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Sample records for salmonella infections animal

  1. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  2. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  3. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  4. Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection.

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    Girish Ramachandran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50 was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice. For dissemination studies, bacterial burden in organs was determined at various time-points post-challenge. Indian rhesus macaques were infected with one ST19 and one ST313 strain. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and bacterial burden and pathology were determined. The LD50 values for ST19 and ST313 infected mice were not significantly different. However, ST313-infected BALB/c mice had significantly higher bacterial numbers in blood at 24 h than ST19-infected mice. ST19-infected rhesus macaques exhibited moderate-to-severe diarrhea while ST313-infected monkeys showed no-to-mild diarrhea. ST19-infected monkeys had higher bacterial burden and increased inflammation in tissues. Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea.

  5. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2007-01-01

    that of resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark......Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused...

  6. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  7. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  8. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know - 한국어 (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Salmonella Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por salmonela: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  9. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  10. Salmonella species isolated from animal feed in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindawi, N; Taha, R R

    1979-01-01

    Of 700 animal feed samples, 32 (4.5%) harbored Salmonella. The highest percentage of contamination was found in sheep feed and local protein. A total of 17 Salmonella serotypes were identified. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella meleagridis. S. bornum, S. montevideo, and S. drypool. S. bornum was isolated for the first time in Iraq and from both local feed and its ingredients. The common somatic group found was that of Salmonella group C; then came groups E, G, B, and D. Three serotypes (S. enteritidis, S. california, and S. muenchen) seemed to form a link of infection among feed, food, patients, and carriers. PMID:453836

  11. Environmental sampling for Salmonella spp. in Colorado animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important zoonotic agent and nosocomial infections and epidemics have occurred in animal facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in the environment in animal shelters. From 12 to 25 samples were taken from each shelter to represent environmental contamination. Samples were collected from surfaces in areas used by animals and in public access areas including animal receiving rooms, kennels, paediatric wards, treatment, visitation rooms, isolation, euthanasia, outdoor runs and play areas, reception rooms, animal transport vehicles, offices, break rooms and restrooms. Samples were tested for Salmonella and compared within shelters to identify high- and low-risk areas; and between shelters to identify differences in environmental contamination by geographical location, infection control policies, and shelter size characteristics. Twenty-eight per cent of sampled Colorado shelters had environmental Salmonella contamination. Two regions in the eastern 1/3 of the state had prevalences of 30% and 100%. Within-shelter sample prevalence ranged from 0 to 100%. Results of this study indicate that animal shelters can be frequently contaminated with Salmonella spp., a variety of Salmonella species may be present, contamination can be widespread within a facility and recovered isolates may harbour antibiotic resistance The findings from this study may influence and help focus educational policy on issues of infection control and zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelters. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.

    2008-01-01

    to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence......Aims: To investigate the transmission of Salmonella spp. between production animals (pigs and cattle) and wildlife on production animal farms in Denmark. Methods and Results: In the winter and summer of 2001 and 2002, 3622 samples were collected from Salmonella-infected and noninfected herds...... of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...

  13. Nontyphoid Salmonella Infection: Microbiology, Clinical Features, and Antimicrobial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ming Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoid Salmonella is the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Most nontyphoid Salmonella infection is limited to uncomplicated gastroenteritis that seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, invasive infections, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis, may occur and require antimicrobial therapy. Continuous genetic and genomic evolution in Salmonella leading to increased virulence and resistance to multiple drugs are of significant public health concern. Two major changes in the epidemiology of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Europe and in the USA occurred in the second half of the 20th century: the emergence of foodborne human infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteriditis and by multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. In the 21st century, a worsening situation is the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in nontyphoid Salmonella. Clinical isolates showing carbapenem resistance also have been identified. Although antimicrobial therapy is usually not indicated for uncomplicated Salmonella gastroenteritis, recent studies indicated that a short-course ceftriaxone therapy (3–5 days for patients with severe gastroenteritis would lead to a faster clinical recovery. Continuous surveillance of Salmonella in both humans and animals is mandatory. A better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella may help in the devising of better interventional strategies to reduce the spread of resistant Salmonella between humans and reservoirs along the food chain.

  14. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  15. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  16. Reiter's syndrome after salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema of the left hand joints and a week later edema of the right hand and right ankle joints appeared. In both patients inflammatory syndrome was expressed (high erythrocyte sedimentation rates, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein along with negative rheumatoid factors and positive antigen HLA-B27. Outcome of the disease in both cases was favorable upon receiving nonsteroid antirheumatic therapy. Signs of arthritis disappeared after three months. No signs of recurrent arthritis have been seen during the next four years in the first and next two years in the second patient.

  17. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Anna; Wierup, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trad...

  18. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella... Administration (FDA or Agency) is revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... enforcement strategy articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals...

  19. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  20. Salmonella, a cross-kingdom pathogen infecting humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schikora, Adam

    2013-06-01

    Infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are constant and are a non-negligible threat to the human population. In the last two decades, salmonellosis outbreaks have increasingly been associated with infected fruits and vegetables. For a long time, Salmonellae were assumed to survive on plants after a more or less accidental infection. However, this notion has recently been challenged. Studies on the infection mechanism in vegetal hosts, as well as on plant immune systems, revealed an active infection process resembling in certain features the infection in animals. On one hand, Salmonella requires the type III secretion systems to effectively infect plants and to suppress their resistance mechanisms. On the other hand, plants recognize these bacteria and react to the infection with an induced defense mechanism similar to the reaction to other plant pathogens. In this review, we present the newest reports on the interaction between Salmonellae and plants. We discuss the possible ways used by these bacteria to infect plants as well as the plant responses to the infection. The recent findings indicate that plants play a central role in the dissemination of Salmonella within the ecosystem. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti-Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Detection and control of a nosocomial outbreak caused by Salmonella newport at a large animal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneroden, K K; Van Metre, D C; Jackson, C; Morley, P S

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial salmonellosis is often assumed to occur because infection control and surveillance practices are inadequate, but published evidence is lacking to support the related contention that rigorous application of these practices can impact the severity of outbreaks. Describe active surveillance, early recognition, and intensive mitigation efforts used in an effort to control an outbreak of nosocomial Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections without hospital closure. Large animals hospitalized at a referral hospital. This prospective outbreak investigation was initiated when Salmonella Newport infections were detected among hospitalized animals by active surveillance. Data were analyzed to identify temporal and spatial patterns for epidemic spread of Salmonella in the hospital. Mitigation efforts were aggressively adjusted in response to surveillance data. Genetic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 145 large animals sampled, 8 (5.6%) were infected with the Salmonella strain associated with this outbreak, and all but 1 shed Salmonella in the absence of or before the onset of disease. This strain was recovered from 14.2% (42/295) of environmental samples (ENV samples), indicating that widespread environmental contamination had occurred. Isolates of Salmonella Newport obtained from infected animals and the environment were genetically indistinguishable, confirming clonal dissemination. Active surveillance allowed early detection of nosocomial Salmonella transmission and hospital contamination. Use of aggressive interventions was followed by cessation of transmission. Active surveillance can allow earlier recognition and mitigation compared with programs by only sampling of clinically affected animals.

  3. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed S. Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  4. Seroprevalence of Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. Ethiopia owns a large poultry population whose growth is highly constrained by diseases. Fowl typhoid is a serious concern in growing and adult poultry and results from infection by. Salmonella Gallinarum (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar. Gallinarum). Knowledge of the ...

  5. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  6. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Skog, Lars; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene

    2011-10-05

    The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  7. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up to several hundred victims at ...

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  9. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  10. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Danfodiyo University Sokoto. They were fed on wheat bran, bean offal, cowpea hay, while water was provided ad libitum. Before the commencement of the experiment, .... Agerso H., Friis C., and Nielsen J.P. (2000). Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and salmonella typhimurium infected pigs.

  11. Resistance of broiler outbred lines to infection with Salmonella enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, N.M.; Janss, L.L.G.; Putirulan, F.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella infections originating from poultry are one of the major causes of food-borne disease. For the control of salmonella in poultry a multifactorial approach is more likely to be effective, and the genetic resistance of poultry breeds to salmonella infections may be a valuable contribution.

  12. Salmonella serotypes encountered in animal feed additives in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbut, N H

    1978-05-01

    Animal feed-additive samples (n = 300) were examined for the presence of salmonellae, using the selenite-F broth-enrichment method followed by subculturing on Salmonella-Shigella and brilliant green agar with sulfadiazine selective agar plates. Samples consisted of a variety of feed additives: 119 bone meal samples, 77 meat meal samples, 40 fish meal samples, and 64 miscellaneous meal samples. Results of examination found 49 (41.2%) of the bone meal samples, 6 (7.8%) of the meat meal samples and 2 (5%) of the fish meal samples contained salmonellae. Of 57 isolates representing 24 serotypes, 4 most frequently isolated serotypes were Salmonella meleagridis (35.1%), Salmonella tennessee (7%), Salmonella chester (5.2%), and Salmonella senftenberg (5.2%). This study shows a high Salmonella-contamination rate of bone meal compared with meat meal and fish meal samples. Of 12 known positive bone meal samples that were examined, 100% of 25-g samples, compared with 70% to 100% of 2.5-g samples and 30% to 90% of 0.25-g samples and 30% to 90% of 0.25-g samples, were positive for salmonellae.

  13. [Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huayun; Gao, Lidong; Guo, Yunchang; Li, Weiwei; Wang, Lan; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Hong

    2014-08-01

    To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan. The fair trade markets and supermarkets of ten cities were chosen to sample animal source foods for isolating Salmonella in Hunan province in 2010. A total of 692 samples were collected by aseptic sampling, included 159 livestock meats, 152 poultry meats, and 381 aquatic products.Salmonella strains isolated were subjected to stereotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonella was detected in 93 of 692 animal food samples with the detection rate of 13.4%. The detection rates of Salmonella in poultry meats, livestock meats and aquatic products were 23.0% (35/152), 22.6% (36/159) and 5.8% (22/381) respectively. Therefore, the detection rate in aquatic products was lower than that of poultry meats and livestock meats (χ(2) = 33.86, P Salmonella Derby (33/94, 35.1%) was the predominant serotypes.79.8% (75/94) strains showed resistant to more than one antibiotic used in the test, 31.9% (30/94) strains showed resistant to more than 5 antibiotics. A significant difference was observed for multidrug resistance between Salmonella isolated from poultry (47.2%, 17/36) and livestock meats (22.2%, 8/36) (χ(2) = 4.96, P Salmonella contamination in animal source foods were serious in Hunan province, and the isolates expressed high level resistance to the antibiotics.Furthermore the PFGE results indicated that there were epidemic strains of Salmonella in Hunan.

  14. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Epidemiology of Childhood Salmonella Infections in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulder, Kate E; Simmonds, Kimberley; Robinson, Joan L

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were to describe the incidence, demographics, laboratory findings, and suspected sources of childhood Salmonella infections in Alberta, Canada, with a focus on preventable cases. Data from Notifiable Disease Reports for children with nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS) or typhoid/paratyphoid fever from 2007 through 2015 were analyzed. NTS was detected from 2285 children. Bacteremia was documented in 55 cases (2.4%), whereas a single infant had NTS meningitis. The suspected source was food (N = 577; 25.3%) followed by animal or animal manure contact (N = 426; 18.6%), of which a reptile was the suspected source in 264 cases (11.5%). There were 44 outbreaks with none sharing the same food source. Ninety-five children were diagnosed with typhoid/paratyphoid fever, of which 48 cases (51%) were typhoid cases in unimmunized children 2 years or older. There are still ∼275 pediatric cases of Salmonella infection in Alberta annually, the bulk of which are preventable. Public education about reptile exposure, food safety, and pretravel immunizations could potentially prevent many cases of Salmonella infection.

  16. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  17. Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-Nakhli, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro. PMID:6983931

  18. Chemical treatment of animal feed and water for the control of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Andrew D; Allen, Vivien M; Davies, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The control of Salmonella in animal feedstuffs is important, principally to protect the human food chain from contamination by Salmonella derived from infected animals. The transmission of Salmonella from animal feeds to animals, and onward to human food products, has been convincingly documented. This is especially important for chicken breeding and laying flocks and pigs, in view of the consequences of recent or imminent control legislation in the European Union. Animal feed ingredients, particularly animal and plant-derived protein meals, are frequently contaminated with Salmonella either from source or from processing plant, and recontamination in compounding mills is an additional problem. Several complementary strategies have been used to control this feed contamination, and these include a range of chemical treatments. The principal agents used are as follows: organic acids and their salts, formaldehyde, and bacterial membrane disruptors such as terpenes and essential oils. Experimental agents include chlorate compounds. Many products use blends of agents from the same or different chemical groups to achieve synergistic or combination effects. The present review draws upon published and company data to describe the various modes of action and efficacies of different chemical agents delivered in feed or in drinking water against Salmonella occurring in feed or in livestock environments. Reasons for the failure of protection are explored, along with problems in usage such as corrosion and reduced palatability. Given the wide array of products available with contrasting modes of action, the need for standardized tests of efficacy is also discussed.

  19. On Fractional SIRC Model with Salmonella Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathalla A. Rihan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fractional order SIRC epidemic model to describe the dynamics of Salmonella bacterial infection in animal herds. The infection-free and endemic steady sates, of such model, are asymptotically stable under some conditions. The basic reproduction number ℛ0 is calculated, using next-generation matrix method, in terms of contact rate, recovery rate, and other parameters in the model. The numerical simulations of the fractional order SIRC model are performed by Caputo’s derivative and using unconditionally stable implicit scheme. The obtained results give insight to the modelers and infectious disease specialists.

  20. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  1. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal...... testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds....

  2. Evaluation of Faecal Salmonella Shedding Among Dogs at Seven Animal Shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Rankin, S C; Hamer, S A

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among dogs in the United States have varied widely. Surveillance among shelter dogs has been limited, although dogs in animal shelters may be at elevated risk of Salmonella infection because of their previous exposure history as well as factors inherent to shelter environments. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs across Texas, to identify risk factors for shedding and to characterize the isolates. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs on two or three visits to each of seven Texas animal shelters between May 2013 and December 2014. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized via serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among sampled dogs was 4.9% (27/554), and within-shelter prevalence ranged from 1.9% to 8.3%. There was a marginal association (P = 0.09) between watery faecal samples and positive Salmonella status, as estimated by a logistic regression model that controlled for shelter as a random effect. However, over 60% of Salmonella-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Salmonella prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The most common serovars were Newport (22%) and Javiana (15%), both of which were widespread among shelters. Resistance to anti-microbial agents was uncommon. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs in Texas appears to be comparable to that seen among pet dogs in general. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse...

  4. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations by the Food..., and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella...

  6. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Salmonella Infections in the Pennsylvania Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very, K J; Kirchner, M K; Shariat, N; Cottrell, W; Sandt, C H; Dudley, E G; Kariyawasam, S; Jayarao, B M

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of Salmonella infection in Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor), common wildlife mammals known to occupy overlapping habitats with humans and domestic food animals. The Pennsylvania Game Commission provided a total of 371 raccoon intestinal samples from trapped and road-killed raccoons collected between May and November 2011. Salmonella was isolated from the faeces of 56 (15.1%) of 371 raccoons in 35 (54%) of 65 counties across Pennsylvania. The five most frequently isolated serotypes were Newport (28.6%), Enteritidis (19.6%), Typhimurium (10.7%), Braenderup (8.9%) and Bareilly (7.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the Salmonella isolates and subsequent comparison to the Pennsylvania Department of Health human Salmonella PFGE database revealed 16 different pulsetypes in Salmonella isolates recovered from raccoons that were indistinguishable from pulsetypes of Salmonella collected from clinically ill humans during the study period. The pulsetypes of seven raccoon Salmonella isolates matched those of 56 human Salmonella isolates by month and geographical region of sample collection. Results from Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Multi-Virulence Locus Sequence Typing (CRISPR-MVLST) analysis corroborated the PFGE and serotyping data. The findings of this study show that several PFGE pulsetypes of Salmonella were shared between humans and raccoons in Pennsylvania, indicating that raccoons and humans might share the same source of Salmonella. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella strains in wild animals from a highly populated area of north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Silva; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Previato, Sara; D'Incau, Mario; Tassinari, Massimo; Guidi, Enrica; Lupi, Silvia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.

  8. Salmonella enterica Serovar Napoli Infection in Italy from 2000 to 2013: Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Cases Distribution and the Effect of Human and Animal Density on the Risk of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Caterina; Luzzi, Ida; Owczarek, Slawomir; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Busani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Napoli is uncommon in Europe. In Italy however, it has been growing in importance since 2000. To date, no risk factors have been identified to account for its rise. This study aims at describing the epidemiology, spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of S. Napoli in Italy from 2000 to 2013, and to explore the role of several environmental correlates, namely urbanization, altitude and number of livestock farms, on the risk of S. Napoli infection among humans. Data were obtained from Enter-Net Italy, a network of diagnostic laboratories. The data were aggregated at the municipality level. Descriptive epidemiology, multivariate regression models, spatial and spatio-temporal analyses were performed on the number of cases and incidence rates. S. Napoli showed an expanding trend at the national level, and an increasing number of cases. Compared to the other main serovars in Italy, the risk of S. Napoli infection was higher in the age group Italy. Most of the clusters were in areas characterized by urban and industrial settlements surrounded by agricultural land and an abundance of freshwater bodies. Our results point to the presence, in a number of areas in Italy, of a Salmonella of public health concern originating in the environment. This highlights the increasing relevance of environmental, non-food-related sources of human exposure to enteric pathogens.

  9. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. III. Transfer of immunity with primed lymphocyte subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T

    1990-01-01

    The protective effect of primed lymphocytes against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and euthymic LEW rats. Primed lymphocytes were obtained by inoculating euthymic and thymus-grafted animals with a non-lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium. Four weeks after...... as low as 10(4) cells from both euthymic or thymus-grafted animals were effective, and athymic and euthymic recipients survived equally well. Four weeks after the infection both athymic and euthymic animals housed very few bacteria and had high antibacterial antibody titres. The percentages of splenic...... and lymph node CD4+ cells in the athymic rats were comparable to those found in the euthymic animals. The study shows that primed CD4+ lymphocytes even in very low doses are able to induce immunity against a Salmonella typhimurium infection....

  10. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2008-01-01

    isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique Xba......Recently we reported increases in both the number of Salmonella infections due to Salmonella Rissen in Thailand and the isolation of this serovar from pork products in Thailand. The objectives of the present study were to determine the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella...... Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai...

  12. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  13. Incidence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Food-Producing Animals, Animal Feed, and the Associated Environment in South Africa, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Rauff, Dionne; De Klerk, Grietjie; Keddy, Karen H; Dziva, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis continues to pose a global threat to human health, primarily by causing food-borne illnesses, and food-producing animals are the principal reservoirs of many pathogenic serovars. To identify key control points and generate information that may enable future estimation of the transmission routes between the environment, animals, and humans, we examined data on Salmonella isolates in South Africa. Samples were obtained from livestock and poultry on farms, meat at abattoirs, raw materials at feed mills, animal feed, and environmental sources (eg, poultry houses, abattoirs, feed mills, water) from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with each establishment's protocols conforming to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO/TS 17728, ISO 18593:2004 and ISO 17604:2003) standards. Isolation and serotyping of Salmonella were performed according to the scope of accreditation of the respective laboratories conforming to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard techniques. Salmonella was isolated from 9031 of 180 298 (5.0%) samples, and these isolates were distributed among 188 different serovars. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate, with 1944 of 180 298 (21.5%) originating from poultry on farms, poultry meat, and poultry houses, followed by Salmonella Havana, with 677 of 180 298 (7.5%), mostly from environmental samples. Serovars that are uncommonly associated with human disease (Salmonella Idikan, Salmonella Salford, and Salmonella Brancaster) were isolated at higher frequencies than Salmonella Typhimurium, a common cause of human illness. Environmental samples accounted for 3869 of 9031 (42.8%) samples positive for Salmonella. We describe the frequent isolation of Salmonella of a wide variety of serovars, from an array of animal feeds, food animals, and food animal environment. As prevention of human salmonellosis requires the effective control of Salmonella in food animals, these data can be used to facilitate Salmonella control in

  14. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  15. Genetic surveillance of endemic bovine Salmonella Infantis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelkonen Sinikka

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella serovar Infantis is endemic in Finnish food-producing animals since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of the infection in cattle during 1985–2005, to follow the persistence of the feed-related outbreak strain from 1995 in the cattle population, and to analyse the stability of XbaI-banding patterns in individual herds during long-lasting infections. Methods Salmonella Infantis isolates from 478 cattle herds (n = 588, covering 73% of the subclinically or clinically infected herds, were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using XbaI. DNA fragments larger than 125 kb were counted in PFGE types because of high plasmid background. Ribotyping and IS200-typing with BanI-digested DNA were done on 57 selected isolates. Results The isolates associated with the infection consisted of 51 PFGE types with genetic similarity (F value between 0.58 and 0.95. From 1985 to 2003, the major type appeared on 68% of the farms. The three most common types, with F values of 0.90 to 0.95, accounted for 80% of the isolates. Only 17% of the isolates had F values below 0.80, and 1% below 0.70. Ribotyping and IS200-typing classified 89% of the analysed isolates into the major ribotype and IS200 type combination, and the rest fell into closely related types. Analysis of successive isolates from 142 herds revealed changes in XbaI-banding patterns in 21% of the herds with two analysed isolates and in 38% of the herds from which three or more isolates were analysed. The feed-related S. Infantis genotype from the 1995 outbreak had disappeared by 1999, at the time when the incidence of bovine salmonella, and S. Infantis in particular, strongly decreased. Conclusion The study showed how genetic surveillance, as part of salmonella control, provides tools to follow the persistence of particular infections, and to assess the efficacy of control measures. Testing of several isolates from a herd in

  16. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  17. A Multistate Investigation of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype I 4,[5],12:i:- Infections as Part of an International Outbreak Associated with Frozen Feeder Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, E. J.; Nguyen, T.; Melluso, C.; Ayers, T.; Lane, C.; Hodges, A.; Li, X.; Quammen, J.; Yendell, S. J.; Adams, J.; Mitchell, J.; Rickert, R.; Klos, R.; Williams, I. T.; Behravesh, C. Barton

    2015-01-01

    While most human Salmonella infections result from exposure to contaminated foods, an estimated 11% of all Salmonella infections are attributed to animal exposures, including both direct animal handling and indirect exposures such as cleaning cages and handling contaminated pet food. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of the response to an international outbreak of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella enteri...

  18. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  19. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food borne pathogen of humans causing food-poisoning and sometimes deaths. In order to control egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to humans, prompt and accurate detection of infected poultry flocks is essential. This paper examined the effects of challenge dose ...

  20. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  1. Comparison of Subtyping Methods for Differentiating Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates Obtained from Food Animal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Steven L.; White, David G.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Walker, Robert D.; Rhodes, Bobbie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Simjee, Shabbir; Zhao, Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    Molecular characterization (e.g., DNA-based typing methods) of Salmonella isolates is frequently employed to compare and distinguish clinical isolates recovered from animals and from patients with food-borne disease and nosocomial infections. In this study, we compared the abilities of different phenotyping and genotyping methods to distinguish isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from different food animal sources. One hundred twenty-eight S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from cattle, pigs, chickens, and turkeys or derived food products were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Among the 128 Salmonella isolates tested, we observed 84 Rep-PCR profiles, 86 PFGE patterns, 89 MLST patterns, 36 plasmid profiles, and 38 susceptibility profiles. The molecular typing methods, i.e., PFGE, MLST, and Rep-PCR, demonstrated the best discriminatory power among Salmonella isolates. However, no apparent correlation was evident between the results of one molecular typing method and those of the others, suggesting that a combination of multiple methods is needed to differentiate S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates that genetically cluster according to one particular typing method. PMID:17021084

  2. Innate secretory antibodies protect against natural Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijburg, Odilia L C; Uren, Tania K; Simpfendorfer, Kim; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Brandtzaeg, Per; Strugnell, Richard A

    2006-01-23

    The production of IgA is induced in an antigen-unspecific manner by commensal flora. These secretory antibodies (SAbs) may bind multiple antigens and are thought to eliminate commensal bacteria and self-antigens to avoid systemic recognition. In this study, we addressed the role of "innate" SAbs, i.e., those that are continuously produced in normal individuals, in protection against infection of the gastrointestinal tract. We used polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/-) knock-out mice, which are unable to bind and actively transport dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM to the mucosae, and examined the role of innate SAbs in protection against the invasive pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. In vitro experiments suggested that innate IgA in pIgR-/- serum bound S. typhimurium in a cross-reactive manner which inhibited epithelial cell invasion. Using a "natural" infection model, we demonstrated that pIgR-/- mice are profoundly sensitive to infection with S. typhimurium via the fecal-oral route and, moreover, shed more bacteria that readily infected other animals. These results imply an important evolutionary role for innate SAbs in protecting both the individual and the herd against infections, and suggest that the major role of SAbs may be to prevent the spread of microbial pathogens throughout the population, rather than protection of local mucosal surfaces.

  3. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients...

  4. Ceftriaxone-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats, and Food Animals in the United States, 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Martha; Reynolds, Jared; Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Plumblee, Jodie R; Hoekstra, Robert M; Whichard, Jean M; Mahon, Barbara E

    2017-02-01

    Ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella is a serious public health threat. Ceftriaxone is commonly used to treat severe Salmonella infections, especially in children. Identifying the sources and drivers of ceftriaxone resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella is crucial. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial resistance in foodborne and other enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats, and food animals. We examined NARMS data reported during 1996-2013 to characterize ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections in humans. We used Spearman rank correlation to examine the relationships between the annual percentage of ceftriaxone resistance among Salmonella isolates from humans with isolates from retail meats and food animals. A total of 978 (2.9%) of 34,100 nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from humans were resistant to ceftriaxone. Many (40%) ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were from children younger than 18 years. Most ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were one of three serotypes: Newport (40%), Typhimurium (26%), or Heidelberg (12%). All were resistant to other antimicrobials, and resistance varied by serotype. We found statistically significant correlations in ceftriaxone resistance between human and ground beef Newport isolates (r = 0.83), between human and cattle Typhimurium isolates (r = 0.57), between human and chicken Heidelberg isolates (r = 0.65), and between human and turkey Heidelberg isolates (r = 0.67). Ceftriaxone resistance among Salmonella Newport, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg isolates from humans strongly correlates with ceftriaxone resistance in isolates from ground beef, cattle, and poultry, respectively. These findings support other lines of evidence that food animals are important reservoirs of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella that cause human illness in the United States.

  5. Case Report: Salmonella lung infection | Ohanu | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an 84 year old man admitted because of fever, abdominal discomfort, weakness, past history of cough wheezing and abuse of prednisolone and Erythromycin. He had Bronchopneumonia and diabetes. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from both his sputum and blood while stool was negative for salmonella.

  6. The role of innate Immunity and host specificity in Salmonella infection in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Walk, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important zoonotic pathogens, and can cause severe infections in both humans and animals. In the study presented here, comparative in vitro infection studies were performed in two, established cell types (epithelia and macrophage) derived from three different host species origins (porcine, murine and human). Both host-adapted and broad host-range S. enterica spp. enterica serovars (S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesius, S. Dublin und S. Enteritidis) were used for the infecti...

  7. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  8. Salmonella typhimurium Infection Reduces Schistosoma japonicum Worm Burden in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Zhu; Lu Chen; Junfang Wu; Huiru Tang; Yulan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Coinfection of microorganisms is a common phenomenon in humans and animals. In order to further our understanding of the progress of coinfection and the possible interaction between different pathogens, we have built a coinfection mouse model with Schistosoma japonicum and Salmonella typhimurium, and used this model to investigate the systemic metabolic and immune responses using NMR-based metabonomics and immunological techniques. Our results show that Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) infe...

  9. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  10. Division of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole and Depletion of Acidic Lysosomes in Salmonella-Infected Host Cells Are Novel Strategies of Salmonella enterica To Avoid Lysosomes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakraborty, Sangeeta; Chandrasekhar Sagar, B. K.; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. Here, we have addressed this issue from a different perspective by investigating if the infected ...

  11. Thioridazine protects the mouse from a virulent infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Asish; Mukherjee, Sayanti; Chaki, Shaswati

    2010-01-01

    When administered to mice at doses of 100microg/mouse and 200microg/mouse, thioridazine (TDZ) significantly protected animals from the lethality produced by a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and reduced the number of bacteria retrieved from the spleen, liver and heart...... blood. The protection conferred by TDZ against a virulent Salmonella infection is hypothesised to be due to a reduction in the 55kDa virulence protein of the outer membrane of the organism, as this protein is almost totally absent when the organism is exposed to the phenothiazine. It is further...

  12. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Braukmann

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2 for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, interleukin (IL-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.

  13. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei; Liu, Qing; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Kang; Yi, Jie; Luo, Ying; Hu, Yunlong; Han, Yue; Kong, Qingke

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C...

  14. Concomitant Rotavirus and Salmonella Infections in Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tzong Lan

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Concomitant rotavirus and Salmonella infections accounted for 3.7% of cases in this study. Patients in group C (30.0% had a significantly higher incidence of hypokalemia than group R (7.3% or S (8.8%. Group C consisted of 33 cases of the 895 reviewed cases (3.7%. In a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis, concomitant infection with Salmonella should be considered if the child has sustained a high fever (≥ 39°C for over 4 days and a green stool with mucus and blood.

  15. Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J L; Nichols, D K; Martinez, M J; Raymond, J W

    2010-09-01

    Smallpox was one of the most devastating diseases known to humanity. Although smallpox was eradicated through a historically successful vaccination campaign, there is concern in the global community that either Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or another species of Orthopoxvirus could be used as agents of bioterrorism. Therefore, development of countermeasures to Orthopoxvirus infection is a crucial focus in biodefense research, and these efforts rely on the use of various animal models. Smallpox typically presented as a generalized pustular rash with 30 to 40% mortality, and although smallpox-like syndromes can be induced in cynomolgus macaques with VARV, research with this virus is highly restricted; therefore, animal models with other orthopoxviruses have been investigated. Monkeypox virus causes a generalized vesiculopustular rash in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques and induces fatal systemic disease in several rodent species. Ectromelia virus has been extensively studied in mice as a model of orthopoxviral infection in its natural host. Intranasal inoculation of mice with some strains of vaccinia virus produces fatal bronchopneumonia, as does aerosol or intranasal inoculation of mice with cowpox virus. Rabbitpox virus causes pneumonia and fatal systemic infections in rabbits and can be naturally transmitted between rabbits by an aerosol route similar to that of VARV in humans. No single animal model recapitulates all known aspects of human Orthopoxvirus infections, and each model has its advantages and disadvantages. This article provides a brief review of the Orthopoxvirus diseases of humans and the key pathologic features of animal models of Orthopoxvirus infections.

  16. Multiple Food-Animal-Borne Route in Transmission of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella Newport to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hang; Paudyal, Narayan; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan; Yue, Min

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of transmission routes of Salmonella among various food-animal reservoirs and their antibiogram is crucial for appropriate intervention and medical treatment. Here, we analyzed 3728 Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport) isolates collected from various food-animals, retail meats and humans in the United States between 1996 and 2015, based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward 27 antibiotics. Random Forest and Hierarchical Clustering statistic was used to group the isolates according to their MICs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to identify the appropriate antibiotic and its cut-off value between human- and animal-population. Two distinct populations were revealed based on the MICs of individual strain by both methods, with the animal population having significantly higher MICs which correlates to antibiotic-resistance (AR) phenotype. Only ∼9.7% (267/2763) human isolates could be attributed to food–animal origins. Furthermore, the isolates of animal origin had less diverse antibiogram than human isolates (P animal and human isolates. Additionally, two typical AR patterns, MDR-Amp and Tet-SDR dominant in bovine- or turkey-population, were identified, indicating that distinct food-animal sources could be involved in human infections. The AR analysis suggested fluoroquinolones (i.e., ciprofloxacin), but not extended-spectrum cephalosporins (i.e., ceftriaxone, cefoxitin), is the adaptive choice for empirical therapy. Antibiotic-resistant S. Newport from humans has multiple origins, with distinct food-animal-borne route contributing to a significant proportion of heterogeneous isolates. PMID:29410657

  17. Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Pet Hedgehogs - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T C; Marsden-Haug, N; Morris, J F; Culpepper, W; Bessette, N; Adams, J K; Bidol, S; Meyer, S; Schmitz, J; Erdman, M M; Gomez, T M; Barton Behravesh, C

    2017-06-01

    Zoonotic Salmonella infections cause approximately 130 000 illnesses annually in the United States. Of 72.9 million US households owning at least one pet, five million own small mammals; 3000 hedgehogs were documented by USDA in USDA-licensed breeding facilities and pet stores in 2012. State health department collaborators and PulseNet, the national bacterial subtyping network, identified human infections of a Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak strain, which were investigated by CDC, USDA-APHIS and state public and animal health officials. A case was defined as an illness in a person infected with the outbreak strain identified between 1 December 2011 and 3 June 2013. Investigators collected information on patient exposures, cultured animal and environmental specimens for Salmonella, and conducted traceback investigations of USDA-licensed hedgehog facilities. There were 26 cases in 12 states. Illness onset dates ranged from 26 December 2011 to 8 April 2013. The median patient age was 15 years (range = pet hedgehog contact in the week before illness onset. The outbreak strain was isolated from animal and environmental samples collected from three ill persons' homes in three states. Hedgehogs were purchased in geographically distant states from USDA-licensed breeders (10/17, 59%); a USDA-licensed pet store (1/17, 6%); unlicensed or unknown status breeders (3/17, 18%); and private individuals (3/17, 18%). Traceback investigations of USDA-licensed facilities did not reveal a single source of infection. Public and animal health collaboration linked pet hedgehog contact to human infections of Salmonella Typhimurium, highlighting the importance of a One Health investigative approach to zoonotic salmonellosis outbreaks. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among multiple stakeholders on the risk of illness associated with pet hedgehogs. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella diarrhoeal infection among children in Thi-Qar Governorate, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, A; O'Dea, M; Hanan, Z K; Abraham, S; Habib, I

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of Salmonella infection in children from households supplied by pipe water was 4·7 (95% CI 1·6-13·9) times higher compared with those supplied with reverse osmosis treated water. Similarly, children from households with domestic animals were found to have a higher odds (OR 10·5; 95% CI 3·8-28·4) of being Salmonella stool culture-positive. The likelihood of Salmonella infection was higher (OR 3·9; 95% CI 1·0-6·4) among children belonging to caregiver with primary vs. tertiary education levels. Lower odds (OR 0·4; 95% CI 0·1-0·9) of Salmonella infection were associated with children exclusively breast fed as compared with those exclusively bottle fed. Salmonella infection was three times lower (95% CI 0·1-0·7) in children belonging to caregiver who reported always washing hands after cleaning children following defecation, vs. those belonging to caregivers who did not wash hands. The antimicrobial resistance profile by disc diffusion revealed that non-susceptibility to tetracycline (78·8%), azithromycin (66·7%) and ciprofloxacin (57·6%) were the most commonly seen, and 84·9% of Salmonella isolates were classified as multi-drug resistant. This is the first study on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella infection among children in this setting. This work provides specific epidemiological data which are crucial to understand and combat paediatric diarrhoea in Iraq.

  19. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Roppenser

    Full Text Available SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  20. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  1. Monitoring Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli dalam Bahan Pakan Ternak (Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Monitoring in the Animal Feed Ingredients)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo Suwito

    2012-01-01

    Quality of livestock feed affects production and animal health. Fish and bone meal is animal feed ingredients that need to be monitored because highly contaminated with of Salmonella sp and E. coli. Salmonella sp and E. coli are pathogen causing diarrhea in cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate both E. coli and Salmonella contamination animal feed ingredients. A total of 38 animal feed ingredients samples from a poultry farm in Sukabumi consisting of 15 samples fis...

  2. Using next generation sequencing to tackle non-typhoidal Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Keddy, Karen H.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of studies using next generation sequencing to analyse large numbers of bacterial isolates from global epidemics is transforming microbiology, epidemiology and public health. The emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 is one example. While the epidemiology...... in Africa appears to be human-to-human spread and the association with invasive disease almost absolute, more needs to be done to exclude the possibility of animal reservoirs and to transfer the ability to track all Salmonella infections to the laboratories in the front line. In this mini-review we...... summarise what is currently known about non-typhoidal Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa and discuss some of the issues which remain....

  3. Using next generation sequencing to tackle non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, John; Keddy, Karen H; Hendriksen, Rene S; Rubino, Salvatore

    2013-01-15

    The publication of studies using next generation sequencing to analyse large numbers of bacterial isolates from global epidemics is transforming microbiology, epidemiology and public health. The emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 is one example. While the epidemiology in Africa appears to be human-to-human spread and the association with invasive disease almost absolute, more needs to be done to exclude the possibility of animal reservoirs and to transfer the ability to track all Salmonella infections to the laboratories in the front line. In this mini-review we summarise what is currently known about non-typhoidal Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa and discuss some of the issues which remain.

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella napoli infection caused by contaminated chocolate bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, O N; Sockett, P N; Bartlett, C L; Vaile, M S; Rowe, B; Gilbert, R J; Dulake, C; Murrell, H C; Salmaso, S

    1983-03-12

    An outbreak of Salmonella napoli infection in England and Wales in 1982 was detected by the surveillance of routine reports of salmonella infections from hospital and public-health laboratories. Epidemiological investigation quickly identified two types of small chocolate-covered bars, imported from Italy, as the vehicles of infection, and subsequently both were found to be contaminated with the organism. The prompt recognition of this outbreak and rapid identification of the vehicle of infection enabled four-fifths of the consignment of contaminated chocolate to be withdrawn from the market. The 245 reported cases resulted from the sale of 600 000 bars; as these were presumably only a small fraction of the total number of cases, it is likely that many thousands of infections were prevented.

  5. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar (Salmonella Javiana) during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)Δ S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection.

  6. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-07-11

    Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a "crushing plant" which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain.

  7. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Getting a Salmonella Infection from Dry Pet Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-24

    Salmonella is a germ, or type of bacteria, that's commonly spread through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals. This includes pets like dogs and cats who can appear healthy, even when carrying these germs.  Created: 8/24/2010 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (DFWED).   Date Released: 8/24/2010.

  8. Animal-associated opportunistic infections among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, C A; Angulo, F J; Rooney, J A

    1994-01-01

    A number of animal-associated infections occur in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those due to Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, Salmonella, Campylo-bacter, Giardia, Rhodococcus equi, Rochalimaea, and Listeria monocytogenes. Most of these infections, with the exception of those due to Rochalimaea, appear to be acquired by the immunosuppressed individual from sources other than exposure to animals. Drs. Glaser and colleagues review our current understanding of the role of exposure to animals, especially pets, in the natural history of these opportunistic infections. They suggest that the risk of zoonotic transmission is small and offer practical suggestions designed to reduce this low risk. They conclude that the benefits of animal companionship outweigh the risks to patients and that prohibition of pet ownership by individuals infected with HIV is not warranted.

  9. Effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  10. Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Dr. Neil Vora, an EIS Officer at CDC, discusses his article about Salmonella infections in childcare centers caused by reptiles and amphibians.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/7/2013.

  11. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy beans. The results are based on an officially supervised HACCP based program including annual testing of around 4000 samples. Results During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The effectiveness of the HACCP based control was indicated by a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination in the clean area of the plant, which is considered to be the main reason for the successful prevention of Salmonella in the end product. Despite extensive testing, no sample from the finished soybean meal product was found to be Salmonella contaminated. Conclusions This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain. PMID:25011553

  12. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock......A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica infection in Danish broiler production. The study was based on information in the antemortem database (AM database) where data were available for all broiler Becks slaughtered over the 2...

  13. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced...... subsets, two of which following infection, accumulated in Peyer’s patches and lamina propria, respectively. Generally, we tend to set apart pathogenic bacteria from opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria based on their abilities to induce disease in different hosts, however, the nature...... to treatment regimes, as targeted modulation of DC profiles for instance by probiotics, could lead to improved therapy for a number of gut related diseases....

  14. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S

    2016-01-01

    that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample...... of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood...

  15. Comparison of two culture techniques used to detect environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica in a large-animal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Catriona H; Annandale, Cornelius H; Gouws, Johan; Morley, Paul S

    2015-08-13

    Salmonellosis is a common healthcare-associated infection in large-animal hospitals, and surveillance for Salmonella is an integral part of comprehensive infection control programmes in populations at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two culture techniques for recovery of Salmonella from environmental samples obtained in a large-animal referral veterinary hospital during a Salmonella outbreak. Environmental samples were collected using household cleaning cloths that were incubated overnight in buffered peptone water (BPW). Aliquots of BPW were then processed using two different selective enrichment and culture techniques. In the first technique (TBG-RV-XLT4) samples were incubated at 43 °C in tetrathionate broth and then Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth before plating on XLT4 agar. The second technique (SEL-XLD) involved incubation at 37 °C in selenite broth before plating on XLD agar. Salmonella was recovered from 49.7% (73/147) of samples using the TBG-RV-XLT4 technique, but only 10.2% (15/147) of samples using the SEL-XLD method. Fourteen samples (9.5%) were culture-positive using both methods, and 73 (49.7%) were culture-negative using both techniques. There were discordant results for 60 samples, including 59 that were only culture-positive using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and one sample that was only culture-positive using the SEL-XLD method. Salmonella was much more likely to be recovered using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and there appeared to be five times more false-negative results using the SEL-XLD technique. Environmental contamination with Salmonella may be underestimated by certain culture techniques, which may impair efforts to control spread in veterinary hospitals.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella spp. among marine animals in the Channel Islands, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, R A; DeLong, R L; Byrne, B A; Jang, S; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-08-19

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen that has been isolated from free-ranging marine mammals throughout the world, with animals in the Channel Islands of California (USA) showing the highest prevalence. The goal of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial sensitivity and genetic similarity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Salmonella in several non-domestic animal species on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 90 California sea lion Zalophus californianus pups, 30 northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris pups and 87 western gulls Larus occidentalis in the Channel Islands and 59 adult male sea lions in Puget Sound, WA (USA). Salmonella were isolated, identified and serotyped, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE. Of the California sea lion pups that were sampled on the islands, 21% (n = 19) were positive for Salmonella, whereas no adults males in Puget Sound were positive. Of the northern elephant seal pups sampled, 87% (n = 26) were harboring Salmonella. Only 9% (n = 8) of western gulls were shedding Salmonella, with one of these gulls harboring the only antimicrobial resistant isolate. The serotypes found in these animals were Enteritidis, Montevideo, Newport, Reading, and Saint Paul. The only serotype that showed variation on PFGE was Newport. The pinnipeds of the Channel Islands harbor Salmonella at a higher prevalence than pinnipeds from other geographic areas observed in previous studies. Researchers and veterinarians should exercise increased caution when working with these animals due to the zoonotic potential of Salmonella.

  17. Influence of antibiotic-supplemented feed on occurrence and persistence of Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, F; Layton, H; Simkins, K; Jarolmen, H

    1976-06-01

    The effect of chlortetracycline given at a concentration of 220.5 g/metric ton of feed and of a combination product which supplies chlortetracycline (110.2 g/metric ton), sulfamethazine (110.2 g/metric ton), and penicilin G (55.1 g/metric ton) on the occurrence and persistence of Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected swine was studied. Weanling pigs (av weight, 8.2 kg) were inoculated via the feed with 10(11) colony-forming units of S typhimurium 298-1NA. An equal number of nonexposed swine given identical treatment were used as controls. Infected pigs had increased temperatures (maximal av, 41 C) for the first 4 days after infection and severe diarrhea during the first 21 days. The use of chlortetracycline and a combination product at subtherapeutic concentrations in feed did not increase the Salmonella pool or prolong the carrier state in swine. A decrease in number of Salmonella shed from swine given chlortetracycline at the concentration of 220.5 g/metric ton was observed. Significant differences did not occur in Salmonella-related deaths or in emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella by antibiotic selection or R factor transfer. Zoonotic transmission of the infecting Salmonella to animal caretakers was not detected.

  18. Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Barbara E; Fields, Patricia I

    2016-06-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections in Africa cause an enormous burden of illness. These infections are often devastating, with mortality estimated at 20%, even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Two major groups-young children and HIV-infected adults-suffer the great majority of these infections. In children, younger age itself, as well as malaria, malnutrition, and HIV infection, are prominent risk factors. In adults, HIV infection is by far the most important risk factor. The most common serotypes in invasive infections are Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. In recent years, a specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, multilocus sequence type 313, has caused epidemics of invasive disease. Little is known about risk factors for exposure to NTS, making the design of rational interventions to decrease exposure difficult. Antimicrobial therapy is critically important for treatment of invasive NTS infections. Thus, the emergence and spread of resistance to agents commonly used for treatment of invasive NTS infection, now including third-generation cephalosporins, is an ominous development. Already, many invasive NTS infections are essentially untreatable in many health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Several candidate vaccines are in early development and, if safe and effective, could be promising. Interventions to prevent exposure to NTS (e.g., improved sanitation), to prevent the occurrence of disease if exposure does occur (e.g., vaccination, malaria control), and to prevent severe disease and death in those who become ill (e.g., preserving antimicrobial effectiveness) are all important in reducing the toll of invasive NTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa.

  20. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Frequency and Duration of Fecal Shedding of Salmonella Serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium by Experimentally Infected Laying Hens Housed in Enriched Colony Cages at Different Stocking Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Guard, Jean; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2017-09-01

    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonella persistence and transmission. Animal welfare aspects of poultry housing have been widely debated, but their food safety ramifications are not thoroughly understood. The present study assessed the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the frequency and duration of fecal shedding of strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. In separate trials, laying hens were distributed into two groups housed in enriched colony cages at stocking densities of 648 and 973 cm(2)/bird, and a third group was housed in conventional cages at 648 cm(2)/bird. All hens were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of either Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Typhimurium. At eight weekly postinoculation intervals, samples of voided feces were collected from beneath each cage and cultured to detect Salmonella. Fecal shedding of Salmonella Heidelberg continued for 8 wk in all housing groups, but Salmonella Typhimurium shedding ceased after as little as 5 wk in enriched colony cages at low stocking density. After Salmonella Heidelberg infection, the overall frequency of positive fecal cultures for all sampling dates combined was significantly (P < 0.05) greater from either conventional cages (51.0%) or enriched colony cages (46.5%) at high stocking density than from enriched colony cages at low stocking density (33.3%). No significant differences in Salmonella Typhimurium fecal isolation were identified between housing groups. These results demonstrate that stocking density can affect intestinal colonization and

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infections linked to imported rucola lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Lassen, Jørgen; Vold, Line; Andersson, Yvonne; Fisher, Ian; Löfdahl, Sven; Threlfall, John; Luzzi, Ida; Peters, Tansy; Hampton, Michael; Torpdahl, Mia; Kapperud, Georg; Aavitsland, Preben

    2008-04-01

    On November 15, 2004, a cluster of three cases of Salmonella Thompson infection was registered by the Norwegian reference laboratory. In the following days further cases occurred, prompting a case-control study among the first 13 cases and 26 matched controls. By December 31, 21 cases had been reported, with the first onset on October 24. Consumption of rucola lettuce (Eruca sativa, also known as rocket salad or arugula) (OR 8,8 [1,2-infinity]) and mixed salad (OR 5,0 [1,0-infinity]) was associated with illness. On November 26, Swedish authorities notified the finding of Salmonella Thompson in rucola lettuce through the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Later, several countries reported finding this and other Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter in rucola produced in Italy. In response to our alert through the international Enter-net surveillance network, Sweden and England also reported an increase of cases. Salmonella Thompson isolates from products and patients from several countries showed high similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but some isolates showed significant differences. We think that the outbreak in Norway reflected a larger international outbreak caused by rucola imported from one Italian producer. Findings of other pathogens indicate a massive contamination, possibly caused by irrigation with nonpotable water. Rapid international information exchange is invaluable when investigating outbreaks caused by internationally marketed products.

  3. Models of intestinal infection by Salmonella enterica: introduction of a new neonate mouse model [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schulte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen causing inflammatory disease in the intestine following diarrhea and is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide. Many in vitro investigations using cell culture models are available, but these do not represent the real natural environment present in the intestine of infected hosts. Several in vivo animal models have been used to study the host-pathogen interaction and to unravel the immune responses and cellular processes occurring during infection. An animal model for Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation relies on the pretreatment of mice with streptomycin. This model is of great importance but still shows limitations to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in the small intestine in vivo. Here, we review the use of mouse models for Salmonella infections and focus on a new small animal model using 1-day-old neonate mice. The neonate model enables researchers to observe infection of both the small and large intestine, thereby offering perspectives for new experimental approaches, as well as to analyze the Salmonella-enterocyte interaction in the small intestine in vivo.

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrat Ejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  5. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis infection of the porcine jejunal Peyer's patch rapidly induces IL-1beta and IL-8 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Kendra A; Brown, David R; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2006-01-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is an enteric pathogen of swine, producing septicemia, enterocolitis, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The initial molecular events at the site of Salmonella infection are hypothesized to be critical in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses; however, the acute immune response elicited by porcine intestinal tissues is not well understood. To address this need, we employed explants of jejunal Peyer's patch (JPP) mucosa from pigs to examine Salmonella-induced immune responses under controlled conditions as well as to overcome limitations of whole animal approaches. JPP explants mounted in Ussing chambers maintained normal histological structure for 2 h and stable short-circuit current and electrical conductance for 2.5 h. After ex vivo luminal exposure to Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis, JPP responded with an increase in mRNA expression of IL-1beta and IL-8, but not TNFalpha. Increased IL-1beta and IL-8 expression were dependent on efficient Salmonella adhesion and internalization, whereas mutant Salmonella did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. Commensal enteric bacteria, present in some experiments, also did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicate that Salmonella uptake by Peyer's patch is important in the induction of an innate response involving expression of IL-1beta and IL-8, and that ex vivo intestinal immune tissue explants provide an intact tissue model that will facilitate investigation of mucosal immunity in swine.

  6. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Skog Lars; Lewerin Susanna; Frössling Jenny; Wahlström Helene

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, catt...

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of food animal isolates of Salmonella with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin J; Poppe, Cornelius

    2002-01-01

    Reports of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica showing reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (RSC) have increased rapidly during the past decade. Infection in humans with Salmonella possessing RSC may compromise the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin therapy. Nineteen among 4,357 Salmonella strains isolated from food animals in Canada from 1998 to 1999 showed RSC; 17 were from turkeys and 2 from chickens. All were resistant to nalidixic acid and sulfisoxazole and possessed RSC at a level of 0.125-0.5 microg/ml. PCR-RFLP of the gyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) with Hinfl revealed that S. Bredeney and S. Heidelberg isolates possessed a mutation in this region. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis showed that S. Schwarzengrund and S. Senftenberg isolates also possessed a point mutation in the QRDR. DNA sequencing confirmed the findings and showed that all isolates possessed a base substitution in the gyrA QRDR. Sequencing revealed no mutations in the gyrB and silent wobble mutations in the parC QRDR. Reserpine, a known efflux pump inhibitor, did not effect the MICs for ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. The mar operon could be induced in all isolates at 37 degrees C and in 18 of 19 at 30 degrees C; induction resulted in a two- to four-fold increase in the MIC of ciprofloxacin. In 14 of the 19 isolates, the mutation rate was two-fold or higher than in a ciprofloxacin sensitive S. Bredeney and S. Typhimurium LT2 control strain. Examination of clonal relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profiles indicated that some degree of clonal dispersion may have occurred, but the majority of isolates may have arisen from de novo mutations.

  8. Cattle-derived Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin Infections in Red Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Tyrol, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Walter; Lazar, Judit; Wallner, Alice; Kornschober, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is endemic in the cattle population in some areas of the Austrian province Tyrol, and each year single dairy farms have experienced clinical infections. To ascertain if Tyrolean red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) act as a reservoir for Salmonella spp., we tested hepatic tissue and intestinal content from foxes hunted in the years 2015-16 by using microbiological methods. In addition, we included several fox fecal samples collected on a mountain pasture near chamois carcasses in the investigation. Of 434 foxes tested, nine animals (2.1%) were positive for Salmonella spp. Serotyping revealed five foxes positive with S. Dublin, demonstrating that this serovar exists in the Tyrolean fox population. The fecal samples collected in the area surrounding skeletonized chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) also tested positive for S. Dublin. These chamois were probably victims of a waterborne outbreak caused by S. Dublin-shedding cattle. Our results indicate that the S. Dublin infections in red foxes were primarily acquired through ingestion of infected cattle material such as abortion tissues, but also by feeding on dead chamois. The findings underline the importance of interspecies transmission in this domestic/wildlife interface.

  9. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Animal-Source Salmonella Heidelberg Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Clothier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg is frequently implicated in human foodborne Salmonella infections and often produces more severe clinical disease than other serotypes. Livestock and poultry products represent a potential risk for transmission to humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 49 S. Heidelberg veterinary isolates for exponential growth rate (EGR, PFGE pattern, and antimicrobial resistance to evaluate these parameters as mechanisms by which S. Heidelberg emerged as a virulent foodborne pathogen. Isolates were categorized by species of origin; clinical or environmental sources; and time frame of recovery. Growth rates were determined in nutrient media using serial dilutions and colony counts; PFGE was performed according to the CDC PulseNet protocol. Minimum inhibitory concentration and susceptibility determinations were performed against antimicrobials important in human medicine. Eighteen unique PFGE patterns were detected in the isolates tested. Antimicrobial resistance was significantly greater (P<0.05 for ten of 15 drugs in clinical over environmental isolates; for four drugs between the time frames; and for ten drugs between species of origin. The large genetic diversity present in isolates of this serotype may convey competitive advantages to this organism, while the presence of antimicrobial resistance represents a potential zoonotic risk via animal-source food products.

  10. Sub-clinical infection with Salmonella in chickens differentially affects behaviour and welfare in three inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M J; Sait, L; Jørgensen, F; Nicol, C J; Powers, C; Smith, A L; Bailey, M; Humphrey, T J

    2010-12-01

    1. Much evidence exists detailing how animals respond to pathogen challenge, yet information explaining how the various behavioural, immunological, and physiological systems in chickens interplay during such challenges remains limited. 2. To gain an understanding of this interplay while controlling for genetic variation, the current study collected a variety of behavioural, physiological and immunological measures from three inbred lines (P, O and N) of laying hens before and after a sub-clinical infection with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium at 56 d of age. For comparison, an equal number of control birds were inoculated with a Salmonella-free broth. To identify an underlying profile, which might result in reduced susceptibility to infection, data were also collected in the pre-infection period. Post-infection blood and faeces were collected at 1-d post infection (dpi) and faeces again at 8 dpi. Animals were killed 15 d after infection and faeces, caecal contents, and spleen were examined for the presence of Salmonella. 3. Statistical analysis was performed to identify pre- and post-infection differences between genetic lines, changes in bird behavioural patterns between the two periods, and associations between a positive test for Salmonella and the various response measures. 4. Tissues from Line P birds were more often negative for Salmonella than those from birds of other lines, though this was inconsistent and tissue-dependent. The P line was also characterised by relatively greater serum concentrations of immunoglobulins at 1 dpi and α(1)-acid glycoprotein at 15 dpi. In addition, P line birds were more timid and their growth was reduced during the pre-infection period suggesting the possibility of a profile with reduced susceptibility to the bacterial challenge. 5. The current work has identified correlations between attributes of chicken strains and improved clearance. Future work using hypothesis-based testing will be required to determine whether the

  11. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  12. Salmonella isolated from animals and feedstuffs in Sweden during 1988-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, M; Jacobsson, K G; Häggblom, P; Cerenius, F; Sjöland, L; Gunnarsson, A

    1995-01-01

    The present paper surveys the number of Salmonella isolations in animals and feedstuffs in Sweden during 1988-1992. It is the eighth in a series of reports published by the National Veterinary Institute (NVI) since 1949. During the period referred to, 602 outbreaks of Salmonella were reported in animals, both domestic and wild. Compared with the previous 5-year period there was a 20% reduction in the number of outbreaks (760). Fifty-six different serotypes were reported, 19 of which had never been isolated in any animal in Sweden previously. A temporary increase in the number of outbreaks in poultry was seen in 1991 following an extended sampling before slaughter of layers. A remarkably high prevalence (38%) of Salmonella was observed in snakes in the wild. In 1990, the end-point testing of feeds was replaced by an approach based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) principles for the monitoring of feed mills. Significantly higher number of Salmonella positive samples were found by using this technique compared with the previous analysis of finished feed. It is concluded that the adopted Salmonella control program has contributed to a reduced number of Salmonella outbreaks in animals in Sweden.

  13. Hemophagocytic macrophages harbor Salmonella enterica during persistent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N Nix

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies can establish persistent, systemic infections in mammals, including human typhoid fever. Persistent S. enterica disease is characterized by an initial acute infection that develops into an asymptomatic chronic infection. During both the acute and persistent stages, the bacteria generally reside within professional phagocytes, usually macrophages. It is unclear how salmonellae can survive within macrophages, cells that evolved, in part, to destroy pathogens. Evidence is presented that during the establishment of persistent murine infection, macrophages that contain S. enterica serotype Typhimurium are hemophagocytic. Hemophagocytic macrophages are characterized by the ingestion of non-apoptotic cells of the hematopoietic lineage and are a clinical marker of typhoid fever as well as certain other infectious and genetic diseases. Cell culture assays were developed to evaluate bacterial survival in hemophagocytic macrophages. S. Typhimurium preferentially replicated in macrophages that pre-phagocytosed viable cells, but the bacteria were killed in macrophages that pre-phagocytosed beads or dead cells. These data suggest that during persistent infection hemophagocytic macrophages may provide S. Typhimurium with a survival niche.

  14. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  15. A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Andersson, Gunnar; Häggblom, Per

    2010-01-01

    Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed. The pro......Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed...... the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed cake...

  16. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Papadopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to compare Salmonella isolates from different sources using molecular and phenotypic methods, targeting better possibility of understanding the epidemiology of this organism in the Greek context with emphasis in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in combination with antimicrobial susceptibility testing to analyze a total of 88 Salmonella Enterica isolates from municipal sewage (n=25, humans (n=36, animals (n=24, and foods (n=3 in Greece. Results: The higher resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (59.1%, tetracycline (47.7%, nalidixic acid (46.6%, ampicillin (37.5%, and oxolinic acid (35.2%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was not observed; 22 isolates (25% were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials, 36%, 25% and 12% of human, animal and wastewater origin, respectively, showing a significant difference. Salmonella ser. Hadar was the serovar with the highest resistance rates followed by Salmonella ser. Anatum and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium; Salmonella ser. Infantis strains were almost pansusceptible. Cluster analysis did not reveal close genetic relationship between human animal food and wastewater strains belonging to the same serovars. In most of the cases, distinct clusters were observed between human and non-human isolates indicating diversity and no epidemiological connection. Conclusion: This study indicates that municipal wastewater would be of interest to further monitor the community’s prevalence of subclinical or non-reported S. Enterica infections.

  17. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was o...

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrat Ejo; Legesse Garedew; Zabishwork Alebachew; Walelgn Worku

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded f...

  19. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, G.; Kritas, S.; Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Salmonella, a group of important zoonotic pathogens, is having global economic and political importance. Its main political importance results from the pathogenicity of many of its serovars for man. Serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are currently the most frequently associated to foodborne infections, but they are not the only ones. Animal food products contaminated from subclinically infected animals are a risk to consumers. In border free markets, an example is the EU, these consumers at risk are international. This is why, economic competition could use the risk of consumer infection either to restrict or promote free border trade in animals and their products. Such use of public health threats increases during economic recessions in nations economically weak to effectively enforce surveillance. In free trade conditions, those unable to pay the costs of pathogen control are unable to effectively implement agreed regulations, centrally decided, but leaving their enforcement to individual states. Free trade of animal food products depends largely on the promotion of safety, included in “quality,” when traders target foreign markets. They will overtake eventually the markets of those ineffectively implementing agreed safety regulations, if their offered prices are also attractive for recession hit consumers. Nations unable to effectively enforce safety regulations become disadvantaged partners unequally competing with producers of economically robust states when it comes to public health. Thus, surveillance and control of pathogens like Salmonella are not only quantitative. They are also political issues upon which states base national trade decisions. Hence, the quantitative calculation of costs incurring from surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses, should not only include the cost for public health protection, but also the long term international economic and political costs for an individual state. These

  20. US outbreak of human Salmonella infections associated with aquatic frogs, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettee Zarecki, Shauna L; Bennett, Sarah D; Hall, Julia; Yaeger, Jill; Lujan, Kate; Adams-Cameron, Marguerite; Winpisinger Quinn, Kim; Brenden, Rita; Biggerstaff, Gwen; Hill, Vincent R; Sholtes, Kari; Garrett, Nancy Marie; Lafon, Patti C; Barton Behravesh, Casey; Sodha, Samir V

    2013-04-01

    Although amphibians are known Salmonella carriers, no such outbreaks have been reported. We investigated a nationwide outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections occurring predominantly among children from 2008 to 2011. We conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were defined as persons with Salmonella Typhimurium infection yielding an isolate indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. Controls were persons with recent infection with Salmonella strains other than the outbreak strain and matched to cases by age and geography. Environmental samples were obtained from patients' homes; traceback investigations were conducted. We identified 376 cases from 44 states from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011; 29% (56/193) of patients were hospitalized and none died. Median patient age was 5 years (range <1-86 years); 69% were children <10 years old (253/367). Among 114 patients interviewed, 69 (61%) reported frog exposure. Of patients who knew frog type, 79% (44/56) reported African dwarf frogs (ADF), a type of aquatic frog. Among 18 cases and 29 controls, illness was significantly associated with frog exposure (67% cases versus 3% controls, matched odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 1.9-infinity). Environmental samples from aquariums containing ADFs in 8 patients' homes, 2 ADF distributors, and a day care center yielded isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. Traceback investigations of ADFs from patient purchases converged to a common ADF breeding facility. Environmental samples from the breeding facility yielded the outbreak strain. ADFs were the source of this nationwide pediatric predominant outbreak. Pediatricians should routinely inquire about pet ownership and advise families about illness risks associated with animals.

  1. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Park, Jun Cheol; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    A previously characterized rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE (1.0%, v/v) was also examined in a Salmonella-infected Balb/c mouse model. Mice infected with a sublethal dose of the pathogens were administered intraperitoneally a 1.0% solution of RHSE at four 12-h intervals during the 48-h experimental period. The results showed that RHSE inhibited bacterial growth by 59.4%, 51.4%, 39.6%, and 28.3% compared to 78.7%, 64.6%, 59.2%, and 43.2% inhibition with the medicinal antibiotic vancomycin (20 mg/mL). By contrast, 4 consecutive administrations at 12-h intervals elicited the most effective antibacterial effect of 75.0% and 85.5% growth reduction of the bacteria by RHSE and vancomycin, respectively. The combination of RHSE and vancomycin acted synergistically against the pathogen. The inclusion of RHSE (1.0% v/w) as part of a standard mouse diet fed for 2 wk decreased mortality of 10 mice infected with lethal doses of the Salmonella. Photomicrographs of histological changes in liver tissues show that RHSE also protected the liver against Salmonella-induced pathological necrosis lesions. These beneficial results suggest that the RHSE has the potential to complement wood-derived smokes as antimicrobial flavor formulations for application to human foods and animal feeds. The new antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived liquid smokes as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application to foods. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to US original government works.

  2. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P Salmonella concentrations than the control (P Salmonella mitigation, because all days except days 14 and 21 (P = 0.92) differed from one another. Rendered protein matrix also affected Salmonella stability, because concentrations in meat and bone meal and blood meal were similar to one another (P = 0.36) but were greater than levels in feather meal and poultry by-product meal (P Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, but their effectiveness was matrix dependent. Time and chemical treatment with medium chain fatty acids or a commercial formaldehyde product were most effective at mitigating Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in rendered protein meals.

  3. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... animals produced antibodies against S.typhimurium, but neither the euthymic nor the athymic animals survived the infection. After non-lethal infection euthymic and thymus-grafted nude rats were not affected by the second and otherwise lethal bacterial dose, and had high antibody titres. All the athymic...... nude rats died after the second and lethal bacterial challenge. Passive immunization with plasma from immunized euthymic animals did not protect any of the animals against the lethal bacterial dose. However, all animals survived when treated with large doses of spleen cells from immunized euthymic rats...

  4. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Tysen E; Noll B; Wahlström H; Hamilton C; Nord Bjerselius U; Hansson I; Boqvist S; Engvall A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates ...

  5. Prevalence and detection of antibiotic-resistant determinant in Salmonella isolated from food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken Henrietta

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. infections are considered as the most common food-borne disease globally. The contamination of food products with Salmonella has given rise to severe health and economic challenges. This study assessed the prevalence of Salmonella in the faeces of cows and goats in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, their antibiotic resistance patterns as well as antibiotic-resistant gene determinant. Antibiotic disc was used for antibiogram profiles while polymerase chain reaction was employed for the detection of antibiotic-resistant genes. A total of 150 Salmonella were isolated from the faecal samples. Eighty two (55%) isolates were recovered from cow faeces while 68 (45%) were isolated from goat faeces. All Salmonella isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100%) while 95% were sensitive to ofloxacin. Also, a high sensitivity of 93 and 89% was observed against nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, respectively. Salmonella isolates demonstrated moderate sensitivity against cephalothin (70%), chloramphenicol (75%) and minocycline (68%) while 49% were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. The prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant genes in Salmonella isolates were detected as follows: integron conserved segment 28% (42/150), bla TEM gene 19.3% (29/150), blapse₁ 7.3% (11/150) and blaampC 4.7% (7/150). The results obtained in the study imply that cow and goat faeces could be potential reservoirs of Salmonella and could possibly cause infections as a result of contamination of food products. There is a need for a surveillance system to track resistance patterns of Salmonella circulating in South Africa.

  6. Retrospective analysis of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus in animal feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; LaFon, Patricia C; Carter, Peggy J; McDermott, Shawn D; Abbott, Jason; Glenn, Althea; Ayers, Sherry L; Friedman, Sharon L; Paige, Joseph C; Wagner, David D; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Rasmussen, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    The presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms in animal feed are not well understood. In this study, a total of 201 feed ingredient samples (animal byproducts, n=122; plant byproducts, n=79) were collected in 2002 and 2003 from representative rendering plants and the oilseed (or cereal grain) industry across the United States. The occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of four bacterial genera (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus) were determined. Salmonella isolates were further characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). None of the samples yielded Campylobacter or E. coli O157:H7, whereas Salmonella, generic E. coli, and Enterococcus were present in 22.9%, 39.3%, and 86.6% of samples, respectively. A large percentage (47.8%) of Salmonella-positive samples harbored two serovars, and the vast majority (88.4%) of Enterococcus isolates were E. faecium. Animal byproducts had a significantly higher Salmonella contamination rate (34.4%) than plant byproducts (5.1%) (pSalmonella isolates recovered, 27 serovars and 55 PFGE patterns were identified; all were pan-susceptible to 17 antimicrobials tested. E. coli isolates (n=131) demonstrated similar susceptibility to these antimicrobials except for tetracycline (15.3% resistance), sulfamethoxazole (7.6%), streptomycin (4.6%), ampicillin (3.8%), and nalidixic acid (1.5%). Enterococcus isolates (n=362) were also resistant to five of 17 antimicrobials tested, ranging from 1.1% to penicillin to 14.6% to tetracycline. Resistance rates were generally higher among isolates recovered from animal byproducts. Taken together, our findings suggest that diverse populations of Salmonella, E. coli, and Enterococcus are commonly present in animal feed ingredients, but antimicrobial resistance is not common. Future large-scale studies to monitor these pathogenic and indicator organisms in feed commodities is warranted.

  7. International outbreak of Salmonella Eastbourne infection traced to contaminated chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P C; Mackel, D C; Baine, W B; Barker, W H; Gangarosa, E J

    1975-04-05

    Between Dec. 4, 1973, and Feb. 15, 1974, 80 cases of infection due to Salmonella eastbourne, previously a rare isolated serotype in the United States, were reported from twenty-three States. An additional 39 cases were reported from seven Provinces in Canada during a similar period. A telephone case-control study implicated Christmas-wrapped chocolate balls manufactured by a Canadian company as the vehicle of transmission. S. eastbourne was subsequently isolated from several samples of leftover chocolate balls obtained from homes where cases occurred. Investigation of the factory revealed that the contaminated Christmas and Easter chocolates, and a few chocolate items for year-round sale, had been produced between May and October, 1973. Bacteriological testing of samples taken at the plant implicated cocoa beans as the probable source of the salmonella organisms which, in the low-moisture chocolate, were able to survive heating during production. This outbreak and the finding of salmonella of other serotypes in chocolates produced by another manufacturer suggest that chocolate-related salmonellosis may be a significant public-health problem.

  8. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study u...

  9. Clonal differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Dione

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia.Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing.NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42% and S. Poona in animals (14.28%. MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST of which 18 (75% STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household.Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa.

  10. Clonal differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Michel M; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Saha, Debasish; Mohammed, Nuredin I; Geerts, Stanny; Ieven, Margareta; Adegbola, Richard A; Antonio, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia. Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing. NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household. Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa.

  11. Upsurge of infections caused by Salmonella Concord among Ethiopian adoptees in Denmark, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Kjelsø, C; Torpdahl, M

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Concord has been associated with adoptees from Ethiopia. In 2009, Denmark saw an increase in MDR S. Concord infections among Ethiopian adoptees.......Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Concord has been associated with adoptees from Ethiopia. In 2009, Denmark saw an increase in MDR S. Concord infections among Ethiopian adoptees....

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2015-04-21

    The contributions of animal products to human salmonellosis differ across countries, and source attribution is a major step in prioritizing control measures. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia by using meta-analytical methods. The odds of Salmonella contaminated meat was more than twice higher in markets than in slaughter houses [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.25 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.75, 2.89)]. The source species significantly affected meat contamination in slaughter houses (P  0.05). The pooled estimates of Salmonella contaminated goat carcasses, beef carcasses, minced beef and milk were 3.86%, 4.53%, 8.34% and 10.76% respectively. The estimates demonstrate the extent of contamination, and imply the need for safety intervention measures to reduce the risks of contamination of animal products and human illnesses.

  13. Epidemic increase in Salmonella bloodstream infection in children, Bwamanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoba, M-F; De Boeck, H; Ifeka, B B; Dawili, J; Lunguya, O; Vanhoof, R; Muyembe, J-J; Van Geet, C; Bertrand, S; Jacobs, J

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but few data are available from Central-Africa. We documented during the period November 2011 to May 2012 an epidemic increase in invasive Salmonella bloodstream infections in HGR Bwamanda, a referral hospital in Equateur Province, DR Congo. Salmonella spp. represented 90.4 % (103 out of 114) of clinically significant blood culture isolates and comprised Salmonella Typhimurium (54.4 %, 56 out of 103), Salmonella Enteritidis (28.2 %, 29 out of 103) and Salmonella Typhi (17.5 %, 18 out of 103), with Salmonella Enteritidis accounting for most of the increase. Most (82 out of 103, 79.6 %) isolates were obtained from children Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were 14 months (14 days to 64 years) and 19 months (3 months to 8 years) respectively. Clinical presentation was non-specific; the in-hospital case fatality rate was 11.1 %. More than two thirds (69.7 %, 53 out of 76) of children Salmonella isolates as well as 6/18 (33.3 %) Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to the first-line oral antibiotics amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol), one (1.0 %) Salmonella Typhimurium had decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility owing to a point mutation in the gyrA gene (Gly81Cys). Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (MLVA) analysis of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates revealed closely related patterns comprising three major and four minor profiles, with differences limited to one out of five loci. These data show an epidemic increase in clonally related multidrug-resistant Salmonella bloodstream infection in children in DR Congo.

  14. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infection associated with pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Michael L; Heffernan, Richard T; Wright, Jennifer G; Klos, Rachel F; Monson, Timothy; Khan, Sofiya; Trees, Eija; Sabol, Ashley; Willems, Robert A; Flynn, Raymond; Deasy, Marshall P; Jones, Benjamen; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella causes about one million illnesses annually in the United States. Although most infections result from foodborne exposures, animal contact is an important mode of transmission. We investigated a case of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) sternal osteomyelitis in a previously healthy child who cared for two recently deceased guinea pigs (GPs). A case was defined as SE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI pattern JEGX01.0021, BlnI pattern JEGA26.0002 (outbreak strain) infection occurring during 2010 in a patient who reported GP exposure. To locate outbreak strain isolates, PulseNet and the US Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Service Laboratories (NVSL) databases were queried. Outbreak strain isolates underwent multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted at homes, stores, and breeder or broker facilities. We detected 10 cases among residents of eight states and four NVSL GP outbreak strain isolates. One patient was hospitalized; none died. The median patient age was 9.5 (range, 1-61) years. Among 10 patients, two purchased GPs at independent stores, and three purchased GPs at different national retail chain (chain A) store locations; three were chain A employees and two reported GP exposures of unknown characterization. MLVA revealed four related patterns. Tracebacks identified four distributors and 92 sources supplying GPs to chain A, including one breeder potentially supplying GPs to all case-associated chain A stores. All environmental samples were Salmonella culture-negative. A definitive SE-contaminated environmental source was not identified. Because GPs can harbor Salmonella, consumers and pet industry personnel should be educated regarding risks.

  15. Mortality and translocation assay to study the protective capacity of Bifidobacterium lactis INL1 against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, M F; Reinheimer, J; Forzani, L; Grangette, C; Vinderola, G

    2014-12-01

    The mouse has been largely used for the study of the protective capacity of probiotics against intestinal infections caused by Salmonella. In this work we aimed at comparing the mortality and translocation assay for the study of the protective capacity of the human breast milk-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 on a model of gut infection by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Different doses of S. Typhimurium FUNED and B. animalis subsp. lactis INL 1 were administered to Balb/c mice in a mortality or a translocation assay. The survival of the control group in the mortality assay resulted to be variable along experiments, and then we preferred to use a translocation assay where the preventive administration of 109 cfu of bifidobacteria/mouse for 10 consecutive days significantly reduced the number of infected animals and the levels of translocation to liver and spleen, with enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A and interleukin 10 production in the small and large intestine, respectively. Ten days of B. animalis subsp. lactis strain INL1 administration to mice significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of Salmonella infection in a mouse model of translocation. This work provided the first evidence that a translocation assay, compared to a mortality assay, could be more useful to study the protective capacity of probiotics against Salmonella infection, as more information can be obtained from mice and less suffering is conferred to animals due to the fact that the mortality assay is shorter than the latter. These facts are in line with the guidelines of animal research recently established by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research.

  16. Selective Infection of Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes by Salmonella Mediates Bacterial Survival and Systemic Spreading of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Jelle; Martinoli, Chiara; Zagato, Elena; Janssen, Hans; Jorritsma, Tineke; Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E.; Rescigno, Maria; Neefjes, Jacques; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterial pathogen Salmonella causes worldwide disease. A major route of intestinal entry involves M cells, providing access to B cell-rich Peyer’s Patches. Primary human B cells phagocytose Salmonella typhimurium upon recognition by the specific surface Ig receptor (BCR). As it is unclear how Salmonella disseminates systemically, we studied whether Salmonella can use B cells as a transport device for spreading. Methodology/Principal Findings Human primary B cells or Ramos cell line were incubated with GFP-expressing Salmonella. Intracellular survival and escape was studied in vitro by live cell imaging, flow cytometry and flow imaging. HEL-specific B cells were transferred into C57BL/6 mice and HEL-expressing Salmonella spreading in vivo was analyzed investigating mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and blood. After phagocytosis by B cells, Salmonella survives intracellularly in a non-replicative state which is actively maintained by the B cell. Salmonella is later excreted followed by reproductive infection of other cell types. Salmonella-specific B cells thus act both as a survival niche and a reservoir for reinfection. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific B cells before oral infection of mice showed that these B cells mediate in vivo systemic spreading of Salmonella to spleen and blood. Conclusions/Significance This is a first example of a pathogenic bacterium that abuses the antigen-specific cells of the adaptive immune system for systemic spreading for dissemination of infection. PMID:23209805

  17. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds reduced Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, E; Tugnoli, B; Formigoni, A; Massi, P; Fantinati, P; Tosi, G; Piva, A

    2011-08-01

    The reduction of Salmonella prevalence in broilers is a priority in European Union agricultural policies because treatment with antibiotics is forbidden by Regulation (EC) 2160/2003. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a microencapsulated blend of sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds (i.e., chemically synthesized botanicals; SAB) on the reduction of the cecal prevalence and contents of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar and Enteritidis in experimentally infected chickens. In the first trial, 125 one-day-old Lohmann specific-pathogen-free chickens were assigned to one of the following treatments: negative control (not challenged and not treated), positive control (challenged and not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, or SAB5 (challenged and treated with the microencapsulated blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, or 0.5%, respectively). At 30 d of age, birds were infected with 10(6) cfu of Salmonella Hadar, and after 5, 10, or 20 d postinfection, 5, 10, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and the cecal contents and liver and spleen samples were analyzed for Salmonella Hadar. In the second trial, 100 one-day-old Ross 708 chickens were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: control (not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, SAB2, or SAB5 (treated with the blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5%, respectively). At 7 d of age, the birds were challenged with 10(5) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis, and after 7, 14, or 24 d after challenge, 5, 5, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and cecal contents were analyzed for Salmonella Enteritidis. Results showed that in the early stage of infection Salmonella prevalence was high in both studies, whereas at the end of the observation periods, the blends at 0.03, 0.1, and 0.5 in the challenge with Salmonella Hadar and at 0.2 and 0.5% in the challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly reduced (by 2 log(10) cfu) the cecal content of Salmonella. This study showed that intestinal

  18. Studies on the pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella choleraesuis var kunzendorf infection in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W M; Olander, H J; Thacker, H L

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-six 4-week-old pigs were randomly allotted to 4 groups: group 1--orally inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium; group 2--orally dosed with S choleraesuis; and groups 3 and 4, with surgically constructed intestinal loops--loops inoculated with either S typhimurium or S choleraesuis. One pig each from groups 1 and 2 was killed at 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after inoculation. One pig each from groups 3 and 4 was killed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after intestinal loop inoculation. Inoculation of S typhimurium resulted in acute enterocolitis of variable severity, whereas inoculation of S choleraesuis resulted initially in septicemia followed by formation of large necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the colonic mucosa. The most consistent systemic lesion of S choleraesuis infection was interstitial pneumonia and multifocal hepatic necrosis. Salmonella typhimurium and S choleraesuis were ultrastructurally within enterocytes of ligated ileal loops. Intracellular bacteria were morphologically intact, occurred free in the cytoplasm and membrane bound, and caused no detectable cytotoxic effect to the cell. Both S typhimurium and S choleraesuis penetrated the intestinal mucosa and were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes at 2 hours after inoculation.

  19. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  20. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  1. Salmonella isolated from animals and feed production in Sweden between 1993 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Ofthose, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993-97.

  2. LPS structure and PhoQ activity are important for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Bender

    Full Text Available The larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, have been used experimentally to host a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study we evaluated the suitability of G. mellonella as an alternative animal model of Salmonella infection. Using a range of inoculum doses we established that the LD₅₀ of SalmonellaTyphimurium strain NCTC 12023 was 3.6 × 10³ bacteria per larva. Further, a set of isogenic mutant strains depleted of known virulence factors was tested to identify determinants essential for S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Mutants depleted of one or both of the type III secretion systems encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 showed no virulence defect. In contrast, we observed reduced pathogenic potential of a phoQ mutant indicating an important role for the PhoPQ two-component signal transduction system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure was also shown to influence Salmonella virulence in G. mellonella. A waaL(rfaL mutant, which lacks the entire O-antigen (OAg, was virtually avirulent, while a wzz(ST/wzz(fepE double mutant expressing only a very short OAg was highly attenuated for virulence. Furthermore, shortly after infection both LPS mutant strains showed decreased replication when compared to the wild type in a flow cytometry-based competitive index assay. In this study we successfully established a G. mellonella model of S. Typhimurium infection. By identifying PhoQ and LPS OAg length as key determinants of virulence in the wax moth larvae we proved that there is an overlap between this and other animal model systems, thus confirming that the G. mellonella infection model is suitable for assessing aspects of Salmonella virulence function.

  3. LPS Structure and PhoQ Activity Are Important for Salmonella Typhimurium Virulence in the Gallleria mellonella Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jennifer K.; Wille, Thorsten; Blank, Kathrin; Lange, Anna; Gerlach, Roman G.

    2013-01-01

    The larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, have been used experimentally to host a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study we evaluated the suitability of G. mellonella as an alternative animal model of Salmonella infection. Using a range of inoculum doses we established that the LD50 of Salmonella Typhimurium strain NCTC 12023 was 3.6 × 103 bacteria per larva. Further, a set of isogenic mutant strains depleted of known virulence factors was tested to identify determinants essential for S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Mutants depleted of one or both of the type III secretion systems encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 showed no virulence defect. In contrast, we observed reduced pathogenic potential of a phoQ mutant indicating an important role for the PhoPQ two-component signal transduction system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure was also shown to influence Salmonella virulence in G. mellonella. A waaL (rfaL) mutant, which lacks the entire O-antigen (OAg), was virtually avirulent, while a wzzST/wzzfepE double mutant expressing only a very short OAg was highly attenuated for virulence. Furthermore, shortly after infection both LPS mutant strains showed decreased replication when compared to the wild type in a flow cytometry-based competitive index assay. In this study we successfully established a G. mellonella model of S. Typhimurium infection. By identifying PhoQ and LPS OAg length as key determinants of virulence in the wax moth larvae we proved that there is an overlap between this and other animal model systems, thus confirming that the G. mellonella infection model is suitable for assessing aspects of Salmonella virulence function. PMID:23951347

  4. Enteritis due to Salmonella panama from infected ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G K; Fraser, P K; Ward, C P; Bouttell, G; Kinnear, E

    1972-03-01

    After the appearance of sporadic cases of enteritis due to Salmonella panama, baked ham from one supplier was implicated as the source of infection. No pathogenic organisms were isolated from the working surfaces of the factory involved or from samples of a day's bacon output, but S. panama was isolated from the factory sewers. Stool examinations of the 500 employees showed one man in the baked ham section to be excreting S. panama. He was removed from work and no further infections were reported from the district. The organism could no longer be found in the sewers.Some weeks later, further infections were reported in the London and Southend areas, which could be traced to ham from the original source. Sewer swabs at the factory were again positive. A further examination of all the employees revealed three cases and 82 symptomless excretors. Eight of 192 family contacts were also found to be excretors. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole appeared to have no effect on the carrier state.Examination of the hams in cold store showed some to be infected with S. panama, and a number of these had been consumed in the canteen.Subsequent examination of pigs at slaughter and pig food prepared locally failed to isolate S. panama. The source of infection at the factory is unknown.

  5. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp aislada de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar la información disponible sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella spp de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en América Latina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales realizados en América Latina entre los años 2003 y 2014 en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS. Se excluyeron estudios realizados como parte de estudio de brotes o casos de infecciones en humanos. Tres revisores de forma independiente participaron en la selección de estudios. Además, se realizó la evaluación de calidad a los estudios incluidos. Resultados. Un total de 25 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Brasil, México, Colombia, Argentina y Venezuela. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp se obtuvieron principalmente de alimentos de origen avícola, porcino y vacuno, siendo Salmonella typhimurium y Salmonella enteritidis los serotipos que se aislaron con mayor frecuencia (17 y 11 estudios, respectivamente. En 23 de los estudios, Salmonella spp fue resistente a más de un antibiótico, incluyendo ácido nalidíxico, estreptomicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas. Conclusiones. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp obtenidos de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en los países analizados presentan con frecuencia resistencia a múltiples antibióticos. Es importante que más países en América Latina realicen y publiquen estudios sobre la resistencia de Salmonella spp para establecer y monitorear estrategias de control adecuadas.

  6. Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Kich, Jalusa D; Bessa, Marjo C; Biesus, Luiza L; Berno, Lais G; Triques, Nelise J

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance within an animal-based agriculture river system. The study area consisted of a 1,345 ha upper part of Pinhal catchment. A total of 384 samples were collected in four years of monitoring. Salmonella was isolated from 241 samples (62.7%), resulting in 324 isolates. The highest number of Salmonella sp. occurred in samples associated with sites with high stoking density animal unit per hectare. It was possible to demonstrate the variability of serovars in the study area: 30 different serovars were found and at least 11 per monitoring site. Thirty-three potentially related isolates were genotyped by PFGE, one major clone was observed in serovar Typhimurium, which occurred in animal feces (swine and bovine), and different sites and samplings proving the cross-contamination and persistence of this specific clone. Among 180 isolates submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, 50.5% were susceptible to all 21 antimicrobials tested and 54 different profiles were found. In the current study, 49.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and multi-resistance occurred in 18% of isolates. Results indicate a close interaction between animal-based agriculture, Salmonella, and antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissemination of Salmonella enteritidis by experimentally-infected pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁH Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7 and 9.5 x10(9 CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi. Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05. Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4, three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.

  8. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In the demand for a decision support tool to guide farmers wanting to control Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) in Danish dairy herds, we developed an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model of S. Dublin in dairy herds, which incorporated six age groups (neonatal, preweaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection states (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The model simulated population and infection dynamics over a period of 10 years in weekly time steps as: 1) population sizes of each of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 48 scenarios. The scenarios covered all combinations of three herd sizes (70, 200 and 400 cows), four hygiene levels indicating infectious contact parameters, and four herd susceptibility levels indicating different susceptibility parameters for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention and control of infection on its own. Herd size did not affect the probability of infection spread upon exposure, but the larger the herd the more important were management and housing practices that improve hygiene and reduce susceptibility to shorten durations of infection in the herd and to increase the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and

  9. Calcium in milk and fermentation by yoghurt bacteria increase the resistance of rats to Salmonella infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I; Termont, D; Dekker, R. (Rudolf); Van der Meer, R

    1996-01-01

    Calcium in milk products stimulates gastric acid secretion and inhibits the cytolytic activity of intestinal contents. Based on these effects, it was hypothesised that calcium might lessen the severity of food borne intestinal infections. The possible differential effects of a low calcium milk and normal milk products (milk, acidified milk, and pasteurised yoghurt) on the resistance of rats to a salmonella infection was therefore studied. Rats were infected orally with Salmonella enteritidis ...

  10. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    USDA), Athens, USA. Accepted 6 ... Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food borne pathogen of humans causing food-poisoning .... Comparison of percent sero-positive hens per group and means of Salmonella.

  11. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactam Resistance among Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is an important food bourn pathogen capable of infecting both humans and animals. One of the most effective treatments for Salmonella infections is beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly extended spectrum beta-lactams; however, Salmonella resistant to these antibiotics have been recovered ...

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56......-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions....

  13. Effect of acidified feed on suscebtibility of broiler chickens to intestinal infection by Campylobacter and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is associated with human Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. One way to control the presence of these bacteria in broiler flocks is to make chickens less susceptible for colonisation. Acidification of feed may be a tool to reduce the Campylobacter and Salmonella

  14. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  15. A Descriptive Study of Human Salmonella Serotype Typhimurium Infections Reported in Ontario from 1990 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Ford

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections cause gastrointestinal and systemic diseases worldwide and are the leading causes of food-borne illnesses in North America (1-4. Salmonella serotype typhimurium (ST, in particular, is increasingly becoming a major public health concern because of its ability to acquire multiple resistant genes (5,6.

  16. Protective Effect of Moderate Exercise for BALB/c Mice with Salmonella Typhimurium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rodríguez, R; Godínez-Victoria, M; Arciniega-Martínez, I M; Reséndiz-Albor, A A; Reyna-Garfias, H; Cruz-Hernández, T R; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2016-01-01

    Moderate exercise enhances resistance to pathogen-associated infections. However, its influence on intestinal IgA levels and resistance to Salmonella typhimurium in mice has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of moderate exercise on bacterial resistance and the intestinal-IgA response in a murine typhoid model. Sedentary and exercised (under a protocol of moderate swimming) BALB/c mice were orally infected with Salmonella typhimurium and sacrificed on days 7 or 14 post-infection (n=5 per group). Compared with infected sedentary mice, infected exercised animals had i) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; ii) higher total and specific intestinal-IgA levels, iii) a higher percentage of IgA plasma cells in lamina propria; iv) a higher level on day 7 and lower level on day 14 of intestinal α- and J-chain mRNA and plasma corticosterone, v) unchanged mRNA expression of intestinal pIgR, and vi) a higher mRNA expression of liver pIgR, α-chain and J-chain on day 7. Hence, it is likely that an increase in corticosterone levels (stress response) induced by moderate exercise increased intestinal IgA levels by enabling greater liver expression of pIgR mRNA, leading to a rise in IgA transcytosis from the liver to intestine. The overall effect of these changes is an enhanced resistance to infection. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Herbert D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. Findings A case-control study among Michigan children aged ≤ 10 years was conducted. A total of 123 cases of children with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections and 139 control children, who had not experienced symptoms of gastrointestinal illness during the month prior to the interviews, were enrolled. The cases and controls were matched on age-category (Salmonella infections were significantly associated with attendance of a daycare center (adjusted matched odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.58, contact with cats (MOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.14 - 5.88, and contact with reptiles (MOR = 7.90, 95% CI: 1.52 - 41.01, during the 3 days prior to the onset of child's illness. Conclusions Study results suggest that exposure to environmental sources may play an important role in sporadic infections with Salmonella serotypes in children. Additional efforts are needed to educate parents and caretakers about the risk of Salmonella transmission to children from these sources.

  18. Iron- and Hepcidin-Independent Downregulation of the Iron Exporter Ferroportin in Macrophages during Salmonella Infection

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    François Canonne-Hergaux

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Retention of iron in tissue macrophages via upregulation of hepcidin (HAMP and downregulation of the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN is thought to participate in the establishment of anemia of inflammation after infection. However, an upregulation of FPN has been proposed to limit macrophages iron access to intracellular pathogens. Therefore, we studied the iron homeostasis and in particular the regulation of FPN after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice presenting tissue macrophages with high iron (AcB61, basal iron (A/J and wild-type mice, or low iron (Hamp knock out, Hamp−/− levels. The presence of iron in AcB61 macrophages due to extravascular hemolysis and strong erythrophagocytosis activity favored the proliferation of Salmonella in the spleen and liver with a concomitant decrease of FPN protein expression. Despite systemic iron overload, no or slight increase in Salmonella burden was observed in Hamp−/− mice compared to controls. Importantly, FPN expression at both mRNA and protein levels was strongly decreased during Salmonella infection in Hamp−/− mice. The repression of Fpn mRNA was also observed in Salmonella-infected cultured macrophages. In addition, the downregulation of FPN was associated with decreased iron stores in both the liver and spleen in infected mice. Our findings show that during Salmonella infection, FPN is repressed through an iron and hepcidin-independent mechanism. Such regulation likely provides the cellular iron indispensable for the growth of Salmonella inside the macrophages.

  19. MLVA polymorphism of Salmonella enterica subspecies isolated from humans, animals, and food in Cambodia

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    Sarthou Jean

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella (S. enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis therefore need to be reliably discriminated. Due to the limitations of serotyping, molecular genotyping methods have been developed, including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA. In our study, 11 variable number tandem-repeats markers were selected from the S. enterica Typhimurium LT2 genome to evaluate the genetic diversity of 206 S. enterica strains collected in Cambodia between 2001 and 2007. Findings Thirty one serovars were identified from three sources: humans, animals and food. The markers were able to discriminate all strains from 2 to 17 alleles. Using the genotype phylogeny repartition, MLVA distinguished 107 genotypes clustered into two main groups: S. enterica Typhi and other serovars. Four serovars (Derby, Schwarzengrund, Stanley, and Weltevreden were dispersed in 2 to 5 phylogenic branches. Allelic variations within S. enterica serovars was represented using the minimum spanning tree. For several genotypes, we identified clonal complexes within the serovars. This finding supports the notion of endemo-epidemic diffusion within animals, food, or humans. Furthermore, a clonal transmission from one source to another was reported. Four markers (STTR3, STTR5, STTR8, and Sal20 presented a high diversity index (DI > 0.80. Conclusions In summary, MLVA can be used in the typing and genetic profiling of a large diversity of S. enterica serovars, as well as determining the epidemiological relationships of the strains with the geography of the area.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

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    Atek Atwiine Kagirita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda.

  1. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia antibodies and pregnancy outcome in Danish women with occupational exposure to animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mølbak, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    unexposed pregnant women were analysed for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Pregnancy outcomes of interest were identified through the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Women with occupational exposure to animals had significantly higher IgG antibody...... to occupational exposure to animals in women exposed to food producing animals. METHODS: We used data and blood samples from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Serum samples collected during the first trimester from 192 pregnant women who were occupationally exposed to domestic animals and 188 randomly selected...

  2. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  3. DETEKSI Salmonella PADA NASI GORENG YANG DISEDIAKAN OLEH RESTORAN KERETA API KELAS EKONOMI [Detection of Salmonella on Fried Rice Served in Restaurant of Economic Class Train

    OpenAIRE

    Srianta; Elisa Rinihapsari

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella is a group of infective pathogenic bacteria for human being that cause many food borne disease outbreaks. Human, animal and some animal-based food products are whicle for Salmonella. Public transportation i.e. train/railway, often serve foods that potentially contaminated with Salmonella. Study on Salmonella detection on fried rice served in economic class train restaurant is necessary for controlling its safety and quality. Standard method was used to detect Salmonella on fried ri...

  4. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide programme to survey and control salmonella in pig herds, a microbiological survey of 1363 pig herds was performed in Denmark. A total of 13 468 slaughter pigs were examined at slaughter by culture of 5 g of caecal contents. Overall, 30 different serotypes of Salmonella...... the most frequent (49.1%). Salmonella enterica was found in 302 herds (22.2%), S. Typhimurium was found in 61.1% of these. 279 (23.1%) large herds (producing more than 2600 slaughter pigs per year) were found to be salmonella positive compared with 23 (14.7 %) small herds (annual production of 500 to 550...... slaughter pigs). Practical constraints in the study design did not allow for a firm conclusion on the interplay among herd size, geographical location and occurrence of salmonella. In 284 of 302 infected herds (94.0%) only one serotype was detected, Infections with two different serovars were seen in 18...

  5. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Harris; Simona Zompi

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe deng...

  6. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yáñez Antonio; Martínez-Ramos Azucena; Calixto Teresa; González-Matus Francisco Javier; Rivera-Tapia José Antonio; Giono Silvia; Gil Constantino; Cedillo Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratr...

  7. Distribution of Salmonella in Humans, Production Animal Operations and a Watershed in a FoodNet Canada Sentinel Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, L; Pintar, K; Cook, A; McEwen, S; Friendship, R; Kelton, D; Pollari, F

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella is an important human pathogen, and production animals as well as water are known potential sources. This study helped provide insight into the epidemiology of Salmonella by comparing Salmonella strains found in humans to those detected in production animals and water in the same geographic area and time frame. Salmonella was found in 55% of broiler, 30% of swine, 13% of dairy, and 10% of beef manure samples and 23% of water samples. At the farm level, Salmonella was found on 93% of broiler, 81% of swine, 32% of beef and 30% of dairy farms. Salmonella strains of importance to public health were found in all sources tested; however, they appeared to be more common in the broilers. A number of the farms in this study were mixed farms, in that they had more than one production animal species on the farm. At both the sample and farm levels, beef-only farms had a significantly lower Salmonella prevalence (5% and 7%, respectively) than beef farms with additional production animal species (e.g. poultry) (12% and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, a number of mixed farms had more than one commodity sampled for this study and similar Salmonella strains by phage type and PFGE were found in the poultry and the other sampled commodity on the farm. This information can help inform the evidence base needed to help target interventions and modify best practices in production agriculture. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection. PMID:22044420

  9. Validation of a Salmonella loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in animal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domesle, Kelly J; Yang, Qianru; Hammack, Thomas S; Ge, Beilei

    2018-01-02

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has emerged as a promising alternative to PCR for pathogen detection in food testing and clinical diagnostics. This study aimed to validate a Salmonella LAMP method run on both turbidimetry (LAMP I) and fluorescence (LAMP II) platforms in representative animal food commodities. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s culture-based Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method was used as the reference method and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was also performed. The method comparison study followed the FDA's microbiological methods validation guidelines, which align well with those from the AOAC International and ISO. Both LAMP assays were 100% specific among 300 strains (247 Salmonella of 185 serovars and 53 non-Salmonella) tested. The detection limits ranged from 1.3 to 28 cells for six Salmonella strains of various serovars. Six commodities consisting of four animal feed items (cattle feed, chicken feed, horse feed, and swine feed) and two pet food items (dry cat food and dry dog food) all yielded satisfactory results. Compared to the BAM method, the relative levels of detection (RLODs) for LAMP I ranged from 0.317 to 1 with a combined value of 0.610, while those for LAMP II ranged from 0.394 to 1.152 with a combined value of 0.783, which all fell within the acceptability limit (2.5) for an unpaired study. This also suggests that LAMP was more sensitive than the BAM method at detecting low-level Salmonella contamination in animal food and results were available 3days sooner. The performance of LAMP on both platforms was comparable to that of qPCR but notably faster, particularly LAMP II. Given the importance of Salmonella in animal food safety, the LAMP assays validated in this study holds great promise as a rapid, reliable, and robust method for routine screening of Salmonella in these commodities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg infections associated with consumption of locally produced Tyrolean cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kreidl, P; Dierich, M.P.; Klingsbichel, E; Jenewein, D; Mader, C; Khaschabi, D; Schonbauer, M; Berghold, C

    2000-11-01

    Sixteen culture confirmed cases of enteric infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg were detected between August 10 and September 29 1999 in Tyrol (Austria). Ten of them suffered bloody diarrhoea and six were asymptomatic carriers. Intervie

  11. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will have a decreased appetite, fever and abdominal pain. However, not all pets carrying Salmonella will appear sick. Apparently well but infected animals can be carriers and may infect other animals ...

  12. Retrospective analysis of Salmonella isolates recovered from animal feed in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, C; Carrique-Mas, J J; Davies, R H; Sayers, A R

    2009-12-05

    To examine feed contamination rates with Salmonella, the diversity of serovars and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from animal feedingstuffs in Great Britain, and to compare Salmonella strains found in animal feed and in livestock, data collected under voluntary and statutory Salmonella surveillance during the period 1987 to 2006 were analysed retrospectively. The feed contamination rate decreased from 3.8 per cent in 1993 to 1.1 per cent in 2006. A total of 263 Salmonella serovars were recovered: S Mbandaka (11.2 per cent), S Tennessee (10.4 per cent), S Senftenberg (8.4 per cent), S Agona (6.4 per cent), S Montevideo (6.4 per cent) and S Ohio (3.1 per cent) were the most prevalent. S Typhimurium was recovered at a proportion of 1.6 per cent from raw ingredients and 2.4 per cent from finished feed, while S Enteritidis was recovered at a proportion of 0.5 per cent from raw ingredients and 0.6 per cent from finished feed; 14.1 per cent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 1.9 per cent were multiresistant. There was no evidence of a statistical association (Pfeed and from livestock.

  13. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  14. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

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    Lahtinen Sampo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet. Results The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01 of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20. The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001. Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01, XOS (P < 0.01, or polydextrose (P < 0.001, and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0

  15. Transfer of primed CD4+OX40- T lymphocytes induces increased immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1997-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen non-adherent mononuclear cells were......4+ T cells sorted into OX40- or OX40- subpopulations significantly increased animal survival compared to controls. Animals receiving OX40+CD4+ T cells did not differ significantly in survival probability from those receiving unsorted CD+ T cells. However, animals receiving OX40-CD4+ T cells had...... a significantly better survival compared to animals given unsorted CD4+ T cells. It is concluded that OX40-CD4+ T cells can induce significant protection against S. typhimurium infections in rats. This is most likely due to the fact that the OX40-CD4+ T-cell population contains a significant number of antigen...

  16. Proteins from latex of Calotropis procera prevent septic shock due to lethal infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Filho, José V; Patriota, Joyce M; Silva, Ayrles F B; Filho, Nicodemos T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Alencar, Nylane M N; Ramos, Márcio V

    2010-06-16

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in traditional medicine to treat different inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of latex proteins (LP) has been well documented using different inflammatory models. In this work the anti-inflammatory protein fraction was evaluated in a true inflammatory process by inducing a lethal experimental infection in the murine model caused by Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Experimental Swiss mice were given 0.2 ml of LP (30 or 60 mg/kg) by the intraperitoneal route 24 h before or after lethal challenge (0.2 ml) containing 10(6) CFU/ml of Salmonella Typhimurium using the same route of administration. All the control animals succumbed to infection within 6 days. When given before bacterial inoculums LP prevented the death of mice, which remained in observation until day 28. Even, LP-treated animals exhibited only discrete signs of infection which disappeared latter. LP fraction was also protective when given orally or by subcutaneous route. Histopathological examination revealed that necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates were similar in both the experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 after infection. LP activity did not clear Salmonella Typhimurium, which was still present in the spleen at approximately 10(4) cells/g of organ 28 days after challenge. However, no bacteria were detected in the liver at this stage. LP did not inhibit bacterial growth in culture medium at all. In the early stages of infection bacteria population was similar in organs and in the peritoneal fluid but drastically reduced in blood. Titration of TNF-alpha in serum revealed no differences between experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 days after infection while IL-12 was only discretely diminished in serum of experimental animals on day 5. Moreover, cultured macrophages treated with LP and stimulated by LPS released significantly less IL-1beta. LP-treated mice did not succumb to septic shock when

  17. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  18. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Guard, Jean; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2017-05-01

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. In recent years, the animal welfare implications of diverse poultry housing and management systems have been vigorously debated, but the food safety significance of laying hen housing remains uncertain. The present study evaluated the effects of 2 different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. Laying hens were distributed at 2 different stocking densities (648 and 973 cm2/bird) into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages at 648 cm2/bird) orally inoculated with doses of 107 cfu of 2-strain cocktails of either Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Typhimurium. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs (cecum, liver, spleen, ovary, and oviduct) were removed for bacteriologic culturing. The overall frequency of Salmonella isolation from ceca after inoculation with strains of serovar Heidelberg (83.3%) was significantly (P  0.05) between stocking densities or cage systems in the frequencies of isolation of either Salmonella serovar from any of the five sampled tissues. These results contrast with prior studies, which reported increased susceptibility to internal organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis among hens in conventional cages at higher stocking densities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. The anti-infective activity of punicalagin against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Feng, Yuqing; Xu, Yunfeng; Wu, Qian; Han, Qi'an; Liang, Xiujun; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    Punicalagin, a major bioactive component of pomegranate peel, has been proven to have antioxidant, antiviral, anti-apoptosis, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-infective activity of punicalagin in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were initially challenged with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and then treated with punicalagin. Food and water consumption and body weight were recorded daily. On day 8 post infection, the mice were sacrificed to examine pathogen counts in tissues, hematological parameters, cytokine levels, and histological changes. Compared to mice only infected with S. typhimurium, punicalagin-treated mice had more food consumption and less weight loss. A higher survival rate and lower counts of viable S. typhimurium in feces, liver, spleen, and kidney were found in the punicalagin-treated mice. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in serum and the spleen and TNF-α in serum, the spleen and the liver were reduced by punicalagin. Moreover, more neutrophils and higher neutrophil-to-mononuclear cell ratios in the punicalagin-treated mice were observed. Histological examination showed that punicalagin protected cells in the liver and spleen from hemorrhagic necrosis. It is concluded that punicalagin has a beneficial effect against S. typhimurium infection in mice. The anti-infective properties, together with other nutritionally beneficial effects, make punicalagin a promising supplement in human food or animal feeds to prevent disease associated with S. typhimurium.

  20. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Nisbet, David J; Kogut, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in U.S. poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry is lacking. In the present study, the above mentioned Salmonella serovars were examined for invasion, intracellular survival, and their ability to modulate oxidative burst and nitric oxide (NO) responses in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. All Salmonella serovars demonstrated similar capacity to invade HD11 cells. At 24 h post-infection, a 36-43% reduction of intracellular bacteria, in log(10)(CFU), was observed for Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg, whereas a significantly lower reduction (16%) was observed for Salmonella Enteritidis, indicating its higher resistance to the killing by HD11 cells. Production of NO was completely diminished in HD11 cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, but remained intact when infected with Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg. Phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated oxidative burst in HD11 cells was greatly impaired after infection by each of the five serovars. When newly hatched chickens were challenged orally, a high rate (86-98%) of systemic infection (Salmonella positive in liver/spleen) was observed in birds challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Kentucky, while only 14% of the birds were Salmonella Senftenberg positive. However, there was no direct correlation between systemic infection and in vitro differential intracellular survival and modulation of NO response among the tested serovars.

  1. A Multistate Investigation of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype I 4,[5],12:i:- Infections as Part of an International Outbreak Associated with Frozen Feeder Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, E J; Nguyen, T; Melluso, C; Ayers, T; Lane, C; Hodges, A; Li, X; Quammen, J; Yendell, S J; Adams, J; Mitchell, J; Rickert, R; Klos, R; Williams, I T; Barton Behravesh, C; Wright, J

    2016-02-01

    While most human Salmonella infections result from exposure to contaminated foods, an estimated 11% of all Salmonella infections are attributed to animal exposures, including both direct animal handling and indirect exposures such as cleaning cages and handling contaminated pet food. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of the response to an international outbreak of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,[5],12:i:- infections with over 500 illnesses occurring from 2008 to 2010. This investigation found that illness due to the outbreak strain was significantly associated with exposure to pet reptiles and frozen feeder rodents used as food for pet reptiles. Salmonella isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strain were isolated from a frozen feeder mice-fed reptile owned by a case patient, as well as from frozen feeder mice and environmental samples collected from a rodent producing facility (Company A). An international voluntary recall of all Company A produced frozen feeder animals sold between May 2009 and July 2010 occurred. Only 13% of cases in our investigation were aware of the association between Salmonella infection and mice or rats. Consumers, the pet industry, healthcare providers and veterinarians need to be aware of the potential health risk posed by feeder rodents, whether live or frozen. Frozen feeder rodent producers, suppliers and distributors should follow the animal food labelling requirements as described in 21 CFR §501.5, and all packages of frozen feeder rodents should include safe handling instructions. Persons should wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling live or frozen feeder rodents, as well as reptiles or anything in the area where the animals live. Continued opportunities exist for public health officials, the pet industry, veterinarians and consumers to work together to prevent salmonellosis associated

  2. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  3. Identification by PCR of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Associated with Invasive Infections among Febrile Patients in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Diallo, Souleymane; Levy, Haim; Livio, Sofie; Sow, Samba O.; Tapia, Milagritos; Fields, Patricia I.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tamboura, Boubou; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2010-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis) in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients. Methods We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-), Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali. Principal Findings We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2) strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:-) strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains. Conclusion We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries. PMID:20231882

  4. [Investigation of pathogenic phenotypes and virulence determinants of food-borne Salmonella enterica strains in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Deniz; Şen, Ece

    2015-10-01

    between 3.4 and 7.3 days. The significance of the differences between TD50 values of the positive control and experimental groups was analysed by using Student's t test. Ten of the isolates (31.25%), of which six belonged to Infantis and four to the Enteritidis serotypes were non-pathogenic, and the rest 22 isolates including Infantis, Kentucky and Telaviv serovars (67.75%) were found to be pathogenic for the C.elegans animal system (pSalmonella enterica strains and provided a practical alternative for studies aiming determination of pathogenic potential of environmental and food-borne strains through new experimental animal infection model. In this study, C.elegans was utilized for the first time to determine the profiles of pathogenicity of food-borne Salmonella serotypes in Turkey.

  5. Seroreactivity of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen in comparison with lipopolysaccharide antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S....... dublin and four herds (n = 168) with recent outbreaks of S. typhimurium, were tested in a SEF14-ELISA, S. dublin LPS (0:1, 9, 12) ELISA and S. typhimurium LPS (0:1, 4, 5; 12) ELISA. At a cut-off OD of 0.5, only one of the animals tested from the salmonellosis-free island showed significant seroreaction...... of salmonellosis, increasing the predictive value of serology....

  6. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  7. Improved expression systems for regulated expression in Salmonella infecting eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medina

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a series of improvements to the Salmonella-based salicylate-inducible cascade expression system comprised of a plasmid-borne expression module, where target gene expression is driven by the P(m promoter governed by the XylS2 regulator, and a genome-integrated regulatory module controlled by the nahR/P(sal system. We have constructed a set of high and low-copy number plasmids bearing modified versions of the expression module with a more versatile multiple cloning site and different combinations of the following elements: (i the nasF transcriptional attenuator, which reduces basal expression levels, (ii a strong ribosome binding site, and (iii the Type III Secretion System (TTSS signal peptide from the effector protein SspH2 to deliver proteins directly to the eukaryotic cytosol following bacterial infection of animal cells. We show that different expression module versions can be used to direct a broad range of protein production levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficient reduction of basal expression by the nasF attenuator allows the cloning of genes encoding highly cytotoxic proteins such as colicin E3 even in the absence of its immunity protein. Additionally, we show that the Salmonella TTSS is able to translocate most of the protein produced by this regulatory cascade to the cytoplasm of infected HeLa cells. Our results indicate that these vectors represent useful tools for the regulated overproduction of heterologous proteins in bacterial culture or in animal cells, for the cloning and expression of genes encoding toxic proteins and for pathogenesis studies.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis infection of the porcine jejunal Peyer’s patch rapidly induces IL-1β and IL-8 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Kendra A.; Brown, David R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is an enteric pathogen of swine, producing septicemia, enterocolitis, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The initial molecular events at the site of Salmonella infection are hypothesized to be critical in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses; however the acute immune response elicited by porcine intestinal tissues is not well understood. To address this need, we employed explants of jejunal Peyer’s patch (JPP) mucosa from pigs to examine Salmonella-induced immune responses under controlled conditions as well as to overcome limitations of whole animal approaches. JPP explants mounted in Ussing chambers maintained normal histological structure for 2 h and stable short-circuit current and electrical conductance for 2.5 h. After ex vivo luminal exposure to Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis, JPP responded with an increase in mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-8, but not TNFα. Increased IL-1β and IL-8 expression were dependent on efficient Salmonella adhesion and internalization, whereas mutant Salmonella did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. Commensal enteric bacteria, present in some experiments, also did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicate that Salmonella uptake by Peyer’s patch is important in the induction of an innate response involving expression of IL-1β and IL-8, and that ex vivo intestinal immune tissue explants provide an intact tissue model that will facilitate investigation of mucosal immunity in swine. PMID:16115691

  9. Infection cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in latent carrier mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Bianca Mendes; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Romano, Carla Cristina; dos Santos, Thalis Ferreira; Teixeira Dias, João Carlos; Gross, Eduardo; Rezende, Rachel Passos

    2012-12-01

    This work reports the distribution of an oral dose of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in C57Bl/6-Bcgr mice, to study its pathogenesis in a latent carrier animal. Mice orally inoculated with a high dose of SE developed a latent infection characterized by the absence of clinical symptoms in which the cecum is functioning as a "strategic site" of SE proliferation, releasing bacteria into feces intermittently over the 4-week study. A sequence of disruptions occurred in the small intestine at 1 day postinculation (PI). The microvilli exhibited different degrees of degeneration, which were reversible as the cells became vacuolated. From 2 days PI, SE was detected in the mononuclear phagocytic system, and an exponential growth of the remaining bacteria in tissues was observed until 4 days PI. The production of interferon gamma from 3 days PI is restricting the SE growth, and a plateau phase was observed from 4 to 15 days PI. A recurrence of the bacterial growth in tissue occurred from 15 to 28 days PI, especially in the cecum. Increasing our knowledge about the host-pathogen interaction of adapted pathogens with the ability to develop latency is essential for the development of an efficient strategy for Salmonella control.

  10. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Liu, Qing; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Kang; Yi, Jie; Luo, Ying; Hu, Yunlong; Han, Yue; Kong, Qingke

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7, and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion-insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion mutations were successfully introduced into the live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine S738 (Δcrp Δcya) to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice model. The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. Vaccinated mice survived a challenge of 100 times the 50% lethality dose (LD50) of wild-type S. Typhimurium. Protective efficacy against heterologous virulent Salmonella challenges was highly O-serotype related. Furthermore, broad-spectrum protection against S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Choleraesuis was observed by co-vaccination of O9 and O7 O-serotype-converted vaccine candidates. This study highlights the strategy of expressing heterologous O-polysaccharides via genetic engineering in developing live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against NTS infections.

  11. O-Serotype Conversion in Salmonella Typhimurium Induces Protective Immune Responses against Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7, and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion–insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion mutations were successfully introduced into the live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine S738 (Δcrp Δcya to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice model. The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. Vaccinated mice survived a challenge of 100 times the 50% lethality dose (LD50 of wild-type S. Typhimurium. Protective efficacy against heterologous virulent Salmonella challenges was highly O-serotype related. Furthermore, broad-spectrum protection against S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Choleraesuis was observed by co-vaccination of O9 and O7 O-serotype-converted vaccine candidates. This study highlights the strategy of expressing heterologous O-polysaccharides via genetic engineering in developing live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against NTS infections.

  12. Efeito de probiótico na infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos Effect of probiotic on the Salmonella infection and fecal excretion in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Nogueira

    2012-03-01

    replicates per treatment. All animals were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (10(6cfu mL-1 after 14 days of housing. Afterwards, blood and feces samples were taken weekly and on day 35 post-inoculation the animals were euthanized and necropsied. The animals in both treatment groups were infected by Salmonella and seroconverted. There was no difference (P>0.05 between groups in mean counts of Salmonella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and coliforms in the feces samples, but the probiotic administration resulted in a lower frequency of isolation of Salmonella from liver (P=0.04, mesenteric lymph nodes (P=0.04, lung (P=0.03 and spleen (P=0.01. It was concluded that the probiotic microorganisms tested in this study were not able to protect against the infection or to decrease the fecal excretion of Salmonella in growing pigs, but were able to decrease the number of carriers in the mesenteric lymph nodes.

  13. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  14. National surveillance of Salmonella enterica in food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijima Mayumi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 518 fecal samples collected from 183 apparently healthy cattle, 180 pigs and 155 broilers throughout Japan in 1999 were examined to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella. The isolation rates were 36.1% in broilers, 2.8% in pigs and 0.5% in cattle. S. enterica Infantis was the most frequent isolate, found in 22.6% of broiler fecal samples. Higher resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (82.0%, dihydrostreptomycin (77.9%, kanamycin (41.0% and trimethoprim (35.2%. Resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftiofur, bicozamycin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were S. enterica Senftenberg was found in the isolates obtained from one broiler fecal sample. This is the first report of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella directly isolated from food animal in Japan.

  15. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  16. Characterization of a Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Enterica Give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one. Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama ...

  17. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E. Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. Methods. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Results. Between 1998 and 2014, 167 028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10 139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Conclusions. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. PMID:26449953

  18. Three Epidemics of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Bloodstream Infection in Blantyre, Malawi, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Masesa, Clemens; Jassi, Chikondi; Faragher, E Brian; Mallewa, Jane; Mallewa, Macpherson; MacLennan, Calman A; Msefula, Chisomo; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2015-11-01

    The Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW) has routinely collected specimens for blood culture from febrile patients, and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis, presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, since 1998. We present bloodstream infection (BSI) and meningitis surveillance data from 1998 to 2014. Automated blood culture, manual speciation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed at MLW. Population data for minimum-incidence estimates in urban Blantyre were drawn from published estimates. Between 1998 and 2014, 167,028 blood cultures were taken from adult and pediatric medical patients presenting to QECH; Salmonella Typhi was isolated on 2054 occasions (1.2%) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars were isolated 10,139 times (6.1%), of which 8017 (79.1%) were Salmonella Typhimurium and 1608 (15.8%) were Salmonella Enteritidis. There were 392 cases of NTS meningitis and 9 cases of Salmonella Typhi meningitis. There have been 3 epidemics of Salmonella BSI in Blantyre; Salmonella Enteritidis from 1999 to 2002, Salmonella Typhimurium from 2002 to 2008, and Salmonella Typhi, which began in 2011 and was ongoing in 2014. Multidrug resistance has emerged in all 3 serovars and is seen in the overwhelming majority of isolates, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is currently uncommon but has been identified. Invasive Salmonella disease in Malawi is dynamic and not clearly attributable to a single risk factor, although all 3 epidemics were associated with multidrug resistance. To inform nonvaccine and vaccine interventions, reservoirs of disease and modes of transmission require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmo......Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance.......023), region (northern Thailand; p factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...

  20. Safety and efficacy of a salmonella gallinarum ΔcobSΔcbiA strain with potential to prevent chicken infections by salmonella gallinarum and salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Paiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New vaccine design techniques have allowed the development of effective vaccine strains against Salmonella infections inwhich the risks of reversion to the wild type and virulence is null. The mutant strain Salmonella Gallinarum ΔcobSΔcbiA was previously shown to be avirulent in chickens. In this study, this strain was tested as a vaccine against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG and S. Enteritidis (SE infections, and its protection levels, safety and possible risks of reversion to virulence after vaccination of layers were evaluated. Birds were vaccinated at five days of age or at five and 25 days of age. At 45 days of age, brown and white layers were challenged with SG and SE wild strains, respectively. Two assays to test the possibility of reversion to virulence were performed. Five successive bacterial passages in brown layers were carried out in the first assay. In the second assay, brown layers received a ten-fold concentrated inoculum of the SGΔcobSΔcbiA strain and were evaluated for clinical signs and mortality. In both experiments, no birds that received the inoculation of the attenuated strain died. Additionally, the use of the mutant strain as a vaccine provided good protection levels against both challenge strains.

  1. Human Salmonella infections linked to contaminated dry dog and cat food, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravesh, Casey Barton; Ferraro, Aimee; Deasy, Marshall; Dato, Virginia; Moll, Mària; Sandt, Carol; Rea, Nancy K; Rickert, Regan; Marriott, Chandra; Warren, Kimberly; Urdaneta, Veronica; Salehi, Ellen; Villamil, Elizabeth; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, R M; Austin, Jana L; Ostroff, Stephen; Williams, Ian T

    2010-09-01

    Human Salmonella infections associated with dry pet food have not been previously reported. We investigated such an outbreak of Salmonella Schwarzengrund and primarily affecting young children. Two multistate case-control studies were conducted to determine the source and mode of infections among case-patients with the outbreak strain. Study 1 evaluated household exposures to animals and pet foods, and study 2 examined risk factors for transmission among infant case-patients. Environmental investigations were conducted. Seventy-nine case-patients in 21 states were identified; 48% were children aged 2 years or younger. Case-households were significantly more likely than control households to report dog contact (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 3.6) and to have recently purchased manufacturer X brands of dry pet food (mOR: 6.9). Illness among infant case-patients was significantly associated with feeding pets in the kitchen (OR: 4.4). The outbreak strain was isolated from opened bags of dry dog food produced at plant X, fecal specimens from dogs that ate manufacturer X dry dog food, and an environmental sample and unopened bags of dog and cat foods from plant X. More than 23 000 tons of pet foods were recalled. After additional outbreak-linked illnesses were identified during 2008, the company recalled 105 brands of dry pet food and permanently closed plant X. Dry dog and cat foods manufactured at plant X were linked to human illness for a 3-year period. This outbreak highlights the importance of proper handling and storage of pet foods in the home to prevent human illness, especially among young children.

  2. Intraspecies Competition for Niches in the Distal Gut Dictate Transmission during Persistent Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lilian H.; Monack, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS) strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority effects and

  3. Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are frequent parasites of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, raising questions about the clinical significance of such infections. Infections with both parasites have a wide spectrum of symptoms that can vary between asymptomatic infections to serious infection ...

  4. Salmonella typhimurium infection in total knee arthroplasty: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeesh Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. The recognized predisposing risk factors for Salmonella septic arthritis include diabetes mellitus, renal failure, human immunodeficiency virus infection and chronic corticosteroid use. We describe a case of PJI of the knee in a 74-year-old lady who was on antitubercular treatment. The patient presented with discharging sinus and raised inflammatory markers. She was successfully treated by the removal of prosthesis and debridement followed by ciprofloxacin therapy for 6 weeks. This case report highlights the potential virulence of Salmonella in immunocompromised patient with a joint prosthesis. Continuous monitoring and close collaboration of microbiologists and orthopedicians helped obtain the resolution of infection in our patient.

  5. Characterization of Integrons and Resistance Genes in Salmonella Isolates from Farm Animals in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 154 non-duplicate Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1,105 rectal swabs collected from three large-scale chicken farms (78/325, 24.0%, three large-scale duck farms (56/600, 9.3% and three large-scale pig farms (20/180, 11.1% between April and July 2016. Seven serotypes were identified among the 154 isolates, with the most common serotype in chickens and ducks being Salmonella enteritidis and in pigs Salmonella typhimurium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (72.0% and ampicillin (69.4% in all sources. Class 1 integrons were detected in 16.9% (26/154 of these isolates and contained gene cassettes aadA2, aadA1, drfA1-aadA1, drfA12-aadA2, and drfA17-aadA5. Three β-lactamase genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried blaTEM−1(55/154, followed by blaPSE−1(14/154 and blaCTX−M−55 (11/154. Three plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried qnrA (113/154, followed by qnrB (99/154 and qnrS (10/154. Fifty-four isolates carried floR among the 154 isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis showed that nine sequence types (STs were identified; ST11 was the most frequent genotype in chickens and ducks, and ST19 was identified in pigs. Our findings indicated that Salmonella was widespread, and the overuse of antibiotics in animals should be reduced considerably in developing countries.

  6. Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl; Rådström, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and found to follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting 1 CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain. PMID:14711627

  7. Characterization and specificity of probiotics to prevent salmonella infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic strains of bacteria can prevent Salmonella from causing disease by preventing the pathogen from colonizing the intestines. Two strains of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilius and Pediococcus spp, that were obtained from poultry fecal samples have been shown to be efficacious in poultry. The objective of this study was to determine if these strains of probiotics could prevent salmonellosis in a mouse model. Methods: First, both strains of probiotics were evaluated for in vitro efficacy to inhibit the growth of and interfere with virulence gene regulation in Salmonella enterica. For in vivo efficacy, mice was used which models Typhoid illness. Mice were divided into 2 groups: Control and treatment, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus (LP; 108 Log CFU. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the mice were treated with LP in water for the first two days of the experiment and challenged with Salmonella at day three. In the second experiment, the LP treatment was given in the water for 10 days and challenge was performed on day 11. In both experiments, at day 20 post-challenge, all mice were sacrificed, intestinal tracts and organs removed and cultured for Salmonella. Results: The probiotic strains inhibited the growth of Salmonella and down-regulation of virulence genes was noted, but dependent on the strain of Salmonella being evaluated. For the in vivo experiment, the probiotics did not afford the mice protection from infection and increasing the length of time the probiotics were administered did not improve the efficacy of the probiotics. Conclusions: It appears that these strains of probiotic bacteria are effective against Salmonella in vitro. However, these isolates did not afford protection from Salmonella infection to mice which may be due to host specifity as these isolates were obtained from poultry

  8. Functional characteristics of the porcine colonic epithelium following transportation stress and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ahrens, Frank; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Fürll, Brigitta; Roesler, Uwe; Hensel, Andreas; Gäbel, Gotthold

    2007-06-01

    Stressful life events and infections contribute to gut disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We used a pig model to analyse whether this could be linked to altered mediator sensitivity of the epithelial lining. Uninfected control pigs or pigs with subclinical Salmonella (S.) typhimurium DT 104 infection were killed either without (ConRest, InfRest) or with prior 8-h transportation (ConTrans, InfTrans). Short-circuit current (I(sc)), tissue conductance (G(t)) and release of mast cell mediators were monitored in isolated colonic epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Epithelia were exposed to histamine (100 microM, mucosally), substance P (SP; 1 microM, serosally), calcimycin A23187 (1 microM, serosally) and theophylline (10 mM, bilaterally). Transepithelial flux of histamine and colonic activities of histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined. S. infection decreased baseline I(sc), G(t) and histamine fluxes, while transportation had no effect on these values. Mucosal histamine increased I(sc) only in ConTrans pigs. This was not associated with increased mucosal-to-serosal flux of histamine but with a 2-fold increased DAO activity. Serosal SP increased I(sc) only in transported animals, but the increase was six times higher in ConTrans versus InfTrans pigs. Effectiveness of SP was not dependent on the release of histamine or prostaglandin D2. A23187 and theophylline elicited increases in I(sc) that were not different between treatments. Transportation stress facilitates secretory responses of the colonic epithelium to SP and luminal histamine. This is suppressed by subclinical S. infection. Effects of S. infection on porcine colon resemble, in part, the known effects of an oral S. endotoxin application.

  9. The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease.

  10. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  12. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Geraldine

    2017-01-11

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success. This is, at least in part, due to the lack of animal models that fully recapitulate the pathogenesis of hRSV infection in humans. This review summarises the strengths and limitations of animal models of hRSV, which include those in which hRSV is used to infect non-human mammalian hosts, and those in which non-human pneumoviruses, such as bovine (b)RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) are studied in their natural host. Apart from chimpanzees, other non-human primates (NHP) are only semi-permissive for hRSV replication and experimental infection with large doses of virus result in little or no clinical signs of disease, and generally only mild pulmonary pathology. Other animal models such as cotton rats, mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, hamsters, chinchillas, and neonatal lambs are also only semi-permissive for hRSV. Nevertheless, mice and cotton rats have been of value in the development of monoclonal antibody prophylaxis for infants at high risk of severe hRSV infection and have provided insights into mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of hRSV. However, the extent to which they predict hRSV vaccine efficacy and safety is unclear and several hRSV vaccine candidates that are completely protective in rodent models are poorly effective in chimpanzees and other NHP, such as African Green monkeys. Furthermore

  13. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  15. Animal models of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zompi, Simona; Harris, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the 'vascular-leak' syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  16. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list...

  17. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These included ...

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Intensive Poultry Farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacteriological study of Salmonella Gallinarum/Pullorum was conducted in intensively managed chickens in Hawassa, Ethiopia between November 2008 and May 2009. The objectives of the study were to estimate the bacteriological prevalence of S. Gallinarum/Pullorum in apparently healthy chickens and to assess the ...

  19. Evaluation of mice infected to Salmonella Spp in Poultry farms of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 290 mice and rats fecal samples from commercial layer and broiler poultry houses were tested for Salmonella sp. presence. All samples were cultured on Selenite F broth media and passaged on SS agar and McConkey agar. The suspected colonies were cultured on Urea and TSI agars to be confirmed as Salmonella sp.. Finally, Salmonella isolates were identified genetically and biochemically by PCR and conventional methods, respectively. Serogrouping and Antibiotic resistance profiling were done for further differentiation of isolates. Twenty eight (9.65% Salmonellas were isolated from (out of 290 samples. Eight (28.6%, seven (25%, four (14.3%, and two (7.2% isolates were located in serogroups C, D, B and E, respectively. Seven isolates (25% belonged to Arizona subspecies and just one non-motile serogroup D Salmonella was isolated. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, but they were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and neomycin in decreasing order. In addition to former surveys, this study confirmed the role of mice and rats in spreading of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. In conclusion it is essential to take appropriate measurements (measures for pest management in poultry houses to approach the prevention of some bacterial infection like  (such as salmonellosis.

  20. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates Isolated in the United States from a Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Maria; Luo, Yan; Lafon, Patricia C; Timme, Ruth; Allard, Marc W; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the most common bacterial agents of foodborne illness. We report draft genomes of four Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates associated with the recent multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Heidelberg infections linked to kosher broiled chicken livers in the United States in 2011. Isolates 2011K-1259 and 2011K-1232 were recovered from humans, whereas 2011K-1724 and 2011K-1726 were isolated from chicken liver. Whole genome sequence analysis of these isolates provides a tool for studying the short-term evolution of these epidemic clones and can be used for characterizing potentially new virulence factors.

  1. Innate Immune Detection of Flagellin Positively and Negatively Regulates Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Marvin A.; Quarles, Ellen K.; López-Yglesias, Américo H.; Zhao, Xiaodan; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Smith, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a flagellated bacterium and one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans. Bacterial flagellin is required for motility and also a prime target of the innate immune system. Innate immune recognition of flagellin is mediated by at least two independent pathways, TLR5 and Naip5-Naip6/NlrC4/Caspase-1. The functional significance of each of the two independent flagellin recognition systems for host defense against wild type Salmonella infection is complex, and innate immune detection of flagellin contributes to both protection and susceptibility. We hypothesized that efficient modulation of flagellin expression in vivo permits Salmonella to evade innate immune detection and limit the functional role of flagellin-specific host innate defenses. To test this hypothesis, we used Salmonella deficient in the anti-sigma factor flgM, which overproduce flagella and are attenuated in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that flagellin recognition by the innate immune system is responsible for the attenuation of flgM− S. Typhimurium, and dissect the contribution of each flagellin recognition pathway to bacterial clearance and inflammation. We demonstrate that caspase-1 controls mucosal and systemic infection of flgM− S. Typhimurium, and also limits intestinal inflammation and injury. In contrast, TLR5 paradoxically promotes bacterial colonization in the cecum and systemic infection, but attenuates intestinal inflammation. Our results indicate that Salmonella evasion of caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition is critical for establishing infection and that evasion of TLR5 and caspase-1 dependent flagellin recognition helps Salmonella induce intestinal inflammation and establish a niche in the inflamed gut. PMID:23977202

  2. Fucoidan coated ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of intracellular and biofilm infections of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Elbi; T R, Nimal; V K, Rajan; Baranwal, Gaurav; Biswas, Raja; R, Jayakumar; S, Sathianarayanan

    2017-12-01

    Salmonella infections and their gallstone associated biofilm infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of antibiotics into the intracellular compartments of macrophages and within biofilms. Here we developed ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (cCNPs) and fucoidan (Fu) coated cCNPs (Fu-cCNPs). Characterizations of these nanoparticles were carried out using Dynamic Light Scattering‎, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prepared cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs have the size range of 124±7nm and 320±18nm, respectively. Both nanoparticles were found to be non-hemolytic and cytocompatible. In vitro sustained release of ciprofloxacin was observed from both cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs over a period of 2 weeks. The antimicrobial activity of cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The intracellular anti-Salmonella activity of Fu-cCNPs was 2 fold higher than cCNPs and 6 fold higher than ciprofloxacin alone. Fluorescence microscopic images confirmed enhanced delivery of Fu-cCNPs than the cCNPs within the intracellular compartment of macrophages. Both cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs are found to be equally effective in dispersing Salmonella Paratyphi A gallstone biofilms. The in vivo antibacterial activities of Fu-cCNPs were superior to cCNPs which we have validated using Salmonella Paratyphi A infected Drosophila melanogaster fly model. Our overall results showed that (1) Fu-cCNPs are more effective in eradicating Salmonella infections than cCNPs; (2) both cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs were equally effective in dispersing Salmonella gallstone biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from free-ranging wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Renata de Oliveira; Dejuste, Catia; Miranda, Flávia; Filoni, Claudia; Bueno, Marina Galvão; de Carvalho, Vania Maria

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.

  4. Use of Carbapenems against clinical, nontyphoid Salmonella isolates: results from in vitro and in vivo animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Zhang, Chun-Cheng; Cheng, Kuo Chen; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Ku, Yee Huang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chuang, Yin-Ching

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates has created the need for new therapeutic agents. We evaluated the intracellular activity of four carbapenem compounds against clinical nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) isolates in vitro and ex vivo. Subsequently, the efficacy of carbapenem treatment against selected Salmonella isolates in vivo was assessed using a murine peritonitis model. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) for doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 126 NTS isolates were found to be 0.062 and 0.062, 0.015 and 0.015, 0.5 and 1, and 0.031 and 0.031 μg/ml, respectively. The intracellular killing effect of ertapenem was sustained for 24 h and was superior to that of imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem; its effect was comparable to that of ceftriaxone. Ertapenem demonstrated an excellent pharmacokinetic profile with a percent time above the MIC of 75.5% and an area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratio of 20,733. When peritoneal exudate cells were examined directly ex vivo from mice with Salmonella-induced peritonitis, cells from mice treated with ertapenem and ceftriaxone had intracellular and extracellular bacterial counts reduced 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold and exhibited killing effects similar to each other. The survival rates of mice inoculated with 1 × 10(5) and 10(6) CFU of a ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella isolate that were subsequently treated with ertapenem or ceftriaxone were 100% and 90%, respectively. When mice were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) and 10(5) CFU of a ceftriaxone-resistant and ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella isolate, mice treated with ertapenem had a higher survival rate than mice treated with ceftriaxone (70% versus 0% and 50% versus 0%, respectively; P Salmonella infections and show that further clinical investigations on the potential use of ertapenem in treatment of human Salmonella infections are warranted.

  5. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

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    Kévin P. Dhondt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.

  6. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

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    Yáñez Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain, Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.

  7. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Antonio; Martínez-Ramos, Azucena; Calixto, Teresa; González-Matus, Francisco Javier; Rivera-Tapia, José Antonio; Giono, Silvia; Gil, Constantino; Cedillo, Lilia

    2013-01-08

    Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.

  8. Survey of co-infection by Salmonella and oxyurids in tortoises

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    Dipineto Ludovico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella spp. and oxyurids are among the most prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents in reptiles. These organisms are routinely isolated in healthy tortoises, although heavy infections may cause significant pathology. Tortoises are considered a common source of reptile-associated salmonellosis, an important zoonosis reported worldwide. A survey of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and oxyurids in 53 tortoises was conducted in southern Italy and a possible correlation between the two pathogens was therefore investigated. Results Salmonella spp. and oxyurids were detected with a prevalence of 49.1 and 81.1%, respectively. A significant positive correlation between Salmonella spp. and oxyurids was demonstrated. However, confounding factors related to husbandry could have been involved in determining this correlation. Conclusions Our results suggest that caution should be exercised in translocation, husbandry, and human contact with tortoises and other exotic pets. Further studies on the epidemiology, molecular characterization and pathogenesis of Salmonella and oxyurids are needed to assess the actual impact of these organisms, as single or associated infections, on tortoises and on other exotic pets.

  9. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

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    Mišić Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  10. Gene expression response of the rat small intestine following oral salmonella infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, G.C.H.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Meer, van der R.; Keijer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Data on the molecular response of the intestine to the food-borne pathogen Salmonella are derived from in vitro studies, whereas in vivo data are lacking. We performed an oral S. enteritidis infection study in Wistar rats to obtain insight in the in vivo response in time. Expression profiles of

  11. Nontyphoidal salmonella infection in children with acute gastroenteritis: prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei

    2014-03-01

    Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.

  12. Associations between vaccinations against protozoal and viral infections and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health and for sustainability of the industry. A number of other infections are simultaneously controlled in grow-out broilers world-wide by vaccination. The purpose of this exploratory analysis was to test, in a f...

  13. Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella Enteritidis, Denmark, 1997-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Neimann, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    In a prospective case-control study of sporadic Salmonella Enteritidis infection in Denmark (1997-1999), foreign travel was reported by 25% of 455 case patients and 8% of 507 controls (odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.5). Among nontravelers, 80% of 335 cases and 81...

  14. Risk factors for clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Wilpshaar, H.; Frankena, K.; Bartels, C.; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case–control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed

  15. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against

  16. Animal and environmental impact on the presence and distribution of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in hydroponic tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco R, Leopoldo; Iturriaga, Montserrat H; Tamplin, Mark L; Fratamico, Pina M; Call, Jeffrey E; Luchansky, John B; Escartin, Eduardo F

    2008-04-01

    From 2003 to 2004, we studied the impact of environmental influences on the microbiological quality of a hydroponic tomato farm. The presence of Salmonella was investigated on 906 samples of tomatoes and 714 environmental samples. The farm comprised 14 greenhouses and a technologically advanced packinghouse, and operated under a sanitary agricultural practices plan. The objective of the present study was to determine the operating sources of contamination. During the course of the study, two independent natural events affected the farm. In 2003, water runoff entered some of the greenhouses. A year later, wild animals (opossums, mice, and sparrows) gained entry into several of the greenhouses. Salmonella and Escherichia coli were found in samples of tomatoes, water puddles, soil, shoes, and the feces of local wild and farm animals. Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Newport, and strains of the F serogroup were isolated from tomatoes. Almost all of the Salmonella Newport strains were isolated from samples collected during or immediately after the flood. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that some Salmonella Montevideo isolates from tomatoes, opossums, and mice displayed identical XbaI or AvrII patterns, suggesting that these wild animals represented one source of contamination. F serogroup strains were found mostly on samples of goat feces and personnel shoes when standard working practices were in place. Shoes were found to be an important vehicle for dissemination of Salmonella into the greenhouses. The level of protection provided by hydroponic greenhouses does not exclude the eventuality that enteric pathogenic bacteria can gain access through various avenues.

  17. Estimation of the rate of egg contamination from Salmonella-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M E; Martelli, F; McLaren, I; Davies, R H

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout the world. Although previous studies have looked at the proportion of infected eggs from infected flocks, there is still uncertainty over the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated eggs. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated egg shells and egg contents. Data were collected from two studies, consisting of 15 and 20 flocks, respectively. Faecal and environmental sampling and testing of ovaries/caeca from laying hens were carried out in parallel with (i) for the first study, testing 300 individual eggs, contents and shells together and (ii) for the second study, testing 4000 eggs in pools of six, with shells and contents tested separately. Bayesian methods were used to estimate the within-flock prevalence of infection from the faecal and hen post-mortem data, and this was related to the proportion of positive eggs. Results indicated a linear relationship between the rate of contamination of egg contents and the prevalence of infected chickens, but a nonlinear (quadratic) relationship between infection prevalence and the rate of egg shell contamination, with egg shell contamination occurring at a much higher rate than that of egg contents. There was also a significant difference in the rate of egg contamination between serovars, with S. Enteritidis causing a higher rate of contamination of egg contents and a lower rate of contamination of egg shells compared to non-S. Enteritidis serovars. These results will be useful for risk assessments of human exposure to Salmonella-contaminated eggs. © 2013 Crown copyright. This article is published with the

  18. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  19. Emergence of new Salmonella Enteritidis phage types in Europe? Surveillance of infections in returning travellers

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    Andersson Yvonne

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. Methods We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. Results Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b became one of the most commonly diagnosed that year, continuing into 2002 and 2003. Conclusions Surveillance of infections among returning travellers can be helpful in detecting emerging infections and outbreaks in tourist destinations. The information needs to be communicated rapidly to all affected countries in order to expedite the implementation of appropriate investigations and preventive measures.

  20. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked to Raw Meal Organic Shake and Meal Products Recall & Advice to Consumers Case Count Maps Epi Curves ... Infections Associated with a Raw Scraped Ground Tuna Product Recall & Advice to Consumers Case Count Maps Epi Curves ...

  1. [Multifocal osteoarticular infection caused by Salmonella non typhi in a child with sickle cell disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, B; Couëc, M-L; Lorrot, M; Launay, E; Gras-Le Guen, C

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary hemoglobinopathy. Its course is marked by vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), episodes of acute hemolytic anemia on a background of chronic hemolytic anemia, and severe infections. A 2-year-old child with sickle cell disease presented with severe sepsis caused by Salmonella non typhi. Control of the sepsis was difficult, with multifocal osteomyelitis and arthritis, which required prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. Prolonged treatment was complicated by cardiorespiratory arrest and severe neurological damage, as well as nosocomial infections. Osseous articular infections caused by Salmonella non typhi are a common complication in children with sickle cell disease, which need to be promptly recognized. Management remains a great concern. The clinical case reported herein is original in its multifocal evolution. It illustrates the vulnerability of patients with sickle cell disease and the need for urgent and intensive care in the case of infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of in vivo-induced genes during infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Liu, Zhicheng; Lin, Zhijie; Barrow, Paul; Pan, Zhiming; Li, Qiuchun; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-06-01

    Chickens are an important source of food worldwide and are often infected with food-poisoning serovars of Salmonella enterica, frequently Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), without exhibiting clinical signs of disease. Ivi (in vivo induced) genes identified using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) are expressed only during bacterial infection and have the potential value of identifying epidemic strains and antigens which can form the basis for sub-unit vaccine development. We applied IVIAT to SE strain 50041 and identified 42 ivi genes. Eight representative ivi genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR as being expressed only in vivo within 48 h of infection compared with that of in vitro-cultured. Although our results indicated that the identified ivi genes are expressed only in vivo, further research is needed to elucidate the exact roles of these genes during infection and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ekstrak Pegagan Meningkatkan Titer Antibodi Mencit Setelah Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT INCREASE ANTIBODY TITER IN MICE AFTER SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the ability of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica in enhancing antibodyresponse of C. asiatica treated mice following Salmonella typhi (S. typhi infections. It is therefore expectedthat herbal drug such as  C. asiatica  can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent and to curesalmonellosis both in animals and human. Experimental laboratory studies were conducted usingCompletely Factorial Randomized Design. Mice were divided into four groups and they were treatedrespectively with destilated water (negative control, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day of  C. asiaticaextract. The treatment was conducted daily for two weeks  and the mice were inoculated with 105 cells/mlof  S. typhi. The antibody response were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAon first day, second week and fourth week  after S. typhi infections.  The result showed that treatment ofmice with C. asiatica extract significantly (p<0,05 enhanced antibody titer of Balb/c mice after S. typhiinfections. The highest antibody titer was observed at four weeks after S. typhi infections with 500 mg/kgBW/day (94,0370 ± 1,69 IU.

  4. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...

  5. Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink Carolien

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes susceptibility of rats to Salmonella infection and associated inflammation. Rats were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; glutathione depletion or cystine (glutathione maintenance. Inert chromium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (CrEDTA was added to the diets to quantify intestinal permeability. At day 4 after oral gavage with Salmonella enteritidis (or saline for non-infected controls, Salmonella translocation was determined by culturing extra-intestinal organs. Liver and ileal mucosa were collected for analyses of glutathione, inflammation markers and oxidative damage. Faeces was collected to quantify diarrhoea. Results Glutathione depletion aggravated ileal inflammation after infection as indicated by increased levels of mucosal myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1β. Remarkably, intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation were not increased. Cystine supplementation maintained glutathione in the intestinal mucosa but inflammation and oxidative damage were not diminished. Nevertheless, cystine reduced intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation. Conclusion Despite increased infection-induced mucosal inflammation upon glutathione depletion, this tripeptide does not play a role in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and diarrhoea. On the other hand, cystine enhances gut barrier function by a mechanism unlikely to be related to glutathione.

  6. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... losses. This was more influential in the poorer management scenarios due to increased number of infected cows. The results can be used to inform dairy farmers of the benefits of preventing introduction and controlling spread of S. Dublin. Furthermore, they can be used in cost-benefit analyses of control...... heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based...

  7. Physiological and Immunological Regulations in Caenorhabditis elegans Infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2014-03-01

    Studies pertaining to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection by utilizing model systems failed to mimic the essential aspects of immunity induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, as the determinants of innate immunity are distinct. The present study investigated the physiological and innate immune responses of S. Typhi infected Caenorhabditis elegans and also explored the Ty21a mediated immune enhancement in C. elegans. Ty21a is a known live vaccine for typhoidal infection in human beings. Physiological responses of C. elegans infected with S. Typhi assessed by survival and behavioral assays revealed that S. Typhi caused host mortality by persistent infection. However, Ty21a exposure to C. elegans was not harmful. Ty21a pre-exposed C. elegans, exhibited significant resistance against S. Typhi infection. Elevated accumulation of S. Typhi inside the infected host was observed when compared to Ty21a exposures. Transcript analysis of candidate innate immune gene (clec-60, clec-87, lys-7, ilys-3, scl-2, cpr-2, F08G5.6, atf-7, age-1, bec-1 and daf-16) regulations in the host during S. Typhi infection have been assessed through qPCR analysis to understand the activation of immune signaling pathways during S. Typhi infections. Gene silencing approaches confirmed that clec-60 and clec-87 has a major role in the defense system of C. elegans during S. Typhi infection. In conclusion, the study revealed that preconditioning of host with Ty21a protects against subsequent S. Typhi infection.

  8. Substantial within-animal diversity of Salmonella isolates from lymph nodes, feces, and hides of cattle at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragg, Sara E; Loneragan, Guy H; Nightingale, Kendra K; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Ruiz, Henry; Elder, Jacob R; Garcia, Lyda G; Miller, Markus F; Echeverry, Alejandro; Ramírez Porras, Rosa G; Brashears, Mindy M

    2013-08-01

    Lymph nodes (mandibular, mesenteric, mediastinal, and subiliac; n = 68) and fecal (n = 68) and hide (n = 35) samples were collected from beef carcasses harvested in an abattoir in Mexico. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella, and presumptive colonies were subjected to latex agglutination. Of the isolates recovered, a subset of 91 was characterized by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotyping. Salmonella was isolated from 100% (hide), 94.1% (feces), 91.2% (mesenteric), 76.5% (subiliac), 55.9% (mandibular), and 7.4% (mediastinal) of samples. From the 87 typeable isolates, eight Salmonella enterica serotypes, including Kentucky (32.2%), Anatum (29.9%), Reading (17.2%), Meleagridis (12.6%), Cerro (4.6%), Muenster (1.1%), Give (1.1%), and Mbandaka (1.1%), were identified. S. Meleagridis was more likely (P = 0.03) to be recovered from lymph nodes than from feces or hides, whereas S. Kentucky was more likely (P = 0.02) to be recovered from feces and hides than from lymph nodes. The majority (59.3%) of the Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible; however, multidrug resistance was observed in 13.2% of isolates. Typing by PFGE revealed that Salmonella strains generally clustered by serotype, but some serotypes (Anatum, Kentucky, Meleagridis, and Reading) were comprised of multiple PFGE subtypes. Indistinguishable PFGE subtypes and, therefore, serotypes were isolated from multiple sample types, and multiple PFGE subtypes were commonly observed within an animal. Given the overrepresentation of some serotypes within lymph nodes, we hypothesize that certain Salmonella strains may be better at entering the bovine host than other Salmonella strains or that some may be better adapted for survival within lymph nodes. Our data provide insight into the ecology of Salmonella within cohorts of cattle and offer direction for intervention opportunities.

  9. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Salmonella infection upregulates the leaky protein claudin-2 in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-guo Zhang

    Full Text Available Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent epithelial cells. Mounting evidence suggests that tight junction proteins play a key role in the pathogenesis of human disease. Claudin is a member of the tight junction protein family, which has 24 members in humans. To regulate cellular function, claudins interact structurally and functionally with membrane and scaffolding proteins via their cytoplasmic domain. In particular, claudin-2 is known to be a leaky protein that contributes to inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. However, the involvement of claudin-2 in bacterial infection in the intestine remains unknown.We hypothesized that Salmonella elevates the leaky protein claudin-2 for its own benefit to facilitate bacterial invasion in the colon. Using a Salmonella-colitis mouse model and cultured colonic epithelial cells, we found that pathogenic Salmonella colonization significantly increases the levels of claudin-2 protein and mRNA in the intestine, but not that of claudin-3 or claudin-7 in the colon, in a time-dependent manner. Immunostaining studies showed that the claudin-2 expression along the crypt-villous axis postinfection. In vitro, Salmonella stimulated claudin-2 expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines SKCO15 and HT29C19A. Further analysis by siRNA knockdown revealed that claudin-2 is associated with the Salmonella-induced elevation of cell permeability. Epithelial cells with claudin-2 knockdown had significantly less internalized Salmonella than control cells with normal claudin-2 expression. Inhibitor assays demonstrated that this regulation is mediated through activation of the EGFR pathway and the downstream protein JNK.We have shown that Salmonella targets the tight junction protein claudin-2 to facilitate bacterial invasion. We speculate that this disruption of barrier function contributes to a new mechanism by which bacteria interact with their host cells and suggests the possibility of blocking

  11. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. Conclusion/Significance IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials

  12. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  13. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  14. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactams....

  15. Population genetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) IncA/C plasmid in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food animals harboring Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica are a potential source for acquisition of zoonotic pathogens. Plasmids (small, self-replicating, extra-chromosomal DNA) are often associated with antimicrobial resistance and plasmids carrying MDR genes have been found to be a maj...

  16. Characterization of blaCMY-2 plasmids in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura C; Weir, Emily K; Poppe, Cornelis; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    One hundred thirty-four bla(CMY-2) plasmids from Salmonella and Escherichia coli strains from animals and food in Canada were characterized. Five plasmid groups were identified based on replicon type and restriction profiles. Three groups contained E. coli plasmids only. IncA/C plasmids included most multiresistant plasmids and all those of bovine origin.

  17. The prevalences of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 variants in human and animal Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are distinguishable using a Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Mather

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990 s, there was an epidemic of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in both animals and humans in Scotland. The use of antimicrobials in agriculture is often cited as a major source of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of humans, suggesting that DT104 in animals and humans should demonstrate similar prevalences of resistance determinants. Until very recently, only the application of molecular methods would allow such a comparison and our understanding has been hindered by the fact that surveillance data are primarily phenotypic in nature. Here, using large scale surveillance datasets and a novel Bayesian approach, we infer and compare the prevalence of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1, SGI1 variants, and resistance determinants independent of SGI1 in animal and human DT104 isolates from such phenotypic data. We demonstrate differences in the prevalences of SGI1, SGI1-B, SGI1-C, absence of SGI1, and tetracycline resistance determinants independent of SGI1 between these human and animal populations, a finding that challenges established tenets that DT104 in domestic animals and humans are from the same well-mixed microbial population.

  18. The Prevalences of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variants in Human and Animal Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 Are Distinguishable Using a Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J.; Coia, John E.; Brown, Derek J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the 1990 s, there was an epidemic of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in both animals and humans in Scotland. The use of antimicrobials in agriculture is often cited as a major source of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of humans, suggesting that DT104 in animals and humans should demonstrate similar prevalences of resistance determinants. Until very recently, only the application of molecular methods would allow such a comparison and our understanding has been hindered by the fact that surveillance data are primarily phenotypic in nature. Here, using large scale surveillance datasets and a novel Bayesian approach, we infer and compare the prevalence of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1), SGI1 variants, and resistance determinants independent of SGI1 in animal and human DT104 isolates from such phenotypic data. We demonstrate differences in the prevalences of SGI1, SGI1-B, SGI1-C, absence of SGI1, and tetracycline resistance determinants independent of SGI1 between these human and animal populations, a finding that challenges established tenets that DT104 in domestic animals and humans are from the same well-mixed microbial population. PMID:22125606

  19. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica food and animal isolates from Colombia: identification of a qnrB19-mediated quinolone resistance marker in two novel serovars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczmarczyk, M.; Martins, M.; McCusker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-three Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial foods and exotic animals in Colombia were studied. The serotypes, resistance profiles and where applicable the quinolone resistance genes were determined. Salmonella Anatum (n=14), Uganda (19), Braenderup (10) and Newport (10) were the most...... hitherto unrecognized in various Salmonella serovars in Colombia. We also report unusual high-level quinolone resistance in the absence of any DNA gyrase mutations in serovars S. Carrau, Muenchen and Uganda....

  20. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. Recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kalambhe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA. An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%. A maximum sensitivity (80% was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health.

  1. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  2. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence during Systemic Infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; McDermott, Jason E.; Porwollik, Steffen; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred

    2009-02-20

    Salmonella must respond to a myriad of environmental cues during infection of a mouse and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner to subvert the host defense mechanisms but these regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 84 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella typhimurium virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in SvJ129 mice). Overall 36 regulators were identified that were less virulent in at least one assay, and of those, 15 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection in an acute infection model. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint we focused on these 15 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for each of these 15 regulators from strains grown under four different environmental conditions. These results as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 15 regulators control a specific set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that, for these 7 genes, the response regulator SsrB and the marR type regulator SlyA co-regulate in a regulatory cascade by integrating multiple signals.

  3. Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To cause a systemic infection, Salmonella must respond to many environmental cues during mouse infection and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner, but the regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 83 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella enteriditis Typhimurium (STM virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intragastric [i.g.] infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in 129X1/SvJ mice. Overall, 35 regulators were identified whose absence attenuated virulence in at least one assay, and of those, 14 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection, the most stringent virulence assay. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint, we focused on these 14 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for deletions of each of these 14 regulators grown under four different environmental conditions. These results, as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles, were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 14 regulators control the same set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2. These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that the response regulator SsrB and the MarR type regulator, SlyA, are the terminal regulators in a cascade that integrates multiple signals. Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded

  4. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody....... typhimurium. Transfer of CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T cells induced a significant survival, p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively, following inoculation with S. typhimurium compared to animals with no cells transferred. The infection induced an increase in CD4 T cells expressing the CD45RC isoform compared...

  5. Intermittent fasting favored the resolution of Salmonella typhimurium infection in middle-aged BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) reportedly increases resistance and intestinal IgA response to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mature mice. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of aging on the aforementioned improved immune response found with IF. Middle-aged male BALB/c mice were submitted to IF or ad libitum (AL) feeding for 40 weeks and then orally infected with S. typhimurium. Thereafter, infected animals were all fed AL (to maximize their viability) until sacrifice on day 7 or 14 post-infection. We evaluated body weight, bacterial load (in feces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver), total and specific intestinal IgA, lamina propria IgA+ plasma cells, plasma corticosterone, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α-chain, J-chain, and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in liver and intestinal mucosa. In comparison with the infected AL counterpart, the infected IF group (long-term IF followed by post-infection AL feeding) generally had lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads as well as higher total IgA on both post-infection days. Both infected groups showed no differences in corticosterone levels, body weight, or food and caloric intake. The increase in intestinal IgA was associated with enhanced pIgR mRNA expression in the intestine (day 7) and liver. Thus, to maintain body weight and caloric intake, IF elicited metabolic signals that possibly induced the increased hepatic and intestinal pIgR mRNA expression found. The increase in IgA probably resulted from intestinal IgA transcytosis via pIgR. This IgA response along with phagocyte-induced killing of bacteria in systemic organs (not measured) may explain the resolution of the S. typhimurium infection.

  6. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    infections contracted outside Denmark, most often in southern Europe or south-east Asia. Resistance in human strains was most common against tetracycline (13%), ampicillin (12%), sulphonamide (12%), streptomycin (10%) and chloramphenicol (8%). The resistance pattern differed somewhat in animal isolates...

  8. Local transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity after Salmonella infection in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Attridge, S R; Kotlarski, I

    1985-01-01

    An adoptive local transfer system has been used to study the mediators of delayed-type hypersensitivity induced in mice by infection with Salmonella enteritidis 11RX. The cells which transfer this state of hypersensitivity to untreated recipients are nonadherent T lymphocytes with the surface phenotype Lyt 1+2-, and successful transfer requires compatibility at the I-A subregion of the H-2 complex. In these and other respects these cells are indistinguishable from those previously found to be...

  9. An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, Gitte; Forshell, L P

    2009-01-01

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countr......-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common....

  10. Hemorrhagic cystitis with massive bleeding from nontyphoidal Salmonella infection: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Sun-Kyung; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Young Shin; Yun, Hye-Won; Chung, Jung-Wha; Jung, Ka-Young; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage and is caused by viral or bacterial infection or chemotherapeutic agents. Reports of hemorrhagic cystitis caused by non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) are extremely rare. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with hemorrhagic cystitis from NTS that caused massive bleeding and shock. The patient was hospitalized for uncontrolled diabetes and obstructive uropathy related to severe cystiti...

  11. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-14

    This podcast describes monitoring of the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella surveillance in Houston, Texas. CDC microbiologist Peter Gerner-Smidt discusses the importance of the PulseNet national database in surveillance of food-borne infections.  Created: 6/14/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/14/2010.

  12. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota of oligo-saccharide fed mice exhibiting reduced resistance to Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Certain indigestible carbohydrates, known as prebiotics, are claimed to be beneficial for gut health through a selective stimulation of certain gut microbes including bifidobacteria. However, stimulation of such microbes does not necessarily imply a preventive effect against pathogen infection. We...... the observed effects on the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the microbiota in faecal samples from mice fed FOS or XOS were different from faecal samples collected before the feeding trial as well as from faecal profiles generated from control animals...... of short-chain fatty acids was recorded. In conclusion, diets supplemented with FOS or XOS induced a number of microbial changes in the faecal microbiota of mice. The observed effects of XOS were qualitatively similar to those of FOS, but the most prominent bifidogenic effect was seen for XOS. An increased...

  13. Packed with Salmonella--investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Elson, Richard; Little, Christine L; Yip, Hopi; Fisher, Ian; Yishai, Ruth; Anis, Emilia; Valinsky, Lea; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Patel, Nehal; Mather, Henry; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Nielsen, Eva M; Ethelberg, Steen; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Hampton, Michael D; Peters, Tansy; Threlfall, John

    2008-10-01

    Salmonella Senftenberg is uncommon in the United Kingdom. In January-June 2007, the Health Protection Agency reported on 55 primary human cases of Salmonella Senftenberg in England and Wales. In May 2007, fresh basil sold in the United Kingdom was found to be contaminated with Salmonella Senftenberg. We launched an investigation to elucidate the cause of this outbreak. Isolates were examined using plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the outbreak strain (SSFTXB.0014) was identified. We enquired via Enter-net whether other countries had isolated the outbreak strain, analyzed samples of fresh herbs from U.K. retailers, and interviewed patients on food history. Thirty-two patient-cases were referred to this outbreak in England and Wales. Onsets of illness occurred between 5 March and 6 June 2007. Fifty-six percent of patient-cases were females and 90% adults (>20 years old); three were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella infection. Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States reported on 19 cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection presenting with the outbreak strain since January 2007. Eight samples of prepacked fresh basil imported from Israel tested positive with the same strain. A minority of patients could recall the consumption of basil before illness, and some reported consumption of products where basil was a likely ingredient. Environmental investigations in Israel did not identify the contamination source. Microbiological evidence suggested an association between contamination of fresh basil and the cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection, leading to withdrawal of basil from all potentially affected batches from the U.K. market.

  14. Gene Expression Profiles of Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts in Response to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Szmolka

    Full Text Available The response of chicken to non-typhoidal Salmonella infection is becoming well characterised but the role of particular cell types in this response is still far from being understood. Therefore, in this study we characterised the response of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs to infection with two different S. Enteritidis strains by microarray analysis. The expression of chicken genes identified as significantly up- or down-regulated (≥3-fold by microarray analysis was verified by real-time PCR followed by functional classification of the genes and prediction of interactions between the proteins using Gene Ontology and STRING Database. Finally the expression of the newly identified genes was tested in HD11 macrophages and in vivo in chickens. Altogether 19 genes were induced in CEFs after S. Enteritidis infection. Twelve of them were also induced in HD11 macrophages and thirteen in the caecum of orally infected chickens. The majority of these genes were assigned different functions in the immune response, however five of them (LOC101750351, K123, BU460569, MOBKL2C and G0S2 have not been associated with the response of chicken to Salmonella infection so far. K123 and G0S2 were the only 'non-immune' genes inducible by S. Enteritidis in fibroblasts, HD11 macrophages and in the caecum after oral infection. The function of K123 is unknown but G0S2 is involved in lipid metabolism and in β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria.

  15. Sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters influencing Salmonella infection dynamics in a pig batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurette, Amandine; Touzeau, Suzanne; Lamboni, Matieyendou; Monod, Hervé

    2009-05-07

    In the context of managed herds, epidemiological models usually take into account relatively complex interactions involving a high number of parameters. Some parameters may be uncertain and/or highly variable, especially epidemiological parameters. Their impact on the model outputs must then be assessed by a sensitivity analysis, allowing to identify key parameters. The prevalence over time is an output of particular interest in epidemiological models, so sensitivity analysis methods adapted to such dynamic output are needed. In this paper, such a sensitivity analysis method, based on a principal component analysis and on analysis of variance, is presented. It allows to compute a generalised sensitivity index for each parameter of a model representing Salmonella spread within a pig batch. The model is a stochastic discrete-time model describing the batch dynamics and movements between rearing rooms, from birth to slaughterhouse delivery. Four health states were introduced: Salmonella-free, seronegative shedder, seropositive shedder and seropositive carrier. The indirect transmission was modelled via an infection probability function depending on the quantity of Salmonella in the rearing room. Simulations were run according to a fractional factorial design enabling the estimation of main effects and two-factor interactions. For each of the 18 epidemiological parameters, four values were chosen, leading to 4096 scenarios. For each scenario, 15 replications were performed, leading to 61440 simulations. The sensitivity analysis was then conducted on the seroprevalence output. The parameters governing the infection probability function and residual room contaminations were identified as key parameters. To control the Salmonella seroprevalence, efficient measures should therefore aim at these parameters. Moreover, the shedding rate and maternal protective factor also had a major impact. Therefore, further investigation on the protective effect of maternal or post-infection

  16. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Expression of antimicrobial peptides in cecal tonsils of chickens treated with probiotics and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Haghighi, Hamid Reza; Chambers, James R; Brisbin, Jennifer; Read, Leah R; Sharif, Shayan

    2008-11-01

    Several strategies currently exist for control of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in the chicken intestine, among which the use of probiotics is of note. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of probiotic-mediated reduction of Salmonella colonization. In this study, we asked whether the effect of probiotics is mediated by antimicrobial peptides, including avian beta-defensins (also called gallinacins) and cathelicidins. Four treatment groups were included in this study: a negative-control group, a probiotic-treated group, a Salmonella-infected group, and a probiotic-treated and Salmonella-infected group. On days 1, 3, and 5 postinfection (p.i.), the cecal tonsils were removed, and RNA was extracted and used for measurement of avian beta-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, AvBD4, AvBD6, and cathelicidin gene expression by real-time PCR. The expressions of all avian beta-defensins and cathelicidin were detectable in all groups, irrespective of treatment and time point. Probiotic treatment and Salmonella infection did not affect the expression of any of the investigated genes on day 1 p.i. Furthermore, probiotic treatment had no significant effect on the expression of the genes at either 3 or 5 days p.i. However, the expression levels of all five genes were significantly increased (P probiotics eliminated the effect of Salmonella infection on the expression of antimicrobial genes. These findings indicate that the expression of antimicrobial peptides may be repressed by probiotics in combination with Salmonella infection or, alternatively, point to the possibility that, due to a reduction in Salmonella load in the intestine, these genes may not be induced.

  18. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  19. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  20. ¿Es seguro para la salud humana y animal el uso de raticidas que contienen Salmonella? Is safety for human and animal health the use of Salmonella-based rodenticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para identificar publicaciones sobre la seguridad ante la exposición de raticidas que contienen Salmonella para humanos y animales. Se consideraron publicaciones a texto completo que incluían descripción de su metodología y la presentación adecuada de sus resultados. De 545 publicaciones recuperadas, 47 se revisaron a texto completo de las que se seleccionaron 12. En seis se reportan casos de salmonelosis en humanos, incluso casos fatales, asociados a la exposición a versiones anteriores de estos raticidas. El único ensayo clínico encontrado reporta una mayor frecuencia de diarrea y fiebre en el grupo que ingirió Salmonella contenida en Biorat® (presentación comercial actual; sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, pero el ensayo presentó problemas metodológicos. Las cepas de Salmonella enteritidis contenidas en una versión anterior (Ratin® y en la versión actual corresponden a la misma variedad (Danysz y fagotipo (6a, y están cercanamente relacionadas según la técnica de electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE. No se reporta efectos patógenos de esta Salmonella para las diferentes especies de animales ensayadas; sin embargo, se encontraron limitaciones en la metodología empleada. Se concluye que la Salmonella enteritidis contenida en versiones anteriores de raticidas produjo enfermedad en humanos por lo que fue prohibida su comercialización y que existiría un riesgo potencial de la versión actual por contener una bacteria muy similar y por no tener evidencia suficiente que garantice su seguridad. Son necesarios estudios bien diseñados por instituciones sin conflicto de interés, antes de su aplicación en salud pública o agricultura.We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify publications on the safety of exposure to Salmonella-based rodenticides by humans and animals. We included full-text publications that described the methods

  1. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Jørgensen, J.C.; Andersen, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites...... (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme...... was accomplished at a minimum of 10 cm above floor level within 1 h. Conclusions: A steam treatment of greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% RH during a 24-h period with the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde at the beginning of the process is recommended for eliminating Salmonella from naturally infected...

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis infection in young broiler chickens from breeding farm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  3. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Paião

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  4. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paião, F G; Arisitides, L G A; Murate, L S; Vilas-Bôas, G T; Vilas-Boas, L A; Shimokomaki, M

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  5. Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Poultry Affected by Highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease affecting almost all domestic and wild birds (Easterday et al., 1997; Alexander, 1999). The species of animals affected by avian influenza include birds, seal, whales, humans, horses and swine (Websters et al., 1992). Avian influenza virus belongs to the Family ...

  6. Antibiotic resistances in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica isolated from foods with animal origin Resistencias a antibióticos en Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella enterica aislados de alimentos de origen animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of antibiotics in both human and animal health and in cattle production has generated resistant microorganisms to common antibiotics. Resistances spread caused by human and animal therapeutic is well known, but we know poorly frecuency of resistant bacteria in foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers. In this paper, sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal origin, including fresh meat, hamburgers, fresh sausages, boiled ham and new-laid chicken eggs. The plate diffusion method of Bauer-Kirby was used.Listeria monocytogenes strains showed a very high sensitivity to all antibiotics checked, with the exception of one strain tetracycline resistant. In contrast, Salmonella enterica showed a high frecuency of resistances, in special to tetracycline, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, ticarcillin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Moreover, multi-resistance was a common phenomenon. Twenty percent of S. enterica strains were resistant to four or more antibiotics. Frecuency of resistances was higher in 4,5,12:i:-, Hadar, Typhimurium and Virchow serotypes.In conclusion, Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers are usually resistant to several antibiotics. The significance of this observation and its potential health risk must be investigated.El uso extensivo de antibióticos para la salud humana y animal así como para mejorar la producción ganadera ha generado un gran número de cepas microbianas resistentes a antibióticos de uso común. Es bien conocida la difusión de resistencias a través de la terapéutica humana y animal, pero desconocemos en qué medida los alimentos de origen animal destinados a consumo humano son portadores de resistencias.En este trabajo, se investigó la sensibilidad a diecinueve antibióticos de cepas de Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella

  7. [Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection presenting as a retrocecal mass in an 8-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle Mbou, V; Vu Thien, H; Thuilleux, G; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Grand d'Esnon, A; Coulomb, A

    2010-11-01

    Minor salmonellosis is due to Gram-negative bacilli, which usually cause enterocolitis with potentially severe complications. We report on a case of a clinically uncommon presentation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in an 8-year-old child who presented with acute abdominal pain. We discuss clinically uncommon presentations of salmonella disease in children, as well as its pathology and radiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  9. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected

  10. Protective effect of probiotics on Salmonella infectivity assessed with combined in vitro gut fermentation-cellular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihler Annina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of probiotics with targeted anti-Salmonella activity requires suitable models accounting for both, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions in gut environments. Here we report the combination of two original in vitro intestinal models closely mimicking the complex in vivo conditions of the large intestine. Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colonic models of Salmonella Typhimurium infection inoculated with immobilized child microbiota and Salmonella were directly applied to confluent mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cell layers. The effects of Salmonella, addition of two bacteriocinogenic strains, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (thermophilicin B67 and Escherichia coli L1000 (microcin B17, and inulin were tested on Salmonella growth and interactions with epithelial cell layers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion were investigated and epithelial integrity assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER measurements and confocal microscopy observation. Data from complex effluents were compared with pure Salmonella cultures. Results Salmonella in effluents of all reactors of the colonic fermentation model stabilized at mean values of 5.3 ± 0.8 log10 cfu/ml effluent. Invasion of cell-associated Salmonella was up to 50-fold lower in complex reactor samples compared to pure Salmonella cultures. It further depended on environmental factors, with 0.2 ± 0.1% being measured with proximal, 0.6 ± 0.2% with transverse and 1.3 ± 0.7% with distal reactor effluents, accompanied by a similar high decrease of TER across cell monolayers (minus 45% and disruption of tight junctions. Subsequent addition of E. coli L1000 stimulated Salmonella growth (6.4 ± 0.6 log10 cfu/ml effluent of all 3 reactors and further decreased TER, but led to 10-fold decreased invasion efficiency when tested with distal reactor samples. In contrast, presence of B. thermophilum RBL67 revealed a protective effect on

  11. A retrospective study of community-acquired Salmonella infections in patients attending public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Kabiru Olusegun; Oshundare, Yetunde O; Oyeyinka, Oladeji G; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-05-14

    A retrospective cohort study on Salmonella-associated diseases (SADs) was conducted in 14 public hospitals across Lagos State, Nigeria, between 1999 and 2008. Medical records of clinically diagnosed patients with confirmed Salmonella infections were reviewed for the 10-year period. Laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever cases in all the hospitals were first based on Widal agglutination tests then followed by culture, while non-typhoidal Salmonella infections were based on culture technique. A total of 85,187 confirmed cases of SADs were found, of which 880 deaths were recorded (case-fatality rate = 1.03% / 10 years). The mean incidence of SADs in Lagos State for the 10-year period was estimated at 45 cases per 100,000 persons/year, while that of typhoid fever alone was 16 cases per 100,000 persons/year. During the studied period, the number of deaths due to typhoid fever was significantly (P Salmonella-associated diseases were most prevalent in adults 21 to 30 years of age (49.49%). Cases of patients with invasive Salmonella-associated gastroenteritis were observed mainly in children under five years of age. The current surveillance data indicated high incidence of SADs in areas exposed to environmental contaminations. This study revealed that infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovars are endemic in our environment thus poses a serious threat to public health. Constant public health education is essential to avert undue epidemics.

  12. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  13. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  15. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections.

  16. Salmonella serotypes isolated in geckos kept in seven collections in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Borrelli, L; Pace, A; Latronico, M; Menna, L F; Fioretti, A; Dipineto, L

    2018-01-09

    Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin. Salmonella spp. can be isolated from apparently healthy captive gecko which should be considered as a potential source of infection for humans and other companion animals. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. IMPACT OF FOOD AND FOLATE SUPPLEMENTATION DURING Salmonella TYPHI INFECTION IN Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is an instructive and suitable model for studying pathogenesis of almost all human pathogens. Salmonella Typhi is gram-negative facultative intracellular anaerobe that causes several pathetic infections. Necessary enriched nutrient ingestion during pathological conditions may reduce the harshness of the infection. We investigated the impact of folate and food supplementation during S. Typhi infection on the model system, C. elegans. Our data indicated that folate supplementation (10 µg increases the lifespan of S. Typhi infected C. elegans up to 20%. In combination with laboratory food source E. coli OP50, folate increases the infected the worm’s lifespan to 40%. The wild type C. elegans infected by S. Typhi died with the LT50 of 60 ± 12 h. The LT50 of S. Typhi infected folt-1 mutant strain VC959 was 96 ± 6 h. However, the folate supplemented mutant worms exhibited an extended life with LT50 of 120 ± 6 h. The short time exposure and pharyngeal pumping studies confirmed that folt-1 mutant worm exhibited increased survival rate during pathogenic course at significant level when compared to wild-type. Our data revealed that folt-1 plays a significant role in host defense system against S. Typhi infection and the folate supplementation in combination with food increases the host survival during S. Typhi infection.

  18. A recurrent, multistate outbreak of salmonella serotype agona infections associated with dry, unsweetened cereal consumption, United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elizabeth T; Biggerstaff, Gwen; Hoekstra, R Michael; Meyer, Stephanie; Patel, Nehal; Miller, Benjamin; Quick, Rob

    2013-02-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona infections associated with nationwide distribution of cereal from Company X was identified in April 2008. This outbreak was detected using PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, which coincided with Company X's voluntary recall of unsweetened puffed rice and wheat cereals after routine product sampling yielded Salmonella Agona. A case patient was defined as being infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona, with illness onset from 1 January through 1 July 2008. Case patients were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, and the proportion of ill persons who reported eating Company X puffed rice cereal was compared with Company X's market share data using binomial testing. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture inspected the cereal production facility and collected both product and environmental swab samples. Routine surveillance identified 33 case patients in 17 states. Of 32 patients interviewed, 24 (83%) reported eating Company X puffed rice cereal. Company X puffed rice cereal represented 0.063% of the total ready-to-eat dry cereal market share in the United States at the time of the investigation. Binomial testing suggested that the proportion of exposed case patients would not likely occur by chance (P < 0.0001). Of 17 cereal samples collected from case patient homes for laboratory testing, 2 (12%) yielded Salmonella Agona indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. Twelve environmental swabs and nine product samples from the cereal plant yielded the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona. Company X cereal was implicated in a similar outbreak of Salmonella Agona infection in 1998 with the same outbreak strain linked to the same production facility. We hypothesize that a recent construction project at this facility created an open wall near the cereal production area allowing reintroduction of Salmonella Agona into the product, highlighting the

  19. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 infection in experimentally challenged weaned pigs fed a lactobacillus-fermented feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fugui; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Wang, Qi Chuck; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Friendship, Robert; Gong, Joshua

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen and commonly present on pig farms. Probiotics have shown potential as a means of reducing Salmonella shedding in pigs. Three experimental challenge trials were conducted to investigate the potential application of newly isolated Lactobacillus isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in pigs. In each trial, 16 Yorkshire piglets (28-d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (BD), (2) naturally fermented (NF) feed, (3) Lactobacillus zeae-fermented (LZ-F) feed, and 4) Lactobacillus casei-fermented (LC-F) feed. All pigs consumed their assigned diets for 3 d prior to the challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (approximately 6 log colony-forming units/pig) through gavage. Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. zeae, and L. casei were most abundant in NF, LZ-F, and LC-F feed, respectively. After the challenge, pigs on fermented feed had lower rectal temperature, diarrhea scores, serum haptoglobin concentrations, and intestinal Salmonella counts than the control group (BD) (p ≤ 0.01). Salmonella spp. were detected in both ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) and spleens from all pigs on BD, NF, and LC-F, but only 50% of spleens from pigs on LZ-F. Pigs had a dynamic spatial and temporal immune response to Salmonella infection and dietary treatments, as indicated by up- and downregulation in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor) in the ileum, ICLN, and spleen. The alternation in cytokine expression by fermented feed, particularly LZ-F, appeared to benefit pigs in combating Salmonella infection.

  20. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only...... minor genotypic variation. Three different ribotypes were demonstrated when EcoRI was used for digestion of DNA. Two types were obtained by the use of HindIII. Nine different plasmids and seven different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A 180 kb plasmid was, however, only demonstrated in isolates...

  1. Resistencias a antibióticos en Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella enterica aislados de alimentos de origen animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso extensivo de antibióticos para la salud humana y animal así como para mejorar la producción ganadera ha generado un gran número de cepas microbianas resistentes a antibióticos de uso común. Es bien conocida la difusión de resistencias a través de la terapéutica humana y animal, pero desconocemos en qué medida los alimentos de origen animal destinados a consumo humano son portadores de resistencias.En este trabajo, se investigó la sensibilidad a diecinueve antibióticos de cepas de Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella enterica aisladas de diferentes alimentos de origen animal, como son carnes frescas, hamburguesas, salchichas y chorizos frescos, jamón cocido y huevos frescos, utilizando la técnica de difusión en placa.Las cepas de L. monocytogenes fueron muy sensibles a todos los antibióticos utilizados, con la única excepción de una cepa resistente a la tetraciclina. En cambio, en S. enterica la presencia de resistencias es muy frecuente siendo común la multi-resistencia. La mayor frecuencia de resistencias fue frente a tetraciclina, estreptomicina, ácido nalidíxico, ticarcilina, ampicilina y cloramfenicol. El veinte por ciento de las cepas mostraron resistencia a 4 o más antibióticos. Por serotipos, el mayor número de resistencias se dio en las salmonellas de serotipo 4,5,12:i:-, Hadar, Typhimurium y Virchow.Se concluye que Salmonella enterica aislada de alimentos de origen animal destinados a consumo humano es un microorganismo portador de frecuentes resistencias. El significado de esta observación y su potencial riesgo para la salud debe ser investigado. En el caso de L. monocytogenes, la presencia de resistencia no es significativa.

  2. The effect of recombinant human lactoferrin from the milk of transgenic cows on Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinghuan; Hu, Yujie; Du, Chunming; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein with antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. Given this beneficial effect, transgenic approaches have been used to produce lactoferrin. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) from the milk of transgenic cows on Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST) infection in mice. Two hours before the infection with 0.3 ml at 2 × 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of ST, each animal in the ST + rhLF group received 0.3 ml of rhLF with 20 mg ml(-1) concentration while the ST group received PBS as placebos with the same volume through oral gavage. The mice were infected with ST once only on the first day. After the infection, the mice received 0.3 ml of rhLF with 20 mg ml(-1) (6 mg d(-1)) concentration or PBS, respectively, for 7 days. Mortality and weight were monitored daily. Bacterial enumeration in the blood, liver, and spleen and histopathological analysis of the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine were conducted. The results showed that rhLF decreased the bacterial load in the liver and spleen of mice, reduced the degree of mice hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and attenuated infectious inflammation with less histopathological abnormalities in the liver, spleen and kidney of mice in the ST infection. This study showed that rhLF with 6 mg per day had antibacterial activity of alleviating the infection caused by ST bacteria, which indicated that rhLF could be used as a supplement in special products.

  3. 'One Health' investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, J H; Pringle, J; Jones, R W; Nix, B E; Borders, J; Heseltine, G; Gomez, T M; McCLUSKEY, B; Roney, C S; Brinson, D; Erdman, M; McDANIEL, A; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-07-01

    Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012-27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a 'One Health' approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.

  4. The type VI secretion system encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 is required for Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum survival within infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Carlos J; Jiménez, Juan C; Leiva, Lorenzo E; Alvarez, Sergio A; Pinto, Bernardo I; Contreras, Francisca; Pezoa, David; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Inés

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality that causes major economic losses in poultry production. We have reported that S. Gallinarum harbors a type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 (SPI-19) that is required for efficient colonization of chicks. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the SPI-19 T6SS functionality and to investigate the mechanisms behind the phenotypes previously observed in vivo. Expression analyses revealed that SPI-19 T6SS core components are expressed and produced under in vitro bacterial growth conditions. However, secretion of the structural/secreted components Hcp1, Hcp2, and VgrG to the culture medium could not be determined, suggesting that additional signals are required for T6SS-dependent secretion of these proteins. In vitro bacterial competition assays failed to demonstrate a role for SPI-19 T6SS in interbacterial killing. In contrast, cell culture experiments with murine and avian macrophages (RAW264.7 and HD11, respectively) revealed production of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of VgrG soon after Salmonella uptake. Furthermore, infection of RAW264.7 and HD11 macrophages with deletion mutants of SPI-19 or strains with genes encoding specific T6SS core components (clpV and vgrG) revealed that SPI-19 T6SS contributes to S. Gallinarum survival within macrophages at 20 h postuptake. SPI-19 T6SS function was not linked to Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity or cell death of infected macrophages, as has been described for other T6SS. Our data indicate that SPI-19 T6SS corresponds to a novel tool used by Salmonella to survive within host cells.

  5. A study of the dynamics of Salmonella infection in turkey breeding, rearing and finishing houses with special reference to elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Doblies, Doris; Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Davies, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the dynamics of Salmonella infection of turkey flocks were investigated by repeated sampling of houses where Salmonella had been identified. The aim of the study was to identify the most common scenarios involved in elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella in the different branches of the turkey industry. Sixty-two houses on 34 turkey farms (comprising breeding, rearing and finishing farms) were sampled longitudinally, starting with the identification of a positive flock. A total of 117 follow-on flocks were tested and cleaning and disinfection (C&D) was assessed during 66 post-C&D visits. A total of 155 incidents (clearance, persistence or introduction of Salmonella) were recorded. Persistence was seen in 35.5% of incidents and was seen more frequently in breeding and rearing houses compared with finishing houses. Most persistence incidents were the result of insufficient C&D. Clearance was seen in 40% of incidents and was more often observed in finishing houses than in breeding or rearing houses. Introduction was seen in 24.5% of incidents and was more common in breeding and finishing flocks than in rearing flocks. Contamination of a house with Salmonella Typhimurium was more likely to be cleared compared with other serovars. The total number of positive samples found at a post-C&D visit was correlated with the probability of carry-over of infection, whereas the location of the positive samples seemed to be less important. Our highly sensitive post-C&D sampling method allowed us to predict a negative follow-on flock in most cases.

  6. Reduction of risk of Salmonella infection from kitchen cleaning clothes by use of sodium hypochlorite disinfectant cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, C; Soto-Beltran, M; Gerba, C P; Tamimi, A H

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of infection risk due to exposure to Salmonella sp. in kitchen cleaning clothes by the use of a bleach (sodium hypochlorite) cleaner utilizing a continuous-time dynamic exposure model. The only route of exposure considered was hand contamination during cloth use. The occurrence and numbers of Salmonella was studied in 60 homes over a 6-week period in which half disinfected kitchen cleaning clothes with a sodium hypochlorite based disinfectant cleaner. This study demonstrated that a significant risk exists for Salmonella infection from kitchen cleaning clothes in Mexican homes and that this risk can be reduced by almost 100-fold by soaking cleaning clothes in a bleach product. The risks of infection and illness could likely be further reduced by developing a more effective procedure for reducing Salmonella in cleaning clothes treated twice a day with a sodium hypochlorite disinfectant (i.e. longer soaking time) or using a greater concentration of the disinfectant. Hygiene intervention is a key strategy to reduce the potential risk of disease-causing micro-organisms in households. There is a lack of understanding of the human health risk associated with the use of contaminated kitchen cleaning cloths. The study used a quantitative microbial risk assessment to estimate the risk associated with the use of kitchen cleaning clothes by using disinfectant products. The results showed that the use of prescribe protocols can reduce the risk of Salmonella infections in household kitchens. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Hepcidin-(In)dependent Mechanisms of Iron Metabolism Regulation during Infection by Listeria and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana C; Neves, João V; Silva, Tânia; Oliveira, Patrícia; Gomes, Maria S; Rodrigues, Pedro N

    2017-09-01

    During bacterial infection, the pathogenic agent and the host battle for iron, due to its importance for fundamental cellular processes. However, iron redistribution and sequestration during infection can culminate in anemia. Although hepcidin has been recognized as the key regulator of iron metabolism, in some infections its levels remain unaffected, suggesting the involvement of other players in iron metabolism deregulation. In this work, we use a mouse model to elucidate the main cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to iron redistribution during infection with two different pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both infections clearly impacted iron metabolism, causing iron redistribution, decreasing serum iron levels, decreasing the saturation of transferrin, and increasing iron accumulation in the liver. Both infections were accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, when analyzing iron-related gene expression in the liver, we observed that hepcidin was induced by S Typhimurium but not by L. monocytogenes In the latter model, the downregulation of hepatic ferroportin mRNA and protein levels suggested that ferroportin plays a major role in iron redistribution. On the other hand, S Typhimurium infection induced the expression of hepcidin mRNA, and we show here, for the first time in vivo, that this induction is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent. In this work, we compare several aspects of iron metabolism alterations induced by two different pathogens and suggest that hepcidin-(in)dependent mechanisms contribute to iron redistribution upon infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paião, F G; Arisitides, L G A; Murate, L S; Vilas-Bôas, G T; Vilas-Boas, L A; Shimokomaki, M

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible...

  9. [83-year-old patient with salmonella bacteremia and infection-associated Sweet's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budniak, L; Schmiegel, W; Pox, C

    2013-01-01

    An 83 year-old man presented with watery diarrhea and a rash. He was hypotensive, febrile and dehydrated. The rash was maculopapular and most pronounced on the dorsal trunk. The lab tests showed an acute renal failure with hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the aerobic blood culture, stool cultures were negative. The rash was consistent with an infection-associated Sweet's syndrome. THERAPY AND COURSE OF DISEASE: The patient was admitted and received iv fluids and potassium. An empiric antibiotic treatment with i. v. ciprofloxacin was started and changed to p. o. after 8 days. Antibiotic therapy was given 11 days total. After the administration of steroids the skin rash resolved. It is important to draw blood cultures in patients presenting with diarrhea if fever is present. Complications associated with non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia occur most frequently in elderly patients and include pneumonia, infected aneurysms and bone/soft part infections. In rare cases patients can also present with a skin rash. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Salmonella infects B cells by macropinocytosis and formation of spacious phagosomes but does not induce pyroptosis in favor of its survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Reyes, Roberto; Pérez-López, Araceli; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción; Hernández-Mote, Rosaura Ruth; Castro-Eguiluz, Denisse; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia Mercedes

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported that Salmonella infects B cells and survives within endosomal-lysosomal compartments. However, the mechanisms used by Salmonella to enter B cells remain unknown. In this study, we have shown that Salmonella induces its own entry by the induction of localized ruffling, macropinocytosis, and spacious phagosome formation. These events were associated with the rearrangement of actin and microtubule networks. The Salmonella pathogenesis island 1 (SPI-1) was necessary to invade B cells. In contrast to macrophages, B cells were highly resistant to cell death induced by Salmonella. These data demonstrate the ability of Salmonella to infect these non-professional phagocytic cells, where the bacterium can find an ideal intracellular niche to support persistence and the possible dissemination of infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Truc

    Full Text Available The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.

  12. Fighting surgical site infections in small animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwilghen, Denis; Singh, Ameet

    2015-01-01

    A diverse array of pathogen-related, patient-related, and caretaker-related issues influence risk and prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). The entire surgical team involved in health care settings in which surgical procedures are performed play a pivotal role in the prevention of SSIs. ...

  13. Animal models for percutaneous-device-related infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jinlong; Kolwijck, Eva; Jansen, John A; Yang, Fang; Walboomers, X Frank

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the construction of animal models for percutaneous-device-related infections, and specifically the role of inoculation of bacteria in such models. Infections around percutaneous devices, such as catheters, dental implants and limb prostheses, are a recurrent and persistent clinical problem. To promote the research on this clinical problem, the establishment of a reliable and validated animal model would be of keen interest. In this review, literature related to percutaneous devices was evaluated, and particular attention was paid to studies involving the use of bacteria. The design of percutaneous devices, susceptibility of various animal species, bacterial strains, amounts of bacteria, method of inoculation and methods for subsequent evaluation of the infection are discussed in detail. Given that an ideal animal model for study of percutaneous-device-related infection is still not existent, this article presents the basis for the construction of such a standardized animal model for percutaneous-device-related infection studies. The inoculation of bacteria is critical to obtain an animal model for standardized studies for percutaneous-device-related infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Widell, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU) efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC) No 183/2005. The study was carried ou...

  15. Inflammation drives thrombosis after Salmonella infection via CLEC-2 on platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jessica R; Cook, Charlotte N; Bobat, Saeeda; Ross, Ewan A; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Lowe, Kate L; Khan, Mahmood; Dominguez-Medina, C Coral; Lax, Sian; Carvalho-Gaspar, Manuela; Hubscher, Stefan; Rainger, G Ed; Cobbold, Mark; Buckley, Christopher D; Mitchell, Tim J; Mitchell, Andrea; Jones, Nick D; Van Rooijen, N; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Henderson, Ian R; Adams, David H; Watson, Steve P; Cunningham, Adam F

    2015-12-01

    Thrombosis is a common, life-threatening consequence of systemic infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive the formation of infection-associated thrombi are poorly understood. Here, using a mouse model of systemic Salmonella Typhimurium infection, we determined that inflammation in tissues triggers thrombosis within vessels via ligation of C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) on platelets by podoplanin exposed to the vasculature following breaching of the vessel wall. During infection, mice developed thrombi that persisted for weeks within the liver. Bacteria triggered but did not maintain this process, as thrombosis peaked at times when bacteremia was absent and bacteria in tissues were reduced by more than 90% from their peak levels. Thrombus development was triggered by an innate, TLR4-dependent inflammatory cascade that was independent of classical glycoprotein VI-mediated (GPVI-mediated) platelet activation. After infection, IFN-γ release enhanced the number of podoplanin-expressing monocytes and Kupffer cells in the hepatic parenchyma and perivascular sites and absence of TLR4, IFN-γ, or depletion of monocytic-lineage cells or CLEC-2 on platelets markedly inhibited the process. Together, our data indicate that infection-driven thrombosis follows local inflammation and upregulation of podoplanin and platelet activation. The identification of this pathway offers potential therapeutic opportunities to control the devastating consequences of infection-driven thrombosis without increasing the risk of bleeding.

  16. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External...

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHLAMYDOPHILA AND SALMONELLA INFECTIONS IN THE INBRED MICE DIFFERENT IN THEIR SENSITIVITES TO M.TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Balunets

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The course of infections caused by intracellular parasitic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium and Chlamidophila pneumoniae was compared for inbred strains of mice with genetically determined susceptibity (I/St or resistance (A/Sn to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Similar differences in dynamics of some common parameters (life span and pathogen numbers in affected or gans between A/Sn and I/St mice have been revealed for tuberculosis, salmonellosis and chlamidiasis. There has been demonstrated that A/Sn animals show increased resistance to Salmonella and Chlamidia infections, as compared to I/St mice, in spite of various mechanisms of intracellular parasitism for S.typhimurium and C.Pneumoniae, and different locations of lesions induced by these bacteria in the host organism.Similar features of quite different infections at the level of macroorganism allows us to suggest that further investigation in A/Sn and I/St murine model will make it able to discover the basic features of physiolog$ical control for a lot of infections, and to reveal a genetic network that could be responsible for their favorable or adverse outcomes. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 5–6, pp. 583–586

  18. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gieraltowski

    Full Text Available This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry.To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections.Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures.United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014.A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38% were hospitalized, none died.Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85% reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74% reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87% of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35% that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated.Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken was the cause of this outbreak. The outbreak involved

  19. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieraltowski, Laura; Higa, Jeffrey; Peralta, Vi; Green, Alice; Schwensohn, Colin; Rosen, Hilary; Libby, Tanya; Kissler, Bonnie; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Booth, Hillary; Kimura, Akiko; Grass, Julian; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie; Williams, Ian; Wise, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures. United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38%) were hospitalized, none died. Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85%) reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74%) reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87%) of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35%) that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated. Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken was the cause of this outbreak. The outbreak involved multiple

  20. Generation of influenza virus from avian cells infected by Salmonella carrying the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Xin, Wei; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 10⁷ 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo.

  1. Generation of influenza virus from avian cells infected by Salmonella carrying the viral genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmin Zhang

    Full Text Available Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 10⁷ 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo.

  2. Plasmodium Infection In Man: A Review | Ekpenyong | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the burden of infection on man and the prevention and control options can we understand the disease better and so be better prepare for the future management of this disease. Keywords: Plasmodium infection, Malaria, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Treatment, Control, Man Animal Research International Vol. 3 (3) 2006 pp.

  3. Impact of phytopathogen infection and extreme weather stress on internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Lee, Cheonghoon; Nangle, Ed; Li, Jianrong; Gardner, David; Kleinhenz, Matthew; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-01-03

    Internalization of human pathogens, common in many types of fresh produce, is a threat to human health since the internalized pathogens cannot be fully inactivated/removed by washing with water or sanitizers. Given that pathogen internalization can be affected by many environmental factors, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of two types of plant stress on the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in iceberg lettuce during pre-harvest. The stresses were: abiotic (water stress induced by extreme weather events) and biotic (phytopathogen infection by lettuce mosaic virus [LMV]). Lettuce with and without LMV infection were purposefully contaminated with green fluorescence protein-labeled S. Typhimurium on the leaf surfaces. Lettuce was also subjected to water stress conditions (drought and storm) which were simulated by irrigating with different amounts of water. The internalized S. Typhimurium in the different parts of the lettuce were quantified by plate count and real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed with a laser scanning confocal microscope. Salmonella internalization occurred under the conditions outlined above; however internalization levels were not significantly affected by water stress alone. In contrast, the extent of culturable S. Typhimurium internalized in the leafy part of the lettuce decreased when infected with LMV under water stress conditions and contaminated with high levels of S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, LMV-infected lettuce showed a significant increase in the levels of culturable bacteria in the roots. In conclusion, internalization was observed under all experimental conditions when the lettuce surface was contaminated with S. Typhimurium. However, the extent of internalization was only affected by water stress when lettuce was infected with LMV. © 2013.

  4. Diverse secreted effectors are required for Salmonella persistence in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan S Kidwai

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  5. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  6. Pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, F G

    1975-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.

  7. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying

  8. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Bovismorbificans infections associated with hummus and tahini--United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    On September 27, 2011, three clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Bovismorbificans with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified by the District of Columbia Public Health Laboratory (PHL). Human infection with S. Bovismorbificans is rare in the United States. Through query of PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, six additional cases with indistinguishable PFGE patterns were identified in three states (Maryland, Michigan, and Virginia) during the prior 60 days. All nine patients had eaten at restaurants in the District of Columbia (DC) or northern Virginia tahini (sesame seed paste) used in hummus prepared at a Mediterranean-style restaurant in DC was a plausible source of Salmonella infections. DOH restricted the sale of hummus and prohibited the use of hummus ingredients in other food items at implicated restaurants to prevent further illness. This investigation also illustrates challenges associated with ingredient-driven outbreaks and the value of PulseNet for identifying clusters of cases that are geographically dispersed.

  9. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  10. Non-Hematopoietic MLKL Protects Against Salmonella Mucosal Infection by Enhancing Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Xing Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosal barrier is critical for host defense against pathogens infection. Here, we demonstrate that the mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL, a necroptosis effector, promotes intestinal epithelial barrier function by enhancing inflammasome activation. MLKL−/− mice were more susceptible to Salmonella infection compared with wild-type counterparts, with higher mortality rates, increased body weight loss, exacerbated intestinal inflammation, more bacterial colonization, and severe epithelial barrier disruption. MLKL deficiency promoted early epithelial colonization of Salmonella prior to developing apparent intestinal pathology. Active MLKL was predominantly expressed in crypt epithelial cells, and experiments using bone marrow chimeras found that the protective effects of MLKL were dependent on its expression in non-hematopoietic cells. Intestinal mucosa of MLKL−/− mice had impaired caspase-1 and gasdermin D cleavages and decreased interleukin (IL-18 release. Moreover, administration of exogenous recombinant IL-18 rescued the phenotype of increased bacterial colonization in MLKL−/− mice. Thus, our results uncover the role of MLKL in enhancing inflammasome activation in intestinal epithelial cells to inhibit early bacterial colonization.

  11. Understanding the dynamics of Salmonella infections in dairy herds: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanni; Bowers, Roger G; Clancy, Damian; French, Nigel P

    2005-03-21

    There is evidence of variation in the infection dynamics of different Salmonella serotypes in cattle--ranging from transient epidemics to long term persistence and recurrence. We seek to identify possible causes of these differences. In this study we present mathematical models which describe both managed population dynamics and epidemiology and use these to investigate the effects of demographic and epidemiological factors on epidemic behaviour and threshold for invasion. In particular, when the system is perturbed by higher culling or pathogen-induced mortality we incorporate mechanisms to constrain the lactating herd size to remain constant in the absence of pathogen or to lie within a fairly small interval in the presence of pathogen. A combination of numerical and analytical techniques is used to analyse the models. We find that the epidemiologically dominating management group can change from the dry/lactating cycle to the weaned group with increasing culling rate. Pseudovertical transmission is found to have little effect on the invasion criteria, while indirect transmission has significant influence. Pathogen-induced mortality, recovery, immune response and pathogen removal are found to be factors inducing damped oscillations; variation in these factors between Salmonella serotypes may be responsible for some of the observed differences in within herd dynamics. Specifically, higher pathogen-induced mortality, shorter infectious period, more persistent immune response and more rapid removal of faeces result in a lower number of infectives and smaller epidemics but a greater tendency for damped oscillations.

  12. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  13. Infection Dynamics and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Paratyphi B d-tartrate Positive (Java) in a Persistently Infected Broiler Barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Franziska; Beyerbach, Martin; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-21

    The infection dynamics of S. Java were examined in three consecutive rearing periods on a broiler farm in Northwestern Germany which had been persistently infected with S. Java for more than five years. The barn was investigated for Salmonella occurrence after cleaning and disinfection to verify the persistent contamination of the broiler house with S. Java before the start of the first rearing cycle. Confirmation of Salmonella absence in day-old chicks (time-point 1) as well as early establishment of infection between days 5-7 (time-point 2) were confirmed by caecal swabs prepared for qPCR and classical microbiological methods. At three time-periods (between days 11-15 (time-point 3), days 25-28 (time-point 4), and days 38-40 (time-point 5)) caecal content was examined for colony forming units (CFU) Salmonella/g. In general, there was an increase in Salmonella Java load at time-point 4 compared to time-points 3 and 5. Therefore, we observed a bell-shaped course of infection resulting in higher rates of Salmonella CFU/g prior to prethinning than at final slaughter. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed resistance to tetracycline, fluorquinolones, trimethoprim, and cefoxitin.

  14. Infection Dynamics and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Paratyphi B d-tartrate Positive (Java in a Persistently Infected Broiler Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kloska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infection dynamics of S. Java were examined in three consecutive rearing periods on a broiler farm in Northwestern Germany which had been persistently infected with S. Java for more than five years. The barn was investigated for Salmonella occurrence after cleaning and disinfection to verify the persistent contamination of the broiler house with S. Java before the start of the first rearing cycle. Confirmation of Salmonella absence in day-old chicks (time-point 1 as well as early establishment of infection between days 5–7 (time-point 2 were confirmed by caecal swabs prepared for qPCR and classical microbiological methods. At three time-periods (between days 11–15 (time-point 3, days 25–28 (time-point 4, and days 38–40 (time-point 5 caecal content was examined for colony forming units (CFU Salmonella/g. In general, there was an increase in Salmonella Java load at time-point 4 compared to time-points 3 and 5. Therefore, we observed a bell-shaped course of infection resulting in higher rates of Salmonella CFU/g prior to prethinning than at final slaughter. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed resistance to tetracycline, fluorquinolones, trimethoprim, and cefoxitin.

  15. Reorganization of the Endosomal System in Salmonella-Infected Cells: The Ultrastructure of Salmonella-Induced Tubular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Viktoria; Liebl, David; Zhang, Yuying; Rajashekar, Roopa; Chlanda, Petr; Giesker, Katrin; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the intracellular life of Salmonella enterica, a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella-containing vacuole, or SCV, is formed. By means of translocated effector proteins, intracellular Salmonella also induce the formation of extensive, highly dynamic membrane tubules termed Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. Here we report the first detailed ultrastructural analyses of the SCV and SIF by electron microscopy (EM), EM tomography and live cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We found that a subset of SIF is composed of double membranes that enclose portions of host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments within its inner lumen. Despite some morphological similarities, we found that the formation of SIF double membranes is independent from autophagy and requires the function of the effector proteins SseF and SseG. The lumen of SIF network is accessible to various types of endocytosed material and our CLEM analysis of double membrane SIF demonstrated that fluid phase markers accumulate only between the inner and outer membrane of these structures, a space continual with endosomal lumen. Our work reveals how manipulation of the endosomal membrane system by an intracellular pathogen results in a unique tubular membrane compartmentalization of the host cell, generating a shielded niche permissive for intracellular proliferation of Salmonella. PMID:25254663

  16. Babies and bearded dragons: sudden increase in reptile-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections, Germany 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bettina; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Koch, Judith; Mutschmann, Frank; Roggentin, Peter; Frank, Christina

    2011-09-01

    In 2008 a marked increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in infants occurred in Germany. In March and April 2008, eight cases were notified compared to a median of 0-1 cases in 2001-2006. We carried out an investigation including a case-control study to identify the source of infection. A patient was a child reptiles kept in case households were investigated. We identified 18 cases reptiles were kept. Direct contact between child and reptile was denied. Other forms of reptile contact were reported in four of the remaining eight households. Ten case- and 21 control-patients were included in the study. Only keeping of a reptile and "any reptile contact" were associated with Salmonella Tennessee infection (mOR 29.0; 95% CI 3.1 ± ∞ and mOR 119.5; 95% CI 11.7 - ∞). Identical Salmonella Tennessee strains of child and reptile kept in the same household could be shown in 2 cases. Reptiles were the apparent source of Salmonella Tennessee infection in these infants. Indirect contact between infants and reptiles seems to be sufficient to cause infection and should therefore be avoided.

  17. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  18. National outbreaks of Salmonella infection in the UK, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, K S; Lane, C; Gormley, F J; Adak, G K

    2014-03-01

    Over a 12-year period, the Health Protection Agency's (now Public Health England's) Department of Gastrointestinal and Emerging Infections (GEZI) investigated over 100 potential national outbreaks of Salmonella enterica. These ranged from a cluster of cases requiring data interrogation and monitoring of the situation, to full blown case-control studies involving hundreds of interviews, many staff, multi-agency collaboration and the media. Vehicles of infection ranged from the usual suspects of chicken and eggs, to the less frequently implicated snake feed and chocolate. This has forced us to alter our preconceptions of disease transmission. The way in which GEZI investigate outbreaks and conduct case-control studies is constantly evolving as we learn and adapt to the changing aetiology of S. enterica. We present the findings and lessons learned during the last 12 years of investigating S. enterica outbreaks in England and Wales.

  19. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.

    2001-01-01

    of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening......The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... based on individual milk samples (n = 2887) and bulk tank milk from 52 herds. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 5108) were collected from 1464 dairy herds located in 19 different areas. About 10% of the dairy herds in Denmark participated in the study. The percentage of herds changing from test...

  20. EU Interlaboratory comparison study animal feed III : Detection of Salmonella in chicken feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; VDL; I&V

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 waren 32 van de 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) in de Europese Unie in staat om hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenvoer aan te tonen. Twee NRL's behaalden een matig resultaat als gevolg van een rapportagefout. Vanwege herhaaldelijk slechte prestaties is een van deze

  1. Interventions to reduce non-typhoidal Salmonella in pigs during transport to slaughter and lairage: Systematic review, meta-analysis, and research synthesis based infection models in support of assessment of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara J; Young, Ian; Cahill, Sarah; Desmarchelier, Patricia; Nakagawa, Rei; Rajić, Andrijana

    2017-09-15

    A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce Salmonella prevalence or concentration in pork was undertaken. A broad search was conducted in two electronic databases. Each citation was appraised using screening tools designed and tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized. Data were then extracted, and intervention categories were descriptively summarized. Meta-analysis was performed to provide a summary estimate of treatment effect where two or more studies investigated the same intervention in comparable populations. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the confidence in the estimated summary measures of intervention effect for each data subgroup. Data were also extracted from the control groups of 25 challenge trials captured by the review, to fit logistic regression models of Salmonella infection in pigs, using odds of infection as the outcome measure. The only intervention captured by the review which was significantly associated with reduced risk of Salmonella in field settings, was elimination of lairage, which is not currently feasible commercially. The logistic regression model for fecal Salmonella shedding in pigs with a random intercept for trial yielded the following predictors significantly associated with increased odds of infection: oral challenge route relative to intra-nasal, log increase in challenge dose, and elapsed time post-challenge. Univariable exact logistic regression modeling lymph node contamination post-challenge yielded the following predictors significantly associated with increased odds of Salmonella infection: younger animals relative to older ones; intra-nasal challenge route relative to oral route; and animals sampled within the first 7days post-challenge relative to those sampled at 14 or 21days. We hypothesize that the presence of absence of one or more of these

  2. Reduction of subclinical Salmonella infection in fattening pigs after dietary supplementation with a ß-galactomannan oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barranco, S; Vico, J P; Grilló, M J; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2015-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of a β-galactomannan oligosaccharide (ß-GMOS) for the control of Salmonella infection in fattening pigs. Three different doses (0.5, 3 and 2 kg ß-GMOS per ton of feed) were used during the entire period of growing in three similar and independent field trials carried out in a small fattening unit (≈ 100 pigs). Treatment was randomly assigned to half of the pens. Individual serum samples (20-25 per group) were collected at different times during the fattening period and a similar number of faecal samples during the fattening period and at slaughter. In addition, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected at slaughter. Herdcheck(®) Swine Salmonella ELISA was used for serological analyses, the ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1 : 2007 for bacteriology and the PFGE for molecular characterization of Salmonella strains. The addition of ≥ 2 kg t(-1) of ß-GMOS to the pig diet during the entire fattening period was associated with a reduction in Salmonella prevalence, shedding and seroconversion. Feed supplementation with ß-GMOS may be a useful complementary tool for the control of salmonellosis in fattening pigs. ß-GMOS may be a complementary way of reducing Salmonella shedding and infection in fattening pigs. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Isolation and characterization of polyvalent bacteriophages infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mayada; Askora, Ahmed; Barakat, Ahmed Barakat; Rabie, Omar El-Farouk; Hassan, Sayed Emam

    2018-02-02

    In this study, we isolated and characterized three phages named as Salmacey1, Salmacey2 and Salmacey3, infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. kentucky. All these Salmonella serovars were found to be resistant to more than two of the ten antimicrobial agents tested. Only S. kentucky was found to be resistant to seven antimicrobial agents. Examination of these phage particles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), demonstrated that two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) were found to belong to family Siphoviridae, and Salmacey3 was assigned to the family Myoviridae. The results of host range assay revealed that these bacteriophages were polyvalent and thus capable of infecting four strains of Salmonella serovars and Citrobacter freundii. Moreover, the two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) had a lytic effect on Enterobacter cloacae and Salmacey3 was able to infect E. coli. All phages could not infect S. para Typhi, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus cereus. One-step growth curves of bacteriophages revealed that siphovirus phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) have burst size (80 and 90pfu per infected cell with latent period 35min and 40min respectively), and for the myovirus Salmacey3 had a burst size 110pfu per infected cell with latent period 60min. Molecular analyses indicated that these phages contained double-stranded DNA genomes. The lytic activity of the phages against the most multidrug resistant serovars S. kentucky as host strain was evaluated. The result showed that these bacteriophages were able to completely stop the growth of S. kentucky in vitro. These results suggest that phages have a high potential for phage application to control Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Eradication of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in a murine model of typhoid fever with the combination of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 and ofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki Tõnis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to detect whether in experimental Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 in combination with fluoroquinolone therapy would eradicate S. Typhimurium, prevent the development of liver and spleen granulomas and improve the indices of oxidative stress in the ileum mucosa. The selected bacteriological, histological and biochemical methods were applied. Results Combined treatment with L. fermentum ME-3 and ofloxacin eradicated Salmonella Typhimurium from blood, ileum and liver, decreased the number of animals with liver and spleen granulomas and reduced the value of lipid peroxides in the ileum mucosa. Higher total counts of intestinal lactobacilli in all experimental groups were associated with the absence of liver granulomas. Conclusion The antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 combined with ofloxacin enhances the eradication of experimental S. Typhimurium infection. These observations on probiotic and antimicrobial co-action may serve as basis to develop new strategies for treatment of invasive bacterial infections of the gut.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strain SPE101, Isolated from a Chronic Human Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Silva, Claudia; Betancor, Laura; Astocondor, Lizeth; Cestero, Juan J; Ochoa, Theresa; García, Coralith; Puente, José L; Chabalgoity, José A; García-Del Portillo, Francisco

    2017-07-20

    We report a 4.99-Mb draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strain SPE101, isolated from feces of a 5-month-old breast-fed female showing diarrhea associated with severe dehydration and malnutrition. The infection prolonged for 6 months despite antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Iriarte et al.

  6. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Thorup Nielsen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely...

  7. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  8. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  9. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infection in poultry (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella arizonae) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Salmonella to be lis......Salmonella infection in poultry (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella arizonae) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Salmonella...... to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Salmonella according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Salmonella. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert......, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in Section 1 of Annex IV referred to in point (a) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The main animal species to be listed for Salmonella...

  10. Multidisciplinary investigation of a multicountry outbreak of Salmonella Stanley infections associated with turkey meat in the European Union, August 2011 to January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, P; van Alphen, L; Martinez Urtaza, J; Struelens, M; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D; Makela, P; Bertrand, S; Mattheus, W; Schmid, D; Kanitz, E; Rucker, V; Krisztalovics, K; Paszti, J; Szogyenyi, Z; Lancz, Z; Rabsch, W; Pfefferkorn, B; Hiller, P; Mooijman, K; Gossner, C

    2014-05-15

    Between August 2011 and January 2013, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) infections affected 10 European Union (EU) countries, with a total of 710 cases recorded. Following an urgent inquiry in the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases (EPIS-FWD) on 29 June 2012, an international investigation was initiated including EU and national agencies for public health, veterinary health and food safety. Two of three local outbreak investigations undertaken by affected countries in 2012 identified turkey meat as a vehicle of infection. Furthermore, routine EU monitoring of animal sources showed that over 95% (n=298) of the 311 S. Stanley isolates reported from animal sampling in 2011 originated from the turkey food production chain. In 2004–10, none had this origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis of outbreak isolates and historical S. Stanley human isolates revealed that the outbreak isolates had a novel PFGE profile that emerged in Europe in 2011. An indistinguishable PFGE profile was identified in 346 of 464 human, food, feed, environmental and animal isolates from 16 EU countries: 102 of 112 non-human isolates tested were from the turkey production chain. On the basis of epidemiological and microbiological evidence, turkey meat was considered the primary source of human infection, following contamination early in the animal production chain.

  11. Acetalated dextran encapsulated AR-12 as a host-directed therapy to control Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ky V; Borteh, Hassan M; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Peine, Kevin J; Curry, Heather; Collier, Michael A; Homsy, Michael L; Bachelder, Eric M; Gunn, John S; Schlesinger, Larry S; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2014-12-30

    AR-12 has been evaluated in clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent but also has demonstrated host-directed, broad-spectrum clearance of bacteria. We have previously shown that AR-12 has activity in vitro against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Francisella species by inducing autophagy and other host immune pathways. AR-12 treatment of S. Typhimurium-infected mice resulted in a 10-fold reduction in bacterial load in the liver and spleen and an increased survival time. However, AR-12 treatment did not protect mice from death, likely due poor formulation. In the current study, AR-12 was encapsulated in a microparticulate carrier formulated from the novel degradable biopolymer acetalated dextran (Ace-DEX) and subsequently evaluated for its activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs). Our results show that hMDMs efficiently internalized Ace-DEX microparticles (MPs), and that encapsulation significantly reduced host cell cytotoxicity compared to unencapsulated AR-12. Efficient macrophage internalization of AR-12 loaded MPs (AR-12/MPs) was further demonstrated by autophagosome formation that was comparable to free AR-12 and resulted in enhanced clearance of intracellular Salmonella. Taken together, these studies provide support that Ace-DEX encapsulated AR-12 may be a promising new therapeutic agent to control intracellular bacterial pathogens of macrophages by targeting delivery and reducing drug toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  13. Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Reis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira A.C.dosR. & dos Santos B.M. [Evaluation of dna extraction methods of the Salmonella sp. bacterium in artificially infected chickens eggs.] Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA de Salmonella sp. em ovos de galinhas contaminados artificialmente. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:115-119, 2015. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus Universitário, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: bmsantos@ufv.br The present study evaluated the efficiency of different protocols for the genomic DNA extraction of Salmonella bacteria in chicken eggs free of specific pathogens – SPF. Seventy-five eggs were used and divided into five groups with fifteen eggs each. Three of the five groups of eggs were inoculated with enteric Salmonella cultures. One of the five groups was inoculated with Escherichia coli bacterium culture. And another group of eggs was the negative control that received saline solution 0.85% infertile. The eggs were incubated on a temperature that varied from 20 to 25°C during 24, 48 and 72 hours. Five yolks of each group were collected every 24 hours. These yolks were homogenized and centrifuged during 10 minutes. The supernatant was rejected. After the discard, PBS ph 7.2 was added and centrifuged again. The sediment obtained of each group was used for the extraction of bacterial genomic DNA. Silica particles and a commercial kit were utilized as the extraction methods. The extracted DNA was kept on a temperature of 20°C until the evaluation through PCR. The primers utilized were related with the invA gene and they were the following: 5’ GTA AAA TTA TCG CCA CGT TCG GGC AA 3’ and 5’ TCA TCG CAC CGT CAA AGG AAC C 3’. The amplification products were visualized in transilluminator with ultraviolet light. The obtained results through the bacterial DNA extractions demonstrated that the extraction method utilizing silica particles was

  14. Prevalence of murine norovirus infection in Korean laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Rhan; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Kim, Dong Jae; Baek, Min-Won; Na, Yi-Rang; Han, Ju-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hak; Turner, Patricia V; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2011-05-01

    Currently, murine noroviruses (MNV) are the most prevalent viral pathogens identified in laboratory animal facilities. While several reports exist concerning the prevalence of MNV in North American research facilities, very few reports are available for other parts of the world, including Korea. This study evaluated the prevalence of MNV infection in 745 murine sera collected from 15 animal facilities in Korea by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive cases were subcategorized by murine strain/genetics, housing environments and animal sources. In summary, 6.6% of inbred/outbred mice purchased from commercial vendors were seropositive, 9.6% of in-house colonies were seropositive and 27.0% of genetically modified mice (GMM) were seropositive. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that they were homologous (100%) with MNV-4.

  15. Effect of Eimeria adenoeides Challenge upon the Course of an Experimental Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Turkey Poults

    OpenAIRE

    KOINARSKI, Ventsislav; LYUTSKANOV, Mihni; URUMOVA, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a controlled experiment in order to evaluate the predisposing role of Eimeria adenoeides invasion on the appearance, development and severity of a Salmonella Enteritidis infection, with both infectious agents being field isolates obtained from spontaneous cases of the disease. Furthermore, we aimed to examine the principal epidemiological parameters of the mixed infection. The effect of an experimental Eimeria adenoeides invasion upon an artificial...

  16. A semi-stochastic model for Salmonella infection in a multi-group herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Clancy, D; French, N P; Bowers, R G

    2006-04-01

    A multi-group semi-stochastic model is formulated to identify possible causes of why different strains of Salmonella develop so much variation in their infection dynamics in UK dairy herds. The model includes demography (managed populations) and various types of transmission: direct, pseudovertical and indirect (via free-living infectious units in the environment). The effects of herd size and epidemiological parameters on mean prevalence of infection and mean time until fade out are investigated. Numerical simulation shows that higher pathogen-induced mortality, shorter infectious period, more persistent immune response and more rapid removal of faeces result in a lower mean prevalence of infection, a shorter mean time until fade out, and a greater probability of fade out of infection within 600 days. Combining these results and those for the deterministic counterpart could explain differences in observed epidemiological patterns and help to identify the factors inducing the decline in reported cases of epidemic strains such as DT104 in cattle. We further investigate the effect of group structure on the probability of a major outbreak by using the stochastic threshold theory in homogeneous populations and that in heterogeneous populations. Numerical studies suggest that group structure makes major outbreaks less likely than would be the case in a homogeneous population with the same basic reproduction number. Moreover, some control strategies are suggested by investigating the effect of epidemiological parameters on the probability of an epidemic.

  17. Gamma irradiation or CD4+-T-cell depletion causes reactivation of latent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in C3H/HeN mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, A. van; Gevel, J.S. van de; Koudijs, M.; Ossendorp, F.; Beekhuizen, H.; Janssen, R.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2005-01-01

    Upon infection with Salmonella, a host develops an immune response to limit bacterial growth and kill and eliminate the pathogen. Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to remain dormant within the body, only to reappear (reactivate) at a later time when the immune system is abated. We have developed an

  18. Frequency and persistence of fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis by experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Salmonella Enteritidis infections are often linked with consuming contaminated eggs, so the prevalence of this pathogen in egg-laying poultry is an important risk factor for public health. Salmonella persistence and transmission in commercial egg producing flocks are influenced by the complex ...

  19. Abrogation of the Twin Arginine Transport System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Colonization Defects during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. Megan; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Guo, Jinbai; Aldrich, Lindsay; Bokhari, Danial; Santiviago, Carlos A.; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2011-01-01

    TatC (STM3975) is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat) systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ΔtatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ΔtatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J) mice. We show that the ΔtatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ΔtatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ΔtatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions. PMID:21298091

  20. Abrogation of the twin arginine transport system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium leads to colonization defects during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Megan Reynolds

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TatC (STM3975 is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ΔtatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ΔtatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J mice. We show that the ΔtatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ΔtatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ΔtatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions.

  1. Plants as alternative hosts for Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Garcia, Ana V; Hirt, Heribert

    2012-05-01

    Recent findings show that many human pathogenic bacteria can use multiple host organisms. For example, Salmonella Typhimurium can use plants as alternative hosts to humans and other animals. These bacteria are able to adhere to plant surfaces and actively infect the interior of plants. Similarly to the infection of animal cells, S. Typhimurium suppresses plant defense responses by a type III secretion mechanism, indicating that these bacteria possess a dedicated multi-kingdom infection strategy, raising the question of host specificity. In addition, evidence is accumulating that the interaction of Salmonella with plants is an active process with different levels of specificity, because different Salmonella serovars show variations in pathogenicity, and different plant species reveal various levels of resistance towards these bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention...... the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and abortions in adult cattle after the first 2 years of infection in herds with poor hygiene and high susceptibility. Repeated infections...... in young stock lead to a high proportion of resistant adult cattle, which lead to a dampening effect on acute infections in adults and associated abortions. Sensitivity analyses of 24 alternative scenarios showed that a super shedder state was not essential to mimic the infection dynamics and persistence...

  3. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-07

    During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and local health departments, national food safety agencies, and CDC. The results of these investigations determined that the tomatoes had been supplied to restaurants either whole or precut from tomato fields in Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. These recurrent, large, multistate outbreaks emphasize the need to prevent Salmonella contamination of tomatoes early in the production and packing process. Current knowledge of mechanisms for tomato contamination and methods of eradication of Salmonella in tomatoes is incomplete; the agricultural industry, food safety agencies, and public health agencies should make tomato-safety research a priority.

  4. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones (FQs are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w. were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group

  5. Tiny Turtles Purchased at Pet Stores are a Potential High Risk for Salmonella Human Infection in the Valencian Region, Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Clara; Vega, Santiago; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Turtles may be considered unsafe pets, particularly in households with children. This study aimed to assess Salmonella carriage by turtles in pet stores and in private ownership to inform the public of the potential health risk, enabling informed choices around pet selection. During the period between September and October 2013, 24 pet stores and 96 private owners were sampled in the Valencian Region (Eastern Spain). Salmonella identification procedure was based on ISO 6579: 2002 recommendations (Annex D). Salmonella strains were serotyped in accordance with Kauffman-White-Le-Minor technique. The rate of isolation of Salmonella was very high from pet store samples (75.0% ± 8.8%) and moderate for private owners (29.0% ± 4.6%). Serotyping revealed 18 different serotypes among two Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae. Most frequently isolated serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (39.5%, 17/43) and Salmonella Pomona (9.3%, 4/43). Serotypes identified have previously been reported in turtles, and child Salmonella infections associate with pet turtle exposure. The present study clearly demonstrates that turtles in pet stores, as well as in private owners, could be a direct or indirect source of a high risk of human Salmonella infections. In addition, pet stores should advise their customers of the potential risks associated with reptile ownership.

  6. Characterization of Chicken Spleen Transcriptome after Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulova, Marta; Rajova, Jana; Vlasatikova, Lenka; Volf, Jiri; Stepanova, Hana; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP), immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), chemokine ah221 (AH221), trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, CD4, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes, we found that the above mentioned genes were preferentially expressed in macrophages. AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6 and SAA were induced also in the cecum of chickens orally infected with S. Enteritidis on day 1 of life or day 42 of life. Unusual results were obtained for the immunoglobulin encoding transcripts. Prior to the infection, transcripts coding for the constant parts of IgM, IgY, IgA and Ig light chain were detected in B-lymphocytes. However, after the infection, immunoglobulin encoding transcripts were expressed also by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6, SAA and all immunoglobulin genes can be therefore used for the characterization of the course of S. Enteritidis infection in chickens. PMID:23094107

  7. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 8.......6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals...... artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD...

  8. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  10. Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were

  11. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  12. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Vieira, Antonio R; Karlsmose, Susanne; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Jensen, Arne B; Wegener, Henrik C; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella from Retail Foods of Animal Origin and Its Association with Disinfectant and Heavy Metal Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenwen; Quan, Yuan; Yang, Shengzhi; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiuli; Liu, Shuliang; Chen, Shujuan; Zhou, Kang; He, Li; Li, Bei; Gu, Yunfu; Zhao, Shaohua; Zou, Likou

    2017-10-17

    This study aims to demonstrate the antibiotic resistance and its association with disinfectant and heavy metal resistance in 152 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods of animal origins. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that 92.8% isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and the resistance was highest to oxytetracycline (80.9%), followed by trimethoprim (64.5%), amoxicillin (28.9%), ampicillin (28.3%), levofloxacin (21.7%), ciprofloxacin (16.4%), and gentamicin (10.5%), respectively. The blaTEM and tetA genes (44.7%) were commonly present. The qacF and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in 18.4% and 8.6% of all isolates. The Cu-resistance genes pcoR, pcoC, and pcoA were the most prevalent (20.4-40.8%), followed by Hg-resistance gene merA (17.8%) and As-resistance genes arsB (6.6%). The antibiotic resistance was highly associated with disinfectant or certain heavy metal resistance genes. Most notably, the association among Cu-resistance genes (pcoC, pcoR), disinfectant resistance genes (qacF, qacEΔ1), and tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes (tet, sul) was significant (p resistant Salmonella and using disinfectants for decontamination or metals in livestock may provide a pressure for coselecting strains with acquired resistance to other antimicrobials.

  15. Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartl, H M; Nfon, C; Kobinger, G

    2013-01-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOV; genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae) cause often fatal, hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% seroprevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to naive pigs and macaques; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. Attempts at virus and antibody detection require as a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods especially for pigs, as well as the development of a sampling strategy. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.

  16. An evaluation of the effect of sodium bisulfate as a feed additive on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in experimentally infected broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, I I; Sanad, Y M; Stonerock, R; Rajashekara, G

    2012-04-01

    The colonization of broiler chickens with Salmonella can pose serious health and economic risks for both consumers and the poultry industry. Because colonization with Salmonella can lead to subsequent contamination of chicken carcasses during processing, preemptive control measures should include the reduction of this pathogen in chickens before slaughter. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sodium bisulfate, a potential antimicrobial feed additive, on Salmonella colonization of experimentally infected broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty 1-d-old chickens were infected orally with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and divided into 4 groups (each comprised of 60 chickens). Three groups received different concentrations of sodium bisulfate integrated into their feed, while the feed of the fourth group (positive control) was not treated. At time points before the broilers' slaughter age, different organs/tissues (liver, spleen, cecum, and bone marrow) and feces were aseptically collected and tested for the occurrence and density of Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results show that at 3 d postinfection, high colonization with Salmonella Enteritidis was detected and affected all tested tissues and fecal samples. Although colonization decreased across time, Salmonella Enteritidis persisted in the cecum, feces, spleen, and bone marrow, but not in the liver, until slaughter age. Furthermore, the addition of sodium bisulfate to the feed did not significantly reduce Salmonella Enteritidis numbers in infected chickens or affect the shedding of the pathogen.

  17. Infection of chickens with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium-like variants: an emerging risk to the poultry industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B N; Crayford, G; Humphrey, T J; Wigley, P

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica poses a particular risk to public health, and in particular isolates belonging to clonal lineages such as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cause epidemics across species including poultry. In recent years, antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193 and specifically the monophasic S. Typhimurium-like variants of this phage type, serotypes 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:-, have become an increasing risk to public health in Europe and the USA and now account for nearly one-half of human S. Typhimurium infections in the UK. Unlike S. Typhimurium that possesses two forms of flagella which can vary between phase 1 and phase 2 during infection, monophasic variants possess only phase 1 flagella. These monophasic antimicrobial-resistant variants have become a major problem in pig production but human cases have also been associated with poultry consumption and have been found in UK flocks through surveillance schemes since 2010. In this study we determined the ability of antimicrobial-resistant DT193 serotype 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:- isolates from pigs to infect chickens. All isolates were found to colonize the caeca and liver. All but one isolate of serotype 4,5,12:i:- also infected the spleen. Levels of infection and pathology were comparable with those found with the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74. These findings indicate that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants of this phage type usually associated with pigs are capable of colonizing the chicken. This shows that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants represent a significant and potential emerging threat to poultry production from "spill-over" of these isolates from the pig industry or other sources.

  18. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF- α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes' enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  19. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR and Gardeniae fructus (GF showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes’ enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  20. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  1. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra C.F. Oyston

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.

  2. Animal models and the molecular biology of hepadnavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William S

    2015-04-01

    Australian antigen, the envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV), was discovered in 1967 as a prevalent serum antigen in hepatitis B patients. Early electron microscopy (EM) studies showed that this antigen was present in 22-nm particles in patient sera, which were believed to be incomplete virus. Complete virus, much less abundant than the 22-nm particles, was finally visualized in 1970. HBV was soon found to infect chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbon apes, and, more recently, tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). This restricted host range placed limits on the kinds of studies that might be performed to better understand the biology and molecular biology of HBV and to develop antiviral therapies to treat chronic infections. About 10 years after the discovery of HBV, this problem was bypassed with the discovery of viruses related to HBV in woodchucks, ground squirrels, and ducks. Although unlikely animal models, their use revealed the key steps in hepadnavirus replication and in the host response to infection, including the fact that the viral nuclear episome is the ultimate target for immune clearance of transient infections and antiviral therapy of chronic infections. Studies with these and other animal models have also suggested interesting clues into the link between chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. AMPK and mTOR: sensors and regulators of immunometabolic changes during Salmonella infection in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Michael H; Genovese, Kenneth J; He, Haiqi; Arsenault, Ryan J

    2016-02-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that facilitate this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are unknown. We have begun to concentrate on the convergence of metabolism and immune function as playing a major role in regulating the host responsiveness to infection. It is now recognized that the immune system monitors the metabolic state of tissues and responds by modulating metabolic function. The aim in this review is to summarize the literature that has defined a series of genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the regulatory host immune-metabolic signaling pathways in the local cecal microenvironment during the first 4 d following infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune-metabolism peptide arrays and quantitative real-time-PCR of cecal tissue during the early (4 to 48 h) and late stages (4 to 17 d) of a Salmonella infection in young broiler chickens, the local immunometabolic microenvironment has been ascertained. Distinct immune and metabolic pathways are altered between 2 to 4 d post-infection that dramatically changed the local immunometabolic environment. Thus, the tissue immunometabolic phenotype of the cecum plays a major role in the ability of the bacterium to establish a persistent cecal colonization. In general, our findings show that AMPK and mTOR are key players linking specific extracellular milieu and intracellular metabolism. Phenotypically, the early response (4 to 48 h) to Salmonella infection is pro-inflammatory, fueled by glycolysis and mTOR-mediated protein synthesis, whereas by the later phase (4 to 5 d), the local environment has undergone an immune-metabolic reprogramming to

  4. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with both Salmonella typhiand non-typhi salmonella. (NTS) is common among children in many African countries. Salmonella typhi predominates among older children and adults with the typical localising features of enteric fever. Nontyphoid salmonellae species are more often reported among children under 5 ...

  5. Characterization of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids harboring ambler class A and C genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from animals and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Hilde; Bossers, Alex; Harders, Frank; Wu, Guanghui; Woodford, Neil; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Irene; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Brouwer, Michael; Mevius, Dik

    The aim of the study was to identify the plasmid-encoded factors contributing to the emergence and spread of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from animal and human reservoirs. For this, 251 IncI1-Iγ plasmids carrying various extended-spectrum

  6. Characterization of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids harboring ambler class A and C genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from animals and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Hilde; Bossers, Alex; Harders, Frank; Wu, Guanghui; Woodford, Neil; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Irene; Essen-Zandbergen, Van Alieda; Brouwer, Michael; Mevius, Dik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the plasmid-encoded factors contributing to the emergence and spread of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from animal and human reservoirs. For this, 251 IncI1-Iγ plasmids carrying various

  7. Studies on the therapeutic effect of propolis along with standard antibacterial drug in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Preeti; Kumar, Neelima R; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-11-25

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health problem. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has described antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing health problems in 21st century. WHO rated antibiotic resistance as "one of the three greatest threats to human health". One important strategy employed to overcome this resistance is the use of combination of drugs. Many plants, natural extracts have been shown to exhibit synergistic response with standard drugs against microorganisms. The present study focused on the antibacterial potential of propolis in combination with the standard antibiotic Cefixime against the typhoid causing bacteria i.e. Salmonella. Ethanolic extract of propolis was taken for the present work. For the experiment BALB/c mice were taken as animal model and divided into ten groups. Along with normal and infected control groups, four different combinations of cefixime and propolis were used. Biochemical, hematological and histopathological indices were studied by following the standard protocols. In BALB/c mice, Salmonella causes severe biochemical, hematological and histopathological alterations by 5th day of infection. Ethanolic extract of propolis at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of mice when used alone to treat Salmonella infection in mice gave significant results by 30th day of treatment. Similarly, when cefixime (4 mg/kg body weight of mice) was used to treat infection in mice, significant results as compared to infected control were observed after 5th day. But when propolis and cefixime were used together in different concentrations in combination therapy, evident results were observed after 5 days of treatment. The levels of various liver and kidney function enzymes, blood indices and the histopathology of liver, spleen and kidney were restored to near normal after 5 days of treatment and at much lower doses as compared to the effective dose when used alone. The study confirmed that significant

  8. A second wave of Salmonella T3SS1 activity prolongs the lifespan of infected epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ΔsopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments. PMID:28426838

  9. Drug resistant Salmonella in broiler chicken sold at local market in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... causing diseases in human and a variety of animal species. Salmonella infection causes several clinical conditions ... The Salmonella spreading with the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes have some ... Collection and transportation of samples. A total of 50 samples were collected from cloaca of ...

  10. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  11. Infection of commercial laying hens with Salmonella Gallinarum: clinical, anatomopathological and haematological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC Freitas Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of commercial laying hens to Salmonella Gallinarum (SG. Two experiments were carried using a mutant strain of Salmonella Gallinarum resistant to nalidix acid (SGNALr. In the first trial, the resistance of birds was evaluated based on clinical signs, faecal shedding, and mortality. It was carried out with six lines of commercial layers being three light white layers, considered to be resistant to SG (W1, W2, W3, and three semi-heavy brown varieties (B1, B2, B3, considered susceptible to SG. Each group contained 15 one-day-old birds. Hens were inoculated in the crop at 5 days of age with 0.2 mL of SGNALr neat culture. In addition, to each brown variety, a new group of 15 birds was challenged with 0.2mL of the same SGNALr culture diluted at 10-3. At the end of the first experiment, the surviving birds were sacrificed, and microbiological culture of liver and spleen was performed. In the second experiment, white and brown birds were inoculated with neat culture at five days of age. Samples were collected for evaluation of blood parameters and histopathology assessment at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 14 days post-infection. The results of the first experiment showed higher resistance of white birds (p<0.05, although there was no uniformity in the responses against fowl typhoid among the birds within these groups. In the second experiment, there were differences between white and brown birds both in blood parameters and in organ lesion intensity.

  12. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  13. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Feng

    Full Text Available Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5 and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231 and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1 were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  14. Heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. cells enhance survivals of Caenorhabditis elegans against Salmonella and Yersinia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Choe, J; Kim, J; Oh, S; Park, S; Kim, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of feeding heat-killed Lactobacillus cells on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes after Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica infection. The feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum 133 (LP133) and Lactobacillus fermentum 21 (LP21) cells to nematodes was shown to significantly increase the survival rate as well as stimulate the expression of pmk-1 gene that key factor for C. elegans immunity upon infection compared with control nematodes that were only fed Escherichia coli OP50 (OP50) cells. These results suggest that heat-killed LP133 and LF21 cells exert preventive or protective effects against the Gram-negative bacteria Salm. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the LF21-mediated and LP133-mediated protection against bacterial infection in nematodes, transcriptional profiling was performed for each experimental group. These experiments showed that genes related to energy generation and ageing, regulators of insulin/IGF-1-like signalling, DAF genes, oxidation and reduction processes, the defence response and/or the innate immune response, and neurological processes were upregulated in nematodes that had been fed heat-killed Lactobacillus cells compared with nematodes that had been fed E. coli cells. In this study, the feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus bacteria to Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was shown to decrease infection by Gram-negative bacteria and increase the host lifespan. C. elegans has a small, well-organized genome and is an excellent in vivo model organism; thus, these results will potentially shed light on important Lactobacillus-host interactions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Development of protective immunity to Salmonella, a mucosal pathogen with a systemic agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda J.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infections can cause a range of intestinal and systemic disease in human and animal hosts. While some Salmonella serovars initiate a localized intestinal inflammatory response, others use the intestine as a portal of entry to initiate a systemic infection. Considerable progress has been made in understanding bacterial invasion and dissemination strategies and the nature of the Salmonella-specific immune response to oral infection. Innate and adaptive immunity are rapidly initiated after oral infection but these effector responses can also be hindered by bacterial evasion strategies. Furthermore, although Salmonella resides within intramacrophage phagosomes, recent studies highlight a surprising collaboration of CD4 Th1, Th17, and B cell responses in mediating resistance to Salmonella infection. PMID:21307847

  16. Applications of microscopy in Salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research.

  17. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with frozen pot pies--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-28

    On June 6, 2007, a cluster of four human Salmonella serotype I 4,5,12:i:-* infections sharing a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and reported to PulseNet. Initial investigations conducted during June--September 2007 by state and local health departments in collaboration with CDC did not identify a source of infection. This report summarizes the results of subsequent investigations of the outbreak, which determined that 401 cases of salmonellosis occurred in 41 states during 2007, with 32% of ill persons hospitalized. A multistate case-control study conducted during October 3-13 indicated that illness was associated with consumption of Banquet brand frozen, not-ready-to-eat pot pies (odds ratio = 23.6; pconfusion regarding microwaving instructions might have resulted in a failure to cook the product properly. A voluntary recall was issued by the manufacturer (ConAgra Foods Inc., Omaha, Nebraska) on October 11, 2007, for all nine brands of pot pies produced at the implicated plant (plant A). The outbreak strain was isolated from 13 samples of unopened Banquet pot pies collected from the homes of patients. This outbreak highlights the need to cook not-ready-to-eat frozen foods thoroughly; these products should be clearly labeled as requiring complete cooking, and cooking instructions should be validated to account for variability in microwave wattage and common misconceptions among consumers regarding the nature of not-ready-to-eat foods.

  18. Comprehensive identification of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium genes required for infection of BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy R Chaudhuri

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes required for infection of mice by Salmonella Typhimurium can be identified by the interrogation of random transposon mutant libraries for mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Inactivation of such genes produces attenuated S. Typhimurium strains that have potential for use as live attenuated vaccines. A quantitative screen, Transposon Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH, has been developed that identifies those members of a large library of transposon mutants that are attenuated. TMDH employs custom transposons with outward-facing T7 and SP6 promoters. Fluorescently-labelled transcripts from the promoters are hybridised to whole-genome tiling microarrays, to allow the position of the transposon insertions to be determined. Comparison of microarray data from the mutant library grown in vitro (input with equivalent data produced after passage of the library through mice (output enables an attenuation score to be determined for each transposon mutant. These scores are significantly correlated with bacterial counts obtained during infection of mice using mutants with individual defined deletions of the same genes. Defined deletion mutants of several novel targets identified in the TMDH screen are effective live vaccines.

  19. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection in a captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Malta, Marcelo C C; Soave, Semíramis A; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Costa, Maria E L T; Pessanha, Angela T; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Coura, Fernanda M; Costa, Luciana F; Turchetti, Andreia P; Lobato, Francisco C F; Melo, Marilia M; Heinemann, Marcos B; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-01

    Enteric diseases are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in gorillas, and it is often caused by bacteria. A thirteen-year-old captive female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) developed hemorrhagic diarrhea. Despite the treatment, the animal died 7 days after the onset of clinical signs. The animal was submitted to a thorough pathological and microbiological evaluation. Pathologic examination revealed a severe acute hemorrhagic colitis, neutrophilic splenitis, glomerulitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was isolated from a mesenteric lymph node. A diagnosis of hemorrhagic colitis associated with Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was established. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genotypic characterisation by PFGE of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types 1, 4, 6, and 8 isolated from animal and human sources in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laconcha, I.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Rementeria, A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 101 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage types (PT) 1, 4, 6, and 8 from Denmark, England and Spain were studied by PFGE to elucidate genetic relationships among strains isolated from animal, human and environmental sources between 1983 and 1997. Analysis with Xba I, Bin I and Spe I...... profile A10-A10-A1 was predominant and specific for this phage type. It is concluded that PFGE, in combination with phage typing, represents a suitable tool for the epidemiological typing of Salmonella Enteritidis strains which could be used for investigations or surveillance of the international spread...

  1. International outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder - USA and Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R R; Heiman Marshall, K E; Burnworth, L; Hamel, M; Tataryn, J; Cutler, J; Meghnath, K; Wellman, A; Irvin, K; Isaac, L; Chau, K; Locas, A; Kohl, J; Huth, P A; Nicholas, D; Traphagen, E; Soto, K; Mank, L; Holmes-Talbot, K; Needham, M; Barnes, A; Adcock, B; Honish, L; Chui, L; Taylor, M; Gaulin, C; Bekal, S; Warshawsky, B; Hobbs, L; Tschetter, L R; Surin, A; Lance, S; Wise, M E; Williams, I; Gieraltowski, L

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013-2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.

  2. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  3. Differential phenotypic diversity among epidemic-spanning Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from humans or animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Martinez, Arací; Giossa, Gerardo; Bryant, Clare; Maskell, Duncan; Chabalgoity, Jose A

    2010-10-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae are major causes of food-borne disease worldwide. In Uruguay, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most commonly isolated serovar throughout the last decade, with a marked epidemic period between 1995 and 2004. In a previous study, we conducted comparative genomics of 29 epidemic-spanning S. Enteritidis field isolates, and here we evaluated the pathogenic potential of the same set of isolates using several phenotypic assays. The sample included 15 isolates from human gastroenteritis, 5 from invasive disease, and 9 from nonhuman sources. Contrary to the genetic homogeneity previously observed, we found great phenotypic variability among these isolates. One-third of them were defective in at least one assay, namely, 10 isolates were defective in motility, 8 in invasion of Caco-2 cells, and 10 in survival in egg albumen. Twelve isolates were tested for invasiveness in 3-day-old chickens, and five of these were significantly less invasive than the reference strain. The two oldest preepidemic isolates were reduced in fitness in all assays, providing a plausible explanation for the previous negligible incidence of S. Enteritidis in Uruguay and supporting the view that the introduction or emergence of a more virulent strain was responsible for the marked rise of this serovar. Further, we found differences in fitness among the isolates which depended on the source of isolation. A total of 1 out of 14 isolates from human gastroenteritis, but 6 out of 13 isolates from other sources, was impaired in at least two assays, suggesting enhanced fitness among strains able to cause intestinal disease in humans.

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella Wandsworth and Typhimurium infections in infants and toddlers traced to a commercial vegetable-coated snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotir, Mark J; Ewald, Gwen; Kimura, Akiko C; Higa, Jeffrey I; Sheth, Anandi; Troppy, Scott; Meyer, Stephanie; Hoekstra, R Michael; Austin, Jana; Archer, John; Spayne, Mary; Daly, Elizabeth R; Griffin, Patricia M

    2009-12-01

    Human outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been attributed to a variety of food vehicles. Processed snack foods are increasingly consumed by children. In May 2007, state and local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated human infections from Salmonella Wandsworth, an extremely rare serotype. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to identify outbreak-associated illnesses. Food history questionnaires and open-ended interviews were used to generate exposure hypotheses. A nationwide case-control study was conducted to epidemiologically implicate a source. Public health laboratories cultured implicated product from patient homes and retail stores. Sixty-nine patients from 23 states were identified; 93% were aged 10 months to 3 years. Eighty-one percent of child patients had bloody diarrhea; 6 were hospitalized. No deaths were reported. The case-control study strongly associated illness with a commercial puffed vegetable-coated ready-to-eat snack food (mOR = 23.3, P = 0.0001), leading to a nationwide recall. Parents of 92% of interviewed case-children reported that children consumed the food during the week before their illness began; 43% reported daily consumption. Salmonella Wandsworth, 3 additional Salmonella serotypes and Chronobacter (formerly Enterobacter) sakazaki were all cultured from this product, leading to the identification of 18 human outbreak-related Salmonella Typhimurium illnesses. This report documents a nationwide outbreak associated with a commercial processed ready-to-eat snack food. Cases occurred primarily in infants and toddlers, many of whom frequently consumed the food. Measures are needed to ensure that ingredients added to ready-to-eat foods after the final lethal processing step are free of pathogens.

  5. Sporadic salmonellosis in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2011-2013: raw ground pork consumption is associated with Salmonella Typhimurium infections and foreign travel with Salmonella Enteritidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis, for each notified case four randomly selected population controls matched for age, sex and geographical region were interviewed via self-administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis of 285 matched pairs revealed significant associations for raw ground pork consumption [odds ratio (OR) 6·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·8-20·1], taking antacids (OR 5·8, 95% CI 1·4-24·5), eating meat outside the home (OR 5·7, 95% CI 2·2-14·6) and daily changing or cleaning of dishcloth (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2-3·9). Animal contact and ice cream consumption were negatively associated with salmonellosis (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2-1 and OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·6, respectively). S. Typhimurium infections were significantly associated with raw ground pork consumption (OR 16·7, 95% CI 1·4-194·4) and S. Enteritidis infections with having travelled abroad (OR 9·7, 95% CI 2·0-47·3). Raw egg consumption was not a risk factor, substantiating the success of recently implemented national control programmes in the poultry industry. Unexpectedly, hygienic behaviour was more frequently reported by cases, probably because they overestimated their hygiene precautions retrospectively. Although animal contact might enhance human immunocompetence, underreporting of salmonellosis by pet owners could have occurred. Eating raw pork products is the major risk factor for sporadic human S. Typhimurium infections in Lower Saxony.

  6. Infectivity and persistence of an outbreak strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT160 for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J H; Alley, M R; Dutton, G J; Rogers, L E

    2006-12-01

    To examine the infective dose, incubation period and disease progression of an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 160 (DT160) originating from a naturally-infected house sparrow (Passer domesticus) during an outbreak of the disease in New Zealand. Thirty-six house sparrows captured from the wild and free of Salmonella spp were divided into six groups of six birds, housed individually, and inoculated orally with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or 10(1), 10(2), 10(3), 10(5), 2 x 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of the outbreak strain of S. Typhimurium DT160. The birds were observed for 10 days for clinical signs and/or mortality, and faecal samples were collected to determine excretion of S. Typhimurium. The birds were euthanised 11 days post-inoculation (p.i.) and a wide range of tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination, and culture and typing of Salmonella spp. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for the epidemiological typing of S. Typhimurium DT160 isolates. Mortality in house sparrows inoculated with S. Typhimurium DT160 was dose-dependent, and 2/6 birds inoculated with 10(5) cfu and all six birds inoculated with 2 x 10(8) cfu died during the study. Infected sparrows displayed few clinical signs, apart from diarrhoea and/or polyuria, fluffed plumage, and sitting on the floor of the cage. Faecal excretion of DT160 occurred briefly in two birds inoculated with 10(2) cfu and four birds inoculated with 10(3) cfu, on most days in five birds inoculated with 10(5) cfu, and continuously in six birds inoculated with 2 x 10(8) cfu. DT160 was isolated from the livers of three birds which received 10(3) cfu, five birds dosed with 10(5) cfu, and all six birds given 2 x 10(8) cfu. Following necropsy, histopathological lesions similar to those seen in the natural disease were observed in the liver or spleen of three birds which received 10(3) cfu, and all birds

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection traced to contaminated chocolate and caused by a strain lacking the 60-megadalton virulence plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapperud, G; Gustavsen, S; Hellesnes, I; Hansen, A. H.; Lassen, J; Hirn, J.; Jahkola, M; Montenegro, M A; Helmuth, R

    1990-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection, caused by contaminated chocolate produced by one Norwegian company, which occurred in Norway and Finland in 1987. A total of 349 bacteriologically verified cases were recorded in Norway, and 12 cases were recorded in Finland. There was a predominance of young children among the patients (median age, 6 years), many of whom developed acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. The outbreak strain exhibited a rare phage lysis pattern and a characteris...

  8. Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum - evaluation of an animal infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    , evaluation of therapeutic agents as well as for assessment of differences in the clinical response to isolates of diverse genetic background. In conclusion, it was shown that the CPB-0 isolate was pathogenic to calves and piglets at a dose of 2.5 x 10(5) oocysts, and that the clinical signs could...... of oocysts were seen in all animals infected with the CPB-0 isolate. Clinical signs included depression, inappetence, vomiting (exclusively in the piglets), and death. Histological examination at 17 and 19 days post-infection revealed parasitic stages and microscopic changes primarily restricted to colon...... and rectum. The unintended presence of rotavirus in some of the experimental animals revealed an additive or synergistic effect between rotavirus and C. parvum as indicated by prolonged diarrhoea, increased oocyst shedding, decreased weight gain and elevated levels of serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid...

  9. Antibiotic Treatment of Animals Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Wormser, Gary P.; Schwartz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Despite resolution of the objective manifestations of Lyme disease after antibiotic treatment, a minority of patients have fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and/or difficulties with concentration or short-term memory of uncertain etiology; these are called post-Lyme disease symptoms or, in more severe cases, post-Lyme disease syndrome or “chronic Lyme disease.” Several recent studies in which Borrelia burgdorferi-infected animals were treated with antibiotic therapy have demonstrated th...

  10. Epidemiology of Salmonella typhimurium O:4-12 infection in Norway: evidence of transmission from an avian wildlife reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapperud, G; Stenwig, H; Lassen, J

    1998-04-15

    In 1987, a nationwide outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium O:4-12 infection traced to contaminated chocolate bars occurred in Norway. In the 5 years after the outbreak, elevated numbers of sporadic cases caused by the epidemic strain of Salmonella were detected, followed by a decline in subsequent years. To characterize the epidemiology of this infection, the authors analyzed information concerning all sporadic cases reported in Norway from 1966 to 1996. Of the 153 patients infected by the outbreak strain, 43% were less than 5 years of age, and only three persons had acquired the infection abroad. In contrast, 46% of the cases attributable to other S. typhimurium O:4-12 variants and 90% of the total number of Salmonella infections were related to foreign travel. A distinct seasonality was observed: 76% of the cases appeared between January and April. At the same time of year, the epidemic strain was regularly encountered as the etiologic agent of fatal salmonellosis among wild passerine birds, suggesting an epidemiologic link between the avian and human cases. The strain was rarely isolated from other sources. From 1990 to 1992, the authors conducted a prospective case-control study of sporadic indigenous infections to identify risk factors and obtain guidance for preventive efforts. Forty-one case-patients, each matched by age, sex, and geographic area with two population controls, were enrolled. In conditional logistic regression analysis, the following environmental factors were independently related to an increased risk of infection: drinking untreated water, having direct contact with wild birds or their droppings, and eating snow, sand, or soil. Cases were also more likely than controls to report having antecedent or concurrent medical disorders. Forty-six percent of the study patients were hospitalized for their salmonellosis.

  11. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  12. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  13. Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Thompson, Belinda; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Of the 57 S almonella Dublin-positive cases, all were Holstein breed, 53 were female (93%), and 49 (86%) were 90% (45 of 49) of lungs, 90% (28 of 31) of livers, 50% (11 of 22) of spleens, and 62% (18 of 29) of lymph nodes examined had moderate-to-severe inflammation with or without necrosis. Inconstant lesions were seen in 48% (10 of 21) of hearts examined, and consisted of variable inflammatory infiltrates and rare areas of necrosis. We propose a histopathology case definition of Salmonella Dublin in <6-mo-old Holstein cattle that includes a combination of pulmonary alveolar capillary neutrophilia with or without hepatocellular necrosis and paratyphoid granulomas, splenitis, and lymphadenitis. These findings will assist in the development of improved protocols for the diagnosis of infectious diseases of dairy cattle.

  14. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    multidrug-resistant isolates of S. Enteritidis. Nearly half of the children were coinfected with both serovars, a fact expected to aggravate the disease and hamper the treatment. However, particularly poor outcomes were not observed for the coinfected patients. Conclusion: Mixed Salmonella infections could frequently occur in febrile children in Mozambique. Additional studies are required to determine their actual impact and consequences, not only in this country, but also in other African countries. Keywords: invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, bloodstream infection, multidrug resistance, virulence-resistance plasmid, ST313, ST1479

  15. Host and Pathogen Copper-Transporting P-Type ATPases Function Antagonistically during Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Khan, Aslam; Shanbhag, Vinit; Cavet, Jennifer S; Chan, Jefferson; Weisman, Gary A; Petris, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an essential yet potentially toxic trace element that is required by all aerobic organisms. A key regulator of copper homeostasis in mammalian cells is the copper-transporting P-type ATPase ATP7A, which mediates copper transport from the cytoplasm into the secretory pathway, as well as copper export across the plasma membrane. Previous studies have shown that ATP7A-dependent copper transport is required for killing phagocytosed Escherichia coli in a cultured macrophage cell line. In this investigation, we expanded on these studies by generating Atp7a(LysMcre) mice, in which the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in cells of the myeloid lineage, including macrophages. Primary macrophages isolated from Atp7a(LysMcre) mice exhibit decreased copper transport into phagosomal compartments and a reduced ability to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to that of macrophages isolated from wild-type mice. The Atp7a(LysMcre) mice were also more susceptible to systemic infection by S Typhimurium than wild-type mice. Deletion of the S Typhimurium copper exporters, CopA and GolT, was found to decrease infection in wild-type mice but not in the Atp7a(LysMcre) mice. These studies suggest that ATP7A-dependent copper transport into the phagosome mediates host defense against S Typhimurium, which is counteracted by copper export from the bacteria via CopA and GolT. These findings reveal unique and opposing functions for copper transporters of the host and pathogen during infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Monophasic expression of FliC by Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 does not alter its pathogenicity during infection of porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crayford, Georgina; Coombes, Janine L; Humphrey, Tom J; Wigley, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Non-typhoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica remain important food-borne pathogens worldwide and the frequent emergence of epidemic strains in food-producing animals is a risk to public health. In recent years, Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, expressing only phase 1 (FliC) of the two flagellar antigens, have emerged and increased in prevalence worldwide. In Europe, the majority of 4,[5],12:i:- isolates belong to phage types DT193 and DT120 of Salmonella Typhimurium and pigs have been identified as the reservoir species. In this study we investigated the ability of pig-derived monophasic (4,[5],12:i:-) and biphasic DT193 isolates to invade a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1) and activate TLR-5, IL-8 and caspases. We found that the 4,[5],12:i:- isolates exhibited comparable adhesion and invasion to that of the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74, suggesting that these strains could be capable of colonizing the small intestine of pigs in vivo. Infection with 4,[5],12:i:- and biphasic DT193 isolates resulted in approximately the same level of TLR-5 (a flagellin receptor) and IL-8 (a proinflammatory chemokine) mRNA upregulation. The monophasic variants also elicited similar levels of caspase activation and cytotoxicity to the phase-variable DT193 isolates. These findings suggest that failure of 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 isolates to express a second phase of flagellar antigen (FljB) is unlikely to hamper their pathogenicity during colonization of the porcine intestinal tract. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Resistance to antimicrobials drugs and control measures of Salmonella spp in the poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of multiple resistant Salmonella spp is described. Clonally distributed Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are among the most pathogenic strains for humans. Recently there have been reports on the prevalence of ST “like” monophasic 4(5,12:i strains in some countries. Vaccination strategy and antimicorbial agent therapy is also briefly discussed. Products of animal origin must be safe and without the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Subsequently, the good management practice at farm level and HACCP in feed factories are required to cope with salmonella infections. Poultry producers in developed countries have been motivated to participate in salmonella control programs, because of public awareness on safe food and risks in the food chain. Export of poultry and poultry products is more successful in the regions where Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium have been eradicated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  18. Quantification of Salmonella Survival and Infection in an In vitro Model of the Human Intestinal Tract as Proxy for Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Wijnands

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques are available for assessing differences in virulence of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The use of animal models or human volunteers is not expedient for various reasons; the use of epidemiological data is often hampered by lack of crucial data. In this paper, we describe a static, sequential gastrointestinal tract (GIT model system in which foodborne pathogens are exposed to simulated gastric and intestinal contents of the human digestive tract, including the interaction of pathogens with the intestinal epithelium. The system can be employed with any foodborne bacterial pathogens. Five strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and one strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were used to assess the robustness of the system. Four S. Heidelberg strains originated from an outbreak, the fifth S. Heidelberg strain and the S. Typhimurium strain originated from routine meat inspections. Data from plate counts, collected for determining the numbers of surviving bacteria in each stage, were used to quantify both the experimental uncertainty and biological variability of pathogen survival throughout the system. For this, a hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC was employed. The model system is able to distinguish serovars/strains for in vitro infectivity when accounting for within strain biological variability and experimental uncertainty.

  19. Selective Infection of Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes by Salmonella Mediates Bacterial Survival and Systemic Spreading of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souwer, Yuri; Griekspoor, Alexander; de Wit, Jelle; Martinoli, Chiara; Zagato, Elena; Janssen, Hans; Jorritsma, Tineke; Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E.; Rescigno, Maria; Neefjes, Jacques; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Background: The bacterial pathogen Salmonella causes worldwide disease. A major route of intestinal entry involves M cells, providing access to B cell-rich Peyer's Patches. Primary human B cells phagocytose Salmonella typhimurium upon recognition by the specific surface Ig receptor (BCR). As it is

  20. A FRET-Based DNA Biosensor Tracks OmpR-Dependent Acidification of Salmonella during Macrophage Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Smarajit; Mizusaki, Hideaki; Kenney, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, one paradigm for signal transduction is the two-component regulatory system, consisting of a sensor kinase (usually a membrane protein) and a response regulator (usually a DNA binding protein). The EnvZ/OmpR two-component system responds to osmotic stress and regulates expression of outer membrane proteins. In Salmonella, EnvZ/OmpR also controls expression of another two-component system SsrA/B, which is located on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI) 2. SPI-2 encodes a type III secretion system, which functions as a nanomachine to inject bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the intracellular phase of infection, Salmonella switches from assembling type III secretion system structural components to secreting effectors into the macrophage cytoplasm, enabling Salmonella to replicate in the phagocytic vacuole. Major questions remain regarding how bacteria survive the acidified vacuole and how acidification affects bacterial secretion. We previously reported that EnvZ sensed cytoplasmic signals rather than extracellular ones, as intracellular osmolytes altered the dynamics of a 17-amino-acid region flanking the phosphorylated histidine. We reasoned that the Salmonella cytoplasm might acidify in the macrophage vacuole to activate OmpR-dependent transcription of SPI-2 genes. To address these questions, we employed a DNA-based FRET biosensor (“I-switch”) to measure bacterial cytoplasmic pH and immunofluorescence to monitor effector secretion during infection. Surprisingly, we observed a rapid drop in bacterial cytoplasmic pH upon phagocytosis that was not predicted by current models. Cytoplasmic acidification was completely dependent on the OmpR response regulator, but did not require known OmpR-regulated genes such as ompC, ompF, or ssaC (SPI-2). Microarray analysis highlighted the cadC/BA operon, and additional experiments confirmed that it was repressed by OmpR. Acidification was blocked in the ompR null background in a Cad

  1. Severe infection with multidrug-resistant Salmonella choleraesuis in a young patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Philip G; Reinheimer, Claudia; Jozsa, Katalin; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kempf, Volkhard Aj; Waidmann, Oliver; Grammatikos, Georgios

    2017-03-21

    Massive global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella spp. expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and additional resistance to fluoroquinolones has often been attributed to high international mobility as well as excessive use of oral antibiotics in livestock farming. However, MDR Salmonella spp. have not been mentioned as a widespread pathogen in clinical settings so far. We demonstrate the case of a 25-year-old male with primary sclerosing cholangitis who tested positive for MDR Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis expressing ESBL and fluoroquinolone resistance. The pathogen was supposedly acquired during a trip to Thailand, causing severe fever, cholangitis and pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in Europe expressing such a multidrug resistance pattern. ESBL resistance of Salmonella enterica spp. should be considered in patients with obstructive biliary tract pathology and travel history in endemic countries.

  2. Microbiological, clinical and molecular findings of non-typhoidal Salmonella bloodstream infections associated with malaria, Oriental Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falay, Dadi; Kuijpers, Laura Maria Francisca; Phoba, Marie-France; De Boeck, Hilde; Lunguya, Octavie; Vakaniaki, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Vanhoof, Raymond; Devlieger, Hugo; Van Geet, Chris; Verheyen, Erik; Ngbonda, Dauly; Jacobs, Jan

    2016-06-10

    In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) can cause bloodstream infections, referred to as invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella disease (iNTS disease); it can occur in outbreaks and is often preceded by malaria. Data from Central Africa is limited. Clinical, microbiological and molecular findings of NTS recovered in a blood culture surveillance project (2009-2014) were analyzed. In March-July 2012 there was an epidemic increase in malaria infections in the Oriental Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In one referral hospital, overall hospital admissions in June 2012 were 2.6 times higher as compared to the same period in the years before and after (336 versus an average of 128 respectively); numbers of malaria cases and blood transfusions were nearly three- and five-fold higher respectively (317 versus 112 and 250 versus 55). Case fatality rates (in-hospital deaths versus all admissions) peaked at 14.6 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis together accounted for 88.9 % of pathogens isolated from blood cultures collected during an outreach visit to the affected districts in June 2012. Children infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (33 patient files available) tended to be co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum more often than children infected with Salmonella Typhimurium (40 patients files available) (81.8 % versus 62.5 %). Through the microbiological surveillance project (May 2009-May 2014) 113 unique NTS isolates were collected (28.5 % (113/396) of pathogens); most (95.3 %) were recovered from children Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 54) and Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 56) accounted for 47.8 % and of 49.6 % NTS isolates respectively. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed more heterogeneity for Salmonella Typhimurium than for Salmonella Enteritidis. Most (82/96, 85.4 %) NTS isolates that were available for antibiotic susceptibility testing were multidrug resistant. All isolates

  3. Effects of Salmonella typhimurium Infection and Ofloxacin Treatment on Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism in Caco-2/TC-7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Posho, Leta; Delbos-Bocage, Laurence; Gueylard, Delphine; Farinotti, Robert; Carbon, Claude

    1998-01-01

    The effects of both Salmonella typhimurium infection and 5 mM ofloxacin treatment on 2 mM glutamine and 5 mM glucose metabolism in the enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC-7 cell line were studied. These cells utilized glutamine (212.07 ± 16.75 [mean ± standard deviation] nmol per h per 106 viable cells) and, to a lesser extent, glucose (139.63 ± 11.52 nmol per h per 106 viable cells). Metabolism of these substrates in Caco-2/TC-7 cells resembled that in rat, pig, or human enterocytes. Infection by S. t...

  4. Bayesian Modeling of MPSS Data: Gene Expression Analysis of Bovine Salmonella Infection

    KAUST Repository

    Dhavala, Soma S.

    2010-09-01

    Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) is a high-throughput, counting-based technology available for gene expression profiling. It produces output that is similar to Serial Analysis of Gene Expression and is ideal for building complex relational databases for gene expression. Our goal is to compare the in vivo global gene expression profiles of tissues infected with different strains of Salmonella obtained using the MPSS technology. In this article, we develop an exact ANOVA type model for this count data using a zero-inflatedPoisson distribution, different from existing methods that assume continuous densities. We adopt two Bayesian hierarchical models-one parametric and the other semiparametric with a Dirichlet process prior that has the ability to "borrow strength" across related signatures, where a signature is a specific arrangement of the nucleotides, usually 16-21 base pairs long. We utilize the discreteness of Dirichlet process prior to cluster signatures that exhibit similar differential expression profiles. Tests for differential expression are carried out using nonparametric approaches, while controlling the false discovery rate. We identify several differentially expressed genes that have important biological significance and conclude with a summary of the biological discoveries. This article has supplementary materials online. © 2010 American Statistical Association.

  5. Characterization of endolysin from a Salmonella Typhimurium-infecting bacteriophage SPN1S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-04-01

    The full genome sequence of bacteriophage SPN1S, which infects Salmonella, contains genes that encode homologues of holin, endolysin and Rz/Rz1-like accessory proteins, which are 4 phage lysis proteins. The ability of these proteins to lyse Escherichia coli cells when overexpressed was evaluated. In contrast to other endolysins, the expression of endolysin and Rz/Rz1-like proteins was sufficient to cause lysis. The endolysin was tagged with oligohistidine at the N-terminus and purified by affinity chromatography. The endolysin has a lysozyme-like superfamily domain, and its activity was much stronger than that of lysozyme from chicken egg white. We used the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to increase outer membrane permeability, and it greatly enhanced the lytic activity of SPN1S endolysin. The antimicrobial activity of endolysin was stable over broad pH and temperature ranges and was active from pH 7.0 to 10.5 and from 25 °C to 45 °C. The SPN1S endolysin could kill most of the tested Gram-negative strains, but the Gram-positive strains were resistant. SPN1S endolysin, like lysozyme, cleaves the glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan. These results suggested that SPN1S endolysin has potential as a therapeutic agent against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation into an unusual increase of human cases of Salmonella Goldcoast infection in Hungary in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, J K; Mengel, M; Krisztalovics, K; Nogrady, N; Pászti, J; Lenglet, A; Takkinen, J

    2013-03-14

    We describe the outbreak investigation associated with an unusual increase in Salmonella Goldcoast cases in Hungary observed in autumn 2009, which included descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies and microbiological and veterinary investigations. Sixty cases were identified between 1 January 2009 and 1 March 2010, 50 of them from late July 2009 to January 2010. Of 50 S. Goldcoast isolates, 44 showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. We conducted a matched case-control study that indicated a statistically significant association between S. Goldcoast infection and the consumption of pork cheese. The majority of cases (seven of nine) reporting consumption of this product belonged to a single family cluster. After removing six cases of this cluster, pork cheese still showed an elevated but non-significant risk for being a case in the univariable analysis (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (MH OR): 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-39.47). A single S. Goldcoast isolate was identified during routine veterinary surveillance activities in 2009 in minced beef from a butcher's shop, originating from an abattoir where also pigs were slaughtered. We conclude that the outbreak was probably due to multiple sources of contaminated meat, probably pork, released on the market over a period of several months in 2009.

  7. Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Karen L; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others. The impact of JEV infection is particularly apparent in pigs. Although infection in adult swine does not result in symptomatic disease, it is considered a significant reproductive problem causing abortion, still-birth and birth defects. Infected piglets can display fatal neurological disease. Equines are also infected, resulting in non-specific signs including pyrexia, but occasionally leading to overt neurological disease that in extreme cases can lead to death. Veterinary vaccination is available for both pigs and horses. This review of JEV disease in livestock considers the current diagnostic techniques available for detection of the virus. Options for disease control and prevention within the veterinary sector are discussed. Such measures are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with Acquisition of Human Infective and Animal Infective Trypanosome Infections in Domestic Livestock in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wissmann, Beatrix; Machila, Noreen; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M.; deC. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian G.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis is regarded as a constraint on livestock production in Western Kenya where the responsibility for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control has increasingly shifted from the state to the individual livestock owner. To assess the sustainability of these localised control efforts, this study investigates biological and management risk factors associated with trypanosome infections detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in a range of domestic livestock at the local scale in Busia, Kenya. Busia District also remains endemic for human sleeping sickness with sporadic cases of sleeping sickness reported. Results In total, trypanosome infections were detected in 11.9% (329) out of the 2773 livestock sampled in Busia District. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that host species and cattle age affected overall trypanosome infection, with significantly increased odds of infection for cattle older than 18 months, and significantly lower odds of infection in pigs and small ruminants. Different grazing and watering management practices did not affect the odds of trypanosome infection, adjusted by host species. Neither anaemia nor condition score significantly affected the odds of trypanosome infection in cattle. Human infective Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in 21.5% of animals infected with T. brucei s.l. (29/135) amounting to 1% (29/2773) of all sampled livestock, with significantly higher odds of T. brucei rhodesiense infections in T. brucei s.l. infected pigs (OR = 4.3, 95%CI 1.5-12.0) than in T. brucei s.l. infected cattle or small ruminants. Conclusions Although cattle are the dominant reservoir of trypanosome infection it is unlikely that targeted treatment of only visibly diseased cattle will achieve sustainable interruption of transmission for either animal infective or zoonotic human infective trypanosomiasis, since most infections were detected in cattle that did not exhibit classical clinical signs of

  9. Comparison Study on Colonization of hilA Mutant and Parent Strains of Salmonella enteritidis in Vertically Infected Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadSadegh Madadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella actively stimulates its own uptake into the epithelial cells by inducing cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane ruffling triggered by some proteins secreted by Salmonella into the cytosol of the epithelial cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS encoded bygenes of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1. hilA is a transcriptional activator encoded on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 genes.Methods: To assess the importance of hilA in a simulation modeling of vertical infection and shedding of S. enteritidis in broiler chickens a long-term experiment was designed. Two groups of 200 fertile eggs were inoculated with 20 colony forming units (CFU of hilA mutant of S. enteritidis or its parent strain just prior to incubation. Thirty five birds of each group were housed in separate rooms. On days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of age, cloacal swabs from live birds as well as samples from internal organs (intestinal tract, liver and spleen were evaluated by bacteriological or molecular methods.Results: In most of sampling days colonization and invasion of parent strain S. enteritidis in intestine (especially ceaca and internal organs of chickens were higher with compared to its hilA mutant but this mutant strain could still colonize in intestinal tract and even invade liver or spleen.Conclusion: Colonization of hilA mutant of S. enteritidis indicated that hilA gene is only one part of the modulators in Salmonella invasion mechanism. The ability of hilA mutant to multiply and persist in host internal organs including ceaca may promise further research for potential of hilA mutant to prevent the initial colonization of the intestinal tract by a virulent S. enteritidis strain

  10. Antimicrobial Probiotics Reduce Salmonella enterica in Turkey Gastrointestinal Tracts

    OpenAIRE

    Brittany Forkus; Seth Ritter; Michail Vlysidis; Kathryn Geldart; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the arsenal of technologies employed to control foodborne nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), infections have not declined in decades. Poultry is the primary source of NTS outbreaks, as well as the fastest growing meat sector worldwide. With recent FDA rules for phasing-out antibiotics in animal production, pressure is mounting to develop new pathogen reduction strategies. We report on a technology to reduce Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. We engineered probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, to...

  11. The effect on the virulence and infectivity of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella gallinarum of acquiring antibiotic resistance plasmids from organisms that had caused serious outbreaks of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H W; Tucker, J F

    1979-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance plasmids from organisms that had caused serious epidemics, including those responsible for epidemics of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever and dysentery in Central America, were transferred to a strain of Salmonella typhimurium and of Salmonella gallinarum. The virulence and infectivity of these R(+) forms were then compared with the R(-) parent forms in orally inoculated chickens.None of the R(+) forms were more virulent than their R(-) parent forms. The mortality rates they produced were either the same as or less than that of their R(-) parent forms. The mortality rates were not increased by feeding the chickens on diets containing antibiotics against which the plasmids provided resistance.The removal of the plasmids from some R(+) forms of decreased virulence was not accompanied by any alteration in virulence, indicating that they were less virulent mutants of the parent strain that had conjugated preferentially. In other cases their virulence was increased, indicating that the very possession of the plasmid was involved in their decreased virulence. Of four forms of the S. gallinarum strain harbouring the plasmid that had been incriminated in the Central American dysentery outbreak, one was as virulent as the parent R(-) form and the other three were less virulent. Preferential conjugation by an avirulent mutant was responsible for the lack of virulence of one of them but the very possession of the plasmid appeared responsible for the decreased virulence of the other two. The decreased virulence of de-repressed F(+) and I(+) forms of the S. typhimurium strain was increased to that of repressed F(+) form and of the parent form by plasmid removal.Organisms of the R(+) forms of the S. typhimurium strain were not excreted in larger amounts or for longer periods of time by infected chickens than organisms of the R(-) parent form were. Neither did organisms of the R(+) forms of this strain or the S. gallinarum strain spread more rapidly or

  12. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  13. Pig as a favorable animal for Taenia saginata asiatica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Win-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Yung; Wu, Chin-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM), 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM), and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL). We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis). We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%), L-SEM (83%, 1.1%), and DYL (100%, 0.3%) pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%), L-SEM (100%, 5.6%), and DYL (100%, 0.06%) pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22%) and L-SEM (100%, 1.6%) pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06%) pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11%) pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005%) pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2%) pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%), Korea (100%, 0.03%), Thailand (100%, 0.2%), and the Philippines (100%, 6%); however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01%) and Korea (50%, 0.02%), while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%). However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/ or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  14. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  15. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of Entre Rios in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J; Pascal, D; Crespo, E; Schell, H L; Trinidad, J A; Bueno, D J

    2011-04-01

    The present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection in backyard chickens located in Entre Ríos, Argentina, over 3 periods of time. A total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of Entre Ríos from January to May 2003 (first period), December 2004 to April 2005 (second period), and October 2006 to May 2007 (third period). The prevalence of family farms testing seropositive for Salmonella averaged 23.9, 15.9, and 28.6% during the first, second, and third period, respectively. The highest prevalence of Salmonella-seropositive farms recorded (66.7%) was on farms from Concordia county, and the lowest prevalence (0%) was on farms from La Paz county. In contrast, the prevalence of family farms seropositive for MG averaged 32.8, 55.1, and 76.2% during the first, second, and third periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MG-seropositive farms (100%) was found in the counties of Victoria and Tala, and the lowest prevalence (8.7%) was found on farms on Colón county. The prevalence of family farms seropositive for MS averaged 68.6 and 100% during the first and second periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MS-seropositive farms (100%) was on farms in 85% of the counties tested, and the lowest prevalence (21.7%) was on farms from Colón county. Salmonella, MG, and MS infection are present at high levels in backyard chicken farms, and this presents a high risk to commercial poultry production in Entre Ríos, the state with the highest chicken population and density in Argentina.

  16. Salmonella Vaccination in Pigs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2017-02-01

    The control of Salmonella enterica in pig production is necessary for both public and animal health. The persistent and frequently asymptomatic nature of porcine Salmonella infection and the organism's abilities to colonize other animal species and to survive in the environment mean that effective control generally requires multiple measures. Vaccination is one such measure, and the present review considers its role and its future, drawing on studies in pigs from the 1950s to the present day. Once established in the body as an intracellular infectious agent, Salmonella can evade humoral immunity, which goes some way to explaining the often disappointing performance of inactivated Salmonella vaccines. More recent approaches, using mucosal presentation of antigens, live vaccines and adjuvants to enhance cell-mediated immunity, have met with more success. Vaccination strategies that involve stimulating both passive immunity from the dam plus active immunity in offspring appear to be most efficacious, although either approach alone can yield significant control of Salmonella. Problems that remain include relatively poor control of Salmonella serovars that are dissimilar to the vaccine antigen mix, and difficulties in measuring and predicting the performance of candidate vaccines in ways that are highly relevant to their likely use in commercial production. © 2016 Crown copyright. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis infection of the porcine jejunal Peyer’s patch rapidly induces IL-1β and IL-8 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Kendra A.; Brown, David R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is an enteric pathogen of swine, producing septicemia, enterocolitis, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The initial molecular events at the site of Salmonella infection are hypothesized to be critical in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses; however the acute immune response elicited by porcine intestinal tissues is not well understood. To address this need, we employed explants of jejunal Peyer’s patch (JPP) mucosa from pigs to examine Salmo...

  18. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production ...

  19. Dermatophilus congolensis infection (Dermatophilosis) in animals and man! An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaria, L T

    1993-07-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis infection (dermatophilosis) is an acute, subacute or chronic skin disease affecting a wide range of species of animals and man. It is world widely distributed but more prevalent in the humid, tropics and subtropics. The disease is now being reviewed in detail. In the present review, the geographical distribution, history and nomenclature, animal hosts affected, aetiological agent and clinical signs of the disease are discussed extensively. Emphasis is also given on the predisposing factors such as rainfall, humidity, ectoparasites etc. under epizootiology. Pathogenesis, pathology, immunology treatment, control and prophylaxis are other areas well covered. The economic importance of the disease is also stressed and a new approach (biological approach) to treatment and control of the disease is being described in this review. It was concluded that in view of the importance of the disease for the increase of livestock and leather production in the tropical and subtropical region especially in Africa, an international centre for dermatophilosis research is highly needed.

  20. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

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    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  1. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

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    Eri eNakayama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus, respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using nonhuman primates (NHPs and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  2. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF) are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus), respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using non-human primates (NHPs) and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics. PMID:24046765

  3. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, J; Andersson, G; Vigre, H; Norling, B; Häggblom, P; Hoorfar, J; Rådström, P; Löfström, C

    2014-01-01

    Three pre-PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation-qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN-PCR (modified most probable number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1·8 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0·02 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 × 10(2) -7·8 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) (flotation-qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g(-1) (MPN-PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Salmonella enterica Subclinical Infection: Bacteriological, Serological, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles—Longitudinal Study in a Three-Site Farrow-to-Finish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, German B.; Cappuccio, Javier A.; Salve, Angela; Machuca, Mariana A.; Quiroga, Maria A.; Moredo, Fabiana; Giacoboni, Gabriel; Cancer, Jose L.; Caffer, Ines G.; Binsztein, Norma; Pichel, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this surveillance was to study both Salmonella spp. shedding patterns and the time course of serological response in farrow-to-finish reared pigs from a subclinically infected farm. Antimicrobial resistance profile, molecular subtyping, and the relationship among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A farrow-to-finish farm of 6000 sows, with a history of Salmonella Typhimurium septicemia, was selected. A longitudinal bacteriological and serological study was conducted in 25 sows before farrowing (M/S1) and in 50 offspring at 21 (M/S2), 35 (M/S3), 65 (M/S4), 86 (M/S5), 128 (M/S6), and 165 (M/S7) days of age. Serum antibodies were tested using Herdcheck® Swine Salmonella antibody test kit (Idexx Laboratories, ME). Bacteria were isolated from pooled fecal samples. Suspected isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical assays, and those identified as Salmonella spp. were serotyped. A variation between seropositive percentages and positive fecal samples was observed. Serologically positive pigs decreased from S1 to S4, and subsequently increased from S4 to S7. The percentages of fecal positive culture increased from M1 to M3, and then declined in M4, increased in M5, and were negative in M6 and M7. In the study three serovars, Salmonella 3,10:e,h:-, Salmonella Muenster, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans, were identified with low pathogenicity for swine. Three multidrug resistance strains (one belonged to Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- and two belonged to Salmonella Muenster) were found. PFGE results showed three different but closely related patterns among the 13 isolates of Salmonella Bovismorbificans, and two patterns for the three Salmonella Muenster and Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- isolates. This longitudinal study established critical points of Salmonella spp. infection in the farm and the production stages, where appropriate control measures must be taken. PFGE showed clonal relationships in each serovar. Antibiotic

  5. Salmonella enterica subclinical infection: bacteriological, serological, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial resistance profiles--longitudinal study in a three-site farrow-to-finish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, German B; Cappuccio, Javier A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Salve, Angela; Machuca, Mariana A; Quiroga, Maria A; Moredo, Fabiana; Giacoboni, Gabriel; Cancer, Jose L; Caffer, Ines G; Binsztein, Norma; Pichel, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos J

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this surveillance was to study both Salmonella spp. shedding patterns and the time course of serological response in farrow-to-finish reared pigs from a subclinically infected farm. Antimicrobial resistance profile, molecular subtyping, and the relationship among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A farrow-to-finish farm of 6000 sows, with a history of Salmonella Typhimurium septicemia, was selected. A longitudinal bacteriological and serological study was conducted in 25 sows before farrowing (M/S1) and in 50 offspring at 21 (M/S2), 35 (M/S3), 65 (M/S4), 86 (M/S5), 128 (M/S6), and 165 (M/S7) days of age. Serum antibodies were tested using Herdcheck((R)) Swine Salmonella antibody test kit (Idexx Laboratories, ME). Bacteria were isolated from pooled fecal samples. Suspected isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical assays, and those identified as Salmonella spp. were serotyped. A variation between seropositive percentages and positive fecal samples was observed. Serologically positive pigs decreased from S1 to S4, and subsequently increased from S4 to S7. The percentages of fecal positive culture increased from M1 to M3, and then declined in M4, increased in M5, and were negative in M6 and M7. In the study three serovars, Salmonella 3,10:e,h:-, Salmonella Muenster, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans, were identified with low pathogenicity for swine. Three multidrug resistance strains (one belonged to Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- and two belonged to Salmonella Muenster) were found. PFGE results showed three different but closely related patterns among the 13 isolates of Salmonella Bovismorbificans, and two patterns for the three Salmonella Muenster and Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- isolates. This longitudinal study established critical points of Salmonella spp. infection in the farm and the production stages, where appropriate control measures must be taken. PFGE showed clonal relationships in each serovar. Antibiotic

  6. An incomplete TCA cycle increases survival of Salmonella Typhimurium during infection of resting and activated murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Steven D; Ramachandran, Vinoy K; Knudsen, Gitte M; Hinton, Jay C D; Thompson, Arthur

    2010-11-08

    In comparison to the comprehensive analyses performed on virulence gene expression, regulation and action, the intracellular metabolism of Salmonella during infection is a relatively under-studied area. We investigated the role of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the intracellular replication of Salmonella Typhimurium in resting and activated macrophages, epithelial cells, and during infection of mice. We constructed deletion mutations of 5 TCA cycle genes in S. Typhimurium including gltA, mdh, sdhCDAB, sucAB, and sucCD. We found that the mutants exhibited increased net intracellular replication in resting and activated murine macrophages compared to the wild-type. In contrast, an epithelial cell infection model showed that the S. Typhimurium ΔsucCD and ΔgltA strains had reduced net intracellular replication compared to the wild-type. The glyoxylate shunt was not responsible for the net increased replication of the TCA cycle mutants within resting macrophages. We also confirmed that, in a murine infection model, the S. Typhimurium ΔsucAB and ΔsucCD strains are attenuated for virulence. Our results suggest that disruption of the TCA cycle increases the ability of S. Typhimurium to survive within resting and activated murine macrophages. In contrast, epithelial cells are non-phagocytic cells and unlike macrophages cannot mount an oxidative and nitrosative defence response against pathogens; our results show that in HeLa cells the S. Typhimurium TCA cycle mutant strains show reduced or no change in intracellular levels compared to the wild-type. The attenuation of the S. Typhimurium ΔsucAB and ΔsucCD mutants in mice, compared to their increased net intracellular replication in resting and activated macrophages suggest that Salmonella may encounter environments within the host where a complete TCA cycle is advantageous.

  7. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar; Vigre, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    methods, using 2·5, 50 and 25 g of feed, respectively, resulting in detection of Salmonella in 6, 15 and 9 bags. Enumeration resulted in 1·8 × 102–7·8 × 103 CFU g−1 (flotation‐qPCR) and 0·024 to >5·2 MPN g−1 (MPN‐PCR). Except for differences in methodology, results obtained with the three techniques could...... be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can...... be applied to generate data to allow more accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment for Salmonella in the feed chain....

  8. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Oshota

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S. enterica adapts in vivo to sustain cell division and survival. We have studied the transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux of Salmonella, and the transcriptome of the host during infection of wild type C57BL/6 and immune-deficient gp91-/-phox mice. Our analyses advance the understanding of how S. enterica and the host behaves during infection to a more sophisticated level than has previously been reported.

  9. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 infection in British tourists visiting Mallorca, June 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, P; Ward, Linda; Crespi, S; Furtado, C

    1997-01-01

    Three British tourists became ill while on holiday in the same hotel in Alcudia, Mallorca from 11 to 25 June 1996; Salmonella enteritidisinfections were diagnosed upon their return to England. An environmental health officer informed the Gastrointestinal

  10. Preliminary assessment of the risk of Salmonella infection in dogs fed raw chicken diets

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Daniel J.; Schlesinger, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary study assessed the presence of Salmonella spp. in a bones and raw food (BARF) diet and in the stools of dogs consuming it. Salmonella was isolated from 80% of the BARF diet samples (P < 0.001) and from 30% of the stool samples from dogs fed the diet (P = 0.105). Dogs fed raw chicken may therefore be a source of environmental contamination.

  11. Characterization of the Emerging Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- in Danish Animal Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argüello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2014-01-01

    animals, swine (86), cattle (7), and poultry (1), with well-defined identification was further typed by polymerase chain reaction serotyping, phage typing, and molecular typing (polymerase chain reaction and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis [MLVA]). Moreover, the determination...... of antimicrobial resistance pattern of each isolate was tested. In 68 of the isolates the fljB gene was absent (i.e., they were true monophasic strains), whereas in 26 isolates, the gene was present despite the fact that the isolates did not express it. The results clustered the isolates in three main pulse...... in Danish food animal production with well-characterized clones that are described by previous studies, demonstrating the emergence and spread of this serotype in Denmark....

  12. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, G; Forshell, L P; Jensen, T; Nygard, K; Kapperud, G; Lindstedt, B A; Berglund, T; Wingstrand, A; Petersen, R F; Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Ivarsson, S; Hjertqvist, M; Löfdahl, S; Ethelberg, S

    2009-03-12

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries and tracing the source. This outbreak illustrates that good international communication channels, early alerting mechanisms, inter-sectoral collaboration between public health and food safety authorities and harmonised molecular typing tools are important for effective identification and management of cross-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common.

  14. Technical note: Development of a feed matrix as inoculum in Salmonella infection studies in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, R; Oudshoorn, A-K; Roubos-van den Hil, P J

    2017-07-01

    Current methods used for oral administration of pathogens to piglets are stressful for the animals because of fixation and use of inoculation methods such as oral gavage. In the present study an alternative way to challenge piglets with Typhimurium (ST) is investigated. The strategy was to incorporate the in a feed matrix, which is fed to the piglets and eaten voluntary. Different types of feed matrices were tested for their absorption capacity, handling properties, and palatability to piglets. Furthermore, the viability of ST in feed matrices was studied. The ST could be incorporated in ladyfinger biscuits; a 2-cm piece absorbs 1 mL of culture media. The ladyfinger biscuits were very well accepted by the piglets. After a short training period, the piglets consumed the -incorporated biscuits out of the feeding trough. In this way the animals were infected in a more natural way and without stress. The safety of farm workers was also increased because the incorporated ST results in less spoilage and spreading of ST during the infections. Results indicated that the ST cell count was reduced by only 0.2 log unit to 8.7 log cfu per inoculum after 24 h at 4°C incorporation of ST into the biscuits, which is sufficient for an infection study and indicates excellent viability of the . The viability was also indicated by increased fecal shedding of ST. Thus, it is concluded that ladyfinger biscuits are a suitable matrix to challenge piglets with ST.

  15. Analysis of pools of targeted Salmonella deletion mutants identifies novel genes affecting fitness during competitive infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Santiviago

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS.

  16. Pesti Des Petits ruminants virus infection in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan H.C.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries morbillivirus infections have had a huge impact on both human beings and animals. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals world wide. They include measles virus (MV, canine distemper virus (CDV, rinderpest virus (RPV and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV virus. Furthermore, new emerging infectious diseases of morbilliviruses with significant ecological consequences of marine mammals have been discovered in the past decades. Phocid distemper virus (PDV in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV have been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious ,infectious , an acute or sub acute viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Goats are more severely affected than sheep. It is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, pest of sheep and goats, kata, stomatitis- pneumoentritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis and pneumoentritis complex. It is one of the major notifiable diseases of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 150-155

  17. Animal Models, Prophylaxis, and Therapeutics for Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans, limited treatment options, and potential as a bio-weapon, the development of prophylactics and therapeutics is essential. This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to treat arenavirus infection.

  18. Effects of mannoprotein E1 in liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression in the gut of rats infected by Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Largo Carlota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannoproteins are yeast cell wall componend, and rich in mannose. The use of foods rich in mannose as carbohydrate, could have a bioprotective effect against entrobacteria intestinal infection. Nothing is known about mannoproteins' activity in inflammatory bowel processes induced by entrobacteria. This study investigates the effects of mannoprotein administration via a liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression during intestinal tissue injury in a rat model of infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Methods Adult Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: control, and mannoprotein E1 at 10 or 15%. Animals were fed with a liquid diet supplemented or not with mannoprotein E1. Groups were infected by intragastrical administration of S. typhimurium. 24 h post-inoculation samples of spleen, ileum and liver were collected for microbiological studies. Gut samples were processed to determine levels of proinflammatory cytokines (mRNA and TLR5 (mRNA and protein by quantitative PCR and Western-blot, and the number of proliferative and apoptotic cells determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Ininfected levels of proinflammatory cytokines and TLR5 were higher in untreated controls than in the animals receiving mannoprotein. Proliferation was similar in both groups, whereas apoptosis was higher in controls. Curiosly, the mannoprotein effect was dose dependent. Conclusions Mannoprotein administration in a liquid diet seems to protect intestinal tissue against S. typhimurium infection. This protection seems to expressed as a lower pro-inflammatory response and TLR5 downregulation in gut epithelium, as well as by an inhibition of apoptosis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which mannoprotein is able to regulate these responses remain unclear. These results could open up new avenues in the use of mannoproteins as prebiotics in the therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory gut processes induced by microbia.

  19. Highly resistant Salmonella Newport-MDRAmpC transmitted through the domestic US food supply: a FoodNet case-control study of sporadic Salmonella Newport infections, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Jay K; Marcus, Ruthanne; Stenzel, Sara A; Hanna, Samir S; Gettner, Sharmeen; Anderson, Bridget J; Hayes, Tameka; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Crume, Tessa L; Joyce, Kevin; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Voetsch, Andrew C; Angulo, Frederick J

    2006-07-15

    A new multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain of Salmonella serotype Newport, Newport-MDRAmpC, has recently emerged. We sought to identify the medical, behavioral, and dietary risk factors for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Newport infection, including that with Newport-MDRAmpC. A 12-month population-based case-control study was conducted during 2002-2003 in 8 sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), with 215 case patients with Salmonella Newport infection and 1154 healthy community control subjects. Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were more likely than control subjects to have taken an antimicrobial agent to which Newport-MDRAmpC is resistant during the 28 days before the onset of diarrheal illness (odds ratio [OR], 5.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.6-16]). Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were also more likely to have eaten uncooked ground beef (OR, 7.8 [95% CI, 1.4-44]) or runny scrambled eggs or omelets prepared in the home (OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 1.3-19]) during the 5 days before the onset of illness. International travel was not a risk factor for Newport-MDRAmpC infection but was a strong risk factor for pansusceptible Salmonella Newport infection (OR, 7.1 [95% CI, 2.0-24]). Case patients with pansusceptible infection were also more likely to have a frog or lizard in their household (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.1-7.7]). Newport-MDRAmpC infection is acquired through the US food supply, most likely from bovine and, perhaps, poultry sources, particularly among persons already taking antimicrobial agents.

  20. Temporal changes in the expression of avian β-defensins in the chicken vagina during sexual maturation and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Maria; Avdi, Melpomeni; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Michailidis, Georgios

    2013-06-01

    Avian β-defensins (AvβDs) constitute a family of antimicrobial peptides that are critical to innate immunity in chickens, providing protection against microbial pathogens including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). As apart from the digestive tract another main route of SE colonization in birds is via infection of the oviduct and specifically of the vagina, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the complete family of AvβDs, in the chicken vagina in vivo, to determine whether sexual maturation affects their mRNA abundance and to investigate whether SE infection alters the vaginal AvβDs expression. Expression analysis revealed that 11 members of the AvβD family were expressed in the chicken vagina. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA abundance of five AvβDs was up regulated and of one AvβD was down regulated with respect to sexual maturation. In addition SE infection resulted in a significant induction of AvβD5, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 14 in the vagina of sexually mature birds, and in a significant induction of AvβD5 and 11 in the vagina of aged birds. These findings provide strong evidence to suggest that an AvβD-mediated immune response mechanism exists in the chicken vagina providing protection against bacterial pathogens including Salmonella species.

  1. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  2. Recurrent outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in a Texas restaurant: phage type 4 arrives in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, T. G.; Koo, D.; Swerdlow, D. L.; Gomez, T. M.; Serrano, B.; Nickey, L. N.; Hickman-Brenner, F. W.; Malcolm, G. B.; Griffin, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years infection caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 has spread through Europe but has been uncommon in the USA. The first recognized outbreak of this strain in the USA occurred in a Chinese restaurant in EI Paso, Texas, in April 1993; no source was identified. In September 1993, a second outbreak caused by SE phage type 4 was associated with the same restaurant. To determine the cause of the second outbreak, we compared food exposures of the 19 patients with ...

  3. A study of Salmonella Spp. contamination in egg of ducks and turkeys, consumed in Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Ghorbani ranjbary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Salmonella is a short rod shape, gram-negative, non-encapsulated, aerobic and anaerobic options that cause food poisoning in humans. Raw food of animal origin, particularly meat and eggs of birds have important role in the transfer of this disease. Since duck and turkey eggs are very important in the transmission of Salmonellosis and consuming of local and non-industrial eggs of ducks and turkeys in this area is common, the present study was performed to clarify the prevalence of salmonella contamination. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 300 native duck and turkey eggs were collected and transferred to the lab. In laboratory after sampling from surface of the eggs shell were disinfected with 80% ethanol and contents of 5 duck and turkey eggs, sparately mixed in special dishes. After 24 hr incubation at 37°C with a swab in selenite - F broth were inoculated. Samples were transferred to Salmonella - Shigella agar from selenite-f environment. After incubation in 37°C, colonies suspected to Salmonella were evaluated. Suspicious colonies in the TSI and lysine decarboxylase environments were inoculated. And bacteria that had reactions related to Salmonella, were studied by PCR with specific primers for Salmonella and serotypes of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Results: A total of 300 eggs of ducks and turkeys ,7 cases (2.3% were contaminated with Salmonella, and from 7 unclean egg s shell , 1 case of turkey egg shell (0.66% was infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. And 6 duck eggs shell (4% were infected, that all of the serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium. Conclusion: Regarding the present study, and other researches, it can be concluded that the Salmonella infection in the duck and turkey eggs were less than poultry eggs and it seems that vertical transmission of Salmonella in the turkeys and ducks was less than poultry.

  4. Oral Delivery of a Novel Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Expressing Influenza A Virus Proteins Protects Mice against H5N1 and H1N1 Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenglin Pei

    Full Text Available Attenuated strains of invasive enteric bacteria, such as Salmonella, represent promising gene delivery agents for nucleic acid-based vaccines as they can be administrated orally. In this study, we constructed a novel attenuated strain of Salmonella for the delivery and expression of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. We showed that the constructed Salmonella strain exhibited efficient gene transfer activity for HA and NA expression and little cytotoxicity and pathogenicity in mice. Using BALB/c mice as the model, we evaluated the immune responses and protection induced by the constructed Salmonella-based vaccine. Our study showed that the Salmonella-based vaccine induced significant production of anti-HA serum IgG and mucosal IgA, and of anti-HA interferon-γ producing T cells in orally vaccinated mice. Furthermore, mice orally vaccinated with the Salmonella vaccine expressing viral HA and NA proteins were completely protected from lethal challenge of highly pathogenic H5N1 as well as H1N1 influenza viruses while none of the animals treated with the Salmonella vaccine carrying the empty expression vector with no viral antigen expression was protected. These results suggest that the Salmonella-based vaccine elicits strong antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses and provides effective immune protection against multiple strains of influenza viruses. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the feasibility of developing novel attenuated Salmonella strains as new oral vaccine vectors against influenza viruses.

  5. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Surveillance Data Highlights Feed Form, Biosecurity, and Disease Control as Significant Factors Associated with Salmonella Infection on Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Argüello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm. A questionnaire with 33 questions regarding herd characteristics, management, feeding, biosecurity, and health was completed for 61 individual herds. After the multivariate analysis by linear regression, nine variables were retained in the final model and linked to herd seroprevalence. Home produced-feed linked to the use of meal showed an eight points reduction in Salmonella prevalence compared to purchased feed (p = 0.042. Different biosecurity measures were associated to lower seroprevalence. Changing of footwear from outside to inside the farm decreased seroprevalence nearly 20 units (p = 0.014 and policies not permitting access to the farmyard to feed trucks (p = 0.048 or avoiding the presence of cats on the farm (p = 0.05 were estimated in 10 units less of seroprevalence. In contrast, the lack of perimeter fence increased the chance to have higher seroprevalence in five units (p = 0.05. Finally, intestinal diseases such as swine dysentery (p = 0.044 and E. coli diarrhea (p = 0.1 were estimated to increase Salmonella prevalence in ~20 and 10 units, respectively, demonstrating the importance of controlling other enteric pathogens in an on-farm Salmonella control programme. These results show the usefulness of surveillance data to improve on-farm control and confirm that Salmonella infection in pigs is

  7. Use of IgG avidity ELISA to differentiate acute from persistent infection with Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods...... of persistent infection with S. Dublin in cattle, it can be concluded that the IgG-AI can aid in differentiating between acute and long-term infection on herd level. However, for the test to be useful as an alternative tool to repeated sampling over time for detection of persistently infected carriers during...... control strategies in cattle herds, the test needs to be optimized and studied further in a larger sample of well-characterized infections in cattle. The affinity of IgG(2) is higher than IgG(1) early in the S. Dublin infection. There appears to be no difference in the IgG(2)-AI between the acute...

  8. Hypophysectomy and Neurointermediate Pituitary Lobectomy Reduce Serum Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and Intestinal IgA Responses to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa Adriana; Oliver-Aguillón, Gabriela; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Rivera-Aguilar, Victor; Berczi, Istvan; Kovacs, Kalman

    2006-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, and increased susceptibility to infections. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the humoral immune response of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue after HYPOX. We have reported that decreased secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin due to neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) diminishes humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. However, no data have been published on whether NIL can affect intestinal immune responses. We analyzed the effects of HYPOX and NIL on bacterial colonization of the intestinal lumen, Peyer's patches, and spleen as well as the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM and specific intestinal IgA levels in response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium oral infection. Results showed the following: (i) Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was eliminated from the intestinal lumen at the same rate in rats that underwent a sham operation, HYPOX, and NIL; (ii) Salmonella serovar Typhimurium colonization of Peyer's patches and spleen was significantly higher in both HYPOX and NIL rats than in sham-operated rats; (iii) serum IgG and IgM and intestinal IgA against surface proteins of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium were significantly lower in HYPOX and NIL rats than in sham-operated rats; and (iv) compared to NIL rats, higher Peyer's patch and spleen bacterial colonization and decreased IgG, IgM, and IgA production were observed in HYPOX rats. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the systemic and gastrointestinal humoral immune responses through different mechanisms. PMID:16495563