella Typhi, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella are increasingly recognized as an important cause of febrile illness and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Human experimental oral challenge studies with Salmonella can be used as a model to offer unique insights into host-pathogen interactions as well as a platform to efficiently test new diagnostic and vaccine candidates. In this article, we review the background and use of human challenge studies to date and discuss how findings from these studies may lead to progress in the control of invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. The microbiological and clinical characteristics of invasive salmonella in gallbladders from cholecystectomy patients in kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Dongol

    Full Text Available Gallbladder carriage of invasive Salmonella is considered fundamental in sustaining typhoid fever transmission. Bile and tissue was obtained from 1,377 individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in Kathmandu to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and relevance of invasive Salmonella in the gallbladder in an endemic area. Twenty percent of bile samples contained a Gram-negative organism, with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from 24 and 22 individuals, respectively. Gallbladders that contained Salmonella were more likely to show evidence of acute inflammation with extensive neutrophil infiltrate than those without Salmonella, corresponding with higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts in the blood of Salmonella positive individuals. Antimicrobial resistance in the invasive Salmonella isolates was limited, indicating that gallbladder colonization is unlikely to be driven by antimicrobial resistance. The overall role of invasive Salmonella carriage in the gallbladder is not understood; here we show that 3.5% of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy in this setting have a high concentration of antimicrobial sensitive, invasive Salmonella in their bile. We predict that such individuals will become increasingly important if current transmission mechanisms are disturbed; prospectively identifying these individuals is, therefore, paramount for rapid local and regional elimination.

  7. Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir, Nigeria

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    Olufemi Oludayo Faleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 % of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 % of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 % of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi, B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75 from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.

  8. SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM LETTUCE AND HUMAN DIARRHEA SAMPLES IN BURKINA FASO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siourimè, Somda Namwin; Isidore, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste; Oumar, Traoré; Nestor, Bassolé Ismael Henri; Yves, Traoré; Nicolas, Barro; Aly, Savadogo

    2017-01-01

    In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method. Out of 154 Salmonella isolated, 60 were from human and 94 from lettuce samples. Serotyping revealed four different serotypes and 39% (60) untypeable strains from human and lettuce (14 and 46 strains). Salmonella serotypes from human and lettuce samples were: Paratyphi A (10% and 22%), Paratyphi B (34% and 8%), Paratyphi C (14% and 18%) and Typhi (21% and 1%). A high resistance of Salmonella Paratyphi B and Salmonella spp to tetracycline were 70% from human and 35 % from lettuce samples. Multiresistance was observed to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid or ampicillin with Salmonella ParatyphiB 35% and Salmonella Typhi 33% from human samples and Salmonella spp 4% from lettuce samples. This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. List of non-standard Abbreviations : HDB: Hôpital du District de Bogodogo, LNSP: Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, DSG : District Sanitaire de Gourcy, DSB : District Sanitaire de Boromo.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  10. Is the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis co-infection necessary to eradicate Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Boga

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Co-infection with E. vermicularis may act as a factor favoring D. fragilis infection by preventing eradication measures. This suggests that both parasites should be treated simultaneously.

  11. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Isache

    2016-01-01

    HTLV and HIV share the same routes of transmission and the same tropism for T-lymphocytes. Co-infection occurs probably more frequently than we are aware, since testing for HTLV is not routinely performed in outpatient HIV clinics.

  12. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particu...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  13. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico

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    Ariadna Flores Ortega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.

  14. Clinical correlate of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected children at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-infection was significantly higher in older children (>5 years) than in younger children <5 years (32 vs 9, P < 0.05). Severe weight loss was the only clinical feature found to have a fairly good sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.6%) for TB in co-infected children, with a positive predictive value of 23.0%. While immune ...

  15. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  16. Human ?-defensin-2 production upon viral and bacterial co-infection is attenuated in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Arnason, Jason W.; Murphy, James C.; Kooi, Cora; Wiehler, Shahina; Traves, Suzanne L.; Shelfoon, Christopher; Maciejewski, Barbara; Dumonceaux, Curtis J.; Lewenza, W. Shawn; Proud, David; Leigh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Viral-bacterial co-infections are associated with severe exacerbations of COPD. Epithelial antimicrobial peptides, including human ?-defensin-2 (HBD-2), are integral to innate host defenses. In this study, we examined how co-infection of airway epithelial cells with rhinovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates HBD-2 expression, and whether these responses are attenuated by cigarette smoke and in epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushings from smokers with normal lung function or from...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms...... in 2007. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human blood and 70 (11%) from chicken fecal samples. The human isolates revealed nine different serovars; 82% were non-typhoidal Salmonella and 18......% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates. Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens...

  18. The synergy between TB and HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in Ethiopia

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    Desalegn Dejene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synergy between tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection on perceived stigma is not well studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of TB/HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in selected hospitals of Oromiya region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in Adama, Nekemet and Jimma Specialized hospitals. Data were collected by trained HIV counselors. A structured questionnaire which consisted of socio-demographic variables, clinical information, perceived stigma, and depression was used to collect the data Findings A total of 591 participants were included in the study of whom 124 (20.9% were co-infected with TB/HIV. The stigma items were highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93 and had strong inter dimension correlation. Respondents who were co-infected with TB and HIV were more likely to have perceived stigma compared to non-co-infected HIV patients, [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.2, 2.0]. Non-literate individuals [OR = 1.9, (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0] and females [OR = 1.6, (95% CI: 1.2, 2.3] had also more perceived stigma. Conclusions TB/HIV co-infected patients, non-literate individuals and females were more likely to have high perceived stigma. Behavioral Change Communication should focus on these segments of the population to rectify the high perceived stigma.

  19. Helminth-microparasite co-infection in wildlife: lessons from ruminants, rodents and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V O

    2016-09-01

    Co-infection is now recognized as the natural state of affairs in most hosts and co-infecting parasites interact in a variety of ways that can impact host health and parasite fitness. Interactions between helminths and microparasites have captured particular attention in this regard owing to the ubiquity of helminth infections in many host populations. The mechanistic underpinnings and health implications of co-infection are typically studied in laboratory and clinical settings, but recently studies of wild species have begun to tackle similar issues. Case studies from three wild mammal groups-ruminants, rodents and rabbits-serve to highlight how wild studies are contributing to the broader co-infection literature. This work suggests that wildlife research can generate new and unique insights about helminth-microparasite co-infection that are fostered in part by studying parasite interactions in a natural context. For this reason, increased integration of wild studies with research in human, laboratory and veterinary animal populations can help pave the way towards a more complete understanding of the issue of co-infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Liver histology in co-infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV and Hepatitis G virus (HGV

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    STRAUSS Edna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about liver histology in the co-infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis G virus (HGV, HGV RNA was investigated in 46 blood donors with hepatitis C, 22 of them with liver biopsy: co-infection HCV / HGV (n = 6 and HCV isolated infection (n = 16. Besides staging and grading of inflammation at portal, peri-portal and lobular areas (Brazilian Consensus, the fibrosis progression index was also calculated. All patients had no symptoms or signs of liver disease and prevalence of HGV / HCV co-infection was 15.2%. Most patients had mild liver disease and fibrosis progression index, calculated only in patients with known duration of infection, was 0.110 for co-infection and 0.130 for isolated HCV infection, characterizing these patients as "slow fibrosers". No statistical differences could be found between the groups, although a lesser degree of inflammation was always present in co-infection. In conclusion co-infection HCV / HGV does not induce a more aggressive liver disease, supporting the hypothesis that HGV is not pathogenic.

  1. Is the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis co-infection necessary to eradicate Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, José A; Rojo, Susana; Fernández, Jonathan; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Iglesias, Carmen; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Vázquez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena

    2016-08-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic protozoan of the human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide distribution, which has emerged as an important and misdiagnosed cause of chronic gastrointestinal illnesses such as diarrhea and 'irritable-bowel-like' gastrointestinal disease. Very little research has been conducted on the use of suitable antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, higher rates of co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis have been described, suggesting that E. vermicularis could influence the treatment of D. fragilis-infected patients. To study this, the treatment of E. vermicularis and D. fragilis co-infected patients was evaluated. Forty-nine patients with a D. fragilis infection, including 25 (51.0%) patients co-infected with E. vermicularis, were studied. All of them were treated with metronidazole. Patients with E. vermicularis co-infection and/or an E. vermicularis-positive case in the family were treated with mebendazole. Metronidazole treatment failure was significantly more frequent in patients with E. vermicularis co-infection and in patients with children in the family. Co-infection with E. vermicularis may act as a factor favoring D. fragilis infection by preventing eradication measures. This suggests that both parasites should be treated simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-infection and risk factors of tuberculosis in a Mexican HIV+ population

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    Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The situation of tuberculosis (TB is being modified by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is increasing the occurrence of new cases and the generation of drug resistant strains, affecting not only the people infected with HIV, but also their close contacts and the general population, conforming a serious public health concern. However, the magnitudes of the factors associated to this co-infection differ considerably in relation to the population groups and geographical areas. METHODS: In order to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for the co-infection of tuberculosis (TB in a population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ in the Southeast of Mexico, we made the analysis of clinical and epidemiological variables and the diagnosis of tuberculosis by isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory samples. RESULTS: From the 147 HIV+ individuals analyzed, 12 were culture positive; this shows a prevalence of 8% for the co-infection. The only variable found with statistical significance for the co-infection was the number of CD4-T < 200 cells/mm³, OR 13 (95%, CI 2-106 vs 12-109. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report describing the factors associated with tuberculosis co -infection with HIV in a population from Southern Mexico. The low number of CD4 T-cells was the only variable associated with the TB co-infection and the rest of the variables provide scenarios that require specific and particular interventions for this population group.

  3. Enhancement of ovarian cancer chemotherapy by delivery of multidrug-resistance gene small interfering RNA using tumor targeting Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiaqi; Guo, Yi; Jiang, Zhongmin; Yang, Min; Li, Huaifang; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of attenuated Salmonella typhi as a tumor-targeting delivery vector for multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1) small interfering RNA (siRNA). The cisplatin (DDP)-resistant ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3/DDP was established by treatment with gradually increasing concentrations of cisplatin. MDR1 siRNA expression plasmid containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) of MDR1 gene was constructed and transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhi strain  SL7207. SKOV-3/DDP cells were incubated with recombinant Salmonella and then subjected to analysis of MDR1 expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. SKOV-3/DDP tumor-bearing mice were established by subcutaneously injecting BALB/c nude mice with SKOV-3/DDP cells, and were orally inoculated with Salmonella carrying MDR1 siRNA plasmid and simultaneously injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin. Tumor growth and mouse survival were observed. Compared with parental cell line, the DDP-resistant SKOV-3/DDP cells expressed a much higher level of MDR1. The expression of MDR1 in SKOV-3/DDP cells infected with the Salmonella strain bearing MDR1 siRNA plasmid in vitro was detected to be downregulated and DDP tolerance of these cells was reversed. Tumor-bearing nude mice that were orally receiving recombinant Salmonella experienced a slow tumor growth and became more sensitive to DDP. Attenuated Salmonella typhi may represent a promising vector for in vivo administration of RNA interference therapy against malignant tumors. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. Methods Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were analyzed on GC/MS. Their antibacterial activities were investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography-Bioautographic (TLC-Bioautographic) assays against pathogenic strains Salmonella typhi (D1 Vi-positive), Salmonella typhi (G7 Vi-negative), Salmonella paratyphi A, Escherichia coli (SS1), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 14580). The data were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method to find out significant relationship of essential oils biological activities at p spices can be pursued against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:24119438

  5. Schistosoma-associated Salmonella resist antibiotics via specific fimbrial attachments to the flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Alison E; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Day, Tim A; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-06-28

    Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that infect humans through dermo-invasion while in contaminated water. Salmonella are also a common water-borne human pathogen that infects the gastrointestinal tract via the oral route. Both pathogens eventually enter the systemic circulation as part of their respective disease processes. Concurrent Schistosoma-Salmonella infections are common and are complicated by the bacteria adhering to adult schistosomes present in the mesenteric vasculature. This interaction provides a refuge in which the bacterium can putatively evade antibiotic therapy and anthelmintic monotherapy can lead to a massive release of occult Salmonella. Using a novel antibiotic protection assay, our results reveal that Schistosoma-associated Salmonella are refractory to eight different antibiotics commonly used to treat salmonellosis. The efficacy of these antibiotics was decreased by a factor of 4 to 16 due to this association. Salmonella binding to schistosomes occurs via a specific fimbrial protein (FimH) present on the surface on the bacterium. This same fimbrial protein confers the ability of Salmonella to bind to mammalian cells. Salmonella can evade certain antibiotics by binding to Schistosoma. As a result, effective bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics are unfortunately above the achievable therapeutic levels of the drugs in co-infected individuals. Salmonella-Schistosoma binding is analogous to the adherence of Salmonella to cells lining the mammalian intestine. Perturbing this binding is the key to eliminating Salmonella that complicate schistosomiasis.

  6. Human helminth co-infection: analysis of spatial patterns and risk factors in a Brazilian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil.Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species.The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households.Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk factors, emphasizing the possible role of

  7. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Gemeda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001 greater risk of CMD (63.7% than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%. When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers.

  8. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  9. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

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    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  10. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

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    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  11. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

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    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  12. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications in HIV/HCV-Co-infected Patients.

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    Bedimo, Roger; Abodunde, Oladapo

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen to thirty percent of HIV-infected persons in North America and Europe are co-infected with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). The latter is associated with a significant number of extra-hepatic metabolic complications that could compound HIV-associated increased cardiovascular risk. This article reviews the basic science and epidemiologic and clinical evidence for increased cardio-metabolic risk among HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and discusses potential underlying mechanisms. We will finally review the impact of control of HCV viremia on the cardio-metabolic morbidity and mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. HCV infection is associated with a number of immune-related complications such as cryoglobulinemia but also metabolic complications including dyslipidemias, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The incidence of these complications is higher among HIV-co-infected patients and might contribute to increased mortality. The potential mechanisms of increased cardiovascular risk among HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects include endothelial dysfunction, chronic inflammation and immune activation, the cardio-metabolic effects of HCV-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis or insulin resistance, and chronic kidney disease. However, epidemiologic studies show discordant findings as to whether HCV co-infection further increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (acute myocardial infarctions and strokes) among HIV-infected patients. Nonetheless, successful treatment of HCV is associated with significant improvements in cardio-metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus. HCV co-infection is associated with a higher incidence of metabolic complications-and likely increased risk of cardiovascular events-that might contribute to increased mortality in HIV. These appear to improve with successful HCV therapy.

  13. Polyamines are essential for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum despite evolutionary decay of polyamine biosynthesis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Casper; Christensen, Jens P.; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -specificity coincides with accumulation of pseudogenes, indicating adaptation of host-restricted serovars to their narrow niches. Polyamines are small cationic amines and in Salmonella they can be synthesized through two alternative pathways directly from l-ornithine to putrescine and from l-arginine via agmatine...... to putrescine. The first pathway is not active in S. Gallinarum and S. Typhi, and this prompted us to investigate the importance of polyamines for virulence in S. Gallinarum. Bioinformatic analysis of all sequenced genomes of Salmonella revealed that pseudogene formation of the speC gene was exclusive for S....... Typhi and S. Gallinarum and happened through independent events. The remaining polyamine biosynthesis pathway was found to be essential for oral infection with S. Gallinarum since single and double mutants in speB and speE, encoding the pathways from agmatine to putrescine and from putrescine...

  14. A cross sectional study on antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella typhi clinical isolates from Bangladesh

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    Adnan Mannan

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Although the population density of Dhaka region is markedly higher than Rajshahi and Chittagong regions, no significant difference in resistance pattern was found. The rate of multidrug resistance is a matter of concern. Physicians should reconsider before prescribing nalidixic acid and cefixime. Further molecular study is needed to reveal the genomic and proteomic basis of resistance.

  15. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection. PMID:22044420

  16. Alterations of the NK cell pool in HIV/HCV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Dominik J; Kokordelis, Pavlos; Krämer, Benjamin; Glässner, Andreas; Wolter, Franziska; Goeser, Felix; Lutz, Philipp; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Strassburg, Christian P; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    A relevant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients is co-infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV co-infection in HIV-positive patients is associated with faster progression of liver disease in comparison to HCV mono-infection. Natural killer (NK) cells critically modulate the natural course of HCV infection. Both HIV and HCV mono-infection are associated with alterations of the NK cell pool. However, little data is available concerning phenotype and function of NK cells in HIV/HCV co-infection. A total of 34 HIV/HCV co-infected, 35 HIV and 39 HCV mono-infected patients and 43 healthy control persons were enrolled into this study. All HIV-positive patients were under effective antiretroviral therapy. NK cell phenotype, IFN-γ production and degranulation were studied by flow cytometry. NK cell frequency in HIV/HCV co-infection was significantly lower than in healthy individuals but did not differ from HIV and HCV mono-infection. HIV/HCV co-infection was associated with significantly decreased expression of the maturation/differentiation markers CD27/62L/127 on NK cells but increased expression of CD57 compared to healthy controls. Of note, expression also differed significantly from HCV mono-infection but was similar to HIV mono-infection, suggesting a pronounced impact of HIV on these alterations. Similar findings were made with regard to the NK cell receptors NKG2A/C and NKp30. More importantly, NK cells in co-infection displayed a highly impaired functional activity with significantly lower IFN-γ production and degranulation than in healthy donors as well as HIV and HCV mono-infection, suggesting a synergistic effect of both viruses. Our data indicate that HIV/HCV co-infection is associated with significant alterations of the NK cell pool, which might be involved in the rapid progression of liver disease in co-infected patients and which mainly reflect alterations observed in HIV mono-infection.

  17. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm co-infection: spatial distribution and determinants in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chammartin, Frédérique; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-01-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection risk and to investigate determinants of co-infection in Preah Vihear Province, North Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in 60 villages of Preah Vihear Province. Diagnosis was performed on two stool samples, using combined Baermann technique and Koga agar culture plate for S. stercoralis and Kato-Katz technique for hookworm. Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were used to assess demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural determinants of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection and to predict co-infection risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2576 participants included in the study, 48.6% and 49.0% were infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm, respectively; 43.8% of the cases were co-infections. Females, preschool aged children, adults aged 19-49 years, and participants who reported regularly defecating in toilets, systematically boiling drinking water and having been treated with anthelmintic drugs had lower odds of co-infection. While S. stercoralis infection risk did not appear to be spatially structured, hookworm mono-infection and co-infection exhibited spatial correlation at about 20 km. Co-infection risk was positively associated with longer walking distances to a health centre and exhibited a small clustering tendency. The association was only partly explained by climatic variables, suggesting a role for underlying factors, such as

  18. Prisoners co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Chantal L; King, Emma J; Dolan, Kate; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Almost from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in 1981, an association with tuberculosis (TB) was recognized. This association between HIV and TB co-infection has been particularly evident amongst prisoners. However, despite this, few studies of TB in prisons have stratified results by HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV-positive persons and TB-infected persons in prisons and the documented risk of TB in those infected with HIV, it is of interest to determine how co-infection varies amongst prison populations worldwide. For this reason we have undertaken a systematic review of studies of co-infected prisoners to determine the incidence and/or prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection in prisons, as well as outcomes in this group, measured as treatment success or death. Methods A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Embase, IBSS, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Health and CINAHL Plus. No restrictions were set on language or publication date for article retrieval, with articles included if indexed up to 18 October 2015. A total of 1975 non-duplicate papers were identified. For treatment and outcome data all eligible papers were appraised for inclusion; for incidence/prevalence estimates papers published prior to 2000 were excluded from full text review. After full text appraisal, 46 papers were selected for inclusion in the review, 41 for incidence/prevalence estimates and nine for outcomes data, with four papers providing evidence for both outcomes and prevalence/incidence. Results Very few studies estimated the incidence of TB in HIV positive prisoners, with most simply reporting prevalence of co-infection. Co-infection is rarely explicitly measured, with studies simply reporting HIV status in prisoners with TB, or a cross-sectional survey of TB prevalence amongst prisoners with HIV. Estimates of co-infection prevalence ranged from 2.4 to 73.1% and relative risks for one, given the other, ranged from 2.0 to 10.75, although

  19. HEPATITIS B, C AND HIV CO-INFECTIONS SEROPREVALENCE IN A NORTHEAST BRAZILIAN CENTER

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    Lara Gurgel Fernandes TAVORA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The occurrence of HIV and hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV virus associations is of great concern since co-infected patients respond poorly to antiviral treatment and usually progress to chronic and more complicated hepatic disease. In Brazil, these co-infections prevalence is not well known since published data are few and sometimes demonstrate conflicting results. Also, a significant number of co-infected individuals are HBV/HCV asymptomatic carriers, leading to under notification. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of the HBV and HCV infection in a recently diagnosed HIV population in the state of Ceará/Brazil. Methods Retrospective cohort, with >18yo patients diagnosed HIV+ from 2008-2010. First year medical attention information was collected. Results A total of 1.291 HIV+ patients were included. HBV serologies were collected in 52% (23% had previous hepatitis B, 3.7% were co-infected and HCV in 25.4% (1.5% had previous hepatitis C, 5.4% co-infection. The majority of HBV/HIV patients referred multiple sexual partners/year, 28% homosexualism and 20% bisexualism. In the HCV/HIV group 38.8% individuals had > one sexual partner/year and 22.2% used intravenous drugs. Conclusion The study reinforce the need for better training healthcare workers and providing laboratory support for a prompt hepatitis diagnosis and adequate medical management to avoid complications and decrease viral spread.

  20. Genome wide evolutionary analyses reveal serotype specific patterns of positive selection in selected Salmonella serotypes

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    Sun Qi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Salmonella enterica includes a diversity of serotypes that cause disease in humans and different animal species. Some Salmonella serotypes show a broad host range, some are host restricted and exclusively associated with one particular host, and some are associated with one particular host species, but able to cause disease in other host species and are thus considered "host adapted". Five Salmonella genome sequences, representing a broad host range serotype (Typhimurium, two host restricted serotypes (Typhi [two genomes] and Paratyphi and one host adapted serotype (Choleraesuis were used to identify core genome genes that show evidence for recombination and positive selection. Results Overall, 3323 orthologous genes were identified in all 5 Salmonella genomes analyzed. Use of four different methods to assess homologous recombination identified 270 genes that showed evidence for recombination with at least one of these methods (false discovery rate [FDR] ompC, a gene encoding an outer membrane protein, which has also been found to be under positive selection in other bacteria. A total of 8, 16, 7, and 5 genes showed evidence for positive selection in Choleraesuis, Typhi, Typhimurium, and Paratyphi branch analyses, respectively. Sequencing and evolutionary analyses of four genes in an additional 42 isolates representing 23 serotypes confirmed branch specific positive selection and recombination patterns. Conclusion Our data show that, among the four serotypes analyzed, (i less than 10% of Salmonella genes in the core genome show evidence for homologous recombination, (ii a number of Salmonella genes are under positive selection, including genes that appear to contribute to virulence, and (iii branch specific positive selection contributes to the evolution of host restricted Salmonella serotypes.

  1. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar (Salmonella Javiana) during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)Δ S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection.

  2. Antibiotic resistance of prevalent Salmonella and Shigella strains in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseffa, A; Gedlu, E; Asmelash, T

    1997-11-01

    Salmonella and Shigella strains were isolated prospectively from in- and outpatient specimens of the Gondar College teaching hospital over a two year period, from June 1994 to May 1996. Of 7993 miscellaneous specimens cultured, 80 yielded Salmonella and 147 Shigella. Serogroup B dominated among the salmonella, accounting for 61% of isolates, followed by S. typhi (21%). S. flexneri (58.5%) and S. dysenteriae (36.7%) were the most frequently isolated species among the Shigella. Results of sensitivity testing to five commonly used antibiotics in the area: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole, showed multiple drug resistance among the isolates of both salmonella and shigella. Only 4% of shigella were sensitive to all five antibiotics screened for in the study. Overall sensitive of shigella isolates to individual antibiotics was 8.8% to tetracycline, 10% to ampicillin, 28% to co-trimoxazole and 98% to gentamicin. No resistance was observed to nalidixic acid among 108 shigella strains tested for this antibiotic. The continued sensitivity of S. typhi to chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin and the other commonly used antibiotics is noted. It is recommended that nalidixic acid be introduced into the area under strict regulation for treatment of severe cases of shigella dysentery, an illness which is highly endemic in the region and the cause of occasional epidemics with high mortality.

  3. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir for HIV/HCV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Elana S; Kottilil, Shyam; Polis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a chronic infection that disproportionately impacts people living with HIV. In the past, HCV therapy was less effective in individuals with HIV co-infection. However, the advent of direct-acting antivirals has revolutionized HCV treatment with high rates of success in patients both with and without HIV. In this paper, we review the evidence supporting the use of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for the treatment of HCV in patients with HIV co-infection. Articles searchable on MEDLINE/PubMed were reviewed to provide context for use of LDV/SOF in individuals with HCV and HIV co-infection. This treatment is highly effective in achieving HCV cure or sustained virologic response, however further studies need to done to address efficacy of treatment in people with uncontrolled HIV, concerns regarding drug-interactions with antiretroviral therapy, and potential for shorter duration treatment.

  4. Mapping Helminth Co-Infection and Co-Intensity: Geostatistical Prediction in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Gyapong, John O.; Brooker, Simon; Zhang, Yaobi; Blair, Lynsey; Fenwick, Alan; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >10–20%) of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area. Conclusions/Significance Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of severe morbidity and

  5. Mapping helminth co-infection and co-intensity: geostatistical prediction in ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs.A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >10-20% of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area.Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of severe morbidity and environmental contamination and provides a platform

  6. Modulation of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during malaria/M. tuberculosis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuanukwu, R C; Onyenekwe, C C; Martinez-Pomares, L; Flynn, R; Singh, S; Amilo, G I; Agbakoba, N R; Okoye, J O

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The African region has 24% of the world's TB cases. TB overlaps with other infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV, which are also highly prevalent in the African region. TB is a leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients and co-infection with HIV and TB has been described as a syndemic. In view of the overlapping epidemiology of these diseases, it is important to understand the dynamics of the immune response to TB in the context of co-infection. We investigated the cytokine response to purified protein derivative (PPD) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TB patients co-infected with HIV or malaria and compared it to that of malaria- and HIV-free TB patients. A total of 231 subjects were recruited for this study and classified into six groups; untreated TB-positive, TB positive subjects on TB drugs, TB- and HIV-positive, TB- and malaria-positive, latent TB and apparently healthy control subjects. Our results demonstrate maintenance of interferon (IFN)-γ production in HIV and malaria co-infected TB patients in spite of lower CD4 counts in the HIV-infected cohort. Malaria co-infection caused an increase in the production of the T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in PPD-stimulated cultures. These results suggest that malaria co-infection diverts immune response against M. tuberculosis towards a Th-2/anti-inflammatory response which might have important consequences for disease progression. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Intrahepatic cytokine expression is downregulated during HCV/HIV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Perret, Magali; Sodoyer, Mireille; Smeaton, Laura; St Clair, J Benjamin; Chapman, Stacey; Taylor, Lynn E; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Chung, Raymond T

    2006-02-01

    HIV co-infection is associated with reduced HCV treatment response rates and accelerated HCV-related liver disease. Cytokines play an important role in regulating hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during chronic HCV infection, yet the roles of HIV and/or its therapies on cytokine expression are unknown. Total RNA was extracted from liver biopsies of 12 HCV mono-infected and 14 HCV/HIV co-infected persons. We used real-time PCR to quantify cytokines that contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses, including IFNalpha, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, TGFbeta(1), IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p40. Positive- and negative-strand HCV RNA levels were quantified using a molecular beacon approach. Detection of positive-strand HCV RNA was 100% in both groups; negative-strand HCV RNA was detected in four (33%) HCV mono-infected persons and in nine (64%) HCV/HIV co-infected persons. Median strand-specific HCV RNA levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Detection rates of cytokine mRNAs were lower for the HCV/HIV co-infected group compared to the HCV mono-infected group; the detection rates for TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 were statistically significant. Overall, cytokine mRNA quantities were lower for HCV/HIV co-infected compared to HCV mono-infected persons, with the exception of TGFbeta1. These data suggest that a defect in cytokine activation may occur in HCV/HIV co-infected persons that limits efficient clearance of HCV from the liver. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Influenza and dengue virus co-infection impairs monocyte recruitment to the lung, increases dengue virus titers, and exacerbates pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael A; González, Karla N; Shah, Sanjana; Peña, José; Mack, Matthias; Talarico, Laura B; Polack, Fernando P; Harris, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Co-infections of influenza virus and bacteria are known to cause severe disease, but little information exists on co-infections with other acute viruses. Seasonal influenza and dengue viruses (DENV) regularly co-circulate in tropical regions. The pandemic spread of influenza virus H1N1 (hereafter H1N1) in 2009 led to additional severe disease cases that were co-infected with DENV. Here, we investigated the impact of co-infection on immune responses and pathogenesis in a new mouse model. Co-infection of otherwise sublethal doses of a Nicaraguan clinical H1N1 isolate and two days later with a virulent DENV2 strain increased systemic DENV titers and caused 90% lethality. Lungs of co-infected mice carried both viruses, developed severe pneumonia, and expressed a unique pattern of host mRNAs, resembling only partial responses against infection with either virus alone. A large number of monocytes were recruited to DENV-infected but not to co-infected lungs, and depletion and adoptive transfer experiments revealed a beneficial role of monocytes. Our study shows that co-infection with influenza and DENV impairs host responses, which fail to control DENV titers and instead, induce severe lung damage. Further, our findings identify key inflammatory pathways and monocyte function as targets for future therapies that may limit immunopathology in co-infected patients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. La Co - Infection Paludisme - Salmonellose Une Realite Dans La Ville De Bukavu The Co - Infection Malaria - Salmonellose The Reality In Bukavu Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulumeoderhwa Balamba Ghislain Md Ombeni Bashwira Luc Md

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the area with stable tramission malaria and salmonellose cause death of many senible group children and mather also consomation of family badget prevision. The stady of co-infection paludisme-salmonellose has been done since january 2014 till december 2015 at the Hospital center of Nyamugo in bukavu city. The stady stand for to determine the prevalence of this pathological association malaria-salmonellose in the urban environment of the East of Republic democratic of the Congo. The method consisted of deducting capular and intravenous blood and test it of all the patients who have been consulted at the hospital during that period. A total of 7515 patients have been recorded so 1070 cases of co-infection malaria-salmonellose confirmed so 14.23.other diagnostics concerned only malaria confirmed with 1621 so 21.57 and the salmonellose confirmed with 1058 so 14.07 Other diagnostics may be 50.01. The co-infection malaria-salmonellose is a reality in our town and it can cause the death any time. The clinical signes of malaria- salmonellose association are almost similar to those of malaria due to that the persons who are in charge of treating people should make a systematic diagnostics for well being of the patients.The above ages are concerned and are touched by the malaria-salmonellose association therefor a significativedifference exist among the age of 10 to 1924.67 and the tranch above 800.9t6.524 p0.0001. The co-infection malaria-salmonellose is a great reality for Bukavu town. Resume Dans les zones transmission stable le paludisme et la salmonellose sont particulirement redoutable chez certains groupe cibles notamment les enfants et les femmes en ceintes. Les signes cliniques et les complications varient en fonction des conditions locales de transmission. Cette etude qui sest effectue au Centre Hospitalier de Nyamugo ville de bukavu de janvier 2014 decembre 2015 a consiste determiner la prevalence de la co-infection en milieu urbain lEst de

  10. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  11. Elevated temperature technique for the isolation of salmonellas from sewage and human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbut, N H

    1973-03-01

    Modified Moore's swabs, placed in sewers for 5 days, were used to concentrate salmonellas from sewage. Duplicate cultures of swab strips in selenite broth were incubated at 41 and 37 degrees C. respectively. Salmonella organisms were recovered consistently from the swabs when the enrichment broths were incubated at 41 degrees C. However, when equal portions of the same swabs were incubated at 37 degrees C., only 22% of them yielded Salmonella organisms. These results indicate an advantage in incubating the selenite broths at 41 degrees C. rather than 37 degrees C. in attempting to isolate salmonellas from sewage.One hundred and fifty faecal samples were examined for salmonellas by culture in selenite broths incubated at 41 and 37 degrees C. Twelve (8%) samples were positive at 41 degrees C. compared to only 10 (6.7%) positive samples at 37 degrees C. This difference is not statistically significant to indicate an advantage of the elevated-temperature of incubation over the conventional temperature in attempting to isolate salmonellas from human faeces. Moreover, results of the recovery rates of S. paratyphi B, S. typhi, and S. typhimurium indicate that an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C. is more appropriate for recovering salmonellas from artificially infected faecal samples than an incubation temperature of 41 degrees C. This stresses the inability of laboratory studies to mimic conditions in nature.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and typing of Salmonella isolated from street vended foods and associated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukampa; Shagufta, Bi; Sivakumar, M; Kumar, Surender; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Bhilegaonkar, Kiran Narayan; Kumar, Ashok; Dubal, Zunjar Baburao

    2017-07-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the occurrence and types of Salmonella present in street vended foods and associated environment, and their resistance pattern against various antibiotics. About 1075 street vended food and associated environment samples were processed for isolation and confirmation of different Salmonella spp. by targeting gene specific invA gene and serotype specific Sdf I, Via B and Spy genes by PCR. Selected Salmonella isolates were screened for antibiotic resistance by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion test. Out of 1075 samples, only 31 (2.88%) isolates could be amplified the invA gene of which 19 could be recovered from meat vendors; 8 from egg vendors while remaining 4 from milk vendors. Though, majority of Salmonella recovered from raw foods the ready-to-eat food like chicken gravy and rasmalai also showed its presence which pose a serious public health threat. Overall, 19, 6 and 1 isolates of S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi could be detected by PCR while remaining 5 isolates could not be amplified suggesting other type of Salmonella. Selected Salmonella isolates were completely resistance to Oxacillin (100%) followed by Cefoxitin (30.43%) and Ampicillin (26.10%). Thus, it is observed that the street vended foods of animal origin and associated environment play an important role in transmission of food borne pathogens including Salmonella.

  13. Salmonella in effluent from sewage treatment plants, wastepipe of butcher's shops and surface water in Walcheren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampelmacher, E H; van Noorle Jansen, L M

    1976-07-01

    In the frame of the "Walcheren-project" in which the epidemiology of salmonellosis is studied in a certain area, effluent from sewage treatment plants, wastepipe's of butcher's shops and surface waters, which receive the effluent were studied for the presence of salmonellae. From 160 samples of effluent 150 (94%) contained salmonellae. The most common serotype was S. typhi murium (35%) followed by S. panama and S. infantis. 14 butcher's shops' wastepipes were sampled 54 times. 14 (26%) times salmonellae were found, but only twice was the type isolated from the butcher's shop the same as found in the effluent on the same day. With regard to the presence of salmonellae in surface waters receiving effluent it was shown that from the immediate vicinity of the plant to 250 m downstream from the site of drainage of effluent the number of salmonellae per 100 ml remains almost constant. After 1.5-4 kilometers Salmonella could not be isolated from any of the samples examined. The results underline the hypothesis that salmonellae multiply in the sewage system and/or plant. The spread of samonellae by effluent seems to be limited to the plant itself and of the nearest vicinity. Proposals are brought forward to interupt contamination cycles by decontamination measures.

  14. Blood-borne viral co-infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontali, Emanuele; Bobbio, Nicoletta; Zaccardi, Marilena; Urciuoli, Renato

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility. Design/methodology/approach - Prospective collection of data of HIV-infected inmates entered the institution over a ten-year period. Findings - During study period 365 consecutive different inmates were evaluated. HCV co-infection was observed in more than 80 per cent of the tested HIV-infected inmates, past HBV infection in 71.6 per cent and active HBV co-infection was detected in 7.1 per cent; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs-Ag positivity) was present in 6 per cent of the total. Originality/value - This study confirms high prevalence of co-infections among HIV-infected inmates. Testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions.

  15. TB and HIV co-infection: when to start antiretroviral therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... been delayed in many co-infected patients until after the completion of TB therapy. This strategy reflected concerns about ongoing transmission of TB, as well as drug-drug interactions, high pill burden, overlapping drug .... to an IRIS event after ART initiation also varies widely (1 - 180 days) with most cases ...

  16. Factors Associated with Survival of HIV/HBV Co-infected Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients who were educated had a reduced death rate as compared to the uneducated ones. Therefore, emphasis should be on designing Information Education Communication (IEC) materials to sensitize the uneducated HIV/HBV co-infected patients on effects of non compliance and unbalanced diets. Keywords: HIV/HBV ...

  17. Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) share similar properties such as modes of transmission. This study was therefore designed to find out the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection in Zawan village. Three hundred subjects were recruited into the study through simple random sampling method ...

  18. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  19. Hepatitis B and C viruses co-infection with Human Immodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and two (102) HIV infected patients at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, were screened for markers of HBV and HCV in order to determine the prevalences of co-infection, and were compared to those in blood donors. The diagnosis of HIV infection was made on the basis of reactivity with two ...

  20. Repeatable population dynamics among vesicular stomatitis virus lineages evolved under high co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S.C.P. Williams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and hosts can experience oscillatory cycles, where the densities of these interacting species dynamically fluctuate through time. Viruses with different replication strategies can also interact to produce cyclical dynamics. Frequent cellular co-infection can select for defective-interfering particles (DIPs: cheater viruses with shortened genomes that interfere with intracellular replication of full-length (ordinary viruses. DIPs are positively selected when rare because they out-replicate ordinary viruses during co-infection, but DIPs are negatively selected when common because ordinary viruses become unavailable for intracellular exploitation via cheating. Here we tested whether oscillatory dynamics of ordinary viruses were similar across independently evolved populations of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. Results showed identical cyclical dynamics across populations in the first 10 experimental passages, which transitioned to repeatable dampened oscillations by passage 20. Genomic analyses revealed parallel molecular substitutions across populations, particularly novel mutations that became dominant by passage 10. Our study showed that oscillatory dynamics and molecular evolution of interacting viruses were highly repeatable in VSV populations passaged under frequent co-infection. Furthermore, our data suggested that frequent co-infection with DIPs caused lowered performance of full-length viruses, by reducing their population densities by orders of magnitude compared to reproduction of ordinary viruses during strictly clonal infections.

  1. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.C.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838578; van Eerden, E.; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Augustijn, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836680; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.F.J.; Gorlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023553; van Knapen, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fifty-four pigs were divided

  2. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.; Eerden, van E.; Opsteegh, M.; Augustijn, M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.; Görlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fiftyfour pigs were divided

  3. Hepatitis B and C co-infections in HIV/AIDS patients attending ARV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two (30.6%) patients had jaundice out of which 23(2.9%) had abnormal liver function tests. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of hepatitis B and C co infections in patients with HIV/AIDS in Zaria. Recommendations: This calls for the institution of screening measures to detect the presence of hepatitis B and C ...

  4. Co-infection of Tylosema esculentum (Marama bean) seed pods by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-infection of Tylosema esculentum (Marama bean) seed pods by Alternaria tenuissima and a Phoma spp. ... Two fungi with different cultural conidial morphology were isolated. Single spores from the two cultures were separately inoculated on PDA to obtain a pure culture. Genomic fungal DNA was extracted from fresh ...

  5. Outcomes of TB/HIV co-infected patients presenting with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8% mortality at 6 months among the general population of patients with TB/HIV co-infection treated at the hospital.[9]. The aim of this article is to describe patient characteristics of an SA adult HIV-infected population presenting with TB DILI, determine the factors that impact on the reintroduction of a standard or modified TBT ...

  6. Frequency of hepatitis B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV ...

  7. Effect of Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection on CD4 Cell Count and Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) share similar routes of transmission, making it possible for an individual to have a co-infection. HBV infection is well known to be a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV ...

  8. Hepatitis B co-infection in HIV-infected patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B co-infection in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at the TC Newman ... Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2016) > ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed ...

  9. Frequency of hepatitis B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency of hepatitis B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease patients in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 31, No 1 (2016) > ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader ...

  10. HIV and TB co-infection in South Sudan: a three year retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection among patients attending the HIV clinic at Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) from 2011 to 2013. Method and Materials: This was a retrospective study using data abstracted from the registration book in the HIV clinic. A data sheet was used to collect relevant ...

  11. Bacterial co-infection and early mortality among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Manila, The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, T; Taniguchi, T; Saludar, N R D; Gustilo, L M; Kato, T; Furumoto, A; Kato, K; Saito, N; Go, W S; Tria, E S; Salva, E P; Dimaano, E M; Parry, C; Ariyoshi, K; Villarama, J B; Suzuki, M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of bacterial co-infection and its effect on early mortality among hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in Manila, the Philippines. A prospective observational study was conducted at a national infectious disease hospital. HIV-negative PTB patients aged 13 years hospitalised from November to December 2011 and from December 2012 to May 2013 were enrolled. Sputum samples were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and six respiratory bacterial pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 466 patients, 228 (48.9%) were TB-PCR-positive. Overall, bacterial pathogens in purulent sputum were detected in 135 (29.0%) patients: Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterium (21.2%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.9%). The prevalence of bacterial co-infection did not differ between TB-PCR-positive and -negative patients. A total of 92 (19.7%) patients died within 2 weeks. Bacterial co-infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of 2-week mortality among TB-PCR-positive patients (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.67, 95%CI 1.03-2.72). This association was also observed but did not reach statistical significance among TB-PCR-negative patients (aRR1.7, 95%CI 0.95-3.02). Bacterial co-infection is common and contributes to an increased risk of early mortality among HIV-negative PTB patients.

  12. Treatment outcome of Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . TB is a reemerging disease linked with HIV infections. It is necessary to compare the treatment outcome of patients with only Tuberculosis with those with HIV/AIDs co-infection. This study will also provide baseline information on treatment ...

  13. Frequency of Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in Chronic Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg ...

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis B co-infection amongst HIV infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Though our study shows a low prevalence of Hepatitis B co infection in HIV infected children in our centre, reduction of the rate is still strongly desirable. Reduction can be achieved by strengthing the uptake of Hepatitis B vaccine as part of the routine childhood immunization programme. Pan African Medical ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES HBV/HIV co-infection: The dynamics of HBV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HBV endemic area. South Africa's HBV prevalence is estimated to be. 10%; however, this estimate comes from studies that were conducted in high-risk groups for HBV such as adult males or children during the pre-vaccination era.2. HBV co-infection with HIV is common, affecting 5 - 10% of patients infected with HIV.

  16. HIV and malaria co-infection in pregnancy in a teaching hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The high prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria infection in sub Saharan Africa, makes co-infection a burden in this region, as together, they are responsible for 4 million deaths annually. A study of the health implications of this interaction in our pregnant women is important. Objective: ...

  17. Semi-Analytic Solution of HIV and TB Co-Infection Model BOLARIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i2.7. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Co-infection, Treatment and Homotopy Perturbation. Method (HPM). Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency ...... Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and. Engineering. 178(3-4):257–262. Ji-Haun, H. (2000).

  18. Impact of Tuberculosis Co-Infection on the Level of PCV in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been documented that HIV causes anemia in HIV infected patients. One of the commonest opportunistic infection in HIV patients is TB, and this has also been documented to cause anemia. In Nigeria, several cases of HIV and TB co-infections have been diagnosed. This study was carried out to determine ...

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis is one of the world's most common causes of death in the era of Human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection. Methods: Hospital based retrospective studies were conducted among adult ...

  20. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-09

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (p<0.05). In addition, Aerococcus christensenii was associated with C. trachomatis infection. In conclusion, the increased cervical microbial diversity observed in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  1. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in North-central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Musa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: TB/HIV co-infection is common in our population with substantial number of persons sfrf declining HIV screening. The cure rate for TB in this cohort is poor. Further studies are suggested to trul. address the poor treatment outcome.

  2. Clinical correlate of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected children at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... Conclusions: TB co-infection with HIV in children is common in this environment. Severe weight ... Department of Paediatrics,University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, ... because the affected children may have many other acute/ ... of the present study is to determine the prevalence, pattern, .... for Surveillance.

  3. HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis: A 5 year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized retrospective autopsy data to examine the relationship between HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis. All autopsy log books and available hospital files were reviewed for information on purulent meningitis for which autopsies were performed in 2005 through 2009 at the Pathology ...

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis – malaria co-infections : Epidemiological, immunological and parasitological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, E.

    2017-01-01

    Concomitant infections by multiple pathogen species represent a serious threat to human health. Affecting over a billion people worldwide, co-infections are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, and a powerful driver of pathogen evolution. Their clinical and pathological spectrum

  5. Treponema pallidum and Hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co infection of T.pallidum and hepatitis B virus occurred in 2/130 (1.5%) of participants. There were no any factors that significantly associated with positive hepatitis B surface antigen while multiple sexual partners and history of sexually transmitted diseases were significantly associated with positive syphilis test (P= 0.023 ...

  6. Genotypes of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 co-infected individuals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are the major causes of liver disease worldwide. Co-infections with HBV and HCV have turned out to be increasingly very common among people living with HIV, leading to a major public health concern. Objective: To determine HBV and HCV diversity among HIV infected ...

  7. Managemetn of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managemetn of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection in South Africa. K Cohen, G Maartens. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  8. Malaria and HIV co-infection and their effect on haemoglobin levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection as well as anaemia among selected patients from three health-care institutions in Lagos ... infection fuels the spread of both diseases especially in sub-Saharan Africa16. .... malnutrition, iron deficiency, vitamins A, C and B12 deficiency, foliate deficiency ...

  9. Hepatitis B co-infection in HIV-infected patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... almost 8% confirms the need for testing of HIV-positive patients for hepatitis B. Hepatitis B co-infection in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at the. TC Newman Anti Retroviral Treatment Clinic in Paarl, Western Cape. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device.

  10. effect of hepatitis b virus co-infection on cd4 cell count and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-01

    Mar 1, 2015 ... SUMMARY. Background:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) share similar routes of transmission, making it possible for an individual to have a co-infection. HBV infection is well known to be a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to ...

  11. A five year review of tuberculosis and HIV co-infection at Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the affected patients were traders and artisans. The prognosis was good for HIV patients on TB treatment who strictly adhered to their anti-TB treatment. Conclusion: The low prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection observed may be attributed to the inadequate intensified tuberculosis case finding observed from the ...

  12. Incidence of malaria/typhoid co-infection among adult population in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria and typhoid fever are two leading infections of poverty with serious health and socioeconomic impacts, and due to their geographical overlap, co-infections are very common. Their mimicking symptomatology often present with gross misdiagnosis and mistreatment. This study was carried out to ...

  13. Malaria and Hepatitis B co-infection in patients with febrile illnesses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are co-endemic throughout much of the tropical and sub-Saharan Africa and both present major threat to public health. A study on the prevalence of HBV and Malaria co-infection was carried out on 200 patients presenting with fever at the General Outpatient Department ...

  14. Emerging co-infection of HIV and hepatitis B virus in far western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine; Okumura, Junko; Wakai, Susumu

    2006-07-01

    We detected a prevalence (11%) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among male adult villagers (n = 149) in far western Nepal where migration to India is common. Although only one migrant-returnee was infected with both HBV and HIV, co-infection may occur more frequently in future as the HIV prevalence is high (8%).

  15. effect of hepatitis b virus co-infection on cd4 cell count and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-01

    Mar 1, 2015 ... therapy-naive HIV-infected individuals. The CD4 count, Hepatitis B surface antigen, Serum albumin, total Protein, and liver enzymes were determined using standard techniques. Results:The prevalence of HIV and HBV co-infection was 37%. The mean serum ALT and ALP were significantly higher in the ...

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2016) > ... patients who were ambulatory at the initiation of ART, patients whose marital status was single were significant predictors for increased risk of tuberculosis in PLWHIV (P<0.05). ... Conclusion: The prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection in adults on ART in our study was moderately high.

  17. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +60 1116689774, E-mail: usuba5050@yahoo.com. Abstract. This case reports bacterial co-infection in a dead albino python (Python bivittatus). The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ.

  18. Semi-Analytic Solution of HIV and TB Co-Infection Model | Bolarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the numerical simulation shows that at high HIV and TB treatment rates; TB, AIDS and HIV/TB co-infection will be eradicated completely in the population. Also, early detection of HIV and TB cases and provision of early treatments can reduce the rate of infection, reduce the rate of progression of HIV infected ...

  19. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  20. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: its impact on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tefera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Very little is known about the quality of life of tuberculosis (TB and HIV co-infected patients. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life HIV positive patients with and without TB. Methods- A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in selected hospitals in Oromiya Regional state, Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 467 HIV patients and 124 TB/HIV co-infected patients. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses through face to face interviews using the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument for HIV clients (WHOQOL HIV. Depression was assessed using a validated version of the Kessler scale. Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Results TB/HIV co-infected patients had a lower quality of life in all domains as compared to HIV infected patients without active TB. Depression, having a source of income and family support were strongly associated with most of the Quality of life domains. In co-infected patients, individuals who had depression were 8.8 times more likely to have poor physical health as compared to individuals who had no depression, OR = 8.8(95%CI: 3.2, 23. Self-stigma was associated with a poor quality of life in the psychological domain. Conclusion- The TB control program should design strategies to improve the quality of life of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Depression and self-stigma should be targeted for intervention to improve the quality of life of patients.

  1. HIV-1 and GBV-C co-infection in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Anny Karely; Garzaro, Domingo José; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Gutiérrez, Cristina R; Ameli, Gladys; Jaspe, Rossana Celeste; Porto, Leticia; Monsalve, Francisca; Pozada, Ángela; Vázquez, Luzmary; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E; Pujol, Flor Helene; Rangel, Héctor Rafael

    2014-07-14

    Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has been associated with prolonged survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GBV-C infection among HIV-1-infected patients in Venezuela, and to determine the effects of the co-infection on the levels of relevant cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 270 HIV-1-seronegative and 255 HIV-1-seropositive individuals. GBV-C infection was determined by RT-PCR of the NS5 region and genotyped by sequence analysis of the 5´UTR region. HIV-1 strains were characterized by sequence analysis of pol, vif, env, and nef genes. Selected cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Ninety-seven of 525 (18.5%) plasma samples tested positive for GBV-C RNA. A significantly higher prevalence of GBV-C was found among HIV-1 patients compared to HIV-1-seronegative individuals (67/255, 26% versus 30/270, 11%; p GBV-C+ and HIV-1+GBV-C- (p = 0.014), although no differences in CD4+ cell counts were found between both groups. TNFα concentration was higher in HIV-1+GBV-C- than in HIV-1+GBV-C+ patients (25.9 pg/mL versus 17.3 pg/mL; p = 0.02); RANTES expression levels were more variable in GBV-C co-infected patients and more frequently elevated in HIV-1 mono-infected patients compared to patients co-infected with GBV-C. The previously observed beneficial effect of co-infection with HIV-1 and GBV-C on disease progression is complex and might be due in part to a change in the cytokine environment. More studies are required to understand the interaction between both viruses.

  2. The unique clinical features and outcome of infectious endocarditis and vertebral osteomyelitis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslow, Matthew; Kuperstein, Rafael; Eshed, Iris; Perelman, Marina; Maor, Elad; Sidi, Yechezkel

    2014-07-01

    The clinical significance of vertebral osteomyelitis and infectious endocarditis co-infection is unclear. This study investigates the rate, clinical features, and outcome of vertebral osteomyelitis with and without concomitant infectious endocarditis. A retrospective study of all cases of osteomyelitis with spinal imaging (n = 176), from January 2007 to April 2013, that were diagnosed as vertebral osteomyelitis. Sixty-two patients with spontaneous vertebral osteomyelitis were identified after excluding postsurgical, decubitus ulcers and spinal metastases. Seventeen (27%) were identified with concomitant infectious endocarditis. All patients presented with back pain and 59% were diagnosed with infectious endocarditis subsequent to vertebral osteomyelitis. Distinguishing features among the co-infection group include the increased use of transesophageal echocardiography (94% vs 58%, P = .004), predisposing cardiac conditions (59% vs 16%, P = .001), and Gram-positive bacteremia, of which Streptococcus sp. and Enterococcus sp. were more common (35% vs 11%, P = .026). Adverse neurologic events were increased significantly in the co-infection group (59% vs 22%, P = .006). On transesophageal echocardiography, 88% of co-infection patients had highly mobile vegetations, 9 of which measured 10 mm or more. The overall mortality was 41% and 29% in the co-infection and lone vertebral osteomyelitis groups, respectively (P = .356). One-year mortality was identical for both groups at 24% (P = .999), and higher than previously reported (11.3% for lone vertebral osteomyelitis). Patients with vertebral osteomyelitis, in whom infectious endocarditis is not excluded, are at increased risk for adverse neurologic events and mortality. The prompt diagnosis of infectious endocarditis, and associated high-risk features that may benefit from surgical intervention, require early evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of chronic hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV: focus on safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Miriam; Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte; García-Samaniego, Javier; Soriano, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health problem and one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Co-infection with HCV and HIV occurs frequently, mainly because both viruses share the same transmission routes. In recent years, the life expectancy of patients with HIV disease has been increased due to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Furthermore, several studies have established that HIV infection is associated with a major progression of the HCV-related liver disease. Thus, end-stage liver disease has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population, emphasising the importance of treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected persons. The biological and histological benefit of interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) therapy in patients co-infected with HCV/HIV is not significantly different from that noted in similar patients without HIV when the HIV infection is adequately controlled. However, patients with low CD4+ cell counts tend to respond poorly to anti-HCV therapy.Given the relatively low sustained virological response rate to IFN alone, the use of IFNalpha monotherapy has been largely abandoned in favour of combination therapy with ribavirin. In the last 2 years, IFN plus ribavirin combination therapy has been the standard care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Although information on the safety and efficacy of this dual therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients is scarce, recent trials have reported that the combination of IFN plus ribavirin is well tolerated and feasible in patients co-infected with HCV/HIV. However, the rates of sustained virological response seem to be worse than those observed in patients without HIV infection. New IFN formulations (e.g. pegylated interferon) plus ribavirin appear to be way of the future for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients both with and without HIV co-infection.

  4. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: its impact on quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background- Very little is known about the quality of life of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infected patients. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life HIV positive patients with and without TB. Methods- A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in selected hospitals in Oromiya Regional state, Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 467 HIV patients and 124 TB/HIV co-infected patients. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses through face to face interviews using the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument for HIV clients (WHOQOL HIV). Depression was assessed using a validated version of the Kessler scale. Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Results TB/HIV co-infected patients had a lower quality of life in all domains as compared to HIV infected patients without active TB. Depression, having a source of income and family support were strongly associated with most of the Quality of life domains. In co-infected patients, individuals who had depression were 8.8 times more likely to have poor physical health as compared to individuals who had no depression, OR = 8.8(95%CI: 3.2, 23). Self-stigma was associated with a poor quality of life in the psychological domain. Conclusion- The TB control program should design strategies to improve the quality of life of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Depression and self-stigma should be targeted for intervention to improve the quality of life of patients. PMID:20040090

  5. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica biofilm formation using small-molecule adenosine mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob A; Marshall, Joanna M; Bhatiya, Aditi; Eguale, Tadesse; Kwiek, Jesse J; Gunn, John S

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms have been widely implicated in chronic infections and environmental persistence of Salmonella enterica, facilitating enhanced colonization of surfaces and increasing the ability of the bacteria to be transmitted to new hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi biofilm formation on gallstones from humans and mice enhances gallbladder colonization and bacterial shedding, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms facilitate long-term persistence in a number of environments important to food, medical, and farming industries. Salmonella regulates expression of many virulence- and biofilm-related processes using kinase-driven pathways. Kinases play pivotal roles in phosphorylation and energy transfer in cellular processes and possess an ATP-binding pocket required for their functions. Many other cellular proteins also require ATP for their activity. Here we test the hypothesis that pharmacological interference with ATP-requiring enzymes utilizing adenosine mimetic compounds would decrease or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Through the screening of a 3,000-member ATP mimetic library, we identified a single compound (compound 7955004) capable of significantly reducing biofilm formation by S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi. The compound was not bactericidal or bacteriostatic toward S. Typhimurium or cytotoxic to mammalian cells. An ATP-Sepharose affinity matrix technique was used to discover potential protein-binding targets of the compound and identified GroEL and DeoD. Compound 7955004 was screened against other known biofilm-forming bacterial species and was found to potently inhibit biofilms of Acinetobacter baumannii as well. The identification of a lead compound with biofilm-inhibiting capabilities toward Salmonella provides a potential new avenue of therapeutic intervention against Salmonella biofilm formation, with applicability to biofilms of other bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection in countries except China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Junling; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    .... But the prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection was diversified among countries. Exploring the reasons of the diversity of TB/HIV co-infection is important for public policy, planning and development of collaborative TB/HIV activities...

  7. Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection: policy and epidemiology in 25 countries in the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Olsen, M; Ditiu, L

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection.......The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection....

  8. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  9. Prevalence of malaria and typhoid co-infections in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Mixed infection of malaria caused by Plasmodium species and typhoid fever caused by Salmonella species is often observed in areas where malaria is endemic, and the infection with Salmonella species has been considered by some medical and non-medical personnels to be associated with the malaria.

  10. Prevalence of malaria and typhoid co-infections in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed infection of malaria caused by Plasmodium species and typhoid fever caused by Salmonella species is often observed in areas where malaria is endemic, and the infection with Salmonella species has been considered by some medical and non-medical personnels to be associated with the malaria parasite infection ...

  11. Salmonella spp. and risk factors for the contamination of slaughtered cattle carcass from a slaughterhouse of Bahir Dar Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizachew Muluneh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of Salmonella species and associated factors from cattle carcasses in abattoir of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among slaughtered cattle carcass samples from Bahir Dar abattoir from December 2012 to February 2013. A total of 300 carcasses from hind limb, abdomen and neck of one hundred cattle were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of Salmonella. An observation checklist was used to collect data on the risk factors for contamination of carcass. Results: Out of the total 300 carcass samples, 23 (7.6% were positive for Salmonella species. Eleven (47.8%, nine (39.1% and three (13.1% of the isolates were Salmonella group A, Salmonella arizonae and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Wearing garment during slaughtering, handwashing after separating intestinal content, washing of the knife before slaughtering, slaughtering on sanitized floor and carcass-washing during slaughter were important risk factors that have statistically significant association with the isolation rate of Salmonella in slaughtered cattle carcasses (P<0.05. The mean aerobic mesophilic count of cattle carcass surfaces was 5.39 log CFU/ cm2. Conclusions: Unlike other studies, Salmonella group A appears to be the most prevalent species in cattle carcasses in the present study. Among carcass sites, the highest contamination was recorded in the abdomen and the main source of contamination is human and intestinal contents. Therefore, there is a need to maintain proper hygienic practices in Bahir Dar abattoir during slaughtering.

  12. Clinical predictors of dengue fever co-infected with leptospirosis among patients admitted for dengue fever - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Jeyanthi; Chan, Shie-Yien; Ng, Min-Wern; Khaw, Yam-Sim; Ching, Siew-Mooi; Mat-Nor, Lailatul Akmar; Ahmad-Najimudin, Naematul Ain; Chee, Hui-Yee

    2017-06-28

    Dengue and leptospirosis infections are currently two major endemics in Malaysia. Owing to the overlapping clinical symptoms between both the diseases, frequent misdiagnosis and confusion of treatment occurs. As a solution, the present work initiated a pilot study to investigate the incidence related to co-infection of leptospirosis among dengue patients. This enables the identification of more parameters to predict the occurrence of co-infection. Two hundred sixty eight serum specimens collected from patients that were diagnosed for dengue fever were confirmed for dengue virus serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were extracted from the hospital database to identify patients with confirmed leptospirosis infection among the dengue patients. Thus, frequency of co-infection was calculated and association of the dataset with dengue-leptospirosis co-infection was statistically determined. The frequency of dengue co-infection with leptospirosis was 4.1%. Male has higher preponderance of developing the co-infection and end result of shock as clinical symptom is more likely present among co-infected cases. It is also noteworthy that, DENV 1 is the common dengue serotype among all cases identified as dengue-leptospirosis co-infection in this study. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis among dengue infected patients has posed the need to precisely identify the presence of co-infection for the betterment of treatment without mistakenly ruling out either one of them. Thus, anticipating the possible clinical symptoms and laboratory results of dengue-leptospirosis co-infection is essential.

  13. Factors associated with HIV and HBV co-infection in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors associated with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV co-infection in Northern Thailand. Methods: We tested 355 newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody by using immunochromatographic and ELISA methods. Cases were positive for one or more of the HBV markers and controls were negative for all HBV markers. All study subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire to identify the associations between variables. We used logistic regression model to evaluate the associations between demographic and behavioral variables and HIV/HBV co-infection. Results: A total of 41 cases and 83 controls were suitable to analyze in the study. Among them, 15.0% were males, 40.3% were 30–39 years old, 62.9% were married, 18.6% were illiterate and 89.5% were employed. Besides, 26 cases (23.4% had a history of a blood transfusion, 12.9% had a history of jaundice, 29.0% had a CD4 cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm3, 0.8% were intravenous drug user, 29.8% tattooed, 64.5% had a body piercing, 12.1% were commercial sex workers, 11.3% had first sexual intercourse at age ≤ 15 years old, 6.5% were homosexual, and no one had a history of HBV vaccination. After controlling for all possible confounder factors in the multiple logistic regression model, we found two factors associated with HIV/ HBV co-infection: number of years in school and CD4 cell count. Subjects with no education were more likely to have HIV/HBV co-infection, which was 7.07 times (odds ratio = 7.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.77–28.24 greater than those with 7 years of education group. Subjects with CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 were less likely to have HIV/HBV co-infection than those with a CD count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 (odds ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.13–0.94. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that having a good education and having a good immune status are a protective factor of HIV

  14. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  15. Virus-helminth co-infection reveals a microbiota-independent mechanism of immuno-modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Nice, Timothy J.; Sutherland, Tara E.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Tran, Sara V.; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey G.; Laughlin, Alice L.; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Wherry, E. John; Bushman, Frederic D.; Allen, Judith E.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Artis, David

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immuno-modulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth co-infection. Helminth co-infection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in the microbiota and STAT6-dependent helminth-induced alternative activation of macrophages. Notably, helminth-induced impairment of antiviral immunity was evident in germ-free mice but neutralization of Ym1, a chitinase-like molecule that is associated with alternatively-activated macrophages, could partially restore antiviral immunity. These data indicate that helminth-induced immuno-modulation occurs independently of changes in the microbiota but is dependent on Ym1. PMID:25082704

  16. Nursing consultation tool for people with human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Rodrigues Feijão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the opinion of judges about a nursing consultation tool for people with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Methods: methodological study, involving the construction of a tool based on Orem’s self-care theory and its submission for evaluation by judges experts in the area, which gave opinions about organization, clarity and relevance. Results: the instrument gained a positive evaluation for all assessment criteria, with agreement greater than 75% and Content Validity Index greater than 0.80 in most items. Following judges opinion, three items were excluded and two modified. Conclusion: the adequacy of the nursing consultation tool for people with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection was confirmed regarding organization into subdivisions and items. Minimal disagreement among judges in the analysis of the issues was noted. Although most items were evaluated positively, further validation studies will be needed.

  17. Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV co-infection in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex zoonotic pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite presents remarkable genetic variability and has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs. The association between the DTUs and clinical outcome remains unknown. Chagas disease and co-infection with HIV/AIDS has been reported widely in Brazil and Argentina. Herein, we present the molecular analyses from a Chagas disease patient with HIV/AIDS co-infection in Colombia who presented severe cardiomyopathy, pleural effusion, and central nervous system involvement. A mixed infection by T. cruzi genotypes was detected. We suggest including T. cruzi in the list of opportunistic pathogens for the management of HIV patients in Colombia. The epidemiological implications of this finding are discussed.

  18. HIV/tuberculosis co-infection: a request for a better surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Mônica M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing endemicity of tuberculosis resulting from causes such as immigration, poverty, a declining public health infrastructure and co-infection by HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is leading to a change in tuberculosis control programmes. One of the main reasons for the resurgence of tuberculosis is HIV infection - the risk of tuberculosis is greater in HIV patients than in the majority of the population as can be seen from numerous research projects. The need for systematic testing for HIV infection in all tuberculosis patients by undertaking confidential HIV tests on admission to a tuberculosis programme is brought out. This measure would increase the number of cases diagnosed and provide data for better surveillance of the co-infection.

  19. RSV Infection in Human Macrophages Promotes CXCL10/IP-10 Expression during Bacterial Co-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Machado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs. Here, we set up and characterized a similar model of MDMs to investigate different scenarios of RSV infection and co-infection with Sp. Our results suggest that Sp contributes to a faster and possibly higher level of CXCL10/IP-10 expression induced by RSV infection in human MDMs.

  20. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Christine; Tanguy, Mael; Guerre, Philippe; Boilletot, Eric; Cariolet, Roland; Queguiner, Marilyne; Postollec, Gilbert; Pinton, Philippe; Salvat, Gilles; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Fravalo, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon. PMID:23612754

  1. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.

  2. Co-infections a threat in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-infections a threat in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from topical wounds of both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. ... One hundred and four (59.4%) were S. aureus, 28(16.0%) Proteus spp, 25(14.3%) E. coli and 18(10.3) Pseudomonas spp. 59(49.2%) wounds had one bacteria, 58(48.3%) had ...

  3. Malaria and HIV co-infection and their effect on haemoglobin levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Our data showed that the total number of malaria infected patients were significantly higher in HIV sero-positive patients 47.7% (31/65) when compared with their HIV sero-negative counterparts 25.8% (262/1015) P = 0.047. The result also revealed that 25.8% (8/31) of the patients co-infected with malaria and HIV ...

  4. Co-infection tuberculose et VIH: Hausse des CD4 avec le traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION: L'administration parallèle d'antituberculeux et d'antirétroviraux chez nos patients co-infectés par la tuberculose et le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) nous a fait observer près de 25 % d'hépatites toxiques conduisant à l'arrêt de tous traitements. Nous avons ainsi dû mener ce travail en ...

  5. Barriers and outcomes: TB patients co-infected with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chileshe, Muatale; Bond, Virginia Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerabilities that underlie barriers faced by the rural poor whilst trying to access and adhere to "free" antiretroviral treatment (ART) demand more attention. This paper highlights barriers that poor rural Zambians co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV and their households faced in accessing ART between September 2006 and July 2007, and accounts for patient outcomes by the end of TB treatment and (more sporadically) beyond October 2009. The analysis draws on findings from wider anthropological fieldwork on the converging impact of TB, HIV and food insecurity, focusing for the purpose of this paper on ethnographic case-studies of seven newly diagnosed TB patients co-infected with HIV and their six households (one household had two TB patients). Economic barriers included being pushed into deeper poverty by managing TB, rural location, absence of any external assistance, and mustering time and extended funds for transport and "special food" during and beyond the end of TB. In the case of death, funeral costs were astronomical. Social barriers included translocation, broken marriages, a sub-ordinate household position, gender relations, denial, TB/HIV stigma and the difficulty of disclosure. Health facility barriers involved understaffing, many steps, lengthy procedures and inefficiencies (lost blood samples, electricity cuts). By the end of TB treatment, outcomes were mixed; two co-infected patients had died, three had started ART and two had yet to start ART. The three on ART underwent a striking transformation in the short term. By October 2009, two more had died and three were doing well. The study advocates nutritional support and other material support (especially transport funds) for co-infected TB patients until ART is accessed and livelihood regained. More prompt diagnosis of TB and reducing steps and increasing the reach of the ART programme in rural areas are also recommended.

  6. Survival of HIV-TB co-infected adult patients under ART in Ambo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A study conducted in Barcelona, Spain (12) revealed that survival was worst among patients with <200/mm3 CD4 cells (. = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7) (12). A study conducted in Brazil indicated that CD4 count <200/mm3 was a significant risk factor of death of HIV-TB co- infected patients (13). The finding of the current study.

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection in northeast Brazil: evaluation of outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Távora,Lara Gurgel Fernandes; Nogueira, Marina Bizerril; Gomes, Sofia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the beginning of the HIV burden, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)/HIV co-infection has been diagnosed not only in areas where VL is endemic (Latin America, India, Asia, Southern Europe), but also in North America, were it is considered an opportunistic disease. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tests sensitivity and treatment response in this population differs from VL alone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors related to an unfavorable outcome in patients with VL/HIV diagnosis in a r...

  8. Microbial translocation is correlated with HIV evolution in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Tudesq

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP were used. Clinical, biological and immunological characteristics of the population were studied in order to correlate them with the intensity of the MT. We demonstrate that indirect markers of MT, LBP and CD14s, and a marker of intestinal permeability (I-FABP are significantly higher in HIV-HCV co-infected patients than in healthy controls (17.0 vs 2.6 μg/mL, p < 0.001; 1901.7 vs 1255.0 ng/mL, p = 0.018; 478.3 vs 248.1 pg/mL, p < 0.001, respectively, while a direct marker of MT (16S rDNA copies is not different between these two populations. However, plasma 16S rDNA was significantly higher in co-infected patients with long-standing HIV infections (RGM = 1.47 per 10 years, CI95% = [1.04:2.06], p = 0.03. Our findings show that in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, plasma 16S rDNA levels, directly reflecting MT, seem to be linked to the duration of HIV infection, while elevated levels of LBP and sCD14 reflect only a persistence of immune activation. The levels of these markers were not correlated with HCV evolution.

  9. prevalence and immune status of hiv/hbv co-infected pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    MICROBIOL. 14(3): 120-126 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajcem.v14i3.1. PREVALENCE AND IMMUNE STATUS OF HIV/HBV CO-INFECTED. PREGNANT WOMEN. Lar, 1P. M.,, Pam, 1V. K., Christopher, 1P. B., 2 Gwamzhi, L. & Mawak, 1 J. D.. 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

  10. effect of hepatitis-b virus co-infection on cd4 cell count and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 1). Effect of Hepatitis B virus co-infection on CD4 cell count and liver function of HIV infected patients. The mean CD4 count of all the patients was 212. ±188/µl. The mean serum levels for ALT, AST, ALP, total protein and albumin for the study population were. 17±23IU/L, 25± 24IU/L, 56± 64IU/L, 75±9g/l and.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infection with tick-borne relapsing fever in Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou A; Kane, Baidy S; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Dieng, Mouhamed; Diongue, Khadim; Badiane, Aida S; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-01-11

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) due to Borrelia crocidurae and malaria are co-endemics in Senegal. Although expected to be high, co-infections are rarely reported. A case of falciparum malaria and B. crocidurae co-infection in a patient from Velingara (South of Senegal) is discussed. A 28 year-old-male patient presented to Aristide Le Dantec Hospital for recurrent fever. He initially presented to a local post health of Pikine (sub-urban of Dakar) and was diagnosed for malaria on the basis of positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) specific to Plamodium falciparum. The patient was treated as uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Four days after admission the patient was referred to Le Dantec Hospital. He presented with fever (39 °C), soreness, headache and vomiting. The blood pressure was 120/80 mmHg. The rest of the examination was normal. A thick film from peripheral blood was performed and addressed to the parasitology laboratory of the hospital. Thick film was stained with 10% Giemsa. Trophozoite of P. falciparum was identified at parasite density of 47 parasites per microlitre. The presence of Borrelia was also observed, concluding to malaria co-infection with borreliosis. Signs of malaria can overlap with signs of borreliosis leading to the misdiagnosis of the latter. Thick and thin smear or QBC test or molecular method may be helpful to detect both Plamodium species and Borrelia. In addition, there is a real need to consider co-infections with other endemics pathogens when diagnosing malaria.

  12. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    AO, Egwunyenga; JA Ajayi; OPG Nmorsi; DD Duhlinska-Popova

    2001-01-01

    Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8%) were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3%) were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5%) having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species fo...

  13. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  15. HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection in New York City, 2000-2010: prevalence and case characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, C; Chan, C; Pinchoff, J; Kersanske, L; Bornschlegel, K; Balter, S; Drobnik, A; Fuld, J

    2015-05-01

    Using surveillance data, we describe the prevalence and characteristics of individuals in New York City (NYC) co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Surveillance databases including persons reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene with HIV, HBV, and HCV by 31 December 2010 and not known to be dead as of 1 January 2000, were matched with 2000-2011 vital statistics mortality data. Of 140 606 persons reported with HIV, 4% were co-infected with HBV only, 15% were co-infected with HCV only, and 1% were co-infected with HBV and HCV. In all groups, 70-80% were male. The most common race/ethnicity and HIV transmission risk groups were non-Hispanic blacks and men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV/HBV infection, and non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and injection drug users for HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV infections. The overall age-adjusted 2000-2011 mortality was higher in co-infected than HIV mono-infected individuals. Use of population-based surveillance data provided a comprehensive characterization of HIV co-infection with HBV and HCV. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting HIV and viral hepatitis testing and prevention efforts to populations at risk for co-infection, and of integrating HIV and viral hepatitis care and testing services.

  16. Crosstalk between HIV and hepatitis C virus during co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rider Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An estimated one-third of individuals positive for HIV are also infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Chronic infection with HCV can lead to serious liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver-related disease is among the leading causes of death in patients with HIV, and individuals with HIV and HCV co-infection are found to progress more rapidly to serious liver disease than mono-infected individuals. The mechanism by which HIV affects HCV infection in the absence of immunosuppression by HIV is currently unknown. In a recent article published in BMC Immunology, Qu et al. demonstrated that HIV tat is capable of inducing IP-10 expression. Further, they were able to show that HIV tat, when added to cells, was able to enhance the replication of HCV. Importantly, the increase in HCV replication by tat was found to be dependent on IP-10. This work has important implications for understanding the effect HIV has on the outcome of HCV infection in co-infected individuals. The findings of Qu et al. may inform the design of intervention and treatment strategies for co-infected individuals. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/13/15.

  17. Viral bacterial co-infection of the respiratory tract during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Jaelle C; Sly, Peter D; Young, Paul R; Chappell, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is an important cause of morbidity in children. Mixed aetiology is frequent, with pathogenic viruses and bacteria co-detected in respiratory secretions. However, the clinical significance of these viral/bacterial co-infections has long been a controversial topic. While severe bacterial pneumonia following influenza infection has been well described, associations are less clear among infections caused by viruses that are more common in young children, such as respiratory syncytial virus. Although assessing the overall contribution of bacteria to disease severity is complicated by the presence of many confounding factors in clinical studies, understanding the role of viral/bacterial co-infections in defining the outcome of paediatric ARI will potentially reveal novel treatment and prevention strategies, improving patient outcomes. This review summarizes current evidence for the clinical significance of respiratory viral/bacterial co-infections in young children, discusses possible mechanisms of cooperative interaction between these pathogens and highlights areas that require further investigation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W Warne

    Full Text Available While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies. While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and

  19. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of...) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete. DATES: The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA issued the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...

  20. Intraspecies Competition for Niches in the Distal Gut Dictate Transmission during Persistent Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lilian H.; Monack, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS) strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority effects and

  1. Cirrhosis and liver transplantation in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B or C: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Childs, Kate; Thornton, Alicia; Bhagani, Sanjay; Demma, Shirin; Srivastava, Ankur; Leen, Clifford; Agarwal, Kosh; Rodger, Alison J; Sabin, Caroline A

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the likelihood of referral for liver transplantation assessment in a prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B or C with complications of cirrhosis. There were 141 co-infected patients from 11 UK centres with at least one complication of cirrhosis recorded (either decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma) out of 772 identified with cirrhosis and/or HCC. Only 23 of these 141 (16.3%) were referred for liver transplantation assessment, even though referral is recommended for co-infected patients after the first decompensation episode.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harichandran D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Harichandran, Kavitha Radhakrishnan Dinesh Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology: All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results: A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%, followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64% and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%. Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%, ampicillin (77.21%, cotrimoxazole (75.94% and azithromycin (78.48%. For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth

  3. Genital prevalence of HPV types and co-infection in men

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    Marcos P. Freire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HPV infection is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease and there is evidence of the relationship of HPV infection and the development of genital warts, penile intraepitelial neoplasia, invasive penile carcinoma and cervical cancer. However, there is sparse data regarding the prevalence of HPV types and co-infection of different HPV types among men. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HPV subtypes infections and rates of co-infection among men. Materials and Methods: 366 men were evaluated from March to October 2010. Men were referred to our institution for HPV diagnostic evaluation based on the following criteria: 1. presence of a genital wart; 2. presence of an atypical genital lesion; 3. absence of symptoms and a partner with a HPV diagnosis; 4. absence of symptoms and a desire to undergo a full STD diagnostic evaluation. Genital samples were collected from the urethra, penile shaft, scrotum and anus with Digene® collection and preservation kit and submitted to HPV genotype microarray detection (Papillocheck®. All men were tested for the low-risk HPV types 6-11-40-42-43-44 and for the high-risk HPV types 16-18-31-33-35-39-45-51-52-53-56-58-59-66-68-70-73-82. Results: Of the 366 men, 11 were tested inconclusive and were excluded from the analysis. 256 men (72.1% of the men from the cohort referred to our institution tested positive with genotype micro-array detection and 99 tested negative. The most prevalent HPV-subtypes in the studied population were 6, 42, 51 and 16. Co-infection was found in 153 men. Of those, 70 (19.7% had a co-infection by 2 types, 37 (10.4% by 3 types; 33 men (9.2% by 4 types; 8 men (2.2% by 5 types; 1 man (0.3% by 6 types; 1 man (0.3% by 7 types; 2 men (0.6% by 8 types and 1 man (0.3% by 9 types. Conclusion: The most frequent HPV types were 6, 16, 42 and 51. Co-infection was found in 59% of our patients. This information is vital to drive future public health policies including massive

  4. The effects of Maraviroc on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients

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    Enrique Ortega Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The fibrogenesis analysis in quimeric CCR1 and CCR5 mice revealed that CCR5 mediates its pro-fibrogenic effects in hepatic cells and promoting stellate cells. The blockage of co-receptors could preserve the progression of hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Objective: To evaluate the beneficial effects on hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients that are on antiretroviral therapy (ART with CCR5 co-receptor antagonists. Method and materials: A multicentre, retrospective pilot study of the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis at mid- and long-term by non-invasive methods in a HIV/HCV co-infected patients cohort in the Valencian Community (Spain that received ART with a CCR5 co-receptor antagonist. The cut-off points of serum marker tests of hepatic fibrosis were: AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI1.5 F2; >2 Cirrhosis and Forns Index6.9>F2 fibrosis. Inclusion criteria was established for HIV/HCV co-infected patients on ART with CCR5 co-receptor antagonists that had no previous history of interferon and ribavirin treatment or those who were null-responders and received CCR5 co-receptor antagonist treatment in the previous year. Patients with HBV infection were excluded. Results: A total of 71 male patients (69% were reported. A CD4 nadir 350 cells/uL. According to genotypes, 50% were G-1a, 14% G-1b, 11% G-3 and 25% G-4. The median duration of treatment with Maraviroc (MVC was the following: 45% took it over a year, 41% over two years and 14% over three years. Before starting treatment with MVC, we observed an initial fibrosis of F0–F1 in 49% of patients, F2–F3 in 24% and F4 in 27%. The medium follow-up was of 18.45 months. Progression to a higher fibrosis level was observed in five patients, 11 patients improved at least one stage and the others were stable over time. There were 38 patients taking MVC over two years, 27 patients in this group (59.38% did not modify their fibrosis, 3 patients (11% progressed and 8 (29

  5. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

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    Machado João

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98% had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%. Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%, E. canis in two (4%, and H. canis in one (2% out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%, November (27%, December (20%, February (13% and March (9%. Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50% out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9% included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected

  6. Ultra-fast and sensitive detection of non-typhoidal Salmonella using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence ("MAMEF".

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    Sharon M Tennant

    Full Text Available Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc. in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF. We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in <30 seconds. Furthermore the assay is sensitive and specific: it can detect oriC from Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1:1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids.

  7. Ultra-fast and sensitive detection of non-typhoidal Salmonella using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence ("MAMEF").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Zhang, Yongxia; Galen, James E; Geddes, Chris D; Levine, Myron M

    2011-04-08

    Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc.) in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF). We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1:1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids).

  8. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort....

  9. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  10. Identification of Novel Serodiagnostic Signatures of Typhoid Fever Using a Salmonella Proteome Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Baker, Stephen; Randall, Arlo; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voysey, Merryn; Carter, Michael J; Jones, Claire; Trappl, Krista; Pablo, Jozelyn; Hung, Chris; Teng, Andy; Shandling, Adam; Le, Tim; Walker, Cassidy; Molina, Douglas; Andrews, Jason; Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Pollard, Andrew J; Blohmke, Christoph J

    2017-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30), and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling. In four models containing responses to antigens including flagellin, OmpA, HlyE, sipC, and LPS, multi-antigen signatures discriminated typhoid (n = 100) from other febrile bacteremia (n = 52) in Nepal. These models contained combinatorial IgM, IgA, and IgG responses to 5 antigens (ROC AUC, 0.67 and 0.71) or 3 antigens (0.87), although IgA responses to LPS also performed well (0.88). Using a novel systematic approach we have identified and validated optimal serological diagnostic signatures of typhoid fever.

  11. Identification of Novel Serodiagnostic Signatures of Typhoid Fever Using a Salmonella Proteome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Darton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30, and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling. In four models containing responses to antigens including flagellin, OmpA, HlyE, sipC, and LPS, multi-antigen signatures discriminated typhoid (n = 100 from other febrile bacteremia (n = 52 in Nepal. These models contained combinatorial IgM, IgA, and IgG responses to 5 antigens (ROC AUC, 0.67 and 0.71 or 3 antigens (0.87, although IgA responses to LPS also performed well (0.88. Using a novel systematic approach we have identified and validated optimal serological diagnostic signatures of typhoid fever.

  12. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously.We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method.Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  13. Syphilis and HIV/Syphilis Co-infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Isabel; Johnson, Ayesha; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    There is a reemergence of syphilis in the Latin American and Caribbean region. There is also very little information about HIV/Syphilis co-infection and its determinants. The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections (STIs), in particular syphilis infection and HIV/Syphilis co-infection, as well as to estimate the prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a city with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 291 adult MSM. Questions included knowledge about STIs and their sexual practices. Blood samples were taken from participants to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. In this population, the prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 4.8%, while the prevalence of syphilis as mono-infection was 6.5%. Participants who had syphilis mono-infection and HIV/syphilis co-infection were older. Men who had multiple partners and those who were forced to have sex had increased odds of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. A high prevalence of syphilis and self-reported STI was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. Co-infections are a cause for concern when treating a secondary infection in a person who is immunocompromised. These data suggest that specific knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among MSM are associated with increased odds of STIs (including HIV/syphilis co-infections) in this region of Ecuador.

  14. Nematode-coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection.

  15. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Vanessa O. Ezenwa; Jolles, Anna E

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal h...

  16. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  17. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Legesse Mengistu; Animut Abebe; Degarege Abraham; Erko Berhanu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febri...

  19. A prognostic model for development of significant liver fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Kanagaratham, Cynthia; Gill, M. John; Hull, Mark; Walmsley, Sharon; Radzioch, Danuta; Saeed, Sahar; Platt, Robert W.; Marina B. Klein

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis progresses rapidly in HIV-Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected individuals partially due to heightened inflammation. Immune markers targeting stages of fibrogenesis could aid in prognosis of fibrosis. Methods A case-cohort study was nested in the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1119). HCV RNA positive individuals without fibrosis, end-stage liver disease or chronic Hepatitis B at baseline (n = 679) were eligible. A random subcohort (n = 236) was selected...

  20. Assessment of factors associated with the quality of life of patients living with HIV/HCV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marco; Fialho, Renata

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the quality of life (QoL) of HIV-infected patients with and without hepatitis C and examined the sociodemographic, HIV-related and psychological symptoms associated with the QoL domains in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection. The sample consisted of 248 HIV/HCV co-infected patients (18-74 years, 81.5 % male) and 482 patients only with HIV (24-78 years, 62.7 % male). Participants completed the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. The HIV/HCV co-infected patients reported significantly lower QoL in all domains, as well as significantly lower scores in 10 of the 17 specific facets. Overall, among the co-infected patients, male gender, employment, combination antiretroviral therapy use and fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL. Symptoms of psychological distress accounted for significant variability in the QoL scores of co-infected patients. These data reinforce the need for tailored interventions to improve the overall well-being of HIV/HCV co-infected patients.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.

  2. Human β-defensin-2 production upon viral and bacterial co-infection is attenuated in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Jason W; Murphy, James C; Kooi, Cora; Wiehler, Shahina; Traves, Suzanne L; Shelfoon, Christopher; Maciejewski, Barbara; Dumonceaux, Curtis J; Lewenza, W Shawn; Proud, David; Leigh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Viral-bacterial co-infections are associated with severe exacerbations of COPD. Epithelial antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), are integral to innate host defenses. In this study, we examined how co-infection of airway epithelial cells with rhinovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates HBD-2 expression, and whether these responses are attenuated by cigarette smoke and in epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushings from smokers with normal lung function or from COPD patients. When human airway epithelial cells from normal lungs were infected with rhinovirus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or the combination, co-infection with rhinovirus and bacteria resulted in synergistic induction of HBD-2 (peffects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were mediated via interactions of flagellin with TLR5. The effects of HRV-16 depended upon viral replication but did not appear to be mediated via the intracellular RNA helicases, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I or melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5. Cigarette smoke extract significantly decreased HBD-2 production in response to co-infection. Attenuated production was also observed following co-infection of cells obtained from healthy smokers or COPD patients compared to healthy controls (pexposure to HRV-16 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces synergistic production of HBD-2 from epithelial cells and that this synergistic induction of HBD-2 is reduced in COPD patients. This may contribute to the more severe exacerbations these patients experience in response to viral-bacterial co-infections.

  3. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  4. Parasite co-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Thumbi

    Full Text Available In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52% of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4-25; 95% CI. In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4-1.6; 95% CI increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control.

  5. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  6. Co-infection of HIV and HBV in voluntary counseling and testing center in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi-M ’Bengue A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV and immune deficiency virus (HIV among clients consulting at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (VCT Center of the Institut Pasteur de C ôte d ’Ivoire (IPCI. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2010 at the VCT of IPCI. All clients attending the VCT of IPCI for HIV test after having signed the informed consent form were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from the clients after an interview. Then the rapid tests for screening of HIV infection (Determine HIV 1/2 of Abbott and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2, Bio-Rad were performed. As for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg test, it was performed using ELISA test system using Monolisa HBsAg Ultra-Bio-Rad. Results: Of 278 samples analyzed, 30 were positive to antibody against HIV-1, giving a seroprevalence of about 10.8%, and 35 were positive to HBsAg, giving a seroprevalence of 12.6%. As for co-infection of HIV and HBV, it was 7/278 cases about 2.5%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that co-infection of HBV and HIV is relatively low among clients consulting at the VCT of the IPCI. Serological surveillance should be systematic in various HIV testing centers in the country. The use of rapid tests for detection of HBsAg allows a lot of tests to be realized. However, the choice of these tests depends on the evaluation results in reference laboratories and situation on ground.

  7. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV co-infection and risk factors analysis in Tripoli-Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Daw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20-40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. CONCLUSION: HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.

  8. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  9. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  10. Fatal co-infection with leptospirosis and dengue in a Sri Lankan male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Aruna; Gnanapragash, Nanthini; Ranasinghe, Gayan; Ragunathan, Murugapillai K

    2015-08-13

    Leptospirosis and dengue are endemic in countries with subtropical or tropical climates and have epidemic potential. The incidence of both these diseases peaks during monsoons and both diseases present with similar clinical manifestations making differentiation of leptospirosis from dengue difficult. It is important to distinguish leptospirosis from dengue as early antibiotic therapy in leptospirosis leads to a favourable outcome, while dengue has no specific treatment, yet early recognition is vital for close monitoring and careful fluid management. Despite the high prevalence of both these infections, co-infection of leptospirosis and dengue has not been reported previously in Sri Lanka. We present the first case of co-infection with leptospirosis and dengue in a Sri Lankan male. A 52 year old previously healthy Sri Lankan male was admitted to our facility with a history of fever for 4 days associated with headache, generalized myalgia, reduced urine output. On examination, he was rational, hypotensive, tacycardic, tacypneic and he did not have clinical evidence of fluid leakage or pneumonitis. His serology showed high titre of dengue IgG and IgM and rising titre of leptospirosis antibody. His course of illness was complicated with septic shock, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation and he succumbed to his illness on the eighth day of admission. In areas where both leptospirosis and dengue are endemic, both infections should be include in the differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute febrile illness and should consider the possibility of co-infection. Leptospirosis, being a condition having definitive antibiotic therapy, should always be ruled out even if the patient is positive for dengue serology in regions endemic to both these diseases as early initiation of antibiotic therapy can reduce mortality significantly.

  11. Diagnosis of treponemal co-infection in HIV-infected West Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoojee, Yaasir; Tan, Grace; Gittins, Sandra; Sarfo, Stephen; Stephenson, Lisa; Carrington, David; Bedu-Addo, George; Phillips, Richard; Appiah, Lambert T; Chadwick, David

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of two enzyme immunoassays (EIA), Murex and ICE, and the Determine TP point-of-care test (POCT) in diagnosing treponemal infection (syphilis or yaws) in patients attending a large HIV clinic in Ghana; to determine the prevalence of treponemal co-infections; and to characterise demographic and clinical features of patients with infection. Samples were tested with EIAs and rapid plasma reagin (RPR), then POCT and reference assays for Treponema pallidum to determine prevalence of active and past infection. Sensitivity and specificity of each assay were calculated and demographic and clinical characteristics of patients compared. Data were collected from case notes of patients retrospectively. Overall, 45/284 patient samples (14.8%, 95% CI, 11.1-19.4%) were Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) positive, and of these, 27 (64.3%) were RPR positive and 4 (8.9%) were treponemal IgM positive. Both EIAs and Determine TP POCT showed high sensitivities and specificities for identifying infection although RPR was less reliable. Clinical features of syphilis or yaws were rarely identified in TPPA-positive patients suggesting most had previous or late latent infection. Treatment of various intercurrent infections using short courses of antibiotics active against T. pallidum was common in the clinic. A high proportion of this HIV-infected cohort showed evidence of treponemal infection. Both EIAs as well as the POCT were practical and effective at diagnosing treponemal co-infection in this setting. RPR alone was unreliable at identifying active treponemal co-infection, however might be useful in some settings where treponemal-specific assays are unaffordable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV co-infection and risk factors analysis in Tripoli-Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20-40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.

  13. The evaluation of a PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella enterica serotypes from environmental samples and various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Chen, Kai-Shun; Ewing, Laura; Wang, Hua; Agpaoa, Maria C; Huang, Mei-Chiung J; Dickey, Erin; Du, Jamie M; Williams-Hill, Donna M; Hamilton, Brittany; Micallef, Shirley A; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; George, Ashish; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R; Jacobson, Andrew P; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Dudley, Kim; Hanes, Darcy E

    2012-09-01

    The most commonly used method for serotyping Salmonella spp. is based on the Kaufmann-White scheme, and is composed of serological reactions using antibodies to LPS agglutinins. The multiplex PCR used in this investigation was established by Kim et al. to serotype the 30 most common clinical Salmonella serotypes, as determined by CDC. The PCR assay consists of two five-plex reactions and a single two-plex PCR reaction, based on six genetic loci from Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and four loci from S. enterica serotype Typhi. In this investigation, we further evaluated the method for serotyping Salmonella spp. using a reference collection, environmental samples collected from a Mid-Atlantic region tomato farm study, four food matrices spiked with different Salmonella serotypes and a proficiency test. The PCR assay was first evaluated using DNA isolated from pure cultures of isolates obtained from various clinical and environmental samples, and then DNA isolated from broth cultures of food matrices of "Red round" and Roma tomatoes, Romaine lettuce, green onions and Serrano peppers spiked with serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, Javiana and Saintpaul, respectively. The results showed that the PCR assay correctly serotyped Salmonella spp. from the clinical, environmental, spiked food matrices, and proficiency test samples. These findings are significant because the PCR assay was successful in the identification of Salmonella in the spiked samples in a broth culture containing other non-salmonella organism. This method may be a useful resource for the food safety community. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... interval =1.58–2.93; plumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...... schistosomiasis and A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. We cautiously suggest that all S. haematobium endemic areas should be treated for STH infections....

  15. HIV AND TUBERCULOSIS CO-INFECTION IN A REFERRAL CHEST HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria, VK; ROSHA, D; MAUDAR, KK

    2000-01-01

    Serving personnel of Armed Forces admitted with tuberculosis between Apr 1996–1999 were evaluated for co-infection of tuberculosis and HIV. Sixty (1.06%) of tuberculosis patients were found to be HIV positive. Initial test was done by spot kits and subsequently confirmed by ELISA on two different samples. Majority of the cases were in sexually active age group 48 (80%). Alcohol and smoking was associated in 80% cases. Thirty six (60%) were sputum smear positive for AFB. Twenty eight (46.7%) g...

  16. CD4 lymphocyte dynamics in Tanzanian pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aase; Range, Nyagosya S; Changalucha, John

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time has previously been divergently reported and only in small study populations with short or no follow-up. METHODS: CD4 counts were assessed from time of diagnosis till the end of TB treatment in a cohort...... of pulmonary TB patients with and without HIV co-infection and compared with cross-sectional data on age- and sex-matched non-TB controls from the same area. RESULTS: Of 1605 study participants, 1250 were PTB patients and 355 were non-TB controls. At baseline, HIV was associated with 246 (95% CI: 203; 279...

  17. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Immune suppression caused by HIV infection is an important factor for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Diffuse (disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection is emerging as an extremely serious new disease. A 38-year-old HIV-positive man presented with a 12-month history of a progressive papule and nodular eruptions on face and extremities with infiltrations of nasal and oral mucosa. We report the case due to its atypical, widespread muco-cutaneous presentation masquerading as lepromatous leprosy.

  18. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and HIV co-infection in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Borann; Keo, Chantary; Leng, Chanthy; Saman, Manil; Min, Doung Chan; Chan, Sarin; Monchy, Didier; Sarthou, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in HIV associated tuberculosis co-infected patients in Phnom Penh City. The isolates of M. tuberculosis were collected during active laboratory-based surveillance. Of the 98 isolates studied, M. tuberculosis resistance to isoniazid was seen in 23.5%, resistance to rifampicin was seen in 16.3% and multidrug-resistance (MDR-TB) was seen in 5.1%. Our findings reveal an alarmingly high level of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, and confirms the need for drug susceptibility testing to guide treatment in patients with culture positive tuberculosis.

  19. Tuberculosis, AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in a large city

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Michele Saita; Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 - 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campi...

  20. Replication Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in Co-Infected Patients in Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infections contributes to a substantial proportion of liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and virological features of HBV-HCV co-infection.Demographic data were collected for 3238 high-risk people from an HCV-endemic region in China. Laboratory tests included HCV antibody and HBV serological markers, liver function tests, and routine blood analysis. Anti-HCV positive samples were analyzed for HCV RNA levels and subgenotypes. HBsAg-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA.A total of 1468 patients had chronic HCV and/or HBV infections. Among them, 1200 individuals were classified as HCV mono-infected, 161 were classified as HBV mono-infected, and 107 were classified as co-infected. The HBV-HCV co-infected patients not only had a lower HBV DNA positive rate compared to HBV mono-infected patients (84.1% versus 94.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. The median HCV RNA levels in HBV-HCV co-infected patients were significantly lower than those in the HCV mono-infected patients (1.18[Interquartile range (IQR 0-5.57] versus 5.87[IQR, 3.54-6.71] Log10 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.001. Furthermore, co-infected patients were less likely to have detectable HCV RNA levels than HCV mono-infected patients (23.4% versus 56.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. Those HBV-HCV co-infected patients had significantly lower median HBV DNA levels than those mono-infected with HBV (1.97[IQR, 1.3-3.43] versus 3.06[IQR, 2-4.28] Log10 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.001. The HBV-HCV co-infection group had higher ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, APRI and FIB-4 levels, but lower ALB and total platelet compared to the HBV mono-infection group, and similar to that of the HCV mono-infected group.These results suggest that co-infection with HCV and HBV inhibits the replication of both viruses. The serologic results of HBV-HCV co-infection in patients suggests more liver injury compared to HBV mono-infected patients, but is

  1. Distribution of antibody titer against Salmonella enterica among healthy individuals in nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala Janak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever is an endemic problem in Nepal and Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis but a normal baseline titer in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established. Methods We measured average baseline antibody titers against "O" and "H" antigens of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and "H" antigens of serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B among apparently healthy blood donors in Nepal. The antibody titers were measured using Standard Widal Confirmatory Quantitative Tube test. Results Among the 100 blood samples collected from healthy volunteers, 62 individuals had significant antibody titers (≥ 1:20 against one of the four antigens against S. enterica. Among 54 samples with an anti-O titer against serotype Typhi, 15 and 36 samples had titers of ≥ 1:60 and ≥ 1:40, respectively. A significant proportion (12% of all had anti-O titer of ≥ 1:80. Similarly, among the 59 samples demonstrating anti-H titers of ≥ 1:20 to S. enterica serotype Typhi, 29 had a titer of ≥ 1:80 and 12 had 1:160. For S. enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and B, anti-H titers of ≥ 1:20 were found only in 12% and 3%, respectively, of all samples tested. Conclusion When a single Widal agglutination titer is used for the diagnosis of enteric fever, it will be more appropriate to change the currently used cutoff levels against S. enterica serotype Typhi to > 1:80 for anti-O and > 1:160 for anti-H titers for Nepal.

  2. [Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a particular area ("Walcheren Project"). III. The incidence of salmonella in man, insects, gulls as well as foods scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants and drains from butcher's shops (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, W; Van Schothorst, M; Van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1977-03-15

    In continuation of previous studies, various materials (meat and meat products, insects, gull droppings, scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and faeces of patients) were examined again at the same time for the presence of Salmonella in a relatively small are (Walcheren) over a period of three months. As was also the case in previous studies, S. typhi murium (27.5 per cent), S. panama (22.2 per cent) and S. brandenburg (9.2 per cent) were the three serotypes most frequently isolated. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhi murium were II 505 (62.1 per cent), II 502 (5.3 per cent) and I 650 (4.2 per cent). The serotypes and phage types were present in nearly all the materials studied which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies showed that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shop. Salmonella ogranisms carried with the meat frome the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and, by meat and meat products, to consumers on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluents is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 399 ... Vol 2, No 2 (2003), Rate of co-infection with malaria parasites and Salmonella typhi in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 4, No 4 (2005), Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) persistent sickle cell anaemia children in Sokoto, Nigeria, Abstract. NM Jiya, IK ...

  4. HIV and tuberculosis co-infection among migrants in Europe: A systematic review on the prevalence, incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana Maria; Fronteira, Inês; Couto, Isabel; Machado, Diana; Viveiros, Miguel; Abecasis, Ana B; Dias, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    International human migration has been rapidly growing. Migrants coming from low and middle income countries continue to be considerably vulnerable and at higher risk for infectious diseases, namely HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and tuberculosis (TB). In Europe, the number of patients with HIV-TB co-infection has been increasing and migration could be one of the potential driving forces. This systematic review aims to improve the understanding on the burden of HIV-TB co-infection among migrants in Europe and to assess whether these populations are particularly vulnerable to this co-infection compared to nationals. MEDLINE®, Web of Science® and Scopus® databases were searched from March to April 2016 using combinations of keywords. Titles and abstracts were screened and studies meeting the inclusion criteria proceeded for full-text revision. These articles were then selected for data extraction on the prevalence, incidence and mortality. The majority of HIV-TB prevalence data reported in the analysed studies, including extrapulmonary/disseminated TB forms, was higher among migrant vs. nationals, some of the studies even showing increasing trends over time. Additionally, while HIV-TB incidence rates have decreased among migrants and nationals, migrants are still at a higher risk for this co-infection. Migrants with HIV-TB co-infection were also more prone to unsuccessful treatment outcomes, death and drug resistant TB. However, contradicting results also showed lower mortality compared to nationals. Overall, a disproportionate vulnerability of migrants to acquire the HIV-TB co-infection was observed across studies. Such vulnerability has been associated to low socioeconomic status, poor living conditions and limited access to healthcare. Adequate social support, early detection, appropriate treatment, and adequate access to healthcare are key improvements to tackle HIV-TB co-infection among these populations.

  5. Toxoplasma Co-infection Prevents Th2 Differentiation and Leads to a Helminth-Specific Th1 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norus Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii infection elicits a strong and protective Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG2a antibodies. Co-infected animals displayed significantly higher worm fecundity although worm burden remained unchanged. In line with this, the Th2 response to H. polygyrus in co-infected animals showed a profound reduction of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GATA-3 expressing T cells. Co-infection also resulted in the lack of eosinophilia and reduced expression of the Th2 effector molecule RELM-β in intestinal tissue. In contrast, the Th1 response to the protozoan parasite was not diminished and parasitemia of T. gondii was unaffected by concurrent helminth infection. Importantly, H. polygyrus specific restimulation of splenocytes revealed H. polygyrus-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce a significant amount of IFN-γ in co-infected animals. This was not observed in animals infected with the nematode alone. Increased levels of H. polygyrus-specific IgG2a antibodies in co-infected mice mirrored this finding. This study suggests that polarization rather than priming of naive CD4+ T cells is disturbed in mice previously infected with T. gondii. In conclusion, a previous T. gondii infection limits a helminth-specific Th2 immune response while promoting a shift toward a Th1-type immune response.

  6. Clinical disease severity of respiratory viral co-infection versus single viral infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Asner

    Full Text Available Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections.We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS. A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses.Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS (mean difference (MD -0.20 days, 95% CI -0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59, or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09 were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001 with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04.No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation.

  7. Modelling HIV and MTB co-infection including combined treatment strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available A new host-pathogen model is described that simulates HIV-MTB co-infection and treatment, with the objective of testing treatment strategies. The model includes CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resting and activated macrophages, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. For TB presentation at various stages of HIV disease in a co-infected individual, combined treatment strategies were tested with different relative timings of treatment for each infection. The stages were early HIV disease, late HIV disease and AIDS. The main strategies were TB treatment followed by anti-retroviral therapy (ART after delays of 15 days, 2 months and 6 months. ART followed by TB treatment was an additional strategy that was tested. Treatment was simulated with and without drug interaction. Simulation results were that TB treatment first followed by ART after a stage-dependent delay has the best outcome. During early HIV disease a 6 month delay is acceptable. During late HIV disease, a 2 month delay is best. During AIDS it is better to start ART after 15 days. However, drug interaction works against the benefits of early ART. These results agree with expert reviews and clinical trials.

  8. Co-circulation and co-infections of all dengue virus serotypes in Hyderabad, India 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddadi, K; Gandikota, C; Jain, P K; Prasad, V S V; Venkataramana, M

    2017-09-01

    The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection in northeast Brazil: evaluation of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora, Lara Gurgel Fernandes; Nogueira, Marina Bizerril; Gomes, Sofia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV burden, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)/HIV co-infection has been diagnosed not only in areas where VL is endemic (Latin America, India, Asia, Southern Europe), but also in North America, were it is considered an opportunistic disease. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tests sensitivity and treatment response in this population differs from VL alone. To evaluate factors related to an unfavorable outcome in patients with VL/HIV diagnosis in a reference center in northeast Brazil. Co-infected patients, diagnosed from 2010 to 2012, were included. Data from medical records were collected until one year after VL treatment completion. Forty-two HIV-infected patients were included in the study. Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were present in 95%, 70.7%, and 63.4%, respectively. Mean T CD4+ (LTCD4) lymphocyte count was 183 cells/dL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was being used by 54.7% of cases. A favorable outcome was seen in 71.4% of cases. Recurrence of VL occurred in nine patients and deaths were secondary to infectious complications (3/42 patients). Very low LTCD4 count (LTCD4 count at presentation was associated with unfavorable outcome in VL/HIV patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection in northeast Brazil: evaluation of outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gurgel Fernandes Távora

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since the beginning of the HIV burden, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL/HIV co-infection has been diagnosed not only in areas where VL is endemic (Latin America, India, Asia, Southern Europe, but also in North America, were it is considered an opportunistic disease. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tests sensitivity and treatment response in this population differs from VL alone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors related to an unfavorable outcome in patients with VL/HIV diagnosis in a reference center in northeast Brazil. METHODS: Co-infected patients, diagnosed from 2010 to 2012, were included. Data from medical records were collected until one year after VL treatment completion. RESULTS: Forty-two HIV-infected patients were included in the study. Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were present in 95%, 70.7%, and 63.4%, respectively. Mean T CD4+ (LTCD4 lymphocyte count was 183 cells/dL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was being used by 54.7% of cases. A favorable outcome was seen in 71.4% of cases. Recurrence of VL occurred in nine patients and deaths were secondary to infectious complications (3/42 patients. Very low LTCD4 count (<100 cells/dL was the only independent variable associated with an unfavorable outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Low LTCD4 count at presentation was associated with unfavorable outcome in VL/HIV patients.

  11. Epidemiology of parasitic co-infections during pregnancy in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayôla A; Ramharter, Michael; Agnandji, Selidji T; Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Issifou, Saadou; Yazdanbahksh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the epidemiologic data of parasitic infections and co-infections in pregnant women in Lambaréné, Gabon. In Lambaréné, Gabon--a region of high endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and helminths--we conducted a longitudinal survey of malaria and helminth infections during pregnancy. Of 388 pregnant women included in the study, 98 (25%) experienced at least one episode of P. falciparum infection (incidence of 2.6 infections per year of pregnancy). One hundred and seventy pregnant women (49%) were infected with intestinal helminths, and 41 (12%) harboured Shistosoma haematobium. In total, 230 (65%) pregnant women carried at least one parasitic infection are 74 (22%) harboured at least two or more parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides and primiparity were independently associated with Plasmodium infection during pregnancy [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) 2.4, (1.4-3.8); 2.1, (1.3-3.5), respectively]. This study shows a high burden of parasitic infections with substantial degree of parasitic co-infections in pregnant women in a Central African region. This may have implications for immunological studies and operational research involving pregnant women. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mathematical modeling of transmission co-infection tuberculosis in HIV community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, V.; Putra, P. S.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2017-03-01

    TB and HIV infection have the effect of deeply on assault the immune system, since they can afford to weaken host immune respone through a mechanism that has not been fully understood. HIV co-infection is the stongest risk factor for progression of M. tuberculosis to active TB disease in HIV individuals, as well as TB has been accelerated to progression HIV infection. In this paper we create a model of transmission co-infection TB in HIV community, dynamic system with ten compartments built in here. Dynamic analysis in this paper mentioned ranging from disease free equilibrium conditions, endemic equilibrium conditions, basic reproduction ratio, stability analysis and numerical simulation. Basic reproductive ratio were obtained from spectral radius the next generation matrix of the model. Numerical simulations are built to justify the results of the analysis and to see the changes in the dynamics of the population in each compartment. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the parameters affecting the population dynamics of TB in people with HIV infection is parameters rate of progression of individuals from the exposed TB class to the active TB, treatment rate of exposed TB individuals, treatment rate of infectious (active TB) individuals and probability of transmission of TB infection from an infective to a susceptible per contact per unit time. We can conclude that growing number of infections carried by infectious TB in people with HIV infection can lead to increased spread of disease or increase in endemic conditions.

  13. HBV/HIV co-infection: the dynamics of HBV in South African patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaphi, Simnikiwe H; Roussow, Theresa M; Masemola, Difuro P; Olorunju, Steve A S; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Martin, Desmond J

    2012-02-23

    As sub-Saharan Africa is highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, and their co-infection requires special management, we aimed to assess the serological and molecular characteristics of HBV in patients with AIDS. This was a cross-sectional, case control study, which enrolled 200 patients with AIDS and 200 HIV-negative controls. HBV serology was done in all participants and HCV serology in participants with a hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) only serological pattern. Nested HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HBV viral load assays were used for HBV molecular detection. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence was 3-fold higher while the 'anti-HBc only' pattern was 6-fold higher in the AIDS group compared with the controls. Mean HBV viral load was significantly higher in HBsAg-positive patients with CD4+ cell counts AIDS group compared with the controls (p=0.002). A significant proportion of AIDS patients with an 'anti-HBc only' pattern had CD4+ cell counts AIDS group compared with 1% in the controls (p=0.092). When occult HBV infection was taken into consideration, the overall HBV prevalence became 10% in the AIDS group and 3% in the control group. We showed an increased HBV prevalence in patients with AIDS and identified a CD4+ cell count HIV co-infection.

  14. Co-infection of Primary Syphilis and HIV after a Single Exposure - a Case Report

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    Geleki Stamatina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1- infected patients with syphilis are among the most important transmitters of HIV-1 infection due to biological effects of genital ulcerations, and aggravation due to their continued risky behavior. The association between primary syphilis and acute HIV-1 co-infection is not well documented, and reports on isolated cases are raising special interest and indicate that this double primary co-infection may occur. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with no past medical history who presented with fever, papular rash on the face which lasted for a few days, and a single genital ulcer. He was diagnosed with primary syphilis and primary HIV-1 infection after a single exposure with an infected female sex worker. Male-to-female HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse is significantly more likely than female-to-male HIV transmission. However, high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female sex workers contributed to high HIV transmission probability, as in our case.

  15. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  16. Co-infection of Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli in a 4-year-old child

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    Siamak Heidarzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a colonizer of more than half population worldwide among all age groups. Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates are also colonizers of intestinal tract and several pathovars are important because of virulence factors leading to harm to the epithelial cells. A patient co-infected by E. coli and H. pylori was detected. The ELIZA kit and conventional biochemical tests were used for detection of H. pylori and E. coli, respectively. A 4 years old girl was diagnosed for anti H. pylori immunoglobulin G and a high rate of E. coli number (105 CFU/mL was determined in the stool examination. There was no data regarding familial history of infection with H. pylori. This girl had a history of hospitalization in Salmas hospital. Clinical findings included: fever, diarrhea, chilling and dizziness. Co-infection of H. pylori and E. coli may complicate gastrointestinal disorders in children and if misdiagnosed or left untreated, there is the possibility of severe clinical outcomes.

  17. Co-infection of disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis in an AIDS patient

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    Bruno Tomazini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, recognized as an AIDS-defining illness since the Center for Disease Control’s revision criteria in 1985. This infection is reported to be present in 5-20% of AIDS patients, and in 95% of the cases it is manifested in its disseminated form. Serum antibodies and/or antigen research can make diagnosis, but the demonstration of the agent by culture or histopathological examination remains the gold standard methods. Co-infections in patients with AIDS are well known; however, reports on disseminated tuberculosis and histoplasmosis are scarce. The authors report the case of a female patient who presented a short-course history of weight loss, fever, and mild respiratory symptoms, with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Laboratory workup called attention to anemia, altered liver, canalicular enzymes, liver function tests, high titer of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and pulmonary nodules on thoracic computed tomography. Incidental finding of yeast forms within the leukocytes during a routine blood cell count highlighted the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The patient started receiving amphotericin B but succumbed soon after. The authors emphasize the possibility of this co-infection, the diagnosis of severe infection through the finding of yeast forms within peripheral leukocytes, and for the high titer of LDH in aiding the differential diagnosis.

  18. Virulence Characterization of Salmonella enterica by a New Microarray: Detection and Evaluation of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene Activity in the Unusual Host S. Typhimurium.

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    Rui Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. We assessed the virulence potential of one-hundred and six Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and products. A high through-put virulence genes microarray demonstrated Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI and adherence genes were highly conserved, while prophages and virulence plasmid genes were variably present. Isolates were grouped by serotype, and virulence plasmids separated S. Typhimurium in two clusters. Atypical microarray results lead to whole genome sequencing (WGS of S. Infantis Sal147, which identified deletion of thirty-eight SPI-1 genes. Sal147 was unable to invade HeLa cells and showed reduced mortality in Galleria mellonella infection model, in comparison to a SPI-1 harbouring S. Infantis. Microarray and WGS of S. Typhimurium Sal199, established for the first time in S. Typhimurium presence of cdtB and other Typhi-related genes. Characterization of Sal199 showed cdtB genes were upstream of transposase IS911, and co-expressed with other Typhi-related genes. Cell cycle arrest, cytoplasmic distension, and nuclear enlargement were detected in HeLa cells infected by Sal199, but not with S. Typhimurium LT2. Increased mortality of Galleria was detected on infection with Sal199 compared to LT2. Thus, Salmonella isolates were rapidly characterized using a high through-put microarray; helping to identify unusual virulence features which were corroborated by further characterisation. This work demonstrates that the use of suitable screening methods for Salmonella virulence can help assess the potential risk associated with certain Salmonella to humans. Incorporation of such methodology into surveillance could help reduce the risk of emergence of epidemic Salmonella strains.

  19. Virulence Characterization of Salmonella enterica by a New Microarray: Detection and Evaluation of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene Activity in the Unusual Host S. Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rui; Card, Roderick; Nunes, Carla; AbuOun, Manal; Bagnall, Mary C; Nunez, Javier; Mendonça, Nuno; Anjum, Muna F; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. We assessed the virulence potential of one-hundred and six Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and products. A high through-put virulence genes microarray demonstrated Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI) and adherence genes were highly conserved, while prophages and virulence plasmid genes were variably present. Isolates were grouped by serotype, and virulence plasmids separated S. Typhimurium in two clusters. Atypical microarray results lead to whole genome sequencing (WGS) of S. Infantis Sal147, which identified deletion of thirty-eight SPI-1 genes. Sal147 was unable to invade HeLa cells and showed reduced mortality in Galleria mellonella infection model, in comparison to a SPI-1 harbouring S. Infantis. Microarray and WGS of S. Typhimurium Sal199, established for the first time in S. Typhimurium presence of cdtB and other Typhi-related genes. Characterization of Sal199 showed cdtB genes were upstream of transposase IS911, and co-expressed with other Typhi-related genes. Cell cycle arrest, cytoplasmic distension, and nuclear enlargement were detected in HeLa cells infected by Sal199, but not with S. Typhimurium LT2. Increased mortality of Galleria was detected on infection with Sal199 compared to LT2. Thus, Salmonella isolates were rapidly characterized using a high through-put microarray; helping to identify unusual virulence features which were corroborated by further characterisation. This work demonstrates that the use of suitable screening methods for Salmonella virulence can help assess the potential risk associated with certain Salmonella to humans. Incorporation of such methodology into surveillance could help reduce the risk of emergence of epidemic Salmonella strains.

  20. Development of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi or Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chao

    Full Text Available Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi, the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37°C followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39°C. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus.

  1. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4(+) T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4(+) T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4(+) T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterisation of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonellae during 2014–2015 from four centres across India: An ICMR antimicrobial resistance surveillance network report

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    Sushila Dahiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry. Total 20% of the selected strains from each centre were characterised for molecular studies which included molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance and multiple locus sequence type. Results: A total of 622 Salmonellae were received from all centres during January 2014 to December 2015. Out of these 622 isolates, 380 were Salmonella Typhi, 162 were Salmonella Paratyphi A and 7 were S. Paratyphi B isolated from blood and 73 were other Salmonella serotypes. Multiple drug resistance (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole was less than 3% in S. Typhi. In S. Paratyphi A, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole susceptibility was 100% and 99%, respectively, whereas ampicillin susceptibility was 86% (139/161. Ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid susceptibility was 15% (24/162 and 1% (2/162 from all centres. S. Paratyphi B was isolated from 7 patients. All isolates were third-generation cephalosporin sensitive. The most common mutations found were at codon 83 and at codon 87. We did not find any mutation in acrR gene. Efflux pump and qnr genes were not found in any isolate tested. All 86 S. Typhi isolates clustered into two sequence types - ST1 and ST2. Out of these 86 isolates, 70 S. Typhi were ST1 and 16 were ST2. All S. Paratyphi A was clustered in ST85

  3. Adaptation of red blood cell lysis represents a fundamental breakthrough that improves the sensitivity of Salmonella detection in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, MA; Tennant, SM; Melendez, JH; Toema, D; Galen, JE; Geddes, CD; Levine, MM

    2015-01-01

    Aims Isolation of Salmonella Typhi from blood culture is the standard diagnostic for confirming typhoid fever but it is unavailable in many developing countries. We previously described a Microwave Accelerated Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF)-based assay to detect Salmonella in medium. Attempts to detect Salmonella in blood were unsuccessful, presumably due to the interference of erythrocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate various blood treatment methods that could be used prior to PCR, real-time PCR or MAMEF to increase sensitivity of detection of Salmonella. Methods and Results We tested ammonium chloride and erythrocyte lysis buffer, water, Lymphocyte Separation Medium, BD Vacutainer® CPT™ Tubes and dextran. Erythrocyte lysis buffer was the best isolation method as it is fast, inexpensive and works with either fresh or stored blood. The sensitivity of PCR- and real-time PCR detection of Salmonella in spiked blood was improved when whole blood was first lysed using erythrocyte lysis buffer prior to DNA extraction. Removal of erythrocytes and clotting factors also enabled reproducible lysis of Salmonella and fragmentation of DNA, which are necessary for MAMEF sensing. Conclusions Use of the erythrocyte lysis procedure prior to DNA extraction has enabled improved sensitivity of Salmonella detection by PCR and real-time PCR and has allowed lysis and fragmentation of Salmonella using microwave radiation (for future detection by MAMEF). Significance and Impact of the Study Adaptation of the blood lysis method represents a fundamental breakthrough that improves the sensitivity of DNA-based detection of Salmonella in blood. PMID:25630831

  4. Co-infection with Influenza Viruses and Influenza-Like Virus During the 2015/2016 Epidemic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, K; Cieślak, K; Kowalczyk, D; Brydak, L B

    2017-01-01

    Concerning viral infection of the respiratory system, a single virus can cause a variety of clinical symptoms and the same set of symptoms can be caused by different viruses. Moreover, infection is often caused by a combination of viruses acting at the same time. The present study demonstrates, using multiplex RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR, that in the 2015/2016 influenza season, co-infections were confirmed in patients aged 1 month to 90 years. We found 73 co-infections involving influenza viruses, 17 involving influenza viruses and influenza-like viruses, and six involving influenza-like viruses. The first type of co-infections above mentioned was the most common, amounting to 51 cases, with type A and B viruses occurring simultaneously. There also were four cases of co-infections with influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H1N1/ subtypes and two cases with A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H3N2/ subtypes. The 2015/2016 epidemic season was characterized by a higher number of confirmed co-infections compared with the previous seasons. Infections by more than one respiratory virus were most often found in children and in individuals aged over 65.

  5. Predicting Avian Influenza Co-Infection with H5N1 and H9N2 in Northern Egypt

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    Sean G. Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human outbreaks with avian influenza have been, so far, constrained by poor viral adaptation to non-avian hosts. This could be overcome via co-infection, whereby two strains share genetic material, allowing new hybrid strains to emerge. Identifying areas where co-infection is most likely can help target spaces for increased surveillance. Ecological niche modeling using remotely-sensed data can be used for this purpose. H5N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are endemic in Egyptian poultry. From 2006 to 2015, over 20,000 poultry and wild birds were tested at farms and live bird markets. Using ecological niche modeling we identified environmental, behavioral, and population characteristics of H5N1 and H9N2 niches within Egypt. Niches differed markedly by subtype. The subtype niches were combined to model co-infection potential with known occurrences used for validation. The distance to live bird markets was a strong predictor of co-infection. Using only single-subtype influenza outbreaks and publicly available ecological data, we identified areas of co-infection potential with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC 0.991.

  6. Proteomics approach to understand reduced clearance of mycobacteria and high viral titers during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Sankati, Swetha; Vemula, Mani Harika; Mahajan, Gaurang; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria, highly prevalent in natural and artificial (including chlorinated municipal water) niches, are emerging as new threat to human health, especially to HIV-infected population. These seemingly harmless non-pathogenic mycobacteria, which are otherwise cleared, establish as opportunistic infections adding to HIV-associated complications. Although immune-evading strategies of pathogenic mycobacteria are known, the mechanisms underlying the early events by which opportunistic mycobacteria establish infection in macrophages and influencing HIV infection are unclear. Proteomics of phagosome-enriched fractions from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mono-infected and HIV-M. bovis BCG co-infected THP-1 cells by LC-MALDI-MS/MS revealed differential distribution of 260 proteins. Validation of the proteomics data showed that HIV co-infection helped the survival of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by obstructing phagosome maturation, promoting lipid biogenesis and increasing intracellular ATP equivalents. In turn, mycobacterial co-infection up-regulated purinergic receptors in macrophages that are known to support HIV entry, explaining increased viral titers during co-infection. The mutualism was reconfirmed using clinically relevant opportunistic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium phlei that exhibited increased survival during co-infection, together with increase in HIV titers. Additionally, the catalogued proteins in the study provide new leads that will significantly add to the understanding of the biology of opportunistic mycobacteria and HIV coalition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis impairs HIV-Specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Shivan; Govender, Pamla; Zupkosky, Jennifer; Pillay, Mona; Ghebremichael, Musie; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Porichis, Filippos; Kasprowicz, Victoria O

    2015-01-01

    The ability of antigen-specific T cells to simultaneously produce multiple cytokines is thought to correlate with the functional capacity and efficacy of T cells. These 'polyfunctional' T cells have been associated with control of HIV. We aimed to assess the impact of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell function. We assessed T cell functionality in 34 South African adults by investigating the IFN-y, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-21 and IL-17 cytokine secretion capacity, using polychromatic flow cytometry, following HIV Gag-specific stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show that MTB is associated with lower HIV-specific T cell function in co-infected as compared to HIV mono-infected individuals. This decline in function was greatest in co-infection with active Tuberculosis (TB) compared to co-infection with latent MTB (LTBI), suggesting that mycobacterial load may contribute to this loss of function. The described impact of MTB on HIV-specific T cell function may be a mechanism for increased HIV disease progression in co-infected subjects as functionally impaired T cells may be less able to control HIV.

  8. Prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis co-infection in Ontario dairy sheep and dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonos, Nancy; Bauman, Cathy; Menzies, Paula; Wootton, Sarah K; Karrow, Niel A

    2017-04-01

    Infection with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) causes a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions that limit production. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is also a major production-limiting disease of sheep and goats, which causes severe inflammation of the small intestine. Previous studies have indicated that both SRLV and MAP are widespread in small ruminants in Ontario. This study estimated the prevalence of SRLV and MAP co-infection. Serum samples that were previously tested for MAP infection were re-tested for SRLV. The apparent prevalence of co-infection was low, with 3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 5.9] and 14.3% (95% CI: 11.6 to 17.5) of sheep and goats respectively, positive for both infections. However, co-infection is widespread with 36.8% (95% CI: 19.1 to 59.1) and 71.4% (95% CI: 52.8 to 84.9) of sheep and goat farms with 1 or more co-infected animals. A significant association was found between SRLV seropositivity and MAP fecal culture (P = 0.021), suggesting that co-infected goats may be more likely to shed MAP in their feces.

  9. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Liu, Qing; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Kang; Yi, Jie; Luo, Ying; Hu, Yunlong; Han, Yue; Kong, Qingke

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7, and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion-insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion mutations were successfully introduced into the live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine S738 (Δcrp Δcya) to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice model. The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. Vaccinated mice survived a challenge of 100 times the 50% lethality dose (LD50) of wild-type S. Typhimurium. Protective efficacy against heterologous virulent Salmonella challenges was highly O-serotype related. Furthermore, broad-spectrum protection against S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Choleraesuis was observed by co-vaccination of O9 and O7 O-serotype-converted vaccine candidates. This study highlights the strategy of expressing heterologous O-polysaccharides via genetic engineering in developing live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against NTS infections.

  11. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7, and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion–insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion mutations were successfully introduced into the live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine S738 (Δcrp Δcya to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice model. The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. Vaccinated mice survived a challenge of 100 times the 50% lethality dose (LD50 of wild-type S. Typhimurium. Protective efficacy against heterologous virulent Salmonella challenges was highly O-serotype related. Furthermore, broad-spectrum protection against S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Choleraesuis was observed by co-vaccination of O9 and O7 O-serotype-converted vaccine candidates. This study highlights the strategy of expressing heterologous O-polysaccharides via genetic engineering in developing live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against NTS infections.

  12. Hepatitis B virus sequencing and liver fibrosis evaluation in HIV/HBV co-infected Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jennifer; Agbaji, Oche; Kramvis, Anna; Yousif, Mukhlid; Auwal, Mu'azu; Penugonda, Sudhir; Ugoagwu, Placid; Murphy, Robert; Hawkins, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    Molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV), such as genotype and genomic mutations, may contribute to liver-related morbidity and mortality. The association of these characteristics with liver fibrosis severity in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We aimed to characterise molecular HBV features in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HBV co-infected Nigerians and evaluate associations between these characteristics and liver fibrosis severity before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. HIV/HBV co-infected Nigerians underwent liver fibrosis estimation by transient elastography (TE) prior to and 36 months after ART initiation. Basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and preS1/preS2/S regions of HBV were sequenced from baseline plasma samples. We evaluated associations between HBV mutations and liver fibrosis severity by univariate and multivariable regression. At baseline, 94 patients underwent TE with median liver stiffness of 6.4 (IQR 4.7-8.7) kPa. Patients were predominantly infected with HBV genotype E (45/46) and HBe-antigen negative (75/94, 79.8%). We identified BCP A1762T/G1764A in 15/35 (43%), PC G1896A in 20/35 (57%), 'a' determinant mutations in 12/45 (26.7%) and preS2 deletions in 6/16 (37.5%). PreS2 mutations were associated with advanced fibrosis in multivariable analysis. At follow-up, median liver stiffness was 5.2 (IQR 4.1-6.6) kPa. No HBV molecular characteristics were associated with lack of fibrosis regression, although HIV virologic control, body mass index (BMI) and baseline CD4+ T-cell count were associated with a decline in fibrosis stage. Frequent BCP/PC and preS1/preS2/S mutations were found in ART-naïve HIV/HBV co-infected Nigerians. Median liver stiffness declined after initiation of ART, regardless of pre-ART HBV mutational pattern or virologic characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Determination of Sites Involved, HIV Co-Infection & Utility of Diagnostic Modalities in EPTB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Aruna; R, Srinivasan; G, Thilagavathy; D, Satishkumar; C, Sidduraj; James, Bonny

    2013-08-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global public health problem and an on-going epidemic. Though the chief objectives of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in detecting and curing the infectious pulmonary cases is well taken, there has been a steady rise in the number of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) cases as documented in several studies. EPTB which usually constitutes around 15%-20% of the total TB cases is now being increasingly reported due to a combination of better diagnostic facilities, and the HIV pandemic. Though several studies have shown increasing prevalence of EPTB, only few studies are available, especially in the Indian scenario, that study the pattern and risk factors. Hence, this retrospective observational study was undertaken to determine the sites of the involvement, HIV co-infection and usefulness of various diagnostic modalities in EPTB affecting patients attending a medical college DOTS clinic. One hundred ten EPTB patients referred to the DOTS clinics of the TB & Chest department from the period Dec 2010- Mar 2012 were included in the study. The diagnosis of EPTB was established by combined clinical, microbiological, histopathological &/or imaging modalities. Their medical records were assessed to determine the age distribution, gender and anatomical sites of involvement. The presence of co-morbid conditions like smoking history, alcoholism, diabetic and HIV status were noted. BCG status and Mantoux test readings were recorded. The different diagnostic tests used in confirming EPTB at different sites were recorded. Chest x-ray was analysed for all patients to assess coexisting pulmonary involvement. All patients were followed to assess the outcome of treatment. The mean age of patients was 34.4. The male to female ratio was 58:52 showing a slight male predominance. The most common site of involvement was lymph node followed by pleural effusion and abdominal TB. The prevalence of lymph node TB was noted to be higher

  14. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-28

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are mosquito-borne zoonotic filarioids typically infecting dogs, causing a potentially fatal cardiopulmonary disease and dermatological conditions, respectively. The females are larviparous, releasing the larvae (microfilariae) into the bloodstream, which further develop in mosquito vectors. However, microfilaremia greatly fluctuates during a 24-h period. As the sampling time can greatly influence the accuracy of diagnosis, the aim of the present study was to assess the circadian periodicity of D. immitis and D. repens in naturally co-infected dogs in an endemic area of Romania and to investigate possible differences of periodicity between these two species. Overall, four dogs harbouring natural co-infection with D. immitis and D. repens were selected and sampled every two hours for two consecutive days: two dogs in July 2014 and two in July 2015. At each sampling time, a 0.7 ml blood sample was taken. Modified Knott's test was performed on 0.5 ml, and the remaining 0.2 ml were used for DNA extraction and molecular amplification, both in single and duplex PCR reactions. Microfilariae of both species were morphologically identified and counted in each collected sample, microfilaremia was calculated, and fluctuation was charted. The dynamics of microfilaremia showed similar patterns for both Dirofilaria species. In all four dogs, D. immitis was present at all sampling times, with several peak values of microfilaremia, of which one was common for all dogs (1 am), while minimum counts occurred between 5 and 9 am. Similarly, for D. repens, one of the peak values was recorded in all dogs at 1 am, while minimum counts (including zero) occurred at 9 and 11 am. Single species-specific PCR reactions were positive for both D. immitis and D. repens in all collected samples, while duplex PCR failed to amplify D. repens DNA in many cases. Both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens microfilariae are subperiodic, following a similar

  15. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  16. Cause-specific excess mortality in siblings of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    account for the excess mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. We aimed to explore the causes of death contributing to the excess sibling mortality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved causes of death from the Danish National Registry of Deaths and estimated cause-specific excess mortality...... rates (EMR) for siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals (n = 436) and siblings of HIV mono-infected individuals (n = 1837) compared with siblings of population controls (n = 281,221). Siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 3.03 (95% CI, 1.56-4.50) per 1,000 person...... as underlying cause of death. Siblings of HIV-mono-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 0.60 (0.16-1.05) compared with siblings of controls. This modest excess mortality...

  17. Ultra-Fast and Sensitive Detection of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (“MAMEF”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E.; Geddes, Chris D.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc.) in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF). We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1∶1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids). PMID:21494634

  18. Leishmania infantum and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in a patient with hemophagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Gaifer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a rare case of a 27-year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia. This case of HLH associated with visceral leishmaniasis and EBV co-infection raises the question about the significance of EBV in patients with HLH. The treatment of actual etiological agent can lead to complete cure while using current recommend chemotherapy for HLH-related EBV in a patient with hidden infection may have deleterious effects.

  19. A network model for the propagation of Hepatitis C with HIV co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucit, Arnaud; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2017-05-01

    We define and examine a model of epidemic propagation for a virus such as Hepatitis C (with HIV co-infection) on a network of networks, namely the network of French urban areas. One network level is that of the individual interactions inside each urban area. The second level is that of the areas themselves, linked by individuals travelling between these areas and potentially helping the epidemic spread from one city to another. We choose to encode the second level of the network as extra, special nodes in the first level. We observe that such an encoding leads to sensible results in terms of the extent and speed of propagation of an epidemic, depending on its source point.

  20. Short communication, Co-infection with feline and canine parvovirus in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Battilani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses.