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Sample records for salmonella induced il-23

  1. The IL23R R381Q gene variant protects against immune-mediated diseases by impairing IL-23-induced Th17 effector response in humans.

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    Paola Di Meglio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-23 and Th17 cells are key players in tissue immunosurveillance and are implicated in human immune-mediated diseases. Genome-wide association studies have shown that the IL23R R381Q gene variant protects against psoriasis, Crohn's disease and ankylosing spondylitis. We investigated the immunological consequences of the protective IL23R R381Q gene variant in healthy donors. The IL23R R381Q gene variant had no major effect on Th17 cell differentiation as the frequency of circulating Th17 cells was similar in carriers of the IL23R protective (A and common (G allele. Accordingly, Th17 cells generated from A and G donors produced similar amounts of Th17 cytokines. However, IL-23-mediated Th17 cell effector function was impaired, as Th17 cells from A allele carriers had significantly reduced IL-23-induced IL-17A production and STAT3 phosphorylation compared to G allele carriers. Our functional analysis of a human disease-associated gene variant demonstrates that IL23R R381Q exerts its protective effects through selective attenuation of IL-23-induced Th17 cell effector function without interfering with Th17 differentiation, and highlights its importance in the protection against IL-23-induced tissue pathologies.

  2. The IL23R R381Q gene variant protects against immune-mediated diseases by impairing IL-23-induced Th17 effector response in humans.

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    Di Meglio, Paola; Di Cesare, Antonella; Laggner, Ute; Chu, Chung-Ching; Napolitano, Luca; Villanova, Federica; Tosi, Isabella; Capon, Francesca; Trembath, Richard C; Peris, Ketty; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-02-22

    IL-23 and Th17 cells are key players in tissue immunosurveillance and are implicated in human immune-mediated diseases. Genome-wide association studies have shown that the IL23R R381Q gene variant protects against psoriasis, Crohn's disease and ankylosing spondylitis. We investigated the immunological consequences of the protective IL23R R381Q gene variant in healthy donors. The IL23R R381Q gene variant had no major effect on Th17 cell differentiation as the frequency of circulating Th17 cells was similar in carriers of the IL23R protective (A) and common (G) allele. Accordingly, Th17 cells generated from A and G donors produced similar amounts of Th17 cytokines. However, IL-23-mediated Th17 cell effector function was impaired, as Th17 cells from A allele carriers had significantly reduced IL-23-induced IL-17A production and STAT3 phosphorylation compared to G allele carriers. Our functional analysis of a human disease-associated gene variant demonstrates that IL23R R381Q exerts its protective effects through selective attenuation of IL-23-induced Th17 cell effector function without interfering with Th17 differentiation, and highlights its importance in the protection against IL-23-induced tissue pathologies.

  3. IL-23 Is Essential for the Development of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema.

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    Fujii, Utako; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Waseda, Koichi; Morichika, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Koga, Hikari; Kataoka, Mikio; Gelfand, Erwin W; Cua, Daniel J; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema, a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates. Compared with WT mice, IL-23 -/- mice developed significantly lower static compliance values and markedly reduced emphysematous changes on histological analyses after PPE instillation. These changes were associated with lower levels of IL-17A and fewer Th17 cells in the lung. The neutrophilia seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice was attenuated in IL-23 -/- mice, and the reduction was associated with decreased levels of keratinocyte-derived cytokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with anti-IL-23p40 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the lungs of WT mice. These data identify the important contributions of IL-23 to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema, mediated through an IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Targeting IL-23 in emphysema is a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.

  4. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

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    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  5. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

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    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  6. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

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    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  7. Interleukin (IL)-23 mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and IL-22 but independent of IL-17

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    Muñoz, Melba; Heimesaat, Markus M; Danker, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to the development of small intestinal inflammation dependent on Th1 cytokines. The role of Th17 cells in ileitis is unknown. We report interleukin (IL)-23-mediated gelatinase A (matrixmetalloproteinase [MMP]-2) up-regulation in the ileum of infected...... mice. MMP-2 deficiency as well as therapeutic or prophylactic selective gelatinase blockage protected mice from the development of T. gondii-induced immunopathology. Moreover, IL-23-dependent up-regulation of IL-22 was essential for the development of ileitis, whereas IL-17 was down...

  8. The Attenuated Brucella abortus Strain 19 Invades, Persists in, and Activates Human Dendritic Cells, and Induces the Secretion of IL-12p70 but Not IL-23

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    Weinhold, Mario; Eisenblätter, Martin; Jasny, Edith; Fehlings, Michael; Finke, Antje; Gayum, Hermine; Rüschendorf, Ursula; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Moos, Verena; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Schaible, Ulrich E.; Schumann, Ralf R.; Mielke, Martin E.; Ignatius, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vectors have been proposed as novel vaccine strategies to induce strong cellular immunity. Attenuated strains of Brucella abortus comprise promising vector candidates since they have the potential to induce strong CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses in the absence of excessive inflammation as observed with other Gram-negative bacteria. However, some Brucella strains interfere with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential for antigen-specific T-cell priming. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of human monocyte-derived DCs with the smooth attenuated B. abortus strain (S) 19, which has previously been employed successfully to vaccinate cattle. Methodology/Principal findings We first looked into the potential of S19 to hamper the cytokine-induced maturation of DCs; however, infected cells expressed CD25, CD40, CD80, and CD86 to a comparable extent as uninfected, cytokine-matured DCs. Furthermore, S19 activated DCs in the absence of exogeneous stimuli, enhanced the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, and was able to persist intracellularly without causing cytotoxicity. Thus, DCs provide a cellular niche for persisting brucellae in vivo as a permanent source of antigen. S19-infected DCs produced IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, and IL-10, but not IL-23. While heat-killed bacteria also activated DCs, soluble mediators were not involved in S19-induced activation of human DCs. HEK 293 transfectants revealed cellular activation by S19 primarily through engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2. Conclusions/Significance Thus, as an immunological prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, B. abortus S19 potently infects and potently activates (most likely via TLR2) human DCs to produce Th1-promoting cytokines. PMID:23805193

  9. The Attenuated Brucella abortus Strain 19 Invades, Persists in, and Activates Human Dendritic Cells, and Induces the Secretion of IL-12p70 but Not IL-23.

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    Mario Weinhold

    Full Text Available Bacterial vectors have been proposed as novel vaccine strategies to induce strong cellular immunity. Attenuated strains of Brucella abortus comprise promising vector candidates since they have the potential to induce strong CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell mediated immune responses in the absence of excessive inflammation as observed with other Gram-negative bacteria. However, some Brucella strains interfere with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs, which is essential for antigen-specific T-cell priming. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of human monocyte-derived DCs with the smooth attenuated B. abortus strain (S 19, which has previously been employed successfully to vaccinate cattle.We first looked into the potential of S19 to hamper the cytokine-induced maturation of DCs; however, infected cells expressed CD25, CD40, CD80, and CD86 to a comparable extent as uninfected, cytokine-matured DCs. Furthermore, S19 activated DCs in the absence of exogeneous stimuli, enhanced the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, and was able to persist intracellularly without causing cytotoxicity. Thus, DCs provide a cellular niche for persisting brucellae in vivo as a permanent source of antigen. S19-infected DCs produced IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, and IL-10, but not IL-23. While heat-killed bacteria also activated DCs, soluble mediators were not involved in S19-induced activation of human DCs. HEK 293 transfectants revealed cellular activation by S19 primarily through engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR2.Thus, as an immunological prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, B. abortus S19 potently infects and potently activates (most likely via TLR2 human DCs to produce Th1-promoting cytokines.

  10. The secreted form of the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 inhibits IL-23 functions and abrogates IL-23-mediated antitumour effects

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    Shimozato, Osamu; Ugai, Shin-ichi; Chiyo, Masako; Takenobu, Hisanori; Nagakawa, Hiroyasu; Wada, Akihiko; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine consisting of a novel p19 molecule and the p40 subunit of IL-12. Since secreted p40 can act as an antagonist for IL-12, we investigated whether p40 also inhibited IL-23-mediated immunological functions. p40 did not induce interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17 production from splenocytes but impaired IL-23-induced cytokine production by competitive binding to the IL-23 receptors. Furthermore, a mixed population of murine colon carcinoma Colon 26 cells transduced with the p40 gene and those transduced with the IL-23 gene developed tumours in syngenic mice, whereas the IL-23-expressing Colon 26 cells were completely rejected. p40 also suppressed IFN-γ production of antigen-stimulated splenocytes and IL-23-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in the mice that rejected Colon 26 cells expressing IL-23. p40 can thereby antagonize IL-23 and is a possible therapeutic agent for suppression of IL-23 functions. PMID:16423037

  11. The role of IL 23 in the treatment of psoriasis.

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    Puig, Lluís

    2017-06-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 axis is currently considered to be crucial in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Human IL-23 is primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells and induces and maintains differentiation of Th17 cells and Th22 cells, a primary cellular source of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22, which mediate the epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte immune activation and tissue inflammation inherent in psoriasis. Agents that target the p40 subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23 have shown robust clinical activity, but selectivity for IL-23p19 could offer advantages in efficacy and safety with respect to anti-p40 blockade. Areas covered: Relevant references regarding the role of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis and clinical trials with IL-23p40 and IL-23p19 blocking agents were obtained through a literature search in MEDLINE/Pubmed for articles published until November 2016. Moreover, ongoing registered clinical trials (RCTs) of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were searched through clinicaltrials.gov website, and a manual search was made for pertinent communications at the 2016 American Academy of Dermatology and European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology meetings. Expert commentary: There are potential advantages in selective blockade of the IL23-specific p19 subunit with respect to distal blockade of IL-17A or its receptor. Acting upstream in the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine pathway is likely to reduce the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on keratinocytes -including IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22-, in addition to IL-17A. On the other hand, safety data thus far suggest that these drugs might be devoid of some adverse effects of IL-17A blockade that seem to be class related, such as mucocutaneous Candida infections or triggering or worsening of inflammatory bowel disease. Specific IL-23p19 blockade with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies seems to be able to induce long

  12. The IL23R A/Gln381 allele promotes IL-23 unresponsiveness in human memory T-helper 17 cells and impairs Th17 responses in psoriasis patients.

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    Di Meglio, Paola; Villanova, Federica; Napolitano, Luca; Tosi, Isabella; Terranova Barberio, Manuela; Mak, Rose K; Nutland, Sarah; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Todd, John A; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-10-01

    We and others have shown that the minor, nonconserved allele Gln381 of the Arg381Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs11209026G>A) of the IL-23 receptor gene (IL23R) protects against psoriasis. Moreover, we have recently shown impaired IL-23-induced IL-17A production and STAT-3 phosphorylation in Th17 cells generated in vitro from healthy individuals heterozygous for the protective A allele (GA). However, the biological effect of this variant has not been determined in homozygous carriers of the protective A allele (AA), nor in psoriatic patients. Here we expand our functional investigation of the IL23R Arg381Gln gene variant to include AA homozygous individuals. By using isolated memory CD4+ T cells, we found attenuated IL-23-induced Th17 response in heterozygous individuals. Moreover, we found that AA homozygous individuals were strikingly unresponsive to IL-23, with minimal or no IL-17A and IL-17F production and failure of human memory Th17 cell survival/expansion. Finally, IL-23-induced Th17 response was also attenuated in age- and sex-matched GA versus GG psoriatic patients undergoing systemic treatment. Taken together, our data provide evidence for an allele-dosage effect for IL-23R Gln381 and indicate that common gene alleles associated with complex diseases might have biological effects of considerable magnitude in homozygous carriers.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells

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    Saioa Márquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans-activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs.

  14. Salmonella

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    ... Compartir Find out about Salmonella infections linked to Kellogg’s Honey Smacks Cereal Find out about Salmonella infections ... Outbreaks Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kellogg’s Honey Smacks Cereal Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Adelaide ...

  15. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

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    Ana Victoria Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  16. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  17. Regulation of the Th1 immune response : the role of IL-23 and the influence of genetic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, Diederik van de

    2010-01-01

    Part 1: The role of IL-23 in inducing IFN-g production and in the initiation of a Th1 response. Part 2: Genetic variations in the type-1 cytokine pathway. Part 3: Treatment options for a genetic deficiency in the type-1 cytokine pathway

  18. Biomarkers of Therapeutic Response in the IL-23 Pathway in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cayatte, Corinne; Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Vega, Felix; Boniface, Katia; Grein, Jeffrey; Murphy, Erin; Blumenschein, Wendy M; Chen, Smiley; Malinao, Maria-Christina; Basham, Beth; Pierce, Robert H; Bowman, Edward P; McKenzie, Brent S; Elson, Charles O; Faubion, William A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-23 (IL-23) has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As biomarkers of disease state and treatment efficacy are becoming increasingly important in drug development, we sought to identify efficacy biomarkers for anti-IL-23 therapy in Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Candidate IL-23 biomarkers, downstream of IL-23 signaling, were identified using shotgun proteomic analysis of feces and colon lavages obtained from a short-...

  19. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

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    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  20. Ginger Extract Reduces the Expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in the Sera and Central Nervous System of EAE Mice.

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    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Azizi, Sayyed-Vahab; Nemati, Maryam; Khoramdel-Azad, Hossain; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    IL-17/IL-23 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory properties of ginger are reported in previous studies. To evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in a model of EAE. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein and then treated with PBS or ginger extracts, from day +3 to +30. At day 31, mice were scarificed and the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 mRNA in spinal cord were determined by using real time-PCR. The serum levels of cytokines were measured by ELISA. The mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-23 P19 and IL-23 P40 in CNS and serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly higher in PBS-treated EAE mice than non-EAE group (pginger-treated EAE mice the mRNA expression of IL-17, P19 and P40 in CNS and serum IL-23 levels were significantly decreased as compared to PBS-treated EAE mice (pginger-treated EAE group had significantly lower expression of IL-17, P19 and P40 in CNS and lower serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels than PBS-treated EAE group (pGinger extract reduces the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in EAE mice. The therapeutic potential of ginger for treatment of MS could be considered in further studies.

  1. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C

    2002-01-01

    , we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...

  2. Expression of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in basal cell carcinoma and in the response to medical treatments.

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    Cristina Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Several immune-related markers have been implicated in basal cell carcinoma (BCC pathogenesis. The BCC inflammatory infiltrate is dominated by Th2 cytokines, suggesting a specific state of immunosuppression. In contrast, regressing BCC are characterized by a Th1 immune response with IFN-γ promoting a tumor suppressive activity. IL-23/Th17-related cytokines, as interleukin (IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22, play a significant role in cutaneous inflammatory diseases, but their involvement in skin carcinogenesis is controversial and is poorly investigated in BCC. In this study we investigated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 cytokines in BCC at the protein and mRNA level and their modulation during imiquimod (IMQ treatment or photodynamic therapy (PDT. IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Real Time PCR in 41 histopathologically-proven BCCs (28 superficial and 13 nodular from 39 patients. All BCC samples were analyzed at baseline and 19 of 41 also during medical treatment (9 with IMQ 5% cream and 10 with MAL-PDT. Association between cytokines expression and clinico-pathological variables was evaluated. Higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 were found in BCCs, mainly in the peritumoral infiltrate, compared to normal skin, with the expression being correlated to the severity of the inflammatory infiltrate. IFN-γ production was higher in superficial BCCs compared to nodular BCCs, while IL-17 was increased in nodular BCCs. A significant correlation was found between IFN-γ and IL-17 expression with both cytokines expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. An increase of all cytokines occurred during the inflammatory phase induced by IMQ and at the early time point of PDT treatment, with significant evidence for IFN-γ, IL-23, and IL-22. Our results confirm the role of IFN-γ and support the involvement of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in BCC pathogenesis and in the inflammatory response

  3. IL-23 (Interleukin-23)-Producing Conventional Dendritic Cells Control the Detrimental IL-17 (Interleukin-17) Response in Stroke.

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    Gelderblom, Mathias; Gallizioli, Mattia; Ludewig, Peter; Thom, Vivien; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Rissiek, Björn; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Korn, Thomas; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Sedlacik, Jan; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Planas, Anna M; Magnus, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms can exacerbate ischemic tissue damage and worsen clinical outcome in patients with stroke. Both αβ and γδ T cells are established mediators of tissue damage in stroke, and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in inducing the early events of T cell activation and differentiation in stroke is not well understood. In a murine model of experimental stroke, we defined the immune phenotype of infiltrating DC subsets based on flow cytometry of surface markers, the expression of ontogenetic markers, and cytokine levels. We used conditional DC depletion, bone marrow chimeric mice, and IL-23 (interleukin-23) receptor-deficient mice to further explore the functional role of DCs. We show that the ischemic brain was rapidly infiltrated by IRF4 + /CD172a + conventional type 2 DCs and that conventional type 2 DCs were the most abundant subset in comparison with all other DC subsets. Twenty-four hours after ischemia onset, conventional type 2 DCs became the major source of IL-23, promoting neutrophil infiltration by induction of IL-17 (interleukin-17) in γδ T cells. Functionally, the depletion of CD11c + cells or the genetic disruption of the IL-23 signaling abrogated both IL-17 production in γδ T cells and neutrophil infiltration. Interruption of the IL-23/IL-17 cascade decreased infarct size and improved neurological outcome after stroke. Our results suggest a central role for interferon regulatory factor 4-positive IL-23-producing conventional DCs in the IL-17-dependent secondary tissue damage in stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Chognard

    Full Text Available IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.

  5. Cutting edge: A critical functional role for IL-23 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonel, Giulia; Conrad, Curdin; Laggner, Ute; Di Meglio, Paola; Grys, Katarzyna; McClanahan, Terrill K; Blumenschein, Wendy M; Qin, Jian-Zhong; Xin, Hong; Oldham, Elizabeth; Kastelein, Robert; Nickoloff, Brian J; Nestle, Frank O

    2010-11-15

    Interleukin-23 is a key cytokine involved in the generation of Th17 effector cells. Clinical efficacy of an anti-p40 mAb blocking both IL-12 and IL-23 and disease association with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL23R gene raise the question of a functional role of IL-23 in psoriasis. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of IL-23 and its receptor in psoriasis and demonstrate its functional importance in a disease-relevant model system. The expression of IL-23 and its receptor was increased in the tissues of patients with psoriasis. Injection of a mAb specifically neutralizing human IL-23 showed IL-23-dependent inhibition of psoriasis development comparable to the use of anti-TNF blockers in a clinically relevant xenotransplant mouse model of psoriasis. Together, our results identify a critical functional role for IL-23 in psoriasis and provide the rationale for new treatment strategies in chronic epithelial inflammatory disorders.

  6. CC chemokine receptor 4 is required for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by regulating GM-CSF and IL-23 production in dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppensieker, Karola; Otte, David-Marian; Schürmann, Britta; Limmer, Andreas; Dresing, Philipp; Drews, Eva; Schumak, Beatrix; Klotz, Luisa; Raasch, Jennifer; Mildner, Alexander; Waisman, Ari; Scheu, Stefanie; Knolle, Percy; Förster, Irmgard; Prinz, Marco; Maier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Alferink, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which they control disease remain to be determined. This study demonstrates that expression of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) by DCs is required for EAE induction. CCR4−/− mice presented enhanced resistance to EAE associated with a reduction in IL-23 and GM-CSF expression in the CNS. Restoring CCR4 on myeloid cells in bone marrow chimeras or intracerebral microinjection of CCR4-competent DCs, but not macrophages, restored EAE in CCR4−/− mice, indicating that CCR4+ DCs are cellular mediators of EAE development. Mechanistically, CCR4−/− DCs were less efficient in GM-CSF and IL-23 production and also TH-17 maintenance. Intraspinal IL-23 reconstitution restored EAE in CCR4−/− mice, whereas intracerebral inoculation using IL-23−/− DCs or GM-CSF−/− DCs failed to induce disease. Thus, CCR4-dependent GM-CSF production in DCs required for IL-23 release in these cells is a major component in the development of EAE. Our study identified a unique role for CCR4 in regulating DC function in EAE, harboring therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity by targeting CCR4 on this specific cell type. PMID:22355103

  7. Local IL-23 expression in murine vaginal candidiasis and its relationship with infection and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Tan, Zhijian; Liu, Zhixiang; Xia, Dechao; Li, Jiawen

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the expression of vaginal IL-23 and its role in experimental murine vaginal candidiasis and its relationship with infection and immune status, immuno-competent (group A) and immuno-suppressed (group B) murine models of vaginal candidiasis were established in estrogen-treated mice. Non-estrogen-treated mice were used as controls (group C). The level of IL-23 p19 mRNA in murine vaginal tissue was determined by RT-PCR. Significantly increased levels of IL-23p19mRNA were observed on the 4th, the 7th and 14th day after inoculation in immuno-competent group when compared with that in control group (Pvaginal candidiasis and has a protective function during infection. Low vaginal IL-23 level may correlate with the increased susceptibility to Candida albicans in immuno-suppressed group.

  8. Contribution of rs11465788 in IL23R gene to Crohn's disease ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiple studies have shown that IL23 cytokine plays an essential role in the development of autoimmune diseases ... milial risk of IBD provide strong evidence, that the genetic ..... variant in German Crohn's disease patients: combined analysis.

  9. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  10. New insight to IL-23/IL-17 axis in Iranian infected adult patients with gastritis: effects of genes polymorphisms on expression of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, H; Bagheri, N; Azadegan-Dehkordi, F; Zamanzad, B; Izadpanah, E; Abdi, M; Ramazani, G; Sanei, M H; Ayoubian, H; Ahmadi, A; Jamalzehi, S; Aslani, P; Zandi, F

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is the hallmark of the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. IL-17A and IL-17F are inflammatory cytokines expressed by a novel subset of CD4+Th cells and play critical function in inflammation. We evaluated the relationship between IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R+2199 A/C polymorphisms with IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in regard to H. pylori infection with chronic gastritis. Total RNA and genomic DNA were extracted from gastric biopsies of 58 H. pylori-infected patient with gastritis. Afterward, mucosal IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression and polymorphisms in IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL-23R +2199A/Cin gastric biopsies were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP. Our results show that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G andIL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms have no effect on mucosal expression of IL-6, IL-17, IL-21 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in H. pylori-infected patients with chronic gastritis. These results suggest that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms no alter mucosal cytokine pattern in Iranian patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis diseases. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  11. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  12. Antigen-specific IL-23/17 pathway activation by murine semi-mature DC-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Shinya; Iwasaki, Takumi; Okano, Tomoko [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Chiba, Joe, E-mail: chibaj@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    We analyzed the phenotype and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) induced in vitro without using any serum during the late stage of cultivation. These 'serum-free' DCs (SF-DCs) possessed the ability to induce T cell proliferation as well as antibody responses, indicating that they were functional DCs. Surprisingly, the SF-DCs akin to semi-mature DCs in terms of both phenotypic and functional characteristics. The SF-DCs did not produce IL-12 but produced large amounts of IL-23 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The antigen-specific production of IL-17 by CD4{sup +} T cells co-cultured with OVA-loaded SF-DCs was significantly higher than that with OVA-loaded conventional DCs. These results suggest that SF-DCs tend to produce IL-23 and can consequently induce the IL-17 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. The semi-mature DC-like cells reported here will be useful vehicles for DC immunization and might contribute to studies on the possible involvement of semi-mature DCs in Th17 cell differentiation.

  13. Reorganization of the Endosomal System in Salmonella-Infected Cells: The Ultrastructure of Salmonella-Induced Tubular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Viktoria; Liebl, David; Zhang, Yuying; Rajashekar, Roopa; Chlanda, Petr; Giesker, Katrin; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the intracellular life of Salmonella enterica, a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella-containing vacuole, or SCV, is formed. By means of translocated effector proteins, intracellular Salmonella also induce the formation of extensive, highly dynamic membrane tubules termed Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. Here we report the first detailed ultrastructural analyses of the SCV and SIF by electron microscopy (EM), EM tomography and live cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We found that a subset of SIF is composed of double membranes that enclose portions of host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments within its inner lumen. Despite some morphological similarities, we found that the formation of SIF double membranes is independent from autophagy and requires the function of the effector proteins SseF and SseG. The lumen of SIF network is accessible to various types of endocytosed material and our CLEM analysis of double membrane SIF demonstrated that fluid phase markers accumulate only between the inner and outer membrane of these structures, a space continual with endosomal lumen. Our work reveals how manipulation of the endosomal membrane system by an intracellular pathogen results in a unique tubular membrane compartmentalization of the host cell, generating a shielded niche permissive for intracellular proliferation of Salmonella. PMID:25254663

  14. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 #betta#-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains

  15. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  16. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  17. IL-23 p19 knockout mice exhibit minimal defects in responses to primary and secondary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L Kurtz

    Full Text Available Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.

  18. Oral Salmonella: malaria circumsporozoite recombinants induce specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium recombinant containing the full-length Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (CS) gene induces protective immunity against P. berghei sporozoite challenge in the absence of antibody. We found that this immunity was mediated through the induction of specific CD8+ T cells since in vivo elimination of CD8+ cells abrogated protection. In vitro studies revealed that this Salmonella-P. berghei CS recombinant induced class I- restricted CD8+ ...

  19. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    Garcí a, Ana V.; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    ). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS

  20. DMPD: Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15546391 Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Watf...ord WT, Hissong BD, Bream JH, Kanno Y, Muul L, O'Shea JJ. Immunol Rev. 2004 Dec;202:139-56. (.png) (.svg) (....html) (.csml) Show Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. PubmedID 15546391 T...itle Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Author...s Watford WT, Hissong BD, Bream JH, Kanno Y, Muul L, O'Shea JJ. Publication Immunol Rev. 2004 Dec;202:139-56

  1. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  2. IL-23 Promotes Myocardial I/R Injury by Increasing the Inflammatory Responses and Oxidative Stress Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury. We hypothesized that IL-23, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, could promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into sham operated control (SO group, ischemia and reperfusion (I/R group, (IL-23 + I/R group and (anti-IL-23 + I/R group. At 4 h after reperfusion, the serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and the tissue MDA concentration and SOD activity were measured. The infarcte size was measured by TTC staining. Apoptosis in heart sections were measured by TUNEL staining. The expression of HMGB1 and IL-17A were detected by Western Blotting and the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by Elisa. Results: After 4 h reperfusion, compared with the I/R group, IL-23 significantly increased the infarct size, the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and the levels of LDH and CK (all P 0.05. All these effects were abolished by anti-IL-23 administration. Conclusion: The present study suggested that IL-23 may promote myocardial I/R injury by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress reaction.

  3. IL23R in the Swedish, Finnish, Hungarian and Italian populations: association with IBD and psoriasis, and linkage to celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatta Serena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association of the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has been confirmed in several populations. IL23R also associates with psoriasis, suggesting that the gene may be an important candidate for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods We studied association of single-nucleotide variants in IL23R with IBD in Swedish patients, in both Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC subsets. The same genetic variants were also studied in Finnish patients with psoriasis or celiac disease, and in Hungarian and Italian patients with celiac disease. Results Association of IL23R with IBD was replicated in our Swedish patients, and linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis was found in the Finnish population. The IL23R region was also linked to celiac disease in Finnish families, but no association of IL23R variants with celiac disease was found in the Finnish, Hungarian or Italian samples. Conclusion Our study is the first to demonstrate association of IL23R with CD and UC in Swedish patients with IBD. It is also the first study to report linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis in the Finnish population. Importantly, this is the first report of linkage of the IL23R region to celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory condition in which IL23R has not been previously implicated.

  4. Effect of live Salmonella Ty21a in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Nysœter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal microbiota seems to play an essential role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. We hypothesised that an oral vaccine based on live Salmonella typhi would be well tolerated and could even attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induced colitis in rats, an animal model of IBD. Methods Nine male Wistar rats was used for an initial tolerance study, in which we used 3 dose-levels of Salmonella Ty21a, 0.5 × 10 9 , 1 × 10 9 , and 2 × 10 9 CFU, each dose being tested in 3 rats. Four treatment groups consisting of 8 male Wistar rats per group: 1 control group given standard food and water, 2 control group given four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a 1 × 10 9 CFU, 3 water with 5% DSS the last 7 days, 4 four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a before water with 5% DSS the last 7 days. The Salmonella Ty21a was administered by gastric gavage on day 1, 3, 5 and 16, while DSS was given with the drinking water from day 15 to 22. The animals were sacrificed and colonic tissue removed for analysis 22 days after gavage of the first vaccine dose. Results The animals in the tolerance study got no signs of disease. In the treatment study, all animals receiving DSS had histologic indications of colitis, particularly in the distal part of the colon. Administration of Salmonella Ty21a had no significant effect on crypt and inflammation scores (p > 0.05. Conclusion Gastric administration of live vaccine strain Salmonella Ty21a was well tolerated, but did not provide any significant protection against development of DSS induced colitis in rats.

  5. Potentially functional polymorphism in IL-23 receptor and risk of acute myeloid leukemia in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Qian

    Full Text Available The interleukin-23 (IL-23 and its receptor (IL-23R mediate the direct antitumor activities in human hematologic malignancies including pediatric acute leukemia. Two potentially functional genetic variants (IL-23R rs1884444 T>G and rs6682925 T>C have been found to contribute to solid cancer susceptibility. In this study, we conducted a case-control study including 545 acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients and 1,146 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population to assess the association between these two SNPs and the risk of AML. We found that IL-23R rs1884444 TG/GG and rs6682925 TC/CC variant genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of AML [rs1884444: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01-1.62; rs6682925: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.01-1.67], compared to their corresponding wild-type homozygotes, respectively. These findings indicated that genetic variants in IL-23R may contribute to AML risk in our Chinese population.

  6. rs1004819 is the main disease-associated IL23R variant in German Crohn's disease patients: combined analysis of IL23R, CARD15, and OCTN1/2 variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Glas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IL23R gene has been identified as a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in the North American population. The aim of our study was to test this association in a large German IBD cohort and to elucidate potential interactions with other IBD genes as well as phenotypic consequences of IL23R variants. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 2670 Caucasian individuals including 833 patients with Crohn's disease (CD, 456 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 1381 healthy unrelated controls was analyzed for 10 IL23R SNPs. Genotyping included the NOD2 variants p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg, and p.Leu1007fsX1008 and polymorphisms in SLC22A4/OCTN1 (1672 C-->T and SLC22A5/OCTN2 (-207 G-->C. RESULTS: All IL23R gene variants analyzed displayed highly significant associations with CD. The strongest association was found for the SNP rs1004819 [P = 1.92x10(-11; OR 1.56; 95 % CI (1.37-1.78]. 93.2% of the rs1004819 TT homozygous carriers as compared to 78% of CC wildtype carriers had ileal involvement [P = 0.004; OR 4.24; CI (1.46-12.34]. The coding SNP rs11209026 (p.Arg381Gln was protective for CD [P = 8.04x10(-8; OR 0.43; CI (0.31-0.59]. Similar, but weaker associations were found in UC. There was no evidence for epistasis between the IL23R gene and the CD susceptibility genes CARD15 and SLC22A4/5. CONCLUSION: IL23R is an IBD susceptibility gene, but has no epistatic interaction with CARD15 and SLC22A4/5. rs1004819 is the major IL23R variant associated with CD in the German population, while the p.Arg381Gln IL23R variant is a protective marker for CD and UC.

  7. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10−6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10−4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10−6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  8. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroushka Ballester

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10-6 and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10-4. The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10-6. Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.

  9. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The rs7517847 polymorphism in the IL-23R gene is associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguo; He, Hongmei; Yu, Renchao; Han, Lin; Wang, Can; Cui, Ying; Li, Changgui

    2015-05-01

    Gout is a polygenic auto-inflammatory disease, in which inflammation plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-23 promotes inflammation and helps to guide inflammatory cells, while studies have shown that the IL-23R gene is associated with susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the IL-23R rs7517847 (G/T) polymorphism is associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population. We recruited 400 patients with gout and 582 gout-free controls. After obtaining blood samples for DNA extraction, genotyping of the rs7517847 polymorphism was performed by fluorescence-based quantitative PCR using TaqMan probes. An association analysis was carried out using the χ(2) test. A genotype-phenotype analysis was also conducted. Both genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs7517847 differed significantly between gout patients and controls (χ(2) = 6.792, df = 2, P = 0.034 by genotype; χ(2) = 4.202, df = 1, P = 0.04 by allele). IL-23R may be associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population, although our findings should be confirmed using larger sample sizes and other independent populations.

  11. Protein engineering of the chemokine CCL20 prevents psoriasiform dermatitis in an IL-23-dependent murine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getschman, A E; Imai, Y; Larsen, O

    2017-01-01

    signaling. When given in an IL-23-dependent mouse model for psoriasis, CCL20 S64C prevented psoriatic inflammation and the up-regulation of IL-17A and IL-22. Our results validate CCR6 as a tractable therapeutic target for psoriasis and demonstrate the value of CCL20 S64C as a lead compound....

  12. A study of the changes of Th17 cells and IL-23 in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-ping HE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute autoimmune-mediated inflammatory neuropathy. In this paper, the percentage of Th17 in peripheral blood lymphocyte and the level of IL-23 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with GBS were detected. Twenty-five patients with GBS and 20 controls were analyzed. The percentage of Th17 cells in patients with GBS was (4.86 ± 0.60%, which was higher than that in controls [(2.71 ± 0.54%; t = 2.616, P = 0.012]. Serum IL-23 increased in patients with GBS [(111.80 ± 13.84 pg/ml vs (72.55 ± 8.19 pg/ml; t = 2.300, P = 0.026]. The level of IL-23 in serum and CSF from patients with GBS before therapy [(110.50 ± 15.66 and (102.30 ± 7.52 pg/ml] declined to normal after therapy [(74.13 ± 6.18 and (72.92 ± 12.09 pg/ml], and the difference was statistically significant (t = 2.557, P = 0.022; t = 1.422, P = 0.046. Th17 cells and IL-23 increased in patients with GBS, indicating that they may involve in the pathogenesis of GBS. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.06.012

  13. No Evidence of Association between Common Autoimmunity STAT4 and IL23R Risk Polymorphisms and Non-Anterior Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina Begoña; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Adán, Alfredo; Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Díaz Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; García Serrano, José Luis; de Ramón, Enrique; del Rio, María José; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Molins, Blanca; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective STAT4 and IL23R loci represent common susceptibility genetic factors in autoimmunity. We decided to investigate for the first time the possible role of different STAT4/IL23R autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop non-anterior uveitis and its main clinical phenotypes. Methods Four functional polymorphisms (rs3821236, rs7574865, rs7574070, and rs897200) located within STAT4 gene as well as three independent polymorphisms (rs7517847, rs11209026, and rs1495965) located within IL23R were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination in a total of 206 patients with non-anterior uveitis and 1553 healthy controls from Spain. Results No statistically significant differences were found when allele and genotype distributions were compared between non-anterior uveitis patients and controls for any STAT4 (rs3821236: P=0.39, OR=1.12, CI 95%=0.87-1.43; rs7574865: P=0.59 OR=1.07, CI 95%=0.84-1.37; rs7574070: P=0.26, OR=0.89, CI 95%=0.72-1.10; rs897200: P=0.22, OR=0.88, CI 95%=0.71-1.08;) or IL23R polymorphisms (rs7517847: P=0.49, OR=1.08, CI 95%=0.87-1.33; rs11209026: P=0.26, OR=0.78, CI 95%=0.51-1.21; rs1495965: P=0.51, OR=0.93, CI 95%=0.76-1.15). Conclusion Our results do not support a relevant role, similar to that described for other autoimmune diseases, of IL23R and STAT4 polymorphisms in the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Further studies are needed to discard a possible weak effect of the studied variant. PMID:24312163

  14. IL23R gene confers susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis concomitant with uveitis in a Han Chinese population.

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    Hongtao Dong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R has been shown to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS in many different populations. This study examined whether IL-23R polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to this disease in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs7517847, rs11209032, and rs17375018, were genotyped in 291 AS patients and 312 age-, sex-, and ethnically matched healthy controls using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay. RESULTS: The genotype and allele frequencies of rs17375018, rs7517847, and rs11209032 were not different between the patients with AS and the healthy controls. On the one hand, stratification analysis indicated that the rs17375018 GG genotype and the G allele were increased in AS patients who were HLA-B27 positive (corrected p = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] 2.35, 95% CI 1.30-4.24; p c = 0.006, OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28-3.07, respectively. On the other hand, the analysis according to clinical characteristics showed a significantly increased prevalence of the homozygous rs17375018 GG genotype and the G allele in patients with AS and uveitis compared with the controls (p c = 0.024 and p c = 0.024, respectively. In addition, haplotype analysis performed with the SHEsis platform revealed no significant difference concerning the haplotypes between AS patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the results suggested that the rs17375018 of IL23R was positively associated with HLA-B27-positive AS and that the rs17375018 GG of IL-23R was associated with AS concomitant with uveitis. We found no evidence for an association between the other two SNPs of IL-23R and AS.

  15. No evidence of association between common autoimmunity STAT4 and IL23R risk polymorphisms and non-anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénit, María Carmen; Márquez, Ana; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina Begoña; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Adán, Alfredo; Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Díaz Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; García Serrano, José Luis; de Ramón, Enrique; Del Rio, María José; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Molins, Blanca; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    STAT4 and IL23R loci represent common susceptibility genetic factors in autoimmunity. We decided to investigate for the first time the possible role of different STAT4/IL23R autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop non-anterior uveitis and its main clinical phenotypes. Four functional polymorphisms (rs3821236, rs7574865, rs7574070, and rs897200) located within STAT4 gene as well as three independent polymorphisms (rs7517847, rs11209026, and rs1495965) located within IL23R were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination in a total of 206 patients with non-anterior uveitis and 1553 healthy controls from Spain. No statistically significant differences were found when allele and genotype distributions were compared between non-anterior uveitis patients and controls for any STAT4 (rs3821236: P=0.39, OR=1.12, CI 95%=0.87-1.43; rs7574865: P=0.59 OR=1.07, CI 95%=0.84-1.37; rs7574070: P=0.26, OR=0.89, CI 95%=0.72-1.10; rs897200: P=0.22, OR=0.88, CI 95%=0.71-1.08;) or IL23R polymorphisms (rs7517847: P=0.49, OR=1.08, CI 95%=0.87-1.33; rs11209026: P=0.26, OR=0.78, CI 95%=0.51-1.21; rs1495965: P=0.51, OR=0.93, CI 95%=0.76-1.15). Our results do not support a relevant role, similar to that described for other autoimmune diseases, of IL23R and STAT4 polymorphisms in the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Further studies are needed to discard a possible weak effect of the studied variant.

  16. No evidence of association between common autoimmunity STAT4 and IL23R risk polymorphisms and non-anterior uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Cénit

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: STAT4 and IL23R loci represent common susceptibility genetic factors in autoimmunity. We decided to investigate for the first time the possible role of different STAT4/IL23R autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop non-anterior uveitis and its main clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Four functional polymorphisms (rs3821236, rs7574865, rs7574070, and rs897200 located within STAT4 gene as well as three independent polymorphisms (rs7517847, rs11209026, and rs1495965 located within IL23R were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination in a total of 206 patients with non-anterior uveitis and 1553 healthy controls from Spain. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when allele and genotype distributions were compared between non-anterior uveitis patients and controls for any STAT4 (rs3821236: P=0.39, OR=1.12, CI 95%=0.87-1.43; rs7574865: P=0.59 OR=1.07, CI 95%=0.84-1.37; rs7574070: P=0.26, OR=0.89, CI 95%=0.72-1.10; rs897200: P=0.22, OR=0.88, CI 95%=0.71-1.08; or IL23R polymorphisms (rs7517847: P=0.49, OR=1.08, CI 95%=0.87-1.33; rs11209026: P=0.26, OR=0.78, CI 95%=0.51-1.21; rs1495965: P=0.51, OR=0.93, CI 95%=0.76-1.15. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a relevant role, similar to that described for other autoimmune diseases, of IL23R and STAT4 polymorphisms in the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Further studies are needed to discard a possible weak effect of the studied variant.

  17. Activation of iNKT Cells Prevents Salmonella-Enterocolitis and Salmonella-Induced Reactive Arthritis by Downregulating IL-17-Producing γδT Cells

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    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis (ReA is an inflammatory condition of the joints that arises following an infection. Salmonella enterocolitis is one of the most common infections leading to ReA. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, it is known that IL-17 plays a pivotal role in the development of ReA. IL-17-producers cells are mainly Th17, iNKT, and γδT lymphocytes. It is known that iNKT cells regulate the development of Th17 lineage. Whether iNKT cells also regulate γδT lymphocytes differentiation is unknown. We found that iNKT cells play a protective role in ReA. BALB/c Jα18−/− mice suffered a severe Salmonella enterocolitis, a 3.5-fold increase in IL-17 expression and aggravated inflammation of the synovial membrane. On the other hand, activation of iNKT cells with α-GalCer abrogated IL-17 response to Salmonella enterocolitis and prevented intestinal and joint tissue damage. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of α-GalCer was related to a drop in the proportion of IL-17-producing γδT lymphocytes (IL17-γδTcells rather than to a decrease in Th17 cells. In summary, we here show that iNKT cells play a protective role against Salmonella-enterocolitis and Salmonella-induced ReA by downregulating IL17-γδTcells.

  18. The influence of glycerol on γ-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the modifying effect of glycerol on the survival rate and γ-radiation-induced mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium cells TA98, TA100 and TA102. The DMF value, with respect to the survival rate, was 2.05-0.20. The dependence of the yield of γ-radiation-induced mutants on radiation dose was described by the curve with a maximum; the mutation frequency M(D) was well described by a gradual function M(D)=kD x . DMF values of the induced mutagenesis amounted to 2 for strains TA100 and TA102, and 1.5 for strain TA98

  19. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  20. Estrogen and progesterone decrease let-7f microRNA expression and increase IL-23/IL-23 receptor signaling and IL-17A production in patients with severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Dawn C; Cephus, Jacqueline Yvonne; Boswell, Madison G; Fahrenholz, John M; Langley, Emily W; Feldman, Amy S; Zhou, Weisong; Dulek, Daniel E; Goleniewska, Kasia; Woodward, Kimberly B; Sevin, Carla M; Hamilton, Robert G; Kolls, Jay K; Peebles, R Stokes

    2015-10-01

    Women have an increased prevalence of severe asthma compared with men. IL-17A is associated with severe asthma and requires IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) signaling, which is negatively regulated by let-7f microRNA. We sought to Determine the mechanism by which 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increase IL-17A production. IL-17A production was determined by using flow cytometry in TH17 cells from women (n = 14) and men (n = 15) with severe asthma. Cytokine levels were measured by using ELISA, and IL-23R and let-7f expression was measured by using quantitative PCR in TH17-differentiated cells from healthy women (n = 13) and men (n = 14). In sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice, 17β-E2, P4, 17β-E2+P4, or vehicle pellets were administered for 3 weeks before ex vivo TH17 cell differentiation. Airway neutrophil infiltration and CXCL1 (KC) expression were also determined in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged wild-type female recipient mice with an adoptive transfer of OVA-specific TH17 cells from female and male mice. In patients with severe asthma and healthy control subjects, IL-17A production was increased in TH17 cells from women compared with men. IL-23R expression was increased and let-7f expression was decreased in TH17-differentiated cells from women compared with men. In ovariectomized mice IL-17A and IL-23R expression was increased and Let-7f expression was decreased in TH17 cells from mice administered 17β-E2+P4 compared with those administered vehicle. Furthermore, transfer of female OVA-specific TH17 cells increased acute neutrophil infiltration in the lungs of OVA-challenged recipient mice compared with transfer of male OVA-specific TH17 cells. 17β-E2+P4 increased IL-17A production from TH17 cells, providing a potential mechanism for the increased prevalence of severe asthma in women compared with men. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IL-12 and IL-23 modulate plasticity of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA), rIL-12 and rIL-23 for 48h. Expression of FoxP3 in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, intracellular cytokines IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-17 in Tregs cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) after stimulation. rIL-12 treatment increases the levels of pStat4 in Tregs and IFN-γ production. In the presence of rIL-23, pStat3 + and IL-17A + cells increase. rIL-12 and r-IL-23 treatment downregulated the FoxP3 expression, IL-10 and TGF-β production by Tregs and enhances the expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86). In conclusion rIL-12 converts Tregs into IFN-γ producing cells through STAT-4 signaling while rIL-23 converts Tregs into IL-17 producing cells through STAT-3 signaling in leprosy patients. This study may helpful to provide a new avenue to overcome the immunosuprression in leprosy patients using in vitro cytokine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protease activity of Per a 10 potentiates Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 and OX40L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Komal; Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    Proteases are implicated in exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, the role of proteolytic activity of Per a 10 was evaluated on Th2 polarization. Intranasal administration of Per a 10 in mice led to allergic airway inflammation as seen by higher IgE levels, cellular infiltration, IL-17A, and Th2 cytokines, whereas, inactive (Δ)Per a 10 showed attenuated response. There was an increased OX40L expression on lung and lymph node dendritic cells in Per a 10 immunized group and on Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs. Reduction in CD40 expression without any change at transcript level in lungs of Per a 10 immunized mice suggested CD40 cleavage. BMDCs pulsed with Per a 10 showed reduced CD40 expression with lower IL-12p70 secretion as compared to heat inactivated Per a 10. IL-23, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs supernatant. In DC-T cell coculture studies, Per a 10 pulsed BMDCs showed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 that were reduced on blocking of either IL-23 or OX40L. In conclusion, the data suggests a critical role of protease activity of Per a 10 in promoting Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 secretion and OX40L expression on dendritic cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of the effect induced by heating and irradiation stress on Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazouani, Sarra

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of exposure to a temperature of 55 degree for 30 min and to 2 kGy gamma irradiation dose (100 Gy/min) on the viability and gene expression of Salmonella. Our results indicate that the exposure to heat and irradiation showed levels of stress vary from one type of stress to another, a different serovars and even there is variability within the same serovars of different origins and isolation. They were able to induce a decrease in viability. The analysis of the differential expression of 16S rRNA genes by RT-PCR after exposure to stress showed that the level of mRNA expression of 16S rRNA is unstable during the exhibition, and may not be used as reference gene for the analysis of differential expression of genes of Salmonella.

  4. The Agricultural Antibiotic Carbadox Induces Phage-mediated Gene Transfer in Salmonella

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    Bradley L. Bearson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox is a veterinary antibiotic used in the U.S. during the starter phase of swine production for improved feed efficiency and control of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis. Carbadox has been shown in vitro to induce phage-encoded Shiga toxin in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and a phage-like element transferring antibiotic resistance genes in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the effect of carbadox on prophages in other bacteria is unknown. This study examined carbadox exposure on prophage induction and genetic transfer in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human foodborne pathogen that frequently colonizes swine without causing disease. S. Typhimurium LT2 exposed to carbadox induced prophage production, resulting in bacterial cell lysis and release of virions that were visible by electron microscopy. Carbadox induction of phage-mediated gene transfer was confirmed by monitoring the transduction of a sodCIII::neo cassette in the Fels-1 prophage from LT2 to a recipient Salmonella strain. Furthermore, carbadox frequently induced generalized transducing phages in multidrug-resistant phage type DT104 and DT120 isolates, resulting in the transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA that included antibiotic resistance genes. Our research indicates that exposure of Salmonella to carbadox induces prophages that can transfer virulence and antibiotic resistance genes to susceptible bacterial hosts. Carbadox-induced, phage-mediated gene transfer could serve as a contributing factor in bacterial evolution during animal production, with prophages being a reservoir for bacterial fitness

  5. IL-17 Induction by ArtinM is Due to Stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1 Release and/or Interaction with CD3 in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Mariano, Vania Sammartino; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; de Souza, Maria Aparecida; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus that interacts with TLR2 N-glycans and activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as manifested by IL-12 production. In vivo ArtinM administration induces Th1 immunity and confers protection against infection with several intracellular pathogens. In the murine model of Candida albicans infection, it was verified that, in addition to Th1, ArtinM induces Th17 immunity manifested by high IL-17 levels in the treated animals. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms accounting for the ArtinM-induced IL-17 production. We found that ArtinM stimulates the IL-17 production by spleen cells in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, a response that was significantly reduced in the absence of IL-23, MyD88, or IL-1R. Furthermore, we showed that ArtinM directly induced the IL-23 mRNA expression and the IL-1 production by macrophages. Consistently, in cell suspensions depleted of macrophages, the IL-17 production stimulated by ArtinM was reduced by 53% and the exogenous IL-23 acted synergistically with ArtinM in promoting IL-17 production by spleen cell suspensions. We verified that the absence of IL-23, IL-1R, or MyD88 inhibited, but did not block, the IL-17 production by ArtinM-stimulated spleen cells. Therefore, we investigated whether ArtinM exerts a direct effect on CD4+ T cells in promoting IL-17 production. Indeed, spleen cell suspensions depleted of CD4+ T cells responded to ArtinM with very low levels of IL-17 release. Likewise, isolated CD4+ T cells under ArtinM stimulus augmented the expression of TGF-β mRNA and released high levels of IL-17. Considering the observed synergism between IL-23 and ArtinM, we used cells from IL-23 KO mice to assess the direct effect of lectin on CD4+ T cells. We verified that ArtinM increased the IL-17 production significantly, a response that was inhibited when the CD4+ T cells were pre-incubated with anti-CD3 antibody. In conclusion, ArtinM stimulates the production

  6. IL-17 Induction by ArtinM is Due to Stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1 Release and/or Interaction with CD3 in CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Aparecido da Silva

    Full Text Available ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus that interacts with TLR2 N-glycans and activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs, as manifested by IL-12 production. In vivo ArtinM administration induces Th1 immunity and confers protection against infection with several intracellular pathogens. In the murine model of Candida albicans infection, it was verified that, in addition to Th1, ArtinM induces Th17 immunity manifested by high IL-17 levels in the treated animals. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms accounting for the ArtinM-induced IL-17 production. We found that ArtinM stimulates the IL-17 production by spleen cells in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, a response that was significantly reduced in the absence of IL-23, MyD88, or IL-1R. Furthermore, we showed that ArtinM directly induced the IL-23 mRNA expression and the IL-1 production by macrophages. Consistently, in cell suspensions depleted of macrophages, the IL-17 production stimulated by ArtinM was reduced by 53% and the exogenous IL-23 acted synergistically with ArtinM in promoting IL-17 production by spleen cell suspensions. We verified that the absence of IL-23, IL-1R, or MyD88 inhibited, but did not block, the IL-17 production by ArtinM-stimulated spleen cells. Therefore, we investigated whether ArtinM exerts a direct effect on CD4+ T cells in promoting IL-17 production. Indeed, spleen cell suspensions depleted of CD4+ T cells responded to ArtinM with very low levels of IL-17 release. Likewise, isolated CD4+ T cells under ArtinM stimulus augmented the expression of TGF-β mRNA and released high levels of IL-17. Considering the observed synergism between IL-23 and ArtinM, we used cells from IL-23 KO mice to assess the direct effect of lectin on CD4+ T cells. We verified that ArtinM increased the IL-17 production significantly, a response that was inhibited when the CD4+ T cells were pre-incubated with anti-CD3 antibody. In conclusion, Artin

  7. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Evelyn Santos; Lee, Chrono K; Specht, Charles A; Yadav, Bhawna; Huang, Haibin; Akalin, Ali; Huh, Jun R; Mueller, Christian; Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with conidia. All of these functions underscore a potential protective role for eosinophils in acute aspergillosis. Given the postulated role for IL-17 in asthma pathogenesis, we assessed whether eosinophils could act as sources of IL-23 and IL-17 in models where mice were sensitized to either A. fumigatus antigens or ovalbumin (OVA). We found IL-23p19+ IL-17AF+ eosinophils in both allergic models. Moreover, close to 95% of IL-23p19+ cells and >90% of IL-17AF+ cells were identified as eosinophils. These data establish a new paradigm in acute and allergic aspergillosis whereby eosinophils act not only as effector cells but also as immunomodulatory cells driving the IL-23/IL-17 axis and contributing to inflammatory cell recruitment.

  8. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Ames tester strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutation and killing induced by X radiation and 60 Co γ radiation were studied in six different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA100, which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions, and strains TA2637 and TA98, which are sensitive to frameshifts, carry the pKM101 plasmid and exhibit significantly higher radiation-induced mutations compared to their plasmidless parent strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538, respectively. Among the plasmid-containing strains, TA98 and TA2637 are much more sensitive to the mutagenic action of radiation than is TA100 based on a comparison with their respective spontaneous mutation rates; however, no uniformity was observed in the responses of the strains to the lethal action of ionizing radiation. The following conclusions are consistent with these observations: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella assay correctly identifies ionizing radiation as a mutagenic agent; (2) frameshift-sensitive parent strains are more sensitive to the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation than is the only strain studied that is sensitive to base-pair substitutions; and (3) enhancement of mutagenesis and survival is related to plasmid-mediated repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and does not involve damage induced by Cerenkov-generated uv radiation which is negligible for our irradiation conditions

  9. p19-targeted ABD-derived protein variants inhibit IL-23 binding and exert suppressive control over IL-23-stimulated expansion of primary human IL-17+T-cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížová, Lucie; Kuchař, Milan; Petroková, Hana; Osička, Radim; Hlavničková, Marie; Pelák, O.; Černý, Jiří; Kalina, T.; Malý, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2017), s. 102-113 ISSN 0891-6934 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27676A; GA ČR GAP303/10/1849; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Psoriasis * Th17 cell * IL-23 * protein binder Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EC - Immunology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Immunology; Immunology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  10. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation induces an adverse pregnancy outcome in the murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis are a significant health problem. Pregnancy, state of immunological tolerance, is a predisposing condition for the development of infections with intracellular pathogens. Salmonella species can cause pregnancy complications such as chorioamnionitis, transplacental fetal infection, pre term labor, abortions, neonatal and maternal septicemia. However, the specific mechanisms by which Salmonella infections trigger these alterations are not clear. In the present work, using a self-limiting enterocolitis murine model, we show that the ingestion of a low dose of S. Enteritidis at late stages of pregnancy (day 15 of gestation is sufficient to induce massive maternal infection. We found that Salmonella infection leads to 40% of pre term delivery, 33% of abortion and fetal growth restriction. Placental dysfunction during S. Enteritidis enterocolitis was confirmed through cellular infiltration and hypoxia markers (MPO activity and COX-1 and COX-2 expression, respectively. Apoptosis in placental tissue due to Salmonella infection was also evident at day 18 of gestation when investigated by morphometric procedure, DNA fragmentation and Fas/FasL expression. Also, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-10 was up regulated in response to Salmonella not only in placenta, but also in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation causes detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome.

  11. Inducible pathway is required for mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego, C.; Eisenstadt, E.

    1987-01-01

    UV mutability of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was eliminated in the presence of a multicopy plasmid carrying the Escherichia coli lexA + gene. This result suggests that inducible, SOS-like functions are required for UV mutagenesis in S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium strains carrying either point or deletion mutations in topA had previously been shown to lose their mutability by UV or methyl methanesulfonate. Mitomycin C induction of the Phi(mucB'-lacZ') fusion (a DNA damage-inducible locus carried on plasmid pSE205) in S. typhimurium topA was normal, suggesting that RecA is activated in topA mutants. These observations lead the authors deduce that S. typhimurium has at least one DNA damage-inducible locus in addition to recA that is required for UV mutability

  12. HMGB1 exacerbates experimental mouse colitis by enhancing innate lymphoid cells 3 inflammatory responses via promoted IL-23 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Lingyun; Khan, Muhammad Noman; Shi, Lifeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Zheng, Fang; Gong, Feili; Fang, Min

    2016-11-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), as an endogenous inflammatory molecule, can promote inflammatory cytokines secretion by acting on TLR2/4 resulting in tissue damage. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report a novel role of HMGB1 in controlling the maintenance and function of intestine-resident group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that are important innate effector cells implicated in mucosal homeostasis and IBD pathogenesis. We showed that mice treated with anti-HMGB1 Ab, or genetically deficient for TLR2 -/- or TLR4 -/- mice, displayed reduced intestinal inflammation. In these mice, the numbers of colonic ILC3s were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-17 and IL-22 that can be secreted by ILC3s were also decreased in the colon tissues. Furthermore, HMGB1 promoted DCs via TLR2/4 signaling to produce IL-23, activating ILC3s to produce IL-17 and IL-22. Our data thus indicated that the HMGB1-TLR2/4-DCs-IL-23 cascade pathway enhances the functions of ILC3s to produce IL-17 and IL-22, and this signal way might play a vital role in the development of IBD.

  13. A secreted Salmonella protein induces a proinflammatory response in epithelial cells, which promotes neutrophil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C A; Silva, M; Siber, A M; Kelly, A J; Galyov, E; McCormick, B A

    2000-10-24

    In response to Salmonella typhimurium, the intestinal epithelium generates an intense inflammatory response consisting largely of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils, PMN) migrating toward and ultimately across the epithelial monolayer into the intestinal lumen. It has been shown that bacterial-epithelial cell interactions elicit the production of inflammatory regulators that promote transepithelial PMN migration. Although S. typhimurium can enter intestinal epithelial cells, bacterial internalization is not required for the signaling mechanisms that induce PMN movement. Here, we sought to determine which S. typhimurium factors and intestinal epithelial signaling pathways elicit the production of PMN chemoattractants by enterocytes. Our results suggest that S. typhimurium activates a protein kinase C-dependent signal transduction pathway that orchestrates transepithelial PMN movement. We show that the type III effector protein, SipA, is not only necessary but is sufficient to induce this proinflammatory response in epithelial cells. Our results force us to reconsider the long-held view that Salmonella effector proteins must be directly delivered into host cells from bacterial cells.

  14. Interferon-α-conditioned human monocytes combine a Th1-orienting attitude with the induction of autologous Th17 responses: role of IL-23 and IL-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano M Santini

    Full Text Available IFN-α exerts multiple effects leading to immune protection against pathogens and cancer as well to autoimmune reactions by acting on monocytes and dendritic cells. We analyzed the versatility of human monocytes conditioned by IFN-α towards dendritic cell differentiation (IFN-DC in shaping the autologous T-helper response. Priming of naïve CD4 T cells with autologous IFN-DC in the presence of either SEA or anti-CD3, resulted, in addition to a prominent expansion of CXCR3+ IFN-γ-producing CD4 Th1 cells, in the emergence of two distinct subsets of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells: i a predominant Th17 population selectively producing IL-17 and expressing CCR6; ii a minor Th1/Th17 population, producing both IL-17 and IFN-γ. After phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, IFN-DC induced Th17 cell expansion and IL-17 release. Notably, the use of neutralizing antibodies revealed that IL-23 was an essential cytokine in mediating Th17 cell development by IFN-DC. The demonstration of the IFN-DC-induced expansion of both Th1 and Th17 cell populations reveals the intrinsic plasticity of these DC in orienting the immune response and provides a mechanistic link between IFN-α and the onset of autoimmune phenomena, which have been correlated with both IL-17 production and exposure to IFN-α.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL23R and IL17 with ulcerative colitis risk in a Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengli Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies implicated that IL23R and IL17 genes play an important role in autoimmune inflammation. Genome-wide association studies have also identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the IL23R gene region associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. This study examined the association of IL23R and IL17A gene SNPs with ulcerative colitis susceptibility in a population in China. METHODOLOGY: A total of 270 ulcerative colitis and 268 healthy controls were recruited for the analyses of 23 SNPs in the IL23R and IL17A regions. Genomic DNA was extracted and analysis of these 23 SNPs using ligase detection reaction allelic (LDR technology. Genotype and allele associations were calculated using SPSS 13.0 software package. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to the healthy controls, the variant alleles IL23R rs7530511, and rs11805303 showed a statistically significant difference for ulcerative colitis susceptibility (0.7% vs 3.3%, P = 0.002; 60.4% vs 53.2%, P = 0.0017, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns of these SNPs were measured and three LD blocks from the SNPs of IL23R and one block from those of IL17A were identified. A novel association with ulcerative colitis susceptibility occurred in haplotypes of IL23R (Block1 H3 P = 0.02; Block2 H2 P = 0.019; Block3 H4 P = 0.029 and IL17A (H4 P = 0.034. Pair-wise analyses showed an interaction between the risk haplotypes in IL23R and IL17A (P = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that rs7530511, and rs11805303 of IL23R were significantly associated with ulcerative colitis susceptibility in the Chinese population. The most noticeable finding was the linkage of IL23R and IL17A gene region to ulcerative colitis risk due to the gene-gene interaction.

  16. Immunological and antitumor effects of IL-23 as a cancer vaccine adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overwijk, Willem W.; de Visser, Karin E.; Tirion, Felicia H.; de Jong, Laurina A.; Pols, Thijs W. H.; van der Velden, Yme U.; van den Boorn, Jasper G.; Keller, Anna M.; Buurman, Wim A.; Theoret, Marc R.; Blom, Bianca; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Kruisbeek, Ada M.; Kastelein, Robert A.; Haanen, John B. A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The promising, but modest, clinical results of many human cancer vaccines indicate a need for vaccine adjuvants that can increase both the quantity and the quality of vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T cells. In this study we tested the immunological and antitumor effects of the proinflammatory

  17. Development of a flexible and potent hypoxia-inducible promoter for tumor-targeted gene expression in attenuated Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengesha, Asferd; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe; Landuyt, Willy; Chiu, Roland K; Wouters, Bradly G; Theys, Jan

    To increase the potential of attenuated Salmonella as gene delivery vectors for cancer treatment, we developed a hypoxia-inducible promoter system to limit gene expression specifically to the tumor. This approach is envisaged to not only increase tumor specificity, but also to target those cells

  18. Resveratrol induces membrane and DNA disruption via pro-oxidant activity against Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonjong; Lee, Dong Gun

    2017-07-22

    Resveratrol is a flavonoid found in various plants including grapes, which has been reported to be active against various pathogenic bacteria. However, antibacterial effects and mechanisms via pro-oxidant property of resveratrol remain unknown and speculative. This research investigated antibacterial mechanism of resveratrol against a food-borne human pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, and confirmed the cell death associated oxidative damage. Resveratrol increased outer membrane permeability and membrane depolarization. It also was observed DNA injury responses such as DNA fragmentation, increasing DNA contents and cell division inhibition. Intracellular ROS accumulation, GSH depletion and significant increased malondialdehyde levels were confirmed, which indicated pro-oxidant activity of resveratrol and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the observed lethal damages were reduced by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine treatment supported the view that resveratrol-induced oxidative stress stimulated S. typhimurium cell death. In conclusion, this study expands understanding on role of pro-oxidant property and insight into previously unrecognized oxygen-dependent anti-Salmonella mechanism on resveratrol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  20. Lack of association between rheumatoid arthritis and genetic variants rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of IL-23R gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Damian; Haladyj, Ewa; Olesinska, Marzena; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2018-01-19

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune diseases, where different genetic variants in cytokine genes may play a pathogenic role. A GWAS in autoimmune diseases highlighted the IL-23R gene as a one of the susceptibility factors. We examined three candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of the IL-23R gene, as well as determined their possible association with RA in a Polish population. The IL-23R gene polymorphisms were genotyped for 422 RA patients and 348 healthy individuals using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. The genotypes frequency did not deviate from HWE in each examined group. A comparison of the allele as well as genotype frequencies of the IL-23R polymorphisms under codominant, dominant and recessive genetic model revealed no significant differences between RA patients and healthy subjects. We also demonstrated that IL-23R rs2201841 and rs11209026 as well as rs11209026 and rs10889677 were in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1.0). Our genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that in carriers of rs10889677C and/or rs2201841A allele the RF, extra-articular manifestations and erosion were more frequent present than in patients with rs10889677A and/or rs2201841A allele, although this association was not significant. Present findings indicated that the autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants in IL-23R gene are not associated with RA in the Polish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces stronger plant immunity than Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debanjana; Panchal, Shweta; Rosa, Bruce A; Melotto, Maeli

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of fresh produce contaminated with bacterial human pathogens has resulted in various, sometimes deadly, disease outbreaks. In this study, we assessed plant defense responses induced by the fully pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in both Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Unlike SL1344, O157:H7 induced strong plant immunity at both pre-invasion and post-invasion steps of infection. For instance, O157:H7 triggered stomatal closure even under high relative humidity, an environmental condition that generally weakens plant defenses against bacteria in the field and laboratory conditions. SL1344 instead induced a transient stomatal immunity. We also observed that PR1 gene expression was significantly higher in Arabidopsis leaves infected with O157:H7 compared with SL1344. These results suggest that plants may recognize and respond to some human pathogens more effectively than others. Furthermore, stomatal immunity can diminish the penetration of human pathogens through the leaf epidermis, resulting in low bacterial titers in the plant apoplast and suggesting that additional control measures can be employed to prevent food contamination. The understanding of how plant responses can diminish bacterial contamination is paramount in preventing outbreaks and improving the safety of food supplies.

  2. spv locus aggravates Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing Th1/Th2 shift to Th2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yan; Wang, Li-Dan; Xu, Guang-Mei; Yang, Si-di; Deng, Qi-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) are facultative intracellular enteric pathogens causing disease with a broad range of hosts. It was known that Th1-type cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α etc. could induce protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, while Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 etc. are proved to help pathogens survive inside hosts and cause severe infection. One of the critical virulence factor attributes to the pathogenesis of S. typhimurium is Salmonella plasmid virulence genes (spv). Until now, the interaction between spv locus and the predictable generation of Th1 or Th2 immune responses to Salmonella has not been identified. In this study, zebrafish adults were employed to explore the effect of spv locus on Salmonella pathogenesis as well as host adaptive immune responses especially shift of Th1/Th2 balance. The pathological changes of intestines and livers in zebrafish were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscopy. Levels of the transcription factors of Th1 (Tbx21) and Th2 (GATA3) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Expression of cytokines were determined by using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that spv operon aggravates damage of zebrafish. Furthermore, it demonstrated that spv locus could inhibit the transcription of tbx21 gene and suppress the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α. On the contrary, the transcription of gata3 gene could be promoted and the expression of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were enhanced by spv locus. Taken together, our data revealed that spv locus could aggravate Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing an imbalance of Th1/Th2 immune response and resulting in a detrimental Th2 bias of host. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Overexpression of MicA induces production of OmpC-enriched outer membrane vesicles that protect against Salmonella challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Il; Kim, Moonjeong; Jeon, Jinseong; Han, Jin Kwan; Kim, Kwang-Sun

    2017-08-26

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from bacteria are promising candidates for subunit vaccines. Stresses that modulate the composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are important for OMV synthesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs) expressed in response to stress regulate OMPs, although the mechanism underlying sRNA-mediated OMV biogenesis and its utility for developing vaccine platforms remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the role of a sRNA, MicA, which regulates OmpA, a major OMP involved in both production of OMVs and reactive immunity against Salmonella challenge. A Salmonella strain overexpressing MicA generated more OMVs than a control strain. In addition, OmpC was the major component of MicA-derived OMV proteins. MicA-derived OMVs induced Th1- and Th17-type immune responses in vitro and reduced Salmonella-mediated lethality in a mouse model. Thus, OmpA-regulatory sRNA-derived OMVs may facilitate production of Salmonella-protective vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  5. Anti-IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) polyclonal antibodies ameliorate autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiding; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Gaizhi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Wang, Tianxiao; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Xiao, He; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2018-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines have been examined as therapeutic targets in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Our previous study showed that a novel IL-12 family cytokine, IL-39 (IL-23p19/Ebi3) mediates inflammation in lupus-like mice. In the present study, the effect of anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice was investigated. Rabbit anti-mouse IL-39 polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization with recombinant mouse IL-39, and purified using protein A chromatography. These antibodies were subsequently used to treat lupus-like mice. Flow cytometry, captured images, ELISA and H&E staining were used to determine the effect of anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies on inflammatory cells, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells and the structure of the glomerular region. The anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies effectively reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells, splenomegaly, autoantibody titers, proteinuria, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and restored the structure of the glomerular region in MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-IL-39 polyclonal antibodies ameliorated autoimmune symptoms in lupus-like mice. Therefore, IL-39 may be used as a possible target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:29138852

  6. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  7. Association between lower frequency of R381Q variant (rs11209026) in IL-23 receptor gene and increased risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Elham; Tavasolian, Fataneh; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Azizi, Mohammdareza; Ghoryani, Mohsen; Samadi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 20th week of gestation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor gene (IL-23R; rs11209026, 1142 G wild type → A reduced function, Arg381Gln, R381Q) and RSA. For the study, 200 RSA patients (confirmed using established diagnostic criteria) and 200 normal individuals in fertility and infertility centers in the cities of Yazd and Isfahan were recruited during a period from 2012-2013. Using PCR-RFLP, the R381Q variant was screened for in the IL-23R gene of the patients and controls. The results indicated there were significant differences in the frequency of this genetic variant in the patients versus the healthy controls, i.e. 2% and 7.5%, respectively (p value = 0.01; odds ratio = 0.25; CI = 95%). No significant difference was found for the G allelic frequency in patients with RSA and in the control group (p = 0.60). The A allelic frequency was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.01). Based on these findings, it is concluded that the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23 receptor (R381Q) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is less than that found in normal control women.

  8. Serum 25-OH vitamin D level in treatment-naïve systemic lupus erythematosus patients: Relation to disease activity, IL-23 and IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, D; El-Farahaty, R M; Houssen, M E; Machaly, S A; Sallam, M; ElSaid, T O; Neseem, N O

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status in treatment-naïve SLE patients and its association with clinical and laboratory markers of disease activity, including serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23. Methods Fifty-seven treatment-naïve SLE patients along with 42 matched controls were included. SLEDAI score was used to estimate disease activity. Serum levels of 25(OH) D, IL-17 and IL-23 were measured. Results The median level of 25(OH) D in SLE patients (40.8; 4-70 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in the controls (47; 25-93 ng/ml) ( P = 0.001). A total of 38.6% of SLE cases had 25 (OH) D levels < 30 ng/ml (hypovitaminosis D) vs. 4.8% of the controls ( P < 0.0001). Apart from thrombocytopenia, vitamin D was not associated with clinical signs of SLE. There were negative correlations between serum 25(OH) D and serum levels of IL-17, IL-23 and ANA (rho = -0.5, -0.8, -0.5, P ≤ 0.05) in SLE patients. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in treatment naïve SLE patients. It contributes to ANA antibody production and is associated with high serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17; thus they may trigger the inflammatory process in SLE.

  9. Membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 serve as potent mucosal adjuvants when co-presented on whole inactivated influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L; High, Kevin P; Roberts, Paul C

    2014-05-03

    Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors have all proven to be effective immunomodulatory adjuvants when administered with a variety of antigens. We have previously evaluated the efficacy of membrane-anchored interleukins (IL) such as IL-2 and IL-4 co-presented as Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccines (CYT-IVACs) using a mouse model of influenza challenge. Here, we describe studies evaluating the parenteral and mucosal adjuvanticity of membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVACs in young adult mice. Mucosal immunization using IL-12 and IL-23 bearing whole influenza virus vaccine (WIV) was more effective at eliciting virus-specific nasal IgA and reducing viral lung burden following challenge compared to control WIV vaccinated animals. Both IL-12 and IL-23 bearing WIV elicited the highest anti-viral IgA levels in serum and nasal washes. This study highlights for the first time the mucosal adjuvant potential of IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVAC formulations in eliciting mucosal immune responses and reducing viral lung burden. The co-presentation of immunomodulators in direct context with viral antigen in whole inactivated viral vaccines may provide a means to significantly lower the dose of vaccine required for protection.

  10. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Julie P M; Méresse, Stéphane; Pocachard, Bérengère; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Aussel, Laurent; Barras, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i) to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii) to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii) to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  11. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P M Viala

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  12. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I M; Baker, A; Arneborg, N; Jespersen, L

    2015-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal epithelium makes up the largest barrier separating the body from the external environment. Whereas invasive pathogens cause epithelial barrier disruption, probiotic micro-organisms modulate tight junction regulation and improve epithelial barrier function. In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability of four nonpathogenic yeast species to modulate transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a monolayer of differentiated human colonocytes (Caco-2 cells). Further, we assessed yeast modulation of a Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier function insult. Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study demonstrates distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Further, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify Kluyveromyces marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study is the first to demonstrate significant non-Saccharomyces yeast

  13. CD5 costimulation induces stable Th17 development by promoting IL-23R expression and sustained STAT3 activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Jelle; Souwer, Yuri; van Beelen, Astrid J.; de Groot, Rosa; Muller, Femke J. M.; Klaasse Bos, Hanny; Jorritsma, Tineke; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; de Jong, Esther C.; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2011-01-01

    IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells are important for immunity against extracellular pathogens and in autoimmune diseases. The factors that drive Th17 development in human remain a matter of debate. Here we show that, compared with classic CD28 costimulation, alternative costimulation via

  14. UV light-induced mutability in Salmonella strains containing the umuDC or the mucAB operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, G.; Urios, A.; Aleixandre, V.; Blanco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Multicopy plasmids carrying either the umuDC operon of Escherichia coli or its analog mucAB operon, were introduced into Ames Salmonella strains in order to analyze the influence of UmuDC and MucAB proteins on repair and mutability after UV irradiation. It was found that in uvr + bacteria, plasmid pICV80:mucAB increased the frequency of UV-induced His + revertants whereas pSE117:umuDC caused a smaller increase in UV mutagenesis. In ΔuvrB bacteria, the protective role of pSE117 against UV killing was weak, and there was a great reduction in the mutant yield. In contrast, in these cells, pICV80 led to a large increase in both cell survival and mutation frequency. These results suggest that in Salmonella, as in E. coli, MucAB proteins mediate UV mutagenesis more efficiently than UmuDC proteins do. Plasmid pICV84:umuD + C - significantly increased UV mutagenesis of TA2659:ΔuvrB cells whereas in them, pICV77:mucA + B - had no effect on mutability indicating the presence in Salmonella TA2659 of a gene functionally homologous to umuC. 18 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs

  15. Viable-but-Nonculturable Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Induced by Chlorine Stress Remain Infectious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum J. Highmore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively. The pathogens were subjected to chlorine washing following incubation on spinach leaves. Culture data revealed that total viable L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson populations became VBNC by 50 and 100 ppm chlorine, respectively, while enumeration by direct viable counting found that chlorine caused a <1-log reduction in viability. The pathogenicity of chlorine-induced VBNC L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson was assessed by using Caenorhabditis elegans. Ingestion of VBNC pathogens by C. elegans resulted in a significant life span reduction (P = 0.0064 and P < 0.0001, and no significant difference between the life span reductions caused by the VBNC and culturable L. monocytogenes treatments was observed. L. monocytogenes was visualized beyond the nematode intestinal lumen, indicating resuscitation and cell invasion. These data emphasize the risk that VBNC food-borne pathogens could pose to public health should they continue to go undetected.

  16. Intestinal DMBT1 expression is modulated by Crohn's disease-associated IL23R variants and by a DMBT1 variant which influences binding of the transcription factors CREB1 and ATF-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Diegelmann

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: DMBT is an antibacterial pattern recognition and scavenger receptor. In this study, we analyzed the role of DMBT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs regarding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD susceptibility and examined their functional impact on transcription factor binding and downstream gene expression. METHODS: Seven SNPs in the DMBT1 gene region were analyzed in 2073 individuals including 818 Crohn's disease (CD patients and 972 healthy controls in two independent case-control panels. Comprehensive epistasis analyses for the known CD susceptibility genes NOD2, IL23R and IL27 were performed. The influence of IL23R variants on DMBT1 expression was analyzed. Functional analysis included siRNA transfection, quantitative PCR, western blot, electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase assays. RESULTS: IL-22 induces DMBT1 protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells dependent on STAT3, ATF-2 and CREB1. IL-22 expression-modulating, CD risk-associated IL23R variants influence DMBT1 expression in CD patients and DMBT1 levels are increased in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of CD patients. Several DMBT1 SNPs were associated with CD susceptibility. SNP rs2981804 was most strongly associated with CD in the combined panel (p = 3.0 × 10(-7, OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.24-1.63. All haplotype groups tested showed highly significant associations with CD (including omnibus P-values as low as 6.1 × 10(-18. The most strongly CD risk-associated, non-coding DMBT1 SNP rs2981804 modifies the DNA binding sites for the transcription factors CREB1 and ATF-2 and the respective genomic region comprising rs2981804 is able to act as a transcriptional regulator in vitro. Intestinal DMBT1 expression is decreased in CD patients carrying the rs2981804 CD risk allele. CONCLUSION: We identified novel associations of DMBT1 variants with CD susceptibility and discovered a novel functional role of rs2981804 in regulating DMBT1 expression. Our data suggest an important

  17. Intestinal DMBT1 expression is modulated by Crohn's disease-associated IL23R variants and by a DMBT1 variant which influences binding of the transcription factors CREB1 and ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Julia; Czamara, Darina; Le Bras, Emmanuelle; Zimmermann, Eva; Olszak, Torsten; Bedynek, Andrea; Göke, Burkhard; Franke, Andre; Glas, Jürgen; Brand, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    DMBT is an antibacterial pattern recognition and scavenger receptor. In this study, we analyzed the role of DMBT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regarding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and examined their functional impact on transcription factor binding and downstream gene expression. Seven SNPs in the DMBT1 gene region were analyzed in 2073 individuals including 818 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 972 healthy controls in two independent case-control panels. Comprehensive epistasis analyses for the known CD susceptibility genes NOD2, IL23R and IL27 were performed. The influence of IL23R variants on DMBT1 expression was analyzed. Functional analysis included siRNA transfection, quantitative PCR, western blot, electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase assays. IL-22 induces DMBT1 protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells dependent on STAT3, ATF-2 and CREB1. IL-22 expression-modulating, CD risk-associated IL23R variants influence DMBT1 expression in CD patients and DMBT1 levels are increased in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of CD patients. Several DMBT1 SNPs were associated with CD susceptibility. SNP rs2981804 was most strongly associated with CD in the combined panel (p = 3.0 × 10(-7), OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.24-1.63). All haplotype groups tested showed highly significant associations with CD (including omnibus P-values as low as 6.1 × 10(-18)). The most strongly CD risk-associated, non-coding DMBT1 SNP rs2981804 modifies the DNA binding sites for the transcription factors CREB1 and ATF-2 and the respective genomic region comprising rs2981804 is able to act as a transcriptional regulator in vitro. Intestinal DMBT1 expression is decreased in CD patients carrying the rs2981804 CD risk allele. We identified novel associations of DMBT1 variants with CD susceptibility and discovered a novel functional role of rs2981804 in regulating DMBT1 expression. Our data suggest an important role of DMBT1 in CD pathogenesis.

  18. Association study of IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 in Iranian patients with Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana M; Shahram, Farhad; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Rosa, Alexandra; Crespo, Jorge; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Jesus, Gorete; Barcelos, Filipe; Patto, José Vaz; Shafiee, Niloofar Mojarad; Ghaderibarim, Fahmida; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2012-08-01

    Independent replication of the findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains the gold standard for results validation. Our aim was to test the association of Behçet's disease (BD) with the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) and the IL-23 receptor-IL-12 receptor β2 (IL23R-IL12RB2) locus, each of which has been previously identified as a risk factor for BD in 2 different GWAS. Six haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 and 42 in IL23R-IL12RB2 were genotyped in 973 Iranian patients with BD and 637 non-BD controls. Population stratification was assessed using a panel of 86 ancestry-informative markers. Subtle evidence of population stratification was found in our data set. In IL10, rs1518111 was nominally associated with BD before and after adjustment for population stratification (odds ratio [OR] for T allele 1.20, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.40, unadjusted P [P(unadj) ] = 2.53 × 10(-2) ; adjusted P [P(adj) ] = 1.43 × 10(-2) ), and rs1554286 demonstrated a trend toward association (P(unadj) = 6.14 × 10(-2) ; P(adj) = 3.21 × 10(-2) ). Six SNPs in IL23R-IL12RB2 were found to be associated with BD after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the most significant of which were rs17375018 (OR for G allele 1.51, 95% CI 1.27-1.78, P(unadj) = 1.93 × 10(-6) ), rs7517847 (OR for T allele 1.48, 95% CI 1.26-1.74, P(unadj) = 1.23 × 10(-6) ), and rs924080 (OR for T allele 1.29, 95% CI 1.20-1.39, P = 1.78 × 10(-5) ). SNPs rs10489629, rs1343151, and rs1495965 were also significantly associated with BD in all tests performed. Results of meta-analyses of our data combined with data from other populations further confirmed the role of rs1518111, rs17375018, rs7517847, and rs924080 in the risk of BD, but no epistatic interactions between IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 were detected. Results of imputation analysis highlighted the importance of IL23R regulatory regions in the susceptibility to BD. These findings independently confirm

  19. Association analysis of IL10, TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 SNPs with Behçet's disease risk in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahiba eKhaib Dit Naib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have conducted the first study of the association of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 regionSNPswith Behçet's disease (BD in Western Algeria. Methods: A total of 51 BD patients and 96 unrelated controls from West region of Algeria were genotyped by direct sequencing for 11 SNPs including 2 SNPsfrom the IL10 promoter [c.-819T>C (rs1800871, c.-592A>C (rs1800872], 6 SNPs from the TNF-α promoter [c.-1211T>C (rs1799964, c.-1043C>A (rs1800630, c.-1037C>T (rs1799724, c.-556G>A (rs1800750, c.-488G>A (rs1800629 and c.-418G>A (rs361525], and 3 SNPs from the IL23R-IL12RB2 region [g.67747415A>C (rs12119179, g.67740092G>A (rs11209032 and g.67760140T>C (rs924080]. Results: The minor alleles c.-819T and c.-592A were significantly associated with BD (OR= 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.73, p = 0.003; whereas, there was weaker association between TNF-αpromoter SNPs or IL23R-IL12RB2 region and disease risk.Conclusion: Unlike the TNF-αand the IL23R-IL12RB2 region SNPs, the two IL10 SNPs were strongly associated with BD. The -819T, and -592A alleles and the -819TT, -819CT, and -592AA and -592CA genotypes seem to be highly involved in the risk of developing of BD in the population of Western Algeria.

  20. A secreted Salmonella protein induces a proinflammatory response in epithelial cells, which promotes neutrophil migration

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Catherine A.; Silva, Milton; Siber, Andrew M.; Kelly, Aaron J.; Galyov, Edouard; McCormick, Beth A.

    2000-01-01

    In response to Salmonella typhimurium, the intestinal epithelium generates an intense inflammatory response consisting largely of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils, PMN) migrating toward and ultimately across the epithelial monolayer into the intestinal lumen. It has been shown that bacterial-epithelial cell interactions elicit the production of inflammatory regulators that promote transepithelial PMN migration. Although S. typhimurium can enter intestinal ...

  1. Salmonella osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is s...

  2. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  3. Influence of genetic polymorphisms of IL23R, STAT3, IL12B, and STAT4 on the risk of aplastic anemia and the effect of immunosuppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Zhu, Huanling; Han, Bing; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Yuming; Lu, Xiaojun; Huang, Chunyan; Tan, Bin; Chen, Chunxia; Qin, Li

    2018-04-01

    Studies have suggested that IL-23/STAT3 and IL-12/STAT4 signaling pathways associate with aplastic anemia (AA) occurrence. Polymorphisms in pathway-related genes may contribute to AA risk. In the current study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms in genes of IL23R, STAT3, IL12B, and STAT4 and occurrence, severity, and immunosuppressive outcome of AA in the Han population in southwest China. In the current 164 AA cases and 211 controls study, we found T allele and TT genotype of rs7574865 were more frequent in the cases than that in the controls. In the additive model, individual carrying rs7574865 T allele demonstrated a 37% (OR (95% CI) = 1.37 (1.02-1.85), Pper = 0.036) increased AA risk. In the recessive model, carrier with rs7574865 TT genotype showed a 2.08-fold increased AA risk (OR (95% CI) = 2.08 (1.14-3.70), Pper = 0.017). Additionally, we showed that G allele and GG genotype of rs11209032 were more frequent in the 88 non-severe AA cases than that in the 76 severe AA ones. Our study also found G allele and GG genotype of rs11209032, and GG-genotype of rs744166 associated with the immunosuppressive therapy outcome in AA patients. Current study results support that functional STAT4 (rs7574865), IL23R (rs11209032), and STAT3 (rs744166) variants may associate with occurrence, severity, and immunosuppressive outcome of AA in the Han population in southwest China.

  4. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, A; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-01-01

    distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase....... In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability......). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  5. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N'Djamena Hospitals, Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djim-Adjim Tabo

    Full Text Available Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N'Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7, followed by S. Anatum (n = 4 and S. Kottbus (n = 3. The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards, except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N'Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice.

  6. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  7. Acid tolerance in Salmonella typhimurium induced by culturing in the presence of organic acids at different growth temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    The influence of growth temperature and acidification of the culture medium up to pH 4.25 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids on the growth and subsequent acid resistance at pH 3.0 of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 was studied. The minimum pH value which allowed for S. typhimurium growth within the temperature range of 25-37 degrees C was 4.5 when the pH was reduced using citric and hydrochloric acids, and 5.4 and 6.4 when lactic acid and acetic acid were used, respectively. At high (45 degrees C) or low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the growth pH boundary was increased about 1 pH unit. The growth temperature markedly modified the acid resistance of the resulting cells. In all cases, D-values were lower for cells grown at 10 degrees C and significantly increased with increasing growth temperature up to 37 degrees C, at which D-values obtained were up to 10 times higher. Cells grown at 45 degrees C showed D-values similar to those found for cells grown at 25 degrees C. The growth of cells in acidified media, regardless of the pH value, caused an increase in their acid resistance at the four incubation temperatures, although the magnitude of the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) observed depended on the growth temperature. Acid adapted cultures at 10 degrees C showed D-values ranging from 5.75 to 6.91 min, which turned out to be about 2 times higher than those corresponding to non-acid adapted cultures, while higher temperatures induced an increase in D-values of at least 3.5 times. Another finding was that, while at 10 and 45 degrees C no significant differences among the effect of the different acids tested in inducing an ATR were observed, when cells were grown at 25 and 37 degrees C citric acid generally turned out to be the acid which induced the strongest ATR. Results obtained in this study show that growth temperature is an important factor affecting S. typhimurium acid resistance and could contribute to find new strategies based on intelligent

  8. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol induce expression of genes associated with pathogenicity in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a serious public health threat as infections caused by these strains are more difficult and expensive to treat. Livestock serve as a reservoir for MDR Salmonella, and the antibiotics chlortetracycline an...

  9. Spontaneous mutability and light-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium: effects of an R-plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, L.

    1979-01-01

    The UV-protecting plasmid R46 was transferred by conjugation to a genetically marked mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain, not derived from LT2; in this host the plasmid conferred UV protection and enhanced UV mutagenesis just as it does in LT2 lines. Tra - derivatives of R46 encountered during transduction retained UV-protecting and mutagenesis-enhancing ability. Stored strains carrying the R46-derived plasmids with strong mutator effect but not UV-protecting had lost most of their original streptomycin resistance but were slightly resistant to spectinomycin; attempts to transfer such plasmids failed. R46 enhanced the weak mutagenic effect of visible light on several his and trp mutants of strain LT2, including some whose frequency of spontaneous reversion was not increased by the plasmid. A mutagenic effect was produced by visible-light irradiation of hisG46(R46), either growing cells or nonmultiplying (histidine-deprived cells at 10 0 C). Presence of catalase or cyanide during irradiation did not prevent mutagenesis, which excludes some hypothetical mechanisms. Visible-light irradiation of hisG46 or hisG46(R46) under strict anaerobiosis had little or no mutagenic effect (controls showed that revertants if produced would have been detected). This is as expected if visible-light irradiation in air causes photodynamic damage to DNA and mutations are produced during error-prone, plasmid-enhanced repair

  10. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  11. Role of the supX gene in sensitizing Salmonella typhimurium cells to respiration shutoff induced by far ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, P.A.; Riester, L.; Palmer, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains with supX mutations are known to be sensitive to UV (254 nm) irradiation and to be protected by plasmid pKM101. Wild type (supX + ) cells shut off their respiration after UV and are protected against their shutoff by pKM101. Respiration and survival studies were carried out on several supX strains. The supX strains shut off their respiration after low fluences of UV. Plasmid pKM101 protected a supX83 (nonsense mutation) strain against respiration shutoff and killing but did not protect a supX35 (deletion mutation) strain. When each of the two supX genes were in the genetic backgrounds of the other, however, full protection was provided by pKM101. The supX35 strain not protected by pKM101 may have accumulated a modifying mutation. The supX locus is identical with one specifying topoisomerase I which removes negative superhelical turns from DNA. In the absence of this enzyme, transcription of the DNA is increased. It is proposed that the exaggerated shutoff of respiration and increased killing of supX cells occurs because of the greater ease of transcription of an operon involved in UV-induced respiration shutoff. (author)

  12. Use of a recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain expressing C-Raf for protection against C-Raf induced lung adenoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Fensterle, Joachim; Schmidt, Andreas; Potapenko, Tamara; Troppmair, Jakob; Goebel, Werner; Rapp, Ulf R

    2005-01-01

    Serine-threonine kinases of the Raf family (A-Raf, B-Raf, C-Raf) are central players in cellular signal transduction, and thus often causally involved in the development of cancer when mutated or over-expressed. Therefore these proteins are potential targets for immunotherapy and a possible basis for vaccine development against tumors. In this study we analyzed the functionality of a new live C-Raf vaccine based on an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain in two Raf dependent lung tumor mouse models. The antigen C-Raf has been fused to the C-terminal secretion signal of Escherichia coli α-hemolysin and expressed in secreted form by an attenuated aroA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain via the α-hemolysin secretion pathway. The effect of the immunization with this recombinant C-Raf strain on wild-type C57BL/6 or lung tumor bearing transgenic BxB mice was analyzed using western blot and FACS analysis as well as specific tumor growth assays. C-Raf antigen was successfully expressed in secreted form by an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain using the E. coli hemolysin secretion system. Immunization of wild-type C57BL/6 or tumor bearing mice provoked specific C-Raf antibody and T-cell responses. Most importantly, the vaccine strain significantly reduced tumor growth in two transgenic mouse models of Raf oncogene-induced lung adenomas. The combination of the C-Raf antigen, hemolysin secretion system and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium could form the basis for a new generation of live bacterial vaccines for the treatment of Raf dependent human malignancies

  13. p100, a precursor of NF-κB2, inhibits c-Rel and reduces the expression of IL-23 in dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Obata, Yuichi; Doi, Takahiro S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The deficiency of p100 enhances c-Rel-, not RelA-, dependent cytokine expression. • p100 associates with c-Rel in the steady state but dissociates after LPS stimulation. • The deficiency of p100 enhances the nuclear translocation of c-Rel. • p100 negatively regulates the c-Rel function. - Abstract: Nuclear factor κB regulates various genes involved in the immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and development. NF-κB activation is controlled by proteins possessing ankyrin repeats, such as IκBs. A precursor of the NF-κB2 (p52) subunit, p100, contains ankyrin repeats in its C-terminal portion and has been found to act as a cytoplasmic inhibitor of RelA in the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation. Here, we demonstrate that p100 also suppresses c-Rel function in dendritic cells. Expression of the p19 and p40 subunits of IL-23, a c-Rel-dependent cytokine, was enhanced in p100-deficient cells, although expression of a RelA-dependent cytokine, TNF-α, was reduced. Nuclear translocation of c-Rel was enhanced in p100-deficient cells. p100, and not the processed p52 form, associated with c-Rel in the steady state and dissociated immediately after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in wild-type dendritic cells. Four hours after the stimulation, p100 was newly synthesized and associated with c-Rel again. In cells expressing both c-Rel and RelA, c-Rel is preferentially suppressed by p100

  14. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  15. Transfer of primed CD4+OX40- T lymphocytes induces increased immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1997-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen non-adherent mononuclear cells were is......-specific memory T cells that have returned to a resting state....

  16. A Salmonella typhimurium ghost vaccine induces cytokine expression in vitro and immune responses in vivo and protects rats against homologous and heterologous challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Vinod

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are important food-borne bacterial pathogens, which are responsible for diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals. In this study, S. typhimurium bacterial ghost (STG was generated based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Experimental studies performed using in vitro and in vivo experimental model systems to characterize effects of STG as a vaccine candidate. When compared with murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 exposed to PBS buffer (98.1%, the macrophages exposed to formalin-killed inactivated cells (FKC, live wild-type bacterial cells and NaOH-induced STG at 1 × 108 CFU/mL showed 85.6%, 66.5% and 84.6% cell viability, respectively. It suggests that STG significantly reduces the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Furthermore, STG is an excellent inducer for mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β and factor (iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. In vivo, STG vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against homologous and heterologous challenges in rats. Furthermore, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of STG vaccine were compared with those of FKC and non-vaccinated PBS control groups. The vaccinated rats from STG group exhibited higher levels of serum IgG antibody responses, serum bactericidal antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations than those of the FKC and PBS control groups. Most importantly, after challenge with homologous and heterologous strains, the bacterial loads in the STG group were markedly lower than the FKC and PBS control groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STG vaccine induces protective immunity against homologous and heterologous challenges.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellbauer, Stefan; Perez Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Gao, Nina; Nguyen, Thao; Murphy, Clodagh; Edwards, Robert A; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Previously known functions include histone deacetylase inhibitor, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, ammonia sink, and chemical chaperone. Here, we show that PBA has a previously undiscovered protective role in host mucosal defense during infection. Administration of PBA to Taconic mice resulted in the increase of intestinal Lactobacillales and segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), as well as an increase of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production by intestinal cells. This effect was not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice, which are not colonized with SFB. Because previous studies showed that IL-17 plays a protective role during infection with mucosal pathogens, we hypothesized that Taconic mice treated with PBA would be more resistant to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium). By using the streptomycin-treated mouse model, we found that Taconic mice treated with PBA exhibited significantly lower S Typhimurium intestinal colonization and dissemination to the reticuloendothelial system, as well as lower levels of inflammation. The lower levels of S Typhimurium gut colonization and intestinal inflammation were not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice. Although PBA had no direct effect on bacterial replication, its administration reduced S Typhimurium epithelial cell invasion and lowered the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 in macrophage-like cells. These effects likely contributed to the better outcome of infection in PBA-treated mice. Overall, our results suggest that PBA induces changes in the microbiota and in the mucosal immune response that can be beneficial to the host during infection with S Typhimurium and possibly other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  19. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide AGENCY: Food and Drug... the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination... entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG 690.700)'' on October 1, 1980. CPG...

  1. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-20

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine endotoxemia induced by the Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). BPP was obtained after dialysis against water using a cellulose tube with a molecular weight cutoff of 10000. BPP eluted as a single peak on an HPLC chromatogram. Acid hydrolysis of BPP showed the presence of the following sugars: fucose, galactose, galactosamine, glucose, glucosamine, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose. Treatment of BPP with β-glucanase reduced its immunostimulating activity, suggesting that the polysaccharide has a β-glucan structure. Pretreatment of mice with BPP via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression of LPS/GalN-induced catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes, amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and reduction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitrite serum levels as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of necrotic injury. Immunostimulating macrophage activity was up to 5.4-fold greater than that observed with the culture without the rice bran. BPP also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. These positive results with inflammation biomarkers and lifespan studies suggest that the BPP can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thus increasing the survival of the toxic shock-induced mice. The polysaccharide has the potential to serve as a new functional food.

  2. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella desiccation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Bhaskara, Anuhya; Megalis, Christina; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2012-12-01

    The survival of Salmonella in low moisture foods and processing environments remains a great challenge for the food industry and public health. To explore the mechanisms of Salmonella desiccation resistance, we studied the transcriptomic responses in Salmonella Tennessee (Tennessee), using Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (LT2), a strain weakly resistant to desiccation, as a reference strain. In response to 2 h of air-drying at 11% equilibrated relative humidity, approximately one-fourth of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the Tennessee genome and one-fifth in LT2 were differentially expressed (>2-fold). Among all differentially expressed functional groups (>5-fold) in both strains, the expression fold change associated with fatty acid metabolism was the highest, and constituted 51% and 35% of the total expression fold change in Tennessee and LT2, respectively. Tennessee showed greater changes in expression of genes associated with stress response and envelope modification than LT2, while showing lesser changes in protein biosynthesis expression. Expression of flagella genes was significantly more inhibited in stationary phase cells of Tennessee than LT2 both before and after desiccation. The accumulation of the osmolyte trehalose was significantly induced by desiccation in Tennessee, but no increase was detectable in LT2, which is consistent with the expression patterns of the entire trehalose biosynthesis and degradation pathways in both strains. Results from this study present a global view of the dynamic desiccation responses in Salmonella, which will guide future research efforts to control Salmonella in low moisture environments.

  4. Oral Challenge with Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Induces Distinct Changes in B Cell Subsets in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin R Toapanta; Paula J Bernal; Stephanie Fresnay; Laurence S Magder; Thomas C Darton; Claire Jones; Claire S Waddington; Christoph J Blohmke; Brian Angus; Myron M Levine; Andrew J Pollard; Marcelo B Sztein

    2016-01-01

    A novel human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently established by the Oxford Vaccine Group. In this model, 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of participants developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 6?9 days post-challenge. TD was diagnosed in participants meeting clinical (oral temperature ?38?C for ?12h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. Changes in B cell subpopulations following S. Typhi challenge re...

  5. Applications of microscopy in Salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research.

  6. Fine-tuning synthesis of Yersinia pestis LcrV from runaway-like replication balanced-lethal plasmid in a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine induces protection against a lethal Y. pestis challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Gunn, Bronwyn M; Branger, Christine G; Tinge, Steven A; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-06-01

    A balanced-lethal plasmid expression system that switches from low-copy-number to runaway-like high-copy-number replication (pYA4534) was constructed for the regulated delayed in vivo synthesis of heterologous antigens by vaccine strains. This is an antibiotic resistance-free maintenance system containing the asdA gene (essential for peptidoglycan synthesis) as a selectable marker to complement the lethal chromosomal DeltaasdA allele in live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain chi9447. pYA4534 harbors two origins of replication, pSC101 and pUC (low and high copy numbers, respectively). The pUC replication origin is controlled by a genetic switch formed by the operator/promoter of the P22 cro gene (O/P(cro)) (P(R)), which is negatively regulated by an arabinose-inducible P22 c2 gene located on both the plasmid and the chromosome (araC P(BAD) c2). The absence of arabinose, which is unavailable in vivo, triggers replication to a high-copy-number plasmid state. To validate these vector attributes, the Yersinia pestis virulence antigen LcrV was used to develop a vaccine against plague. An lcrV sequence encoding amino acids 131 to 326 (LcrV196) was optimized for expression in Salmonella, flanked with nucleotide sequences encoding the signal peptide (SS) and the carboxy-terminal domain (CT) of beta-lactamase, and cloned into pYA4534 under the control of the P(trc) promoter to generate plasmid pYA4535. Our results indicate that the live Salmonella vaccine strain chi9447 harboring pYA4535 efficiently stimulated a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that protected mice against lethal challenge with Y. pestis strain CO92 introduced through either the intranasal or subcutaneous route.

  7. Fine-Tuning Synthesis of Yersinia pestis LcrV from Runaway-Like Replication Balanced-Lethal Plasmid in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Vaccine Induces Protection against a Lethal Y. pestis Challenge in Mice▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Gunn, Bronwyn M.; Branger, Christine G.; Tinge, Steven A.; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-01-01

    A balanced-lethal plasmid expression system that switches from low-copy-number to runaway-like high-copy-number replication (pYA4534) was constructed for the regulated delayed in vivo synthesis of heterologous antigens by vaccine strains. This is an antibiotic resistance-free maintenance system containing the asdA gene (essential for peptidoglycan synthesis) as a selectable marker to complement the lethal chromosomal ΔasdA allele in live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain χ9447. pYA4534 harbors two origins of replication, pSC101 and pUC (low and high copy numbers, respectively). The pUC replication origin is controlled by a genetic switch formed by the operator/promoter of the P22 cro gene (O/Pcro) (PR), which is negatively regulated by an arabinose-inducible P22 c2 gene located on both the plasmid and the chromosome (araC PBAD c2). The absence of arabinose, which is unavailable in vivo, triggers replication to a high-copy-number plasmid state. To validate these vector attributes, the Yersinia pestis virulence antigen LcrV was used to develop a vaccine against plague. An lcrV sequence encoding amino acids 131 to 326 (LcrV196) was optimized for expression in Salmonella, flanked with nucleotide sequences encoding the signal peptide (SS) and the carboxy-terminal domain (CT) of β-lactamase, and cloned into pYA4534 under the control of the Ptrc promoter to generate plasmid pYA4535. Our results indicate that the live Salmonella vaccine strain χ9447 harboring pYA4535 efficiently stimulated a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that protected mice against lethal challenge with Y. pestis strain CO92 introduced through either the intranasal or subcutaneous route. PMID:20308296

  8. Involvement of interleukin-23 induced by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide in osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Yang, Di; Okamura, Hirohiko; Teramachi, Jumpei; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Qiu, Lihong; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2017-01-01

    Periapical lesions are characterized by the destruction of periapical bone, and occur as a result of local inflammatory responses to root canal infection by microorganisms including Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis). P. endodontalis and its primary virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical lesions and alveolar bone loss. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is critical in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease via effects on peripheral bone metabolism. The present study investigated the expression of IL-23 in tissue where a periapical lesion was present, and the effect of P. endodontalis LPS on the expression of IL-23 in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Reverse transcription- quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of IL-23 expression in tissue with periapical lesions compared with healthy PDL tissue. Treatment with P. endodontalis LPS increased the expression of IL-23 in the SH-9 human PDL cell line. BAY11-7082, a nuclear factor κB inhibitor, suppressed P. endodontalis LPS-induced IL-23 expression in SH-9 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with conditioned medium from P. endodontalis LPS-treated SH-9 cells promoted osteoclastogenesis. By contrast, RAW264.7 cells treated with conditioned medium from IL-23-knockdown SH-9 cells underwent reduced levels of osteoclastogenesis. The results of the present study indicated that the expression of IL-23 in PDL cells induced by P. endodontalis LPS treatment may be involved in the progression of periapical lesions via stimulation of the osteoclastogenesis process. PMID:28000855

  9. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  10. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a strains mucosally deliver DNA vaccines encoding measles virus hemagglutinin, inducing specific immune responses and protection in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M; Polo, John M; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2003-05-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA and Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208 vaccines to deliver mucosally to cotton rats eukaryotic expression plasmid pGA3-mH and Sindbis virus-based DNA replicon pMSIN-H encoding MV hemagglutinin (H). The initial i.n. dose-response with bacterial vectors alone identified a well-tolerated dosage (1 x 10(9) to 7 x 10(9) CFU) and a volume (20 micro l) that elicited strong antivector immune responses. Animals immunized i.n. on days 0, 28, and 76 with bacterial vectors carrying DNA plasmids encoding MV H or immunized parenterally with these naked DNA vaccine plasmids developed MV plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies and proliferative responses against MV antigens. In a subsequent experiment of identical design, cotton rats were challenged with wild-type MV 1 month after the third dose of vaccine or placebo. MV titers were significantly reduced in lung tissue of animals immunized with MV DNA vaccines delivered either via bacterial live vectors or parenterally. Since attenuated serovar Typhi and S. flexneri can deliver measles DNA vaccines mucosally in cotton rats, inducing measles immune responses (including neutralizing antibodies) and protection, boosting strategies can now be evaluated in animals primed with MV DNA vaccines.

  11. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Bernal, Paula J.; Fresnay, Stephanie; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e....

  12. Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazole in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Phenylbenzimidazole (PBI is an ingredient found in sunscreen agents. PBI can absorb the UV portion of the solar light and undergo a series of light-induced reactions to cause adverse effects in humans. Therefore, chemical and photochemical toxicity of PBI were investigated in the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and human skin keratinocyte cells. There is no appreciable bacteria death due to the exposure to PBI alone, indicating that PBI is not chemically toxic to the bacteria at a dose as high as 625μM. However, exposure to PBI and a solar simulator light (300-W Xe/Hg lamp, 30 min, 18.6 J/cm2, equivalent to 30 min outdoor sunlight causes significant bacteria death: 35% at 25μM and 55% at 625μM PBI. Exposure of the bacteria to light and PBI at doses 5-25μM causes the bacteria to revert, an indication of mutation. In the presence of PBI but without light irradiation, the number of revertant bacteria colonies is around 200 due to spontaneous mutation. Combination of light irradiation and PBI causes the number of revertant TA 102 colonies to increase in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximum of around 1700 revertant colonies at 25 μM PBI. At higher PBI concentrations, the number of revertant colonies remains constant. This result clearly indicates that PBI is photomutagenic in TA 102. Exposure of the human skin HaCaT keratinocytes in aqueous solution in the presence of PBI causes the cell to lose its viability with or without light irradiation. There is no significant difference in cell viability for the light irradiated or non-irradiated groups, indication PBI is not photocytotoxic. However, exposure of the cells to both PBI and light irradiation causes cellular DNA damage, while exposure to PBI alone does not cause DNA damage.

  13. Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a Strains Mucosally Deliver DNA Vaccines Encoding Measles Virus Hemagglutinin, Inducing Specific Immune Responses and Protection in Cotton Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M.; Polo, John M.; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2003-01-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella...

  14. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  15. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs - Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Lind, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolated...... with the exhaustion of oxidative burst in non-adherent monocytes were performed by prestimulation with PMA, heat-killed Salmonella or buffer. Prestimulation with PMA led to a strong reduction in oxidative burst induced by living opsonized Salmonella bacteria, whereas prestimulation with heat-killed bacteria gave rise...

  16. Gamma irradiation increase the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Miloud, Najla; Barkallah, Insaf

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the resistance of Salmonella to antibiotics, four strains of Salmonella were isolated from foods, The different strains used in the present study are (S. Hadar isolate 287, S. Hadar isolate 63, S. Cerro isolate 291, S. Zanzibar isolate 1103), antibiogram analyses were made to test the in vitro-sensitivity of irradiated Salmonella isolates to different antibiotics.The analyse of Control and exposed antibiograms showed that gamma radiation have increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to Cefalotin, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid, Spiramycin and Gentamycin excepted S. Hadar isolate 287 that was resistant to Cefalotin and became sensitive after irradiation. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics,probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way

  17. Organoid and Enteroid Modeling of Salmonella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebang Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are Gram-negative rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria that are comprised of over 2,000 serovars. They cause gastroenteritis (salmonellosis with headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea clinical symptoms. Salmonellosis brings a heavy burden for the public health in both developing and developed countries. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating the infected patients with severe gastroenteritis, although antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella infection is vital to combat the disease. In vitro immortalized 2-D cell lines, ex vivo tissues/organs and several animal models have been successfully utilized to study Salmonella infections. Although these infection models have contributed to uncovering the molecular virulence mechanisms, some intrinsic shortcomings have limited their wider applications. Notably, cell lines only contain a single cell type, which cannot reproduce some of the hallmarks of natural infections. While ex vivo tissues/organs alleviate some of these concerns, they are more difficult to maintain, in particular for long term experiments. In addition, non-human animal models are known to reflect only part of the human disease process. Enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as effective infection models due to their closeness in mimicking the infected tissues/organs. Induced intestinal organoids are derived from iPSCs and contain mesenchymal cells whereas enteroids are derive from intestinal stem cells and are comprised of epithelial cells only. Both enteroids and induced intestinal organoids mimic the villus and crypt domains comparable to the architectures of the in vivo intestine. We review here that enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as desired infection models to study bacterial-host interactions of Salmonella.

  18. Quantitative imaging by pixel-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound reveals a linear relationship between synovial vascular perfusion and the recruitment of pathogenic IL-17A-F+IL-23+ CD161+ CD4+ T helper cells in psoriatic arthritis joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Martini, Veronica; Coran, Alessandro; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Felicetti, Mara; Rizzo, Gaia; Tonietto, Matteo; Scanu, Anna; Oliviero, Francesca; Raffeiner, Bernd; Vezzù, Maristella; Lunardi, Francesca; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Grisan, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    To develop quantitative imaging biomarkers of synovial tissue perfusion by pixel-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), we studied the relationship between CEUS synovial vascular perfusion and the frequencies of pathogenic T helper (Th)-17 cells in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) joints. Eight consecutive patients with PsA were enrolled in this study. Gray scale CEUS evaluation was performed on the same joint immediately after joint aspiration, by automatic assessment perfusion data, using a new quantification approach of pixel-based analysis and the gamma-variate model. The set of perfusional parameters considered by the time intensity curve includes the maximum value (peak) of the signal intensity curve, the blood volume index or area under the curve, (BVI, AUC) and the contrast mean transit time (MTT). The direct ex vivo analysis of the frequencies of SF IL17A-F + CD161 + IL23 + CD4 + T cells subsets were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). In cross-sectional analyses, when tested for multiple comparison setting, a false discovery rate at 10%, a common pattern of correlations between CEUS Peak, AUC (BVI) and MTT parameters with the IL17A-F + IL23 + - IL17A-F + CD161 + - and IL17A-F + CD161 + IL23 + CD4 + T cells subsets, as well as lack of correlation between both peak and AUC values and both CD4 + T and CD4 + IL23 + T cells, was observed. The pixel-based CEUS assessment is a truly measure synovial inflammation, as a useful tool to develop quantitative imaging biomarker for monitoring target therapeutics in PsA.

  19. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high

  20. Red seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down regulate virulence factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and induce immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eKulshreshtha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars towards multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis. Spread plate assay revealed that Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG and Chondrus crispus (CC (1%, w/v significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 mg/ml to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively. However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1 associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results

  1. Stably Integrated luxCDABE for Assessment of Salmonella Invasion Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. Flentie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans and also localizes to neoplastic tumors in animals. Invasion of specific eukaryotic cells is a key mechanism of Salmonella interactions with host tissues. Early stages of gastrointestinal cell invasion are mediated by a Salmonella type III secretion system, powered by the adenosine triphosphatase invC. The aim of this work was to characterize the invC dependence of invasion kinetics into disparate eukaryotic cells traditionally used as models of gut epithelium or neoplasms. Thus, a nondestructive real-time assay was developed to report eukaryotic cell invasion kinetics using lux+ Salmonella that contain chromosomally integrated luxCDABE genes. Bioluminescence-based invasion assays using lux+ Salmonella exhibited inoculum dose-response correlation, distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent Salmonella, and discriminated relative Salmonella invasiveness in accordance with environmental conditions that induce invasion gene expression. In standard gentamicin protection assays, bioluminescence from lux+ Salmonella correlated with recovery of colony-forming units of internalized bacteria and could be visualized by bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, this assay distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent bacteria independent of gentamicin treatment in real time. Bioluminescence reported Salmonella invasion of disparate eukaryotic cell lines, including neoplastic melanoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and glioma cell lines used in animal models of malignancy. In each case, Salmonella invasion of eukaryotic cells was invC dependent.

  2. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  3. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  4. Selective Destruction of Interleukin 23–Induced Expansion of a Major Antigen–Specific γδ T-Cell Subset in Patients With Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jin; Xiao, Heping; Liang, Shanshan; Yang, Enzhuo; Yang, Rui; Huang, Dan; Chen, Crystal; Wang, Feifei; Shen, Ling; Chen, Zheng W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A loss of antigen-specific T-cell responses due to defective cytokine signaling during infections has not been reported. We hypothesize that tuberculosis can destroy signaling effects of selective cytokine(s) and induce exhaustion of antigen-specific T cells. To test this hypothesis, mechanistic studies were performed to examine whether and how tuberculosis blocked interleukin 23 (IL-23) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) signaling effects on a major human γδ T-cell subpopulation, phosphoantigen HMBPP–specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. IL-23 and IL-2 significantly expanded HMBPP-stimulated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from subjects with latent tuberculosis infection, and IL-2 synergized the effect of IL-23. IL-23induced expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells involved STAT3. Surprisingly, patients with tuberculosis exhibited a selective destruction of IL-23induced expansion of these cells. The tuberculosis-driven destruction of IL-23 signaling coincided with decreases of expression and phosphorylation of STAT3. Interestingly, impairing of STAT3 was linked to marked increases in the microRNAs (miRNAs) hsa-miR-337-3p and hsa-miR-125b-5p in Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from patients with tuberculosis. Downregulation of hsa-miR-337-3p and hsa-miR-125b-5p by miRNA sponges improved IL-23–mediated expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and restored the ability of these cells to produce anti–tuberculosis cytokines. These results support our hypothesis that tuberculosis can selectively impair a cytokine effect while sparing another and can induce exhaustion of T cells in response to the respective cytokine. PMID:27789724

  5. Monitoring bacteriolytic therapy of salmonella typhimurium with optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun A; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sung Mi; Song, Ho Cheon; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung

    2005-01-01

    Systemically administrated Salmonella has been studied for targeting tumor and developed as an anticancer agent. In Salmonella, because msbB gene plays role in the terminal myristoylation of lipid A and induces tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) -mediated septic shock, Salmonella msbB mutant strain is safe and useful for tumor-targeting therapy. Here we report that Salmonella msbB mutant strain induce onco lysis after intravenous injection in tumor bearing mice. The CT26 mouse colon cancer cells were stably transfected with firefly luciferase gene and subcutaneously implantated in Balb/C mice. After establishing subcutaneous tumor mass, we intravenously injected 1x108 cfu Salmonella msbB mutant strain or MG1655 E coli strain. Not only tumor size but also total photon flux from the tumor mass were monitored. everyday and compared among experimental groups (No treatment, Salmonella treatment, E. coli MG1655 treatment group). After intraperitoneal injection of D-Iuciferin (3 mg/animal), in vivo optical imaging for firefly luciferase was performed using cooled CCD camera. Imaging signal from Salmonella injected group were significantly lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group on day 2 after injection. On day 4 after injection, imaging signal of salmonella-injected group was 43.8 or 20.7 times lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group, respectively (no treatment: 2.78E+07 p/s/cm 2 /sr, Salmonella treatment: 6.35E+05 p/s/cm 2 /sr, E. coli treatment: 1.29E+07 p/s/cm 2 /sr, P<0.05). However. when we injected E. coli MG1655 into tumor bearing mice, the intensity of imaging signal was not different from no treatment group. These findings suggest that Salmonella msbB mutant strain retains its tumor-targeting properties and have therapeutical effect. Bioluminescent tumor bearing animal model was useful for assessing tumor viability after bacteriolytic therapy using Salmonella

  6. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  7. Influence of uvrB and pKM101 on the spectrum of spontaneous, UV- and gamma-ray-induced base substitutions that revert hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstadt, E; Kahng, L -S; Miller, J K; Barnes, W M

    1989-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes were used to identify base substitutions in 1089 revertants of hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium that arose spontaneously or following irradiation with UV- or ..gamma..-rays. The hisG46 allele, carrying a mutant CCC codon (Pro) in place of the wild-type codon CTC (Leu69) reverted via 6 distinguishable mutational events: C to T transitions at codon sites 1 or 2, C to A or C to G transversions at codon site 1, C to A at codon site 2, and an extragenic suppressor mutation. The distribution of hisG46 revertants differed among treatments and was influenced by the DNA-repair capacity of the bacteria. Plasmid pKM101 enhanced the frequencies of both spontaneous adn induced mutations; transversion events were enhanced more efficiently by pKM101 than were transition events. Compared to Uvr/sup +/ bacteria, Uvr/sup -/ bacteria had higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced mutations; transition mutations were enhanced more efficiently than were transversion mutations. The inflence of DNA-repair activiteis on the mutational spectra provides some insights on the origins of spontaneous and UV-induced mutations. (author). 75 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  8. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R Toapanta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD- 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-. Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD- were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h. Moreover, integrin α4β7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48 h and 96 h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  10. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  12. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie

  13. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  14. Investigation of lethal and mutagenetic effects of UV-light on Salmonella currying wild and mutant alleles of lex A gene of Escherichia coli in the Salmonella genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, I.V.; Tiganova, I.G.; Skavronskaya, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Inheritance of LexA-gene of Escherichia coli- by Salmonella takes place during intergeneric trunsduction cross of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The presence of LexA-E. coli gene-did not eliminate earlier revealed peculiarity consisting in the absence of UV-induced mutagenesis in most of studied salmonollosis strains. So it is shown that the absence of UV mutagenesis in Salmonella does not result from mutation in LexA-gene. Inheritance of pKM101 by LexA-hybrid provides pronounced UV mutability and protective effect. Inheritance of this plasmid by LexA-hybrid did not result in the appearance of capability for UV-induced mutagenesis and improving UV resistance of bacteria. Thus the plasmids effect on repair and mutagenesis in Salmonella, the same as in E. coli, reveals in LexA-phenotype [ru

  15. Salmonella Immunotherapy Improves the Outcome of CHOP Chemotherapy in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma-Bearing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuas, Thais; Moreno, María; Grille, Sofía; Chabalgoity, José A.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that Salmonella immunotherapy is effective to treat B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in mice. However, this model involves animals with high tumor burden, whereas in the clinics B-NHL patients are usually treated with chemotherapy (CHOP: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as first-line therapy prior to immunotherapy. Recently, we have described a NHL-B preclinical model using CHOP chemotherapy to achieve MRD in immunocompetent animals that closely resemble patients’ conditions. In this work, we assessed the efficacy of Salmonella immunotherapy in B-NHL-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Salmonella administration significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of chemotherapy-treated NHL-bearing animals. Mice receiving the CHOP–Salmonella combined therapy showed increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and a different profile of cytokines and chemokines expressed in the tumor microenvironment. Further, Salmonella immunotherapy in CHOP-treated animals also enhanced NK cells cytotoxic activity as well as induced systemic lymphoma-specific humoral and cellular responses. Chemotherapy treatment profoundly impacted on the general health status of recipient animals, but those receiving Salmonella showed significantly better overall body condition. Altogether, the results clearly demonstrated that Salmonella immunotherapy could be safely used in individuals under CHOP treatment, resulting in a better prognosis. These results give strong support to consider Salmonella as a neoadjuvant therapy in a clinical setting. PMID:29410666

  16. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  17. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  19. Analysis of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and Dipicryethane (DPE) for Mutagenicity by the Ames/Salmonella Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R; Felton, J

    2007-10-12

    The Ames/Salmonella assay, developed by Professor Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley, is a rapid and sensitive assay for detecting mutagenicity of various chemical compounds (Maron and Ames, 1983). It is a widely accepted short-term assay for detecting chemicals that induce mutations in the histidine (his) gene of Salmonella typhimurium. This is a reverse mutation assay that detects the mutational reversion of his-dependent Salmonella to the his-independent counterpart. Thereby, mutagenic compounds will increase the frequency of occurrence of his-independent bacterial colonies. The assay utilizes the specific genetically constructed strains of bacteria either with or without mammalian metabolic activation enzymes (S9), Aroclor induced rat liver homogenate to assess the mutagenicity of different compounds. In this study, we will use the Ames/Salmonella assay to investigate the mutagenicity of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from both Bofors and Pantex, and Dipicryethane (DPE).

  20. Salmonella serovar-specific interaction with jejunal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Amadori, Massimo; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Bilato, Dania; Ferraris, Monica; Vito, Guendalina; Ferrari, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Gut is often a receptacle for many different pathogens in feed and/or the environment, such as Salmonella spp. The current knowledge about pathogenicity of Salmonella is restricted to few serotypes, whereas other important ones like S. Coeln, S. Thompson, S. Veneziana, have not been investigated yet in human and animal models. Therefore, the aim of our work was to verify the ability of widespread environmental Salmonella strains to penetrate and modulate innate immunity in pig intestinal IPEC-J2 cells. Our results outline the different ability of Salmonella strains to modulate innate immunity; the expression of the IFN-β gene was increased by S. Typhimurium, S. Ablogame and S. Diarizonae 2, that also caused an inflammatory response in terms of Interleukin (IL)-1β and/or IL-8 gene espression. In particular, IL-8 gene expression and protein release were significantly modulated by 5 Salmonella strains out of 7. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium, S. Coeln and S. Thompson strains, characterized by a peculiar ability to penetrate into IPEC-J2 cells, up-regulated both IL-8 and TNF-α gene expression. Accordingly, blocking IL-8 was shown to decrease the penetration of S. Typhimurium. On the contrary, S. Diarizonae strain 1, showing lesser invasion of IPEC-J2 cells, down-regulated the p38-MAPK pathway, and it did not induce an inflammatory response. Our results confirm that IPEC-J2 cells are a useful model to evaluate host-gut pathogen interaction and indicate IL-8 and TNF-α as possible predictive markers of invasiveness of Salmonella strains in enterocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium transcription profiles in space flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Salmonella transcription profiles were obtained from samples flown on space shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to profiles from Salmonella grown under identical...

  2. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Christine; Tanguy, Mael; Guerre, Philippe; Boilletot, Eric; Cariolet, Roland; Queguiner, Marilyne; Postollec, Gilbert; Pinton, Philippe; Salvat, Gilles; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Fravalo, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon. PMID:23612754

  3. Lack of enhancement of chemical mutagenesis by saccharin in the Salmonella assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Stoltz, D.R.; Epler, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A purified batch of the artificial sweetener saccharin (S-1022) was assayed for mutagenicity and comutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella assay system. Saccharin was not mutagenic and failed to enhance the mutagenic activity induced by a wide variety of known mutagens. These results do not argue against the tumor-promoter-like activity of saccharin but only indicate that the Ames Salmonella assay is not capable of detecting saccharin as a promoter of mutagenesis.

  4. A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Ma, Suzhen; Men, Shuai; Li, Qingzhou; Yang, Xin; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-06-15

    The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3'-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 10(2) to 10(7)CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Light-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella TA102 and genotoxicity/cytotoxicity in human T-cells by 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine: a chemical used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments and in tattoo inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Yan Jian; Hardy, William; Mosley, Charity; Wang Shuguang; Yu Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    DCB, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, is used primarily as an intermediate in the manufacture of diarylide yellow or azo red pigments for printing ink, textile, paint, and plastics. It is also used in tattoo inks. In this article, we investigate light-induced toxicity of DCB in both bacteria and human Jurkat T-cells. DCB itself is not toxic or mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA102, but is photomutagenic at concentrations as low as 2 μM and phototoxic at concentrations >100 μM when bacteria are exposed to DCB and light at the same time (1.2 J/cm 2 of UVA and 2.1 J/cm 2 of visible light). Furthermore, DCB is both photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic to human Jurkat T-cells. Under a light irradiation dose of 2.3 J/cm 2 of UVA and 4.2 J/cm 2 of visible light, it causes the Jurkat T-cells to become nonviable in a DCB dose-dependent manner and the nonviable cells reaches 60% at DCB concentrations higher than 50 μM. At the same time, DNA fragmentation is observed for cells exposed to both DCB and light, determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay). As much as 5% (average) DNA fragmentation was observed when exposed to 200 μM DCB and light irradiation. This suggests that DCB can penetrate the cell membrane and enter the cell. Upon light activation, DCB in the cells can cause various cellular damages, leading to nonviable Jurkat T-cells. It appears, the nonviable cells are not caused solely by fragmentation of cellular DNA, but by other damages such as to proteins and cell membranes, or DNA alkylation. Therefore, persons exposed to DCB through environmental contamination or through tattoo piercing using DCB-containing inks must not only concern about its toxicity without exposing to light, but also its phototoxicity

  6. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  7. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  8. Mutagenicity, stable DNA adducts, and abasic sites induced in Salmonella by phenanthro[3,4-b]- and phenanthro[4,3-b]thiophenes, sulfur analogs of benzo[c]phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Carol D. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); King, Leon C.; Nesnow, Stephen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711 (United States); Umbach, David M. [Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kumar, Subodh [Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory, Great Lakes Center, State University of New York College at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States); DeMarini, David M. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711 (United States)], E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov

    2009-02-10

    Sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (thia-PAHs or thiaarenes) are common constituents of air pollution and cigarette smoke, but only a few have been studied for health effects. We evaluated the mutagenicity in Salmonella TA98, TA100, and TA104 of two sulfur-containing derivatives of benzo[c]phenanthrene, phenanthro[3,4-b]thiophene (P[3,4-b]T), and phenanthro[4,3-b]thiophene (P[4,3-b]T) as well as their dihydrodiol and sulfone derivatives. In addition, we assessed levels of stable DNA adducts (by {sup 32}P-postlabeling) as well as abasic sites (by an aldehydic-site assay) produced by six of these compounds in TA100. P[3,4-b]T and its 6,7- and 8,9-diols, P[3,4-b]T sulfone, P[4,3-b]T, and its 8,9-diol were mutagenic in TA100. P[3,4-b]T sulfone, the most potent mutagen, was approximately twice as potent as benzo[a]pyrene in both TA98 and TA100. Benzo-ring dihydrodiols were much more potent than K-region dihydrodiols, which had little or no mutagenic activity in any strain. P[3,4-b]T sulfone produced abasic sites and not stable DNA adducts; the other five compounds examined, B[c]P, B[c]P 3,4-diol, P[3,4-b]T, P[3,4-b]T 8,9-diol, and P[4,3-b]T 8,9-diol, produced only stable DNA adducts. P[3,4-b]T sulfone was the only compound that produced significant levels of frameshift mutagenicity and induced mutations primarily at GC sites. In contrast, B[c]P, its 3,4-diol, and the 8,9 diols of the phenanthrothiophenes induced mutations primarily at AT sites. P[3,4-b]T was not mutagenic in TA104, whereas P[3,4-b]T sulfone was. The two isomeric forms (P[3,4-b]T and P[4,3-b]T) are apparently activated differently, with the latter, but not the former, involving a diol pathway. This study is the first illustrating the potential importance of abasic sites in the mutagenicity of thia-PAHs.

  9. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunity to intestinal pathogens: lessons learned from Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Salmonella are a common source of food or water-borne infection and cause a wide range of clinical disease in human and animal hosts. Salmonella are relatively easy to culture and manipulate in a laboratory setting, and the infection of laboratory animals induces robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, immunologists have frequently turned to Salmonella infection models to expand understanding of immunity to intestinal pathogens. In this review, I summarize current knowledge of innate and adaptive immunity to Salmonella and highlight features of this response that have emerged from recent studies. These include the heterogeneity of the antigen-specific T-cell response to intestinal infection, the prominence of microbial mechanisms to impede T and B-cell responses, and the contribution of non-cognate pathways for elicitation of T-cell effector functions. Together, these different issues challenge an overly simplistic view of host-pathogen interaction during mucosal infection but also allow deeper insight into the real-world dynamic of protective immunity to intestinal pathogens. PMID:24942689

  11. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...... obtained (SP, SE, and AC were 100, 95, and 97%, respectively). This test is under implementation by the Danish meat industry, and can be useful for screening of large number of samples in the meat production, especially for fast release of minced meat with a short shelf life....

  12. Andrographolide alleviates imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fenli; Tan, Tao; Tan, Yang; Sun, Yang; Wu, Xingxin; Xu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with excessive activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in developing psoriasis. Targeting TLR signaling remains a challenge for treating psoriasis. Here, we found that andrographolide (Andro), a small-molecule natural product, alleviated imiquimod- but not interleukin 23 (IL-23)-induced psoriasis in mice with reducing expressions of IL-23 and IL-1β in the skin. The improvement in imiquimod-induced psoriasis by Andro was not observed in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B) knockout mice. Furthermore, Andro inhibited mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-1β but not CD80 and CD86 in bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a MAP1LC3B-dependent manner. In addition, Andro inhibited imiquimod-induced mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6, IL-1β, CD80 and CD86 in BMDCs from mice. Interestingly, Andro induced a degradation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and blocked the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to MyD88 upon LPS stimulation in BMDCs from mice. Blockade of autophagic proteolysis using NH4Cl or MAP1LC3B(-/-) BMDCs abolished the Andro-induced MyD88 degradation. In conclusion, Andro controls activation of MyD88-dependent cytokines and alleviates psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88, which could be a novel strategy to treat psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and susceptibility of salmonella Typhi and salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Blood samples collected from presumptive typhoid fever patients from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Federal College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that attended two private clinics (Salama Clinics and Savanna Polyclinics) in Zaria were cultured for Salmonella species and identified ...

  14. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  15. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  16. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  17. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  18. CysB-dependent upregulation of the Salmonella Typhimurium cysJIH operon in response to antimicrobial compounds that induce oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ricardo; Neumann, German; Frávega, Jorge; Díaz, Fernando; Tejías, Cristóbal; Collao, Bernardo; Fuentes, Juan A; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L; Gil, Fernando

    2015-02-27

    It has been proposed that some antibiotics exert additional damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Since H₂S protects neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress, it has been hypothesized that bacterial H₂S might, similarly, be a cellular protector against antibiotics. In Enterobacteriaceae, H₂S can be produced by the cysJIH pathway, which uses sulfate as the sulfur source. CysB, in turn, is a positive regulator of cysJIH. At present, the role of S. Typhimurium cysJIH operon in the protection to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by antimicrobial compounds remains to be elucidated. In this work, we evaluated the role of cysJIH and cysB in ROS accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced thiol accumulation, and H₂S accumulation in S. Typhimurium, cultured in either sulfate or cysteine as the sole sulfur source. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the addition of ceftriaxone (CEF) and menadione (MEN) in these same parameters. In sulfate as the sole sulfur source, we found that the cysJIH operon and the cysB gene were required to full growth in minimal media, independently on the addition of CEF or MEN. Most importantly, both cysJIH and cysB contributed to diminish ROS levels, increase the SOD activity, increase the reduced thiols, and increase the H₂S levels in presence of CEF or MEN. Moreover, the cysJIH operon exhibited a CysB-dependent upregulation in presence of these two antimicrobials compounds. On the other hand, when cysteine was used as the sole sulfur source, we found that cysJIH operon was completely negligible, were only cysB exhibited similar phenotypes than the described for sulfate as sulfur source. Unexpectedly, CysB downregulated cysJIH operon when cysteine was used instead of sulfate, suggesting a complex regulation of this system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  20. Oral Administration of Vanillin Improves Imiquimod-Induced Psoriatic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Man; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Yi-Fang; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2017-11-29

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavoring products worldwide. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. The interleukin-23 (IL-23)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis plays a critical role in psoriasis. Here, we analyzed the effect of vanillin on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic skin inflammation in mice. Mice were treated topically with IMQ on the back skin and orally with various amounts of vanillin for 7 consecutive days. Vanillin significantly improved IMQ-induced histopathological changes of skin in a dose-dependent manner. The thickness and number of cell layers of epidermis were reduced by 29 ± 14.4 and 27.8 ± 11%, respectively, in mice given 100 mg/kg of vanillin. A microarray showed that a total of 9042 IMQ-upregulated genes were downregulated by vanillin, and the biological pathways involved in the immune system and metabolism were significantly altered by vanillin. The upregulated expressions of IL-23, IL-17A, and IL-17F genes were suppressed by vanillin, with fold changes of -3.07 ± 0.08, -2.06 ± 0.21, and -1.62 ± 0.21, respectively. Moreover, vanillin significantly decreased both the amounts of IL-17A and IL-23 and the infiltration of immune cells in the skin tissues of IMQ-treated mice. In conclusion, our findings suggested that vanillin was an effective bioactive compound against psoriatic skin inflammation. Moreover, the downregulation of IL-23 and IL-17 expression suggested that vanillin was a novel regulator of the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  1. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The... final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and...

  2. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... on how to comply with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella...

  3. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  5. Use of Attenuated but Metabolically Competent Salmonella as a Probiotic To Prevent or Treat Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Steidley, Brandi L.; Boyaka, Prosper N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is among the most burdensome of foodborne disease agents. There are over 2,600 serovars that cause a range of disease manifestations ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. While there are two vaccines in use in humans to protect against typhoid fever, there are none that prevent enterocolitis. If vaccines preventing enterocolitis were to be developed, they would likely protect against only one or a few serovars. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that probiotic organisms could compete for the preferred nutrient sources of Salmonella and thus prevent or treat infection. To this end, we added the fra locus, which encodes a utilization pathway for the Salmonella-specific nutrient source fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), to the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to increase its ability to compete with Salmonella in mouse models. We also tested a metabolically competent, but avirulent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant for its ability to compete with wild-type Salmonella. The modified Nissle strain became more virulent and less able to protect against Salmonella in some instances. On the other hand, the modified Salmonella strain was safe and effective in preventing infection with wild-type Salmonella. While we tested for efficacy only against Salmonella Typhimurium, the modified Salmonella strain may be able to compete metabolically with most, if not all, Salmonella serovars, representing a novel approach to control of this pathogen. PMID:27185789

  6. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  7. [Use of new immunoglobulin isotype-specific ELISA-systems to detect Salmonella infections in pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Joachim; Alt, Michael; Trepnau, Daniela; Lehmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the program for controlling salmonella infections in pigs is based on tests detecting salmonella-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced antibodies in meat-juice or blood. These conventional tests which are based on the technology of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detect exclusively or mainly immunoglobulin(lg)G antibodies. Meanwhile, novel ELISA systems (WCE-ELISA, 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA) have been developed, which additionally detect the antibody classes IgM and IgA.This fact enables the registration of fresh salmonella infections (starting with day 5 p.i.) and thus, the distinction between early and older infections. The results show that animals with early salmonella infections appear significantly more often in herds with a high than with a low prevalence. With the newly developed tests this group of animals can be detected much more efficiently and precisely than with the tests used so far. Due to their clearly improved sensitivity the application of the WCE-ELISA and the 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA in terms of the QS-Salmonella-Monitoring program can therefore significantly improve the selection of farms with potential salmonella excretors. Additionally, the WCE-ELISA can be applied very suitable for the examination of individual animals.

  8. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R strain vaccine against Salmonella strains isolated from cases suspected of salmonellosis outbreaks in poultry farms in central Ethiopia.

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  10. Mutagenic effect of radiations of various LET on Salmonella cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.; Tokarova, B.; Basha, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Regularities of mutagenic effect of heavy charged particles of helium, deuterium ions and protons on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium were studied. Linear dose dependences of mutation frequency in the range of low doses were revealed. A conclusion was made that mutation process at low dose irradiation is determined in various teststrains of Salmonella typhimurium by certain premutation injuries. Quite a different picture is observed in mutation process in case of high dose irradiation where effect of inducible SOS-repair is distinctly manifested. Not only spectra of primary DNA injuries but probability of their fixation into mutation can change with the increase of LET. If fixation probability doesn't change with LET increase for replicative mutagenesis which make basis contribution to linear component of dose dependence of mutation frequency the probability of fixation is increased for reparative mutagenesis. It accounts for increase of values of relative genetic efficiency with LET increase. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  11. A Bioprocessed Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Turmeric Protects Chicks from a Lethal Challenge of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dalmuri; Lee, Hyung Tae; Lee, June Bong; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Sang Jong; Yoon, Jang Won

    2017-02-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum. In vitro analyses revealed that the water extract of BPP-turmeric (i) changed the protein expression or secretion profile of Salmonella Gallinarum, although it was not bactericidal, (ii) reduced the phagocytic activity of the chicken-derived macrophage cell line HD-11 when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, and (iii) significantly activated the transcription expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to various Salmonella infections, whereas it repressed that of IL-4, IL-6, interferon-β, and interferon-γ. We also found that BPP-turmeric (0.1 g/kg of feed) as a feed additive provided significant protection to 1-day-old chicks infected with a lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum. Collectively, these results imply that BPP-turmeric contains biologically active component(s) that protect chicks against Salmonella Gallinarum infection, possibly by regulating macrophage immune responses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of BPP-turmeric as a livestock feed additive for the preharvest control of fowl typhoid or foodborne salmonellosis.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking hfq gene confers protective immunity against murine typhoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Shankar Allam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium Δhfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+ T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  14. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  15. Case Report: Salmonella lung infection | Ohanu | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an 84 year old man admitted because of fever, abdominal discomfort, weakness, past history of cough wheezing and abuse of prednisolone and Erythromycin. He had Bronchopneumonia and diabetes. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from both his sputum and blood while stool was negative for salmonella.

  16. Rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovars in Egypt. During the summer of 2010, a total of 1075 samples were collected from cattle, sheep and poultry farms to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella (290 rectal swabs from cattle, 335 rectal swabs from sheep ...

  17. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  18. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  19. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eWiedemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica species is a Gram negative bacterium, which is responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruit with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i attachment to host surfaces; (ii entry processes; (iii, multiplication; (iv suppression of host defence mechanisms ; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  20. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  1. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  2. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarif, N.; Azam, M.N.; Mitwalli, Ahmad H.; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S.; El-Kheder, A. Al-Aboud

    2002-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  3. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of...

  4. 9 CFR 113.122 - Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.122 Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella choleraesuis which has been inactivated and is...

  5. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and is...

  6. Splenic abscesses from Salmonella infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carmen Cecilia; Zuniga Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Spleen abscesses are uncommon. We describe the case of a 56 year-old man who presented with diarrhea, fever, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, the main findings included jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites. Diagnostic imaging showed the presence of spleen abscesses, due to Salmonella species. Considering the type of abscess, medical treatment was given without the need for interventional treatment, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. No other risk factor was found, other than the gastrointestinal focus as the precursor of the splenic abscess.

  7. Comparative study of the protective capacity against Salmonella infection between probiotic and nonprobiotic Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, N A; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; M Galdeano, C; Perdigón, G

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the immunoprotective ability of three Lactobacilli strains against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a mouse model. To identify the probiotic properties involved in the protection against infection caused by this pathogen. The immunomodulatory effect of three different lactobacilli strains: Lactobacillus (Lact.) casei CRL 431 (probiotic bacterium), Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 423 (Lact. bulgaricus) and Lact.acidophilus CRL 730 was compared using a mouse model of Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei continuous administration improved animal survival, diminished pathogen spreading outside the intestine, attenuated the intestinal inflammation, modulated cytokine profile previous and postinfection and increased the expression and secretion of IgA in the gut. Additionally, the administration of this lactobacilli increased peritoneal, Peyer's patches and spleen macrophages' phagocytic activity in healthy mice and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) released by intestinal epithelial cells in an in vitro assay. Although Lact. acidophilus increased the number of IgA-secreting cells previous and postinfection, and Lact. bulgaricus increased MCP-1 released by intestinal epithelial cells and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, these effects alone were not enough to confer protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mouse. Probiotic strain Lact. casei CRL 431 was the one that induced protection against Salmonella, by increasing the intestinal barrier function and by decreasing the local inflammatory response. Salmonella spp. constitutes an important agent of foodborne diseases in the world. Not all lactobacilli, even with some immunostimulating properties at gut level, can protect against Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, a probiotic bacterium, could be useful as an oral mucosal adjuvant of the immune system to improve gut health, especially in the prevention or amelioration of Salmonella infections. We

  8. Decrease of Salmonella typhimurium in skim milk and egg by heat and ultrasonic wave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, D.M.; Llorca, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves induce cavitation which is lethal for many bacteria. When Salmonella typhimurium was suspended in skim milk or brain heart infusion broth and placed in an ultrasonicating water bath, the number of bacteria decreased by 2 to 3 log CFU in a time dependent manner. The killing by ultrasonic waves was enhanced if the menstruum was simultaneously maintained at 50 degrees C. Ultrasonic reduction in S. typhimurium numbers in liquid whole egg ranged from 1-3 log CFU at 50 degrees C. The results indicate that indirect ultrasonic wave treatment is effective in killing Salmonella in some foods

  9. Recurrent meningitis due to Salmonella enteritidis: A case report from Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent bacterial meningitis in children is potentially life-threatening and induces psychological trauma to the patients through repeated hospitalization. Here we report a case of recurrent meningitis in a one month old baby. The CSF and blood culture grew Salmonella enteritidis. Injection ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were given for 3 weeks. Baby became symptomatically better and was afebrile at discharge. Twenty eight days after discharge baby got readmitted with complaints of fever and refusal of feeds. Blood and CSF culture again showed growth of Salmonella enteritidis. Physicians should be educated about the possibility of recurrence which may occur days or even weeks after apparent successful antibiotic treatment.

  10. Multilevel Mycotic Aneurysms Due to Salmonella Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasveer, Erik Hans; van Eps, Randolph G Statius; Wever, Jan Jacob; Veger, Hugo Thomas Christian

    2017-10-01

    Infected or mycotic aneurysms (MAs) of the aorta and adjacent arteries are rare and difficult to treat. We report a unique case of a Salmonella serotype enteritidis-induced rapidly expanding aortic and iliac pseudoaneurysm during preoperative workup. Based on the presented case, we postulate that the agressive nature of Salmonella enteritidis MAs should not be underestimated. If postponed intervention is chosen and the patient is managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy to create a window of definitive diagnosis, one should consider close follow-up imaging to observe progression of the pseudoaneurysm. This may prevent the need of acute intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  12. The effects of ionizing irradiation on Salmonella inoculated on almonds and changes in sensory properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A., E-mail: prakash@chapman.ed [Food Science Program, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Lim, F.T. [Sara Lee Corp., San Lorenzo, CA 94580 (United States); Duong, C. [Biological Sciences Department, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Caporaso, F. [Food Science Program, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Foley, D. [Department of Life Science, Santiago Canyon College, Orange, CA 92866 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of irradiation on destroying Salmonella on raw almonds and evaluating the resultant sensory changes in the almonds. Raw almonds inoculated with various strains of Salmonella were irradiated at 5 dose levels up to 3 kGy and the D value was determined. The strain SEPT30 was the most resistant strain with a D value of 1.25 kGy indicating that a 4 log CFU/g reduction would require a dose of 5.0 kGy. Irradiation at 2.98 and 5.25 kGy induced significant sensory changes in almond nuts as manifested by intensity of chemical/metallic/rancid flavor ranked by a trained panel. A consumer panel found that samples treated with 5.25 kGy irradiation rendered the almonds unacceptable. Thus, irradiation by itself is unlikely to be a feasible method to eliminate Salmonella from raw almonds.

  13. The effects of ionizing irradiation on Salmonella inoculated on almonds and changes in sensory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Lim, F. T.; Duong, C.; Caporaso, F.; Foley, D.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of irradiation on destroying Salmonella on raw almonds and evaluating the resultant sensory changes in the almonds. Raw almonds inoculated with various strains of Salmonella were irradiated at 5 dose levels up to 3 kGy and the D value was determined. The strain SEPT30 was the most resistant strain with a D value of 1.25 kGy indicating that a 4 log CFU/g reduction would require a dose of 5.0 kGy. Irradiation at 2.98 and 5.25 kGy induced significant sensory changes in almond nuts as manifested by intensity of chemical/metallic/rancid flavor ranked by a trained panel. A consumer panel found that samples treated with 5.25 kGy irradiation rendered the almonds unacceptable. Thus, irradiation by itself is unlikely to be a feasible method to eliminate Salmonella from raw almonds.

  14. The effects of ionizing irradiation on Salmonella inoculated on almonds and changes in sensory properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A.; Lim, F.T.; Duong, C.; Caporaso, F.; Foley, D.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of irradiation on destroying Salmonella on raw almonds and evaluating the resultant sensory changes in the almonds. Raw almonds inoculated with various strains of Salmonella were irradiated at 5 dose levels up to 3 kGy and the D value was determined. The strain SEPT30 was the most resistant strain with a D value of 1.25 kGy indicating that a 4 log CFU/g reduction would require a dose of 5.0 kGy. Irradiation at 2.98 and 5.25 kGy induced significant sensory changes in almond nuts as manifested by intensity of chemical/metallic/rancid flavor ranked by a trained panel. A consumer panel found that samples treated with 5.25 kGy irradiation rendered the almonds unacceptable. Thus, irradiation by itself is unlikely to be a feasible method to eliminate Salmonella from raw almonds.

  15. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  16. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  17. The Arf GTPase-activating protein family is exploited by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to invade nonphagocytic host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony C; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B E; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2015-02-10

    To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP

  18. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De tiende workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 28 en 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, Nederland. Deelnemers betroffen vertegenwoordigers van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de

  19. Cirtical role for Salmonella effector SopB in regulating inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gui-Qiu; Song, Pei-Xuan; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shuai; Yu, Shui-Xing; Du, Chong-Tao; Deng, Xu-Ming; Ouyang, Hong-Sheng; Yang, Yong-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Salmonella is known to evolve many mechanisms to avoid or delay inflammasome activation which remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the SopB protein critical to bacteria virulence capacity was an effector that involved in the regulation of inflammasome activation. BMDMs from NLRC4-, NLRP3-, caspase-1/-11-, IFI16- and AIM2-deficient mice were pretreated with LPS, and subsequently stimulated with a series of SopB-related strains of Salmonella, inflammasome induced cell death, IL-1β secretion, cleaved caspase-1 production and ASC speckle formation were detected. We found that SopB could inhibit host IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation and inflammasome induced cell death using a series of SopB-related strains of Salmonella; however the reduction of IL-1β secretion was not dependent on sensor that contain PYD domain, such as NLRP3, AIM2 or IFI16, but dependent on NLRC4. Notably, SopB specifically prevented ASC oligomerization and the enzymatic activity of SopB was responsible for the inflammasome inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt signaling induced enhanced inflammasome activation. These results revealed a novel role in inhibition of NLRC4 inflammasome for Salmonella effector SopB. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  1. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE VOL. 2 NO. 1 & 2 2009: 5 - ... This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. ... south-east Asia, parts of Latin America, the. Caribbean, and ...

  2. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  3. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  4. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... The highest incidence was observed in children of 13-24 ... incidence of Salmonella and continued health education of ..... until it formed a homogenous suspension. ..... Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. .... Lagos University Teaching.

  5. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  6. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  7. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers.

  8. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gianotti, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D 10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  9. Experimental reproduction of rotavirus and Salmonella pullorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus, group B chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, group C chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus and 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, while group D birds were given 1ml of PBS alone. Birds in all groups were ...

  10. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  11. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  12. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  13. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the broiler crop and ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Bourassa, D V; Hinton, A; Fairchild, B D; Ritz, C W

    2017-12-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens. The litter of each pen was sampled before and after the feed withdrawal period, the broilers euthanized, and the crop and ceca aseptically removed for Salmonella isolation. Results showed that only the challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from the litter in challenge pens where broilers were not moved, while both Salmonella serotypes were recovered from the litter of the switched pens. Salmonella was recovered from 56/80 crops and from 66/80 ceca of challenged broilers that remained in the challenge pens. The challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from 50/80 crops and from 60/80 ceca, and the switched pens' litter Salmonella serotype was recovered from 19/80 crops but not from the ceca in broilers challenged with Salmonella and then switched between pens. For experiments 3 and 4, Salmonella was recovered from 19/40 crops and from only 2/40 ceca from the non-challenged broilers placed into the Salmonella challenge pens. The results from broilers that were switched between Salmonella challenge pens indicate that the recovery of Salmonella from the crop of broilers following feed withdrawal (on Salmonella-contaminated litter) appears to depend mainly on the initial challenge Salmonella (62%) and less on the litter Salmonella (24%) status during the feed withdrawal period. In contrast, only the initial challenge Salmonella was recovered from the ceca (79%) from broilers that remained in challenge pens or

  15. Influence of On-farm pig Salmonella status on Salmonella Shedding at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2017-08-01

    The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Altered IFN-γ-mediated immunity and transcriptional expression patterns in N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced STAT4 mutants confer susceptibility to acute typhoid-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Megan M; Yuki, Kyoko E; Dauphinee, Shauna M; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Pyzik, Michal; Paquet, Marilène; Lathrop, Mark; Majewski, Jacek; Vidal, Silvia M; Malo, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a ubiquitous Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that continues to pose a global challenge to human health. The etiology of Salmonella pathogenesis is complex and controlled by pathogen, environmental, and host genetic factors. In fact, patients immunodeficient in genes in the IL-12, IL-23/IFN-γ pathway are predisposed to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. Using a forward genomics approach by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) germline mutagenesis in mice, we identified the Ity14 (Immunity to Typhimurium locus 14) pedigree exhibiting increased susceptibility following in vivo Salmonella challenge. A DNA-binding domain mutation (p.G418_E445) in Stat4 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Factor 4) was the causative mutation. STAT4 signals downstream of IL-12 to mediate transcriptional regulation of inflammatory immune responses. In mutant Ity14 mice, the increased splenic and hepatic bacterial load resulted from an intrinsic defect in innate cell function, IFN-γ-mediated immunity, and disorganized granuloma formation. We further show that NK and NKT cells play an important role in mediating control of Salmonella in Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice had increased expression of genes involved in cell-cell interactions and communication, as well as increased CD11b expression on a subset of splenic myeloid dendritic cells, resulting in compromised recruitment of inflammatory cells to the spleen during Salmonella infection. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) presented upregulated compensatory mechanisms, although inefficient and ultimately Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice develop fatal bacteremia. The following study further elucidates the pathophysiological impact of STAT4 during Salmonella infection.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella serovars from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-21

    Jan 21, 2014 ... Presumptive Salmonella isolates were determined by using the conventional ... Salmonella represents a major contaminant of vegetables consumed in Maiduguri, North-eastern ... serovars in vegetables in Nigeria do not exist.

  18. Reduction of Salmonella in ground chicken using a bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen; Hashem, Fawzy; Vimini, Bob

    2017-08-01

    This study's goal was to ascertain the effectiveness of a commercially available Salmonella bacteriophage during ground chicken production focusing on: water source, different Salmonella serovars, and time. Salmonella-free boneless, skinless chicken meat was inoculated with 4.0 Log CFU/cm2 of either a cocktail of 3 Salmonella isolates derived from ground chicken (GC) or a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains not isolated from ground chicken (non-GC). Bacteriophages were spread onto the chicken using sterile tap or filtered water for 30 min or 8 h. Salmonella was recovered using standard plating method. Greater Salmonella reduction was observed when the bacteriophage was diluted in sterile tap water than in sterile filtered water: 0.39 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.23 Log CFU/cm2 reduction after 30 min, respectively (P Salmonella's susceptibility to the bacteriophage, and treatment time. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Autophagy Facilitates Salmonella Replication in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong B.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Marchiando, Amanda M.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Cadwell, Ken; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a process whereby a double-membrane structure (autophagosome) engulfs unnecessary cytosolic proteins, organelles, and invading pathogens and delivers them to the lysosome for degradation. We examined the fate of cytosolic Salmonella targeted by autophagy and found that autophagy-targeted Salmonella present in the cytosol of HeLa cells correlates with intracellular bacterial replication. Real-time analyses revealed that a subset of cytosolic Salmonella extensively associates with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3 and replicates quickly, whereas intravacuolar Salmonella shows no or very limited association with p62 or LC3 and replicates much more slowly. Replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells is significantly decreased when autophagy components are depleted. Eventually, hyperreplication of cytosolic Salmonella potentiates cell detachment, facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella to neighboring cells. We propose that Salmonella benefits from autophagy for its cytosolic replication in HeLa cells. PMID:24618251

  20. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie

  1. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de

  2. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  3. Bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella Enterica serotype typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal infection is an uncommon complication of Salmonella septicemia, particularly in immunocompetent patients. The localization of Salmonella infection to breast tissue is regarded as a rare event. We report a case of bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in a nonlactating female and highlight the fact that Salmonella spp. should be included in differential diagnosis of abscesses in individuals coming from endemic areas with the history of recent typhoid fever and should be treated accordingly.

  4. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  5. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

  6. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in an...

  7. Salmonella Typhimurium pneumonia in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadia; Kumar, V Anil; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Mehta, Asmita; Backer, Binita; Dinesh, Kavitha R

    2015-04-01

    Pneumonia due to non-typhoidal Salmonella is a rarely reported entity. A fatal case of Salmonella pneumonia is reported here where Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from the endotracheal aspirate and blood culture. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Widal test is frequently applied for the detection of Salmonella agglutinins to diagnose Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. There are however a number of controversies challenging the diagnostic utility of this test. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella ...

  9. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  10. Multiple antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 13 panels of antibiotics for both E. coli and Salmonella spp. Results showed that the overall isolation rate of Salmonella spp. was 12 (11.4%), broiler chickens had higher isolation rate 9 (12.0%) of Salmonella than local chickens. However, the ...

  11. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  12. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug... revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This action is... articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is...

  13. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  14. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  15. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  16. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  17. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het

  18. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  19. Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in the presence of competitive micro-organisms (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Veld PH in ' t; Nagelkerke N; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella heeft een tweede bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd met deelname van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella. Het belangrijkste doel van dit onderzoek was verschillen tussen de NRLs in de resultaten van Salmonella

  20. Comparing validation of four ELISAsystems for detection of Salmonella Derby- and Salmonella Infantis-infected pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Rösler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Kerstin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs. Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were ...

  1. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  2. Effects of gamma radiations on some aspects of the biology of salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Miloud, Najla

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed at the study of the effect of gamma radiation on certain aspects of the biology of Salmonella, few works joined this type and gamma radiations. The lethal effect of ionizing radiations was associated at other bacterial types, to an oxidative stress due to the presence of reactive spices of oxygen and leading to deteriorations of membrane cells, proteins and nucleic acids.Thus, we proceeded to an analysis of the viability of four Salmonella serovars subject to different radiation doses going from 0.5 to 2 KGy. The results showed a viability reduction dose dependent with a differential behavior, statistically significant. In order to detect possible radio induced changes at the restriction site of the enzymes XbaI and BlnI usually used for the typing of Salmonella, we carried out a DNA restriction profile analyse of the four serovars by pulsed filed gel electrophoresis. The results showed that no change appeared on the level of these restriction sites for the used enzymes following an irradiation of 2KGy. The study of the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics after a gamma radiation showed that gamma radiation has increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to porin associated antibiotics. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics, probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way. To tray to explain the differential behavior of different serovars to irradiation. We analyzed by Quantitative real time PCR (RT- PCR), the expression level of the ARNm of the genes KATN (catalase non-hemique), DNAK (protein of thermal shock), RNA polymerase as well as of the 16S rRNA. The results showed either a repression or an induction of certain genes under the effect of an irradiation of 2 KGy. (Author)

  3. Salmonella epidemiology: A whirlwind of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M

    2018-05-01

    The field of infectious disease epidemiology for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens is undergoing some of the most profound changes since the time of Kauffman and White. Rapid advances in "big data" technologies such as genomics and metagenomics are making it possible to monitor and control salmonellosis in new and exciting ways. Epidemiological methods are becoming increasingly robust through the routine use of standardized hypothesis-generating questionnaires, iterative open-ended interviewing, informational trace-backs and new modeling techniques for describing the attribution of disease to food sources. In addition, Salmonella epidemiology is facing important challenges and new opportunities due to the rapid adoption of culture independent diagnostic test panels by clinical laboratories. Where is this unprecedented wave of change taking us? This chapter will examine emerging trends in Salmonella epidemiology, and take a peek into the not-so-distant future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Salmonella survival in dry-cured Italian salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; Bolzoni, L; Cozzolino, P; Pierantoni, M; Brindani, F; Bellotti, P; Renzi, M; Pongolini, S

    2017-12-04

    The inactivation of Salmonella during curing of Italian traditional pork salami was investigated. A total of 150 batches of ground raw meat (GRM) used for salami manufacturing by four producers were tested for Salmonella by real-time PCR followed by ISO 6579 cultural confirmation and MPN enumeration. Salami produced with Salmonella positive GRMs were re-tested at the end of their curing period. Aw, pH and NaCl content were also measured. Detection of Salmonella was performed testing both 25 and 50g of the samples. By Real-Time PCR 37% of the GRMs resulted positive, but cultural detection of Salmonella was obtained in 14% of the samples only. Salmonella enumeration ranged from 31 MPN/g to Salmonella in 100% of all positive samples, vs. 62% of ISO-25g. Salami made of the contaminated GRMs were 29% Salmonella-positive, as most batches of salami produced with Salmonella-positive GRMs resulted negative after regular curing (20-48days). Overall, 13% of salami produced with Salmonella-contaminated GRMs were positive. They belonged to six batches, which turned out negative after prolonged curing ranging between 49 and 86days. Salmonella enumeration in salami ranged from 8.7 MPN/g to Salmonella in cured salami (p value: >0.05). The most common Salmonella serovars in GRMs were Derby (52%), Typhimurium monophasic variant 4, (Barbuti et al., 1993), 12:i:- (19%) and Stanley (10%). Salmonella Derby (56%), London, Branderup, Panama (13%, respectively) and Goldcoast (6%) were most frequent in cured salami. The study showed negative correlation between real-time CT values and cultural confirmation of Salmonella, as well as the importance of sample size for Salmonella detection. Among considered factors with possible effect on the occurrence of Salmonella in salami, statistical analysis revealed a role for aw in salami and for Salmonella load in GRMs, while pH and NaCl content did not significantly affect the probability of finding Salmonella in dry-cured salami in the context of

  5. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  6. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  7. Vulnerabilities in Yersinia pestis caf operon are unveiled by a Salmonella vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Lim, Timothy; Jun, SangMu; Thornburg, Theresa; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-01-01

    During infection, Yersinia pestis uses its F1 capsule to enhance survival and cause virulence to mammalian host. Since F1 is produced in large quantities and secreted into the host tissues, it also serves as a major immune target. To hold this detrimental effect under proper control, Y. pestis expresses the caf operon (encoding the F1 capsule) in a temperature-dependent manner. However, additional properties of the caf operon limit its expression. By overexpressing the caf operon in wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under a potent promoter, virulence of Salmonella was greatly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, expression of the caf operon under the regulation of its native promoter exhibited negligible impairment of Salmonellae virulence. In-depth investigation revealed all individual genes in the caf operon attenuated Salmonella when overexpressed. The deleterious effects of caf operon and the caf individual genes were further confirmed when they were overexpressed in Y. pestis KIM6+. This study suggests that by using a weak inducible promoter, the detrimental effects of the caf operon are minimally manifested in Y. pestis. Thus, through tight regulation of the caf operon, Y. pestis precisely balances its capsular anti-phagocytic properties with the detrimental effects of caf during interaction with mammalian host.

  8. A Switchable Linker-Based Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Visible Detection of Salmonella in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jungwoo; Kim, Eunghee; You, Young Sang; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-10-01

    On-site detection for sensitive identification of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with minimal use of specialized instrumentation is crucial to the food industry. A switchable linker (SL)-based immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive on-site detection of Salmonella in tomato samples. The assay is based on large-scale aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), induced by a quantitative relationship among the biotinylated Salmonella polyclonal antibody (b-Ab) used as the SL, the functionalized GNPs, and Salmonella. Important factors such as the concentration of SLs, time required for large-scale aggregation, and selectivity of b-Ab were optimized to minimize the detection time (within 45 min with gentle agitation) and achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD; 10 CFU/g in tomato samples) possible. This SL-based immunoassay with its relatively low LOD and short detection time may meet the need for rapid, simple, on-site analysis of pathogens in fresh produce. The novel switchable linker-based immunoassay is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method that has potential applications for routine diagnostics of Salmonella in tomato products. These advantages make it a practical approach for general use in the processing industry to detect Salmonella rapidly and to implement appropriate regulatory procedures. Furthermore, it could be applied to other fresh products including cantaloupe, strawberry, and cucumbers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on the quantitative detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Sangryeol [Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-09-15

    Food irradiation is an economically viable technology for inactivating foodborne pathogens, but irradiation can mask pathogens in unhygienically prepared food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR. Three commercially available kits were tested, of which the InstaGene Matrix procedure was most effective in preparing template DNA from Salmonella exposed to radiation in broth culture. The minimum level of detection by real-time PCR combined with InstaGene Matrix was 3 log units of Salmonella per milliliter. However, when pure cultures of Salmonella were irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy, the cycle threshold (C{sub T}) increased 1-1.5-fold compared to irradiation at 0 and 1 kGy. This indicated that irradiation treatment may result in an underestimation of bacterial counts due to radiation-induced DNA lesions. We also compared C{sub T} values in inoculated chicken homogenates before and after irradiation, which in this model caused a 1.3-3.3-fold underestimation of bacterial counts with respect to irradiation dose.

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  11. Salmonella-infektion kompliceret med akut nyreinsufficiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thøger; Jensen, Jørgen Erik; Jespersen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a known complication to Salmonella gastroenteritis, and patients with chronic renal failure or impaired host defence are at increased risk. In the two presented cases there had been a few days of gastroenteritis before the hospitalisation, but the only symptoms...... at the admission were fatigue and dyspnoea. In both cases severe uraemia had developed and the patients and their physicians did not expect the episode of gastroenteritis to be the only etiology of acute renal failure. Both patients had normal renal histology and Salmonella was grown in their faeces. Subsequently...

  12. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Isabel Valéria Abalem de; Solari,Claude André

    2001-01-01

    The presence of salmonellae in fecal samples or cloacal swabs of 97 pet reptiles (15 snakes, 24 lizards and 58 chelonians) was investigated. Thirty seven animals had national origin and 60 were imported. Salmonella spp was detected in 39.1% of the reptiles, being 62.5% in lizards, 53.3% in snakes and 25.8% in chelonians. Strains belonged to subspecies I (44.7%), II (10.5%), IIIa (5.2%), IIIb (21.0%) and IV (18.5%) of the enterica species, with predominance (55.3%) of subspecies usually found ...

  13. Media ion composition controls regulatory and virulence response of Salmonella in spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wilson

    Full Text Available The spaceflight environment is relevant to conditions encountered by pathogens during the course of infection and induces novel changes in microbial pathogenesis not observed using conventional methods. It is unclear how microbial cells sense spaceflight-associated changes to their growth environment and orchestrate corresponding changes in molecular and physiological phenotypes relevant to the infection process. Here we report that spaceflight-induced increases in Salmonella virulence are regulated by media ion composition, and that phosphate ion is sufficient to alter related pathogenesis responses in a spaceflight analogue model. Using whole genome microarray and proteomic analyses from two independent Space Shuttle missions, we identified evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways in Salmonella that respond to spaceflight under all media compositions tested. Identification of conserved regulatory paradigms opens new avenues to control microbial responses during the infection process and holds promise to provide an improved understanding of human health and disease on Earth.

  14. Gene expression profiles following high-dose exposure to gamma radiation in salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Jung, Sun Wook; Joe, Min Ho; Kim, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify the changes in expression between different biological states. To survey the change of whole Salmonella genes after a relatively high dose of gamma radiation (1 kGy), transcriptome dynamics were examined in the cells by using DNA microarrays. At least 75 genes were induced and 89 genes were reduced two-fold or more after irradiation. Several genes located in pSLT plasmid, cyo operon, and Gifsy prophage were induced along with many genes encoding uncharacterized proteins.While, the expression of genes involved in the virulence of Salmonella as well as metabolic functions were decreased. Although the radiation response as a whole could not be illustrated by using DNA microarrays, the data suggest that the response to high dose of irradiation might be more complex than the SOS response

  15. Gene expression profiles following high-dose exposure to gamma radiation in salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Jung, Sun Wook; Joe, Min Ho; Kim, Dong Ho [Radiation Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify the changes in expression between different biological states. To survey the change of whole Salmonella genes after a relatively high dose of gamma radiation (1 kGy), transcriptome dynamics were examined in the cells by using DNA microarrays. At least 75 genes were induced and 89 genes were reduced two-fold or more after irradiation. Several genes located in pSLT plasmid, cyo operon, and Gifsy prophage were induced along with many genes encoding uncharacterized proteins.While, the expression of genes involved in the virulence of Salmonella as well as metabolic functions were decreased. Although the radiation response as a whole could not be illustrated by using DNA microarrays, the data suggest that the response to high dose of irradiation might be more complex than the SOS response.

  16. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  17. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  18. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  19. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  20. Persistence of salmonella typhimurium in nopal cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...

  1. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  2. Persistence of salmonella Typhimurium in Nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... (n=50) and sheep intestine (n=50) were analyzed using standards microbiological method for ... handlers are still observed during food marketing ... was conducted according to ISO 6579: 2002 (E) methods ..... from local beverages (bissap, gnamakoudji) sold ... Salmonella isolated from children under five.

  4. Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus. aureus are of great concern to the food industry, especially in foods stored under refrigerated conditions where, unlike most food-borne pathogens are able to multiply. This investigation was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of some spice ...

  5. Thirteenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Dertiende CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering in 2008. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Daarnaast is een analyse van alle NRL's als groep uitgevoerd, waaruit bleek dat zij 97 % van de

  6. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  7. Sixteenth EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Zestiende EURL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Pol-Hofstad IE; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    De 28 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden in 2011 goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole om Salmonella te typeren. Twee laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Alle NRL's samen konden gemiddeld genomen aan 97 procent van de geteste stammen de juiste naam

  8. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea can provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of salmonellosis, mainly for typhoid fever caused by MDR strains of S. Typhi.The extract also inhibits S.Hadar a MDR emerging strain in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Thonningia sanguinea; Salmonella, MDR strains, ...

  9. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  10. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  11. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ceftriaxone in Sokoto red goats. In a randomised two-way study, 10 healthy male goats were divided into two groups of five each, and either received a single intramuscular (IM) injection of 1g ceftriaxone only or ...

  12. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  13. Fate of Salmonella Species and E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    determining the growth potential of some food-borne pathogens in the juices at different holding temperatures. ... 3Institute of Pathology, Addis Ababa University P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... Bacteriology laboratory, Ethiopian Health .... food poisoning caused by Salmonella .... Antiviral effect of commercial juices.

  14. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, H.; Tran, V.T.; Boeckmann, U.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.) [de

  15. L-Asparaginase delivered by Salmonella typhimurium suppresses solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Kim

    Full Text Available Bacteria can be engineered to deliver anticancer proteins to tumors via a controlled expression system that maximizes the concentration of the therapeutic agent in the tumor. L-asparaginase (L-ASNase, which primarily converts asparagine to aspartate, is an anticancer protein used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this study, Salmonellae were engineered to express L-ASNase selectively within tumor tissues using the inducible araBAD promoter system of Escherichia coli. Antitumor efficacy of the engineered bacteria was demonstrated in vivo in solid malignancies. This result demonstrates the merit of bacteria as cancer drug delivery vehicles to administer cancer-starving proteins such as L-ASNase to be effective selectively within the microenvironment of cancer tissue.

  16. Incidence of Salmonella contamination in broiler chickens in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, K K; O'Neil, J B; Prior, M G; Dunkelgod, K E

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7.

  17. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  18. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  19. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  20. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  1. Recent Trends in Salmonella Outbreaks and Emerging Technology for Biocontrol of Salmonella Using Phages in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung

    2017-12-28

    Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown less efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobialresistant Salmonella , new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in the food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products. The treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases, and ultimately promotes safe environments for animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. After an extensive investigation of the current literature, this review focuses predominantly on the efficacy of phages for the successful control of Salmonella spp. in foods. This review also addresses the current knowledge on the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella , the prevalence of emerging Salmonella outbreaks, the isolation and characterization of Salmonella -specific phages, the effectiveness of Salmonella -specific phages as biocontrol agents, and the prospective use of Salmonella -specific phages in the food industry.

  2. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  3. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  4. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  5. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...... of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project Dublin on both within-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project is a part of a larger national project "Salmonella 2007 - 2011" with the main objective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in Danish Dairy herds. Results...

  6. In vitro selection of RNA aptamer specific to Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Ryul; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2013-06-28

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that causes a variety of human diseases. Development of ligands directly and specifically binding to the Salmonella will be crucial for the rapid detection of, and thus for efficient protection from, the virulent bacteria. In this study, we identified a RNA aptamer-based ligand that can specifically recognize Salmonella Typhimurium through SELEX technology. To this end, we isolated and characterized an RNase-resistant RNA aptamer that bound to the OmpC protein of Salmonella Typhimurium with high specificity and affinity (Kd ~ 20 nM). Of note, the selected aptamer was found to specifically bind to Salmonella Typhimurium, but neither to Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) nor to other Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). This was evinced by aptamer-immobilized ELISA and aptamer-linked precipitation experiments. This Salmonella species-specific aptamer could be useful as a diagnostic ligand against pathogen-caused foodborne sickness.

  7. β-Galactomannan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii modulate the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Roger; Brufau, M Teresa; Guerrero-Zamora, Ana Maria; Lizardo, Rosil; Dobrescu, Irina; Martin-Venegas, Raquel; Ferrer, Ruth; Salmon, Henri; Martínez, Paz; Brufau, Joaquim

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes inflammation, necrosis, and diarrhea in pigs, as well as being an important source of food-borne diseases in humans. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising alternatives to antibiotics to control and prevent intestinal infections. The present work investigated a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM) prebiotic compared to the proven probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii on porcine ileum intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of the IPI-2I line and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) cocultured in vitro with Salmonella. We observed that both S. cerevisiae var. boulardii and βGM inhibited the association of Salmonella with IECs in vitro. Our data indicated that βGM has a higher ability than S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to inhibit Salmonella-induced proinflammatory mRNA (cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-1α [IL-1α], IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] and chemokines CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL8) and at protein levels (IL-6 and CXCL8). Additionally, βGM and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii induced some effects on DCs that were not observed on IECs: βGM and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii showed slight upregulation of mRNA for TNF-α, GM-CSF, and CCR7 receptor on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, the addition of βGM or S. cerevisiae var. boulardii on DCs cocultured with Salmonella showed higher gene expression (mRNA) for TNF-α, GM-CSF, and CXCL8 compared to that of the control with Salmonella. In conclusion, the addition of βGM inhibits Salmonella-induced proinflammatory profiles in IECs but may promote DC activation, although associated molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  8. Acidic pH sensing in the bacterial cytoplasm is required for Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral. Amino acid substitutions in PhoQ's cytoplasmic domain hindered activation by acidic pH and attenuated virulence in mice, but did not abolish activation by low Mg(2+) or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Conversely, removal of PhoQ's extracytoplasmic domains prevented the response to the latter PhoQ-activating signals but not to acidic pH. PhoP-dependent genes were minimally induced by acidic pH in the non-pathogenic species Salmonella bongori but were activated by low Mg(2+) and C18G as in pathogenic S. enterica. Our findings indicate that the sensor PhoQ enables S. enterica to respond to both host- and bacterial-derived signals that alter its cytoplasmic pH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  10. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  11. Microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella: Inter-laboratory evaluation of reproducibility and standardization potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Riber, Leise; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne infections in humans caused by Salmonella spp. are considered a crucial food safety issue. Therefore, it is important for the risk assessments of Salmonella to consider the genomic variationamong different isolates in order to control pathogen-induced infections. Microarray...... critical methodology parameters that differed between the two labs were identified. These related to printing facilities, choice of hybridization buffer,wash buffers used following the hybridization and choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. Critical parameters were randomized in a four......DNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa=0.2–0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this parameter as being highly criticalwhen transferring a standard microarray assay between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates...

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen; Hald, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella concentrations. It is concluded that the faecal carriage of Salmonella together with the faecal contamination of carcasses, as predicted from E. coli data in the animal faeces and hygiene performance of the slaughterhouse, is not sufficient to explain carcass contamination with Salmonella. Our...... extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork.......Faecal contamination of carcasses in the slaughterhouse is generally considered to be the source of Salmonella on pork. In this study the hygiene indicator Escherichia coli is used to quantify faecal contamination of carcasses and it is hypothesized that it can be used to predict the quantitative...

  14. Pathogenicity, Epidemiology and Virulence Factors of Salmonella species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamègnon Victorien DOUGNON

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are major public health problems worldwide. The hereby review aimed to establish an overview on the pathogenicity, epidemiology and virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world. A systematic search was conducted online using the keywords ‘Salmonella’, ‘Salmonella spp.’, ‘Salmonella spp. Epidemiology’, ‘virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world’, ‘bacteria responsible for the contamination of meat products’, ‘non-typhoid salmonella’. These keywords were entered into databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using mainly French language. The obtained articles were included based on the reliability of their source, the study area (usually Benin and Africa and the subject. The review revealed that Salmonella spp. is motile Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, currently counting more than 2,600 serovars. Human contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated water and food and can cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever, which are two serious public health problems. A gene set constituting the pathogenicity islands determines the pathogenesis of Salmonella spp. The diagnosis is based on bacteriological, serological and molecular techniques. Salmonella infections are usually treated using antibiotics; however, emergence of antibiotic resistance in these microorganisms suggests that the anti-salmonella control should explore new sources such as medicinal plants

  15. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  16. Parotid abscess due to salmonella enteritidis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V; Jensen, JoAnne D

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the parotid gland is rare. An instance in a 50-year-old man of Salmonella enteritidis parotiditis initially recognized by microbial culture of a fine needle aspiration cytology material is described. The identified predisposing factor was chronic alcoholic abuse. For the infection source, a carrier state of salmonella parotitis was postulated, which progressed to focal abscess and was subsequently complicated by bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the liver, spleen and lungs. Salmonella should be included in the differential consideration of head and neck abscesses in immunocompromised individuals and treated aggressively.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Danielle A; Inman, Allison E; Gerba, Charles P; Maré, C John; Billington, Stephen J; Saif, Linda A; Levine, Jay F; Joens, Lynn A

    2005-02-01

    Food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis can be attributed, in part, to the consumption of raw oysters. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters, oysters harvested from 36 U.S. bays (12 each from the West, East, and Gulf coasts in the summer of 2002, and 12 bays, four per coast, in the winter of 2002-2003) were tested. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella. Isolation tended to be bay specific, with some bays having a high prevalence of Salmonella, while other bays had none. Differences in the percentage of oysters from which Salmonella was isolated were observed between the summer and winter months, with winter numbers much lower probably due to a variety of weather-related events. The vast majority (78/101) of Salmonella isolates from oysters were Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a major human pathogen, confirming the human health hazard of raw oyster consumption. Contrary to previous findings, no relationship was found between the isolation of fecal coliforms and Salmonella from oysters, indicating a necessity for specific monitoring for Salmonella and other pathogens rather than the current reliance on fecal coliform testing.

  18. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  19. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  20. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  1. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence....../absence of all genes across genomes, is similar to the consensus tree but with higher branching confidence value. The core genes can be divided into two categories: a few highly variable genes and a larger set of conserved core genes, with low variance. These core genes are useful for investigating molecular...... evolution and remain useful as candidate genes for bacterial genome typing-even if they cannot be expected to differentiate highly clonal isolates e.g. outbreak cases of Salmonella [I]. To achieve successful ‘real-time’ monitoring and identification of outbreaks, rapid and reliable sub-typing is essential...

  2. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  3. Psoralen photomutagenic specificity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic specificity of two therapeutically employed psoralens was examined in several Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains with near ultraviolet light activation. Photomutagenic activity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) was found to be sequence-specific, and additionally was dependent on the level of DNA-repair proficiency. Phototoxicity was essentially identical in hisC3076, hisD3052 and hisG46 strains; uvrB - excision-repair-deficient bacteria were considerably more susceptible to lethal effects than wild-type parental strains. Finally, the data show that psoralens are potent frameshift photomutagens in Salmonella hisC3076 strains and demonstrate the potential utility of these strains in evaluating photomutagenic and phototoxic activity of new furocoumarin derivatives. (Auth.)

  4. Structural characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 umu operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Crowne, H.M.; Pidsley, S.C.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes functions required for mutagenesis induced by radiation and a wide variety of chemicals. The closely related organism Salmonella typhimurium is markedly less mutable than E. coli, but a umu homolog has recently been identified and cloned from the LT2 subline. In this study the nucleotide sequence and structure of the S. typhimurium LT2 umu operon have been determined and its gene products have been identified so that the molecular basis of umu activity might be understood more fully. S. typhimurium LT2 umu consists of a smaller 417-base-pair (bp) umuD gene ending 2 bp upstream of a larger 1,266-bp umuC gene. The only apparent structural difference between the two operons is the lack of gene overlap. An SOS box identical to that found in E. coli is present in the promoter region upstream of umuD. The calculated molecular masses of the umuD and umuC gene products were 15.3 and 47.8 kilodaltons, respectively, which agree with figures determined by transpositional disruption and maxicell analysis. The S. typhimurium and E. coli umuD sequences were 68% homologous and encoded products with 71% amino acid identity; the umuC sequences were 71% homologous and encoded products with 83% amino acid identity. Furthermore, the potential UmuD cleavage site and associated catalytic sites could be identified. Thus the very different mutagenic responses of S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli cannot be accounted for by gross differences in operon structure or gene products. Rather, the ability of the cloned S. typhimurium umuD gene to give stronger complementation of E. coli umuD77 mutants in the absence of a functional umuC gene suggests that Salmonella UmuC protein normally constrains UmuD protein activity

  5. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... the seroprevalence. Salmonella persisted in the paddock environment, as Salmonella was isolated from 46% of soil and water samples (n = 294). After removal of pigs, Salmonella was found in soil samples for up to. 5 weeks and in shelter huts during the entire test period (7 weeks). Subsequent introduction...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  6. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  7. Cross contamination of turkey carcasses by Salmonella species during defeathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, C W; McEvoy, J M; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella present on the feathers of live birds could be a source of contamination to carcass skin during defeathering. In this study, the possibility of transfer of Salmonella from the feathers of live turkeys to carcass tissue during the defeathering process at a commercial turkey processing plant was investigated. The contribution of scald water and the fingers of the picker machines to cross contamination were also examined. Over 4 visits, swab samples were collected from 174 randomly selected tagged birds before and after defeathering. Two swab samples from the fingers of the picker machines and a sample of scald water were also collected during each visit. Detection of Salmonella was carried out following standard cultural and identification methods. The DNA fingerprints obtained from pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella serotypes isolated before and after defeathering, from scald water, and from the fingers of the picker machines were compared to trace cross contamination routes. Salmonella prevalence was similar before and after defeathering during visits 2 and 3 and significantly increased after defeathering during visits 1 and 4. Over the 4 visits, all Salmonella subtypes obtained after defeathering were also isolated before defeathering. The results of this study suggest that Salmonella was transferred from the feathers to carcass skin during each visit. On each visit, the Salmonella subtypes isolated from the fingers of the picker machines were similar to subtypes isolated before and after defeathering, indicating that the fingers facilitate carcass cross contamination during defeathering. Salmonella isolated from scald water during visit 4 was related to isolates obtained before and after defeathering, suggesting that scald water is also a vehicle for cross contamination during defeathering. By using molecular subtyping, this study demonstrated the relationship between Salmonella present on the feathers of live turkeys and carcass skin after

  8. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  9. Diversity of Salmonella isolates from central Florida surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2014-11-01

    Identification of Salmonella serotypes is important for understanding the environmental diversity of the genus Salmonella. This study evaluates the diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from 165 of 202 Central Florida surface water samples and investigates whether the serotype of the environmental Salmonella isolates can be predicted by a previously published multiplex PCR assay (S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:3608-3615, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00701-06). Multiplex PCR was performed on 562 Salmonella isolates (as many as 36 isolates per water sample) to predict serotypes. Kauffmann-White serogrouping was used to confirm multiplex PCR pattern groupings before isolates were serotyped, analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 41.2% of the Salmonella-positive water samples, all Salmonella isolates had identical multiplex PCR patterns; in the remaining 58.8%, two or more multiplex PCR patterns were identified. Within each sample, isolates with matching multiplex PCR patterns had matching serogroups. The multiplex patterns of 495 isolates (88.1%) did not match any previously reported pattern. The remaining 68 isolates matched reported patterns but did not match the serotypes for those patterns. The use of the multiplex PCR allowed the number of isolates requiring further analysis to be reduced to 223. Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serotypes were identified; the most frequent included serotypes Muenchen, Rubislaw, Anatum, Gaminara, and IV_50:z4,z23:-. A majority (141/223) of Salmonella isolates clustered into one genotypic group. Salmonella isolates in Central Florida surface waters are serotypically, genotypically, and phenotypically (in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility) diverse. While isolates could be grouped as different or potentially the same using multiplex PCR, the multiplex PCR pattern did not predict the Salmonella

  10. Physiological desensitization of carbohydrate permeases and adenylate cyclase to regulation by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Involvement of adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate and inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, M H; Keeler, D K; Feucht, B U

    1982-03-10

    Adenylate cyclase and a number of carbohydrate transport systems are subject to regulation by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. These sensitive carbohydrate transport systems are desensitized to regulation by the phosphotransferase system, and adenylate cyclase is deactivated when cells are grown in medium containing cyclic AMP. These effects are specific for cyclic AMP and are potentiated by the genetic loss of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Inclusion in the growth medium of an inducer of a sensitive transport system also promotes desensitization of that particular transport system. Inducer-promoted desensitization is specific for the particular target transport system, while cyclic AMP-promoted desensitization is general and affects several systems. Desensitization of the permeases to regulation, and inactivation of adenylate cyclase, are slow processes which are blocked by chloramphenicol and are therefore presumably dependent on protein synthesis. Several sugar substrates of the phosphotransferase system are capable of regulating the sensitive carbohydrate transport systems. The evidence suggests that desensitization to this regulation does not result from a direct effect on the functioning of Enzyme I, a small heat-stable protein of the phosphotransferase system, HPr, or an Enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system, but specifically uncouples the permease systems from regulation.

  11. [The gentic principles for the design of live Salmonella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaia, V G; Marakusha, B I; Bondarenko, V M

    1996-01-01

    The presently known methods of obtaining Salmonella vaccine strains are characterized, their advantages and drawbacks are noted. Great importance of the genetic safety of Salmonella attenuated strains to be controlled is emphasized, taking into account that they are also used as carrier strains for obtaining hybrid and gene-engineering (vector) vaccines carrying immunogenicity factors of other species of pathogenic microorganisms.

  12. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven...

  13. An atypical presentation of salmonella typhi - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess due to Salmonella typhi is an extremely rare occurrence. A lady with a lump in the left breast was diagnosed to have a fibroadenoma and was subjected to a surgical procedure. She was found to have an abscess due to Salmonella typhi as confirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. She was treated with ciprofloxacin and responded favourably.

  14. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement.

  15. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  16. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... A total of 152 samples of chicken and chicken products ... detection of Salmonella species in the collected field samples ... that 16 million new cases of typhoid fever occur each ... vative methods for the rapid identification of Salmonella ... saved for the PCR-Non Selective test (PCR-NS) and 1 ml of the.

  17. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  18. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat from public markets, meat from ... Material and sampling: Seventy-two samples of fresh fish, 120 samples of meat (beef, ..... prevalence and number of. Salmonella in sausages and their destruction.

  19. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  20. Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection and isolation of salmonella in broiler chickens around the slaughter time. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, MA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. Crop contents may serve as important sources of Salmonella carcass contamination within processing plants. This study, evaluated the effect of feed withdrawal before the ...

  1. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  2. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement in a poultry disease ...

  4. Effect of Carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul Biofilms on Stainless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of carvacrol against Salmonella Saintpaul biofilms on stainless steel surface. Methods: The effects of carvacrol on planktonic cells were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. The action of carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul ...

  5. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  6. Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental infection of chickens with Salmonella enteritidis is often achieved by oral inoculation of live bacteria to caged chickens. Less information is available on influence of amount of Salmonella a chicken is exposed to during infection on the proportion that is eventually eliminated in faeces. This study evaluated the ...

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  8. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  9. Serological prevalence and associated risk factors of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella infections in chickens. The overall sero-prevalence established using serum plate agglutination test was 16.7% (98/588). Using a univariate logistic analysis, factors significantly associated with Salmonella infections at p < 0.05 were presence of other birds in poultry farms ...

  10. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Septic arthritis of the elbow in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of rarely encountered nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in an infant with no preexisting disease is reported. Salmonella etiology was not suspected in this case, and the diagnosis was made only after bacterial isolation. Aspiration of the infected joint with radiological guidance initially failed to give a ...

  11. PCR-RFLP Analysis of a fliC Gene Fragment in Avian Salmonella Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ebrahimvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella are a genus of zoonotic bacteria of worldwide economic and health importance. Members of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica are mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and are usually transmitted by ingestion of food or watercontaminated by infected feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to apply a PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene to identify the serotypes of Salmonella isolates from Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were serotyped by specific antisera. For the PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene, extracted DNA was used as the template for amplifying the fliC gene (1500 bp using specific primers. PCR products were subjected to digestion using HhaI restriction endonuclease. Results: This study determined 30 serotypes as Salmonella durban (56.6%, Salmonella uno (23.3%, Salmonella enteritidis (3.3%, Salmonella tinda (3.3%, Salmonella mjimweme (3.3%, Salmonella Thompson (3.3%, Salmonella sIIO8 (3.3 % and Salmonella sIIO7 (3.3%. Observations indicated that HhaI is able to discriminate Salmonella tinda and Salmonella thompson, yet Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella durban and Salmonella mjimweme had the same pattern with this enzyme. Also Salmonella sIIO8, Salmonella sIIO7 and Salmonella uno showed the same pattern. Thus, regarding the size and the number of resulting fragments from this enzyme, four patterns were obtained for HhaI. Conclusion: A large number of Salmonella serotypes need to be analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method and different enzymes must be used to give reliable results.

  12. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  13. Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50 and gut samples (n=100 of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18% and forty from the gut (40%. The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley.

  14. Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid and Cefotaxime Resistance in Salmonella Minnesota and Salmonella Heidelberg from Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues IBBE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the resistance of various Salmonella strains to beta-lactam antibiotics. Salmonella Minnesota (36 strains and Salmonella Heidelberg (24 strains were isolated from broiler chickens and carcasses by the Disk Diffusion Test and resistance genes blaCTX-M-8, blaACC-1 and blaCMY-2 were detected by PCR. Of the 60 strains tested, 80% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Specifically, 66.7% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 75% were resistant to cefotaxime. Among the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant strains, the blaCMY-2 gene was detected in 40%, blaACC-1 in 37.5% and blaCTX-M-8 in 7.5%. Among the cefotaxime resistant strains, we detected the genes blaCTX-M-8 in 13.3%, blaACC-1 in 33.3%, and blaCMY-2 in 31.1%. The presence of cefotaxime- and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Salmonella in poultry, and the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamases and AmpC-betalactamases in these strains are of huge concern to public health and economy.

  15. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: → A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. → Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. → A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  16. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  17. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De elfde workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 9 mei 2006 in Saint Malo, Frankrijk. Deelnemers waren vertegenwoordigers van de nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lidstaten van de

  18. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  19. EURL-Salmonella 8th interlaboratory comparison study Food 2016 : Detection of Salmonella in minced chicken meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VDL; Z&O

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, it was shown that all 34 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs), 30 of which are located in the European Union, were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in minced chicken meat. Three NRLs reported Salmonella in one 'blank' minced meat sample. This was probably caused by the

  20. Antibiotic resistance, integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 among non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo, An T T; Duijkeren, Engeline van; Fluit, Ad C; Wannet, Wim J B; Verbruggen, Anjo J; Maas, Henny M E; Gaastra, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns, integron characteristics and gene cassettes as well as the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates from human and animal origin. Epidemiologically unrelated Dutch

  1. Fate of Salmonella throughout Production and Refrigerated Storage of Tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjunna; Keller, Susanne E; Grasso-Kelley, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Tahini, a low-moisture food that is made from sesame seeds, has been implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis. In this study, the fate of Salmonella was determined through an entire process for the manufacture of tahini, including a 24-h seed soaking period before roasting, subsequent grinding, and storage at refrigeration temperature. Salmonella populations increased by more than 3 log CFU/g during a 24-h soaking period, reaching more than 7 log CFU/g. Survival of Salmonella during roasting at three temperatures, 95, 110, and 130°C, was assessed using seeds on which Salmonella was grown. Salmonella survival was impacted both by temperature and the water activity (a w ) at the beginning of the roasting period. When roasted at 130°C with a high initial a w (≥0.90) and starting Salmonella populations of ∼8.5 log CFU/g, populations quickly decreased below detection limits within the first 10 min. However, when the seeds were reduced to an a w of 0.45 before roasting at the same temperature, 3.5 log CFU/g remained on the seeds after 60 min. In subsequent storage studies, seeds were roasted at 130°C for 15 min before processing into tahini. For the storage studies, tahini was inoculated using two methods. The first method used seeds on which Salmonella was first grown before roasting. In the second method, Salmonella was inoculated into the tahini after manufacture. All tahini was stored for 119 days at 4°C. No change in Salmonella populations was recorded for tahini throughout the entire 119 days regardless of the inoculation method used. These combined results indicate the critical importance of a w during a roasting step during tahini manufacture. Salmonella that survive roasting will likely remain viable throughout the normal shelf life of tahini.

  2. Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Davis, Meghan; Valitutto, Marc T; Nelson, Kenrad; Sykes, John M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify important subspecies and serovars of Salmonella enterica in a captive reptile population and clinically relevant risk factors for and signs of illness in Salmonella-positive reptiles. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 11 crocodilians (4 samples), 78 snakes (91 samples), 59 lizards (57 samples), and 34 chelonians (23 samples) at the Bronx Zoo from 2000 through 2012. PROCEDURES Data pertaining to various types of biological samples obtained from reptiles with positive Salmonella culture results and the reptiles themselves were analyzed to determine period prevalence of and risk factors for various Salmonella-related outcomes. RESULTS Serovar distribution differences were identified for sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies in Salmonella cultures (78/175 [45%]), identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was also common (42/175 [24%]) and was recovered almost exclusively from snakes (n = 33), many of which had been clinically ill (17). Clinically ill reptiles provided 37% (64) of Salmonella cultures. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided new information on Salmonella infection or carriage and associated clinical disease in reptiles. Associations identified between serovars or subspecies and reptile groups or clinical disease can guide management of Salmonella-positive captive reptiles.

  3. [Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, D M; Sokolov, M S

    2013-01-01

    The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24-48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

  4. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song-yue; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Min; Hua, Yan-Hong; Yuan, Shuofeng; Watt, Rory M; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2012-09-26

    Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus

  5. Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on Membrane Lipids and Oxidative Injury of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ou; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Han, Zhong

    2016-08-22

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0-4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane fluidity of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimuriumi), possibly due to the alterations of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated gene expressions (down-regulation of cfa and fabA gene expressions and the up-regulation of fabD gene expression), which, in turn, modified the composition of membrane lipid (decrease in the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids). In addition, oxidative injury induced by PEF treatment was associated with an increase in the content of malondialdehyde. The up-regulation of cytochrome bo oxidase gene expressions (cyoA, cyoB, and cyoC) indicated that membrane damage was induced by PEF treatment, which was related to the repairing mechanism of alleviating the oxidative injury caused by PEF treatment. Based on these results, we achieved better understanding of microbial injury induced by PEF, suggesting that micro-organisms tend to decrease membrane fluidity in response to PEF treatment and, thus, a greater membrane fluidity might improve the efficiency of PEF treatment to inactivate micro-organisms.

  6. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  7. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...... out of seven cases. We recommend that empiric treatment of suspected cases of typhoid fever includes a third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxon. Furthermore, the present report stresses the importance of typhoid vaccination of travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  8. Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection Heralding Thoracic Mycotic Aneurysm: Case Report as Medical Apology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer L.; Golfus, Gabriel R.; Sadosty, Annie T.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case as a patient apology as a means of teaching other physicians about a unique presentation of a rare disease. Salmonella species are unusually isolated organisms in urine. In the case described, appreciation for the rarity of Salmonella species in the urine facilitated recognition of a serious disseminated Salmonella infection. Physicians should consider disseminated Salmonella infection, as was found in a patient with an aortic mycotic an eurysm, after isolation of Salmonella in urine despite an initially benign clinical presentation.

  9. Interaction of Saccharomyces boulardii with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium protects mice and modifies T84 cell response to the infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano S Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenesis engages host cells in two-way biochemical interactions: phagocytosis of bacteria by recruitment of cellular small GTP-binding proteins induced by the bacteria, and by triggering a pro-inflammatory response through activation of MAPKs and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast used as a probiotic in infectious diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we reported that S. boulardii (Sb protected mice from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST-induced death and prevented bacterial translocation to the liver. At a molecular level, using T84 human colorectal cancer cells, we demonstrate that incubation with Sb before infection totally abolished Salmonella invasion. This correlates with a decrease of activation of Rac1. Sb preserved T84 barrier function and decreased ST-induced IL-8 synthesis. This anti-inflammatory effect was correlated with an inhibitory effect of Sb on ST-induced activation of the MAPKs ERK1/2, p38 and JNK as well as on activation of NF-kappaB. Electron and confocal microscopy experiments showed an adhesion of bacteria to yeast cells, which could represent one of the mechanisms by which Sb exerts its protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Sb shows modulating effects on permeability, inflammation, and signal transduction pathway in T84 cells infected by ST and an in vivo protective effect against ST infection. The present results also demonstrate that Sb modifies invasive properties of Salmonella.

  10. Interaction of Saccharomyces boulardii with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Protects Mice and Modifies T84 Cell Response to the Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Flaviano S.; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Arantes, Rosa M. E.; Doye, Anne; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Lagadec, Patricia; Imbert, Veronique; Peyron, Jean-François; Rampal, Patrick; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Czerucka, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonella pathogenesis engages host cells in two-way biochemical interactions: phagocytosis of bacteria by recruitment of cellular small GTP-binding proteins induced by the bacteria, and by triggering a pro-inflammatory response through activation of MAPKs and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast used as a probiotic in infectious diarrhea. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we reported that S. boulardii (Sb) protected mice from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST)-induced death and prevented bacterial translocation to the liver. At a molecular level, using T84 human colorectal cancer cells, we demonstrate that incubation with Sb before infection totally abolished Salmonella invasion. This correlates with a decrease of activation of Rac1. Sb preserved T84 barrier function and decreased ST-induced IL-8 synthesis. This anti-inflammatory effect was correlated with an inhibitory effect of Sb on ST-induced activation of the MAPKs ERK1/2, p38 and JNK as well as on activation of NF-κB. Electron and confocal microscopy experiments showed an adhesion of bacteria to yeast cells, which could represent one of the mechanisms by which Sb exerts its protective effects. Conclusions Sb shows modulating effects on permeability, inflammation, and signal transduction pathway in T84 cells infected by ST and an in vivo protective effect against ST infection. The present results also demonstrate that Sb modifies invasive properties of Salmonella. PMID:20111723

  11. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; PHLS-Colindale/London; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories: Collaborative study VI (2001) for Salmonella. The sixth collaborative typing

  12. Salmonella bacteraemia among healthcare workers and their dependents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, A.; Sultan, F.; Mahboob, A.; Nazeer, S. H.; Nizammudin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence and resistance pattern of Salmonella infection in healthcare workers and their dependents. Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised records of employees and their dependents with bacteraemia from January 2007 to December 2011. Person-years were calculated using data from the human resources department. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analyses. Results: Of the total 2532 records available, 82(3.23%) patients were identified with Salmonella bacteraemia. Of them, 34(41.5%) patients were in age group 1-10, 15(18.3%) in 11-20, 26(31.7%) in 21-30, and 7(8.5%) were above 30 years. Besides, 48(58.5%) were males. Salmonella typhi was found in 44(53.7%) patients, Salmonella paratyphi A in 35(42.7%) and Salmonella species in 3(3.7%) patients. The yearly incidence of Salmonella infection in the study population ranged from 206 to 596 per 100000 person-years. Ciprofloxacin resistance was noted to be 56 (68.2%) followed by Ampicillin 29 (35.3%) and Co-trimoxazole 24 (29.2%). No strains were resistant to Cefiximeor Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The yearly incidence of Salmonella bacteraemia ranged from 200 to 600 per 100000 person years. There was significant quinolone resistance among the isolates. (author)

  13. A single-tube screen for Salmonella and Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Wallace, Jacqueline D; Tuohy, Marion J; Lasalvia, Margret M; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella and Shigella species are routinely sought in stool specimens submitted for culture. It is a common practice to screen lactose-negative colonies by using triple sugar iron agar, lysine iron agar, and Christensen urea agar to determine if further identification is necessary. We designed and evaluated a novel combination of media, which are layered in a single tube, for screening isolates suspected to possibly represent Salmonella or Shigella. We tested this media combination with 106 Salmonella, 56 Shigella, and 56 other gram-negative bacilli. All Salmonella and Shigella isolates tested were appropriately characterized as possible Salmonella or Shigella by using an algorithm developed for use with this media combination. Similarly, 53 (95%) of 56 other gram-negative bacilli were appropriately screened as non -Salmonella and non -Shigella isolates. This unique media combination provides the most important biochemical reactions needed to screen for Salmonella and Shigella in a single-tube format, which decreases labor by two thirds (ie, 1 tube is inoculated vs 3).

  14. Salmonella serovar spectrum associated with reptiles in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piasecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of Salmonella isolates from a wide variety of reptiles in Poland. A total of 374 faecal samples from chelonians, lizards and snakes were collected between 2009 and 2012. The nested, two-step PCR and multiplex PCR were performed to access the incidence and to characterize Salmonella isolates. Salmonella strains were found in 122 of 374 samples (32.6%. Among the different reptilian species, Salmonella strains were found in 58 samples from lizards (38.9%, 31 samples from snakes (28.7% and 33 samples from chelonians (28.2%. Of the total of 122 strains, 72 belonged to the species Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, 20 to the species S. enterica subs. salamae or S. enterica subs. houtanae. The incidence of S. enterica subs. diarizonae and S. enterica subs. indica was low, constituting less than 3.5% of the examined population. The findings show that reptiles can be considered as a reservoir for Salmonella and hence could pose a zoonotic hazard. In addition, multiplex PCR assay is a rapid, specific and easy-to-perform method and might be applied for rapid screening of large numbers of Salmonella samples.

  15. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  17. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  19. Population structure of Salmonella investigated by amplified fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torpdahl, M.; Ahrens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in determining the population structure of Salmonella. Methods and Results: A total of 89 strains were subjected to AFLP analysis using the enzymes BglII and BspDI, a combination...... that is novel in Salmonella. Both species S. bongori and S. enterica and all subsp. of S. enterica were represented with emphasis on S. enterica subsp. enterica using a local strain collection and strains from the Salmonella Reference Collection B (SARB). The amplified fragments were used in a band...

  20. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...... slaughter processes. Although the manufacturing and retail levels of pork production depend on the quality of raw materials that are delivered, they share the responsibility for the quality and safety of the end products reaching the consumer. At this level and onwards, the three main factors which...

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Oysters in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, Danielle A.; Inman, Allison E.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maré, C. John; Billington, Stephen J.; Saif, Linda A.; Levine, Jay F.; Joens, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    Food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis can be attributed, in part, to the consumption of raw oysters. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters, oysters harvested from 36 U.S. bays (12 each from the West, East, and Gulf coasts in the summer of 2002, and 12 bays, four per coast, in the winter of 2002-2003) were tested. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella. Isolation tended to be bay spe...

  2. Salmonella contamination of hatching and table eggs: a comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Duncan, C L; Mazzocco, A

    1998-01-01

    This study determined and compared Salmonella contamination rates of pools of surplus, early and culled hatching eggs from layer and broiler breeder flocks, and of pools of early and regular table eggs from layer flocks. Each pool contained 6 eggs. Five methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Nine of 126 pools of culled layer hatching eggs, 2 of 126 pools of surplus layer hatching eggs, and one of 126 pools of early layer hatching eggs were contaminated with Salmonella. All 126 poo...

  3. Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing by the National Reference Laboratories in the Member States of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Ward LR; Maas HME; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; PHLS/LEP; LIS

    2001-01-01

    Het vijfde Salmonella typerings ringonderzoek is georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven) in samenwerking met de Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS, Londen). Alle 17 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella

  4. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit 14 van de 15 lidstaten van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het doel was te

  6. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Methods: Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...... types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third...

  7. Salmonellae carrier status of food vendors in Kumasi, Ghana | Feglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    230 females of 28 males) healthy food vendors for Salmonella typhi, and S. paratyphi A, B, and C, using stool culture, the widal test, and standard microbiological identification methods. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of chronic typhoidal ...

  8. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses......-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source...... to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal...

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigar, M K; Cummings, K J; Rankin, S C

    2017-12-01

    Migratory waterfowl may play a role in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic pathogens, given their ability to travel long distances and their use of varied habitats. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast and to characterize the isolates. Faecal samples were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl at four wildlife management areas from September through November, 2016. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The apparent prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding was 0.5% (2/375). Serotypes identified were Thompson and Braenderup, and both isolates were susceptible to all anti-microbial agents tested. Although faecal contamination of agricultural fields or surface waters could serve as a potential source of zoonotic Salmonella transmission, waterfowl along the Gulf coast during the fall hunting season appear to pose minimal risk. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we

  11. Effect of Carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul Biofilms on Stainless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2025 ... carvacrol on S. saintpaul biofilms on stainless steel surface was evaluated on ... cultures S. saintpaul at 35 ºC were diluted 1:100 .... characteristics of biofilm formation that occur in .... aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhmurium.

  12. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella among humans in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda Aurelia; Ahmed, Shabana; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health problem worldwide and particularly in Africa with high disease burden. This study characterized Salmonella isolates from humans in Ghana to determine serovar distribution, phage types, and antimicrobial resistance. Further, the clonal...... relatedness among isolates was determined. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven Salmonella isolates (111 clinical and 26 public toilet) were characterized using standard serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The molecular epidemiology of common serovars (Salmonella....... Fifty-eight (n = 58/112; 54.5%) strains were multi-resistant with low resistance to cephalosporins ceftazidime (8.0%), cefotaxime (4.5%), and cefoxitin (2.7%) with synergy to clavulanic acid indicating possible ESBLs. Isolates showed high resistance to trimethoprim (66.1%), tetracycline (61...

  13. Ionizing Radiation for the Elimination of Salmonellae from Frozen Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1968-01-01

    The radiation resistance in frozen meat of a number of different serotypes of Salmonella has been examined. A dose of 0.65 Mrad achieves a 10 6 reduction in the numbers of the most resistant types and this dose has been shown to be effective in eliminating salmonellae from naturally contaminated meat. Some results are outlined which show that (a) Salmonella resistance is higher in frozen meat than in unfrozen meat, (b) pre-irradiation growth of the organisms in meat does not influence resistance, (c) salmonellae surviving irradiation grow at a slower rate than unirradiated organisms and appear to be unchanged in serological properties or phage type. Reference is made to wholesomeness tests carried out on irradiated meat and to the current situation on legislation in the United Kingdom controlling the irradiation of food. The identification of irradiated food is also mentioned. (author)

  14. Characterization of a Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Enterica Give

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    more than 535 cases of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections ... Serotyping of the isolate: The isolate was sub cultured into. TSA agar and ... Electrophoresis unit (Life Technologies). Determination of .... raw minced meat. (Girardin et al.

  15. Forty Years of Salmonella enterica Dublin in People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-05

    Dr. Reid Harvey, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses Salmonella enterica Dublin in People.  Created: 10/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/5/2017.

  16. Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables sold in a north-central ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... of the pure isolates testing positive as being pathogenic after biochemical analysis.

  17. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  18. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock....... The salmonella status of the flock was determined by examining the caecal tonsils from 16 3-week-old chickens from each flock. This procedure would detect a salmonella-infected flock, with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 20%. Furthermore, the structure and quality of the collected data have...... been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock...

  19. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafieva, Z.A.; Chudin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239 Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of γ-radiation dose. LD 37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  20. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...... from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... in the analysis. A multilevel logistic regression model was used taking into account the two-level data structure (abattoir, carcass pool) and adjusting the parameter estimates to the random variation at the abattoir level. Study results indicated that carcass contamination was mainly influenced...

  1. Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E)-piplartine by the Ames test. AA Morandim-Giannetti, F Cotinguiba, LO Regasini, MC Frigieri, EA Varanda, A Coqueiro, MJ Kato, VS Bolzani, M Furlan ...

  2. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  3. Rupture of popliteal arterial aneurysm due to salmonella infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Hyung Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Byun, Joo Nam

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a case of popliteal aneurysm and rupture that occurred over a 10-day period and this was all secondary to salmonella infection. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the extremity that was performed before and after aneurysmal rupture showed the aneurysm's rapid evolution to rupture over a short period of time. We also review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and management of salmonella aneurysms

  4. Relationship between aerobic bacteria, salmonellae and Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J A; Bailey, J S; Stern, N J; Whittemore, A D; Cox, N A

    1997-07-01

    Broiler carcasses were removed from commercial processing lines immediately after defeathering, before chilling, and after chilling to determine whether any relationship exists between aerobic bacteria and the human enteropathogens salmonellae and Campylobacter. In two experiments, a whole carcass rinse procedure was used to sample 30 carcasses after defeathering, 90 carcasses before chilling, and 90 carcasses after chilling, for a total of 210 different carcasses. Aerobic bacteria and Campylobacter spp. were enumerated and the incidence of salmonellae was determined. Salmonellae and Campylobacter incidences were 20 and 94%, respectively, for all carcasses sampled. After picking, neither salmonellae-positive nor Campylobacter-positive carcasses had mean aerobic most probable number (MPN) values that were different from carcasses negative for those organisms. Immediately before chilling, aerobic and Campylobacter counts were 7.12 and 5.33 log10 cfu per carcass, respectively. Immersion chilling reduced aerobic counts by approximately 1.8 log and Campylobacter by 1.5 log, with no change in salmonellae-positive carcasses. There was no difference in aerobic or Campylobacter counts between carcasses that were positive or negative for salmonellae at any of the sampling locations, nor was any correlation found between levels of aerobic organisms and Campylobacter. Carcasses with aerobic counts above the mean or more than one standard deviation above the mean also failed to show any correlation. Discriminant analysis indicated error rates as high as 50% when numbers of aerobic bacteria were used to predict incidence of salmonellae or Campylobacter on individual carcasses. Aerobic bacteria are not suitable as index organisms for salmonellae or Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

  5. Post-operative Salmonella surgical site infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Boozer, Lindsay; Glass, Eric N; Sanchez, Susan; Platt, Simon R; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Following decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, a 6-year-old German shepherd dog developed a subcutaneous infection at the surgical site and discospondylitis at the lumbosacral intervertebral disc. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serotype Dublin was recovered from the surgical site. Salmonella of a different serovar was isolated from a sample of the raw meat-based diet that the owner fed the dog.

  6. Resuscitation of the viable but non-culturable state of Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg by recombinant resuscitation-promoting factor derived from Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panutdaporn, N; Kawamoto, K; Asakura, H; Makino, S-I

    2006-02-15

    A gene encoding the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) from Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 was cloned and characterized. The amino acid sequence encoded by S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene shares 24.2% homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, which is secreted by growing cells, and required to resuscitate from viable but non-culturable (VNC) state. The S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene is 696 bp long, and shared a conserved segment with Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg (99.4%). Recombinant Rpf (rRpf) proteins of S. Typhimurium LT2 after expression in E. coli BL21 harboring the pET15-b plasmid was approximately 25 kDa. Since S. Oranienburg cells are relatively quick to enter the VNC state just after incubating in the presence of 7% NaCl at 37 degrees C for 3 days, we evaluated the biological effect of rRpf by using S. Oranienburg VNC cells. The rRpf not only promoted proliferation but also induced resuscitation of VNC cells to the culturable state in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, rRpf may be useful for detection of bacterial contaminants present in the VNC form in food samples and the environment.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in ground chicken breast meat during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R Y; Marks, B P; Johnson, E R; Johnson, M G

    1999-09-01

    Thermal inactivation of six Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua was evaluated in ground chicken breast and liquid medium. Survival of Salmonella and Listeria was affected by the medium composition. Under the same thermal process condition, significantly more Salmonella and Listeria survived in chicken breast meat than in 0.1% peptone-agar solution. The thermal lethality of six tested Salmonella spp. was additive in chicken meat. Survival of Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing was not affected by the presence of the six Salmonella spp. Sample size and shape affected the inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing.

  8. Salmonella tel-el-kebir and terrapins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.

  9. An unusual sequel to imported Salmonella zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W S; Munro, D; Reilly, W J; Sharp, J C

    1981-12-01

    In August, 1980 a rare serotype S. zanzibar was isolated in the North of Scotland from a man home on leave from Malaysia, whence he returned in November having been bacteriologically negative 2 months previously. In December however, S. zanzibar was isolated from a bulk milk sample taken at a nearby dairy farm. No illness occurred among milking cows which had been brought inside from pasture in mid-October. Since 1972 a variety of different salmonella serotypes had been identified in cattle, milk and other samples at this farm, with seagulls being implicated as the vector transmitting infection from the sewage of a local town on to farmland and an adjacent loch. Although water from this source has not been used in recent years for drinking by cattle, it is utilized for washing floors within the dairy premises. Since 1979, following an outbreak affecting consumers, all milk produced at the farm has been pasteurized.

  10. Isolation of Salmonellae from Foods Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Welton I.; Silliker, John H.

    1961-01-01

    A comparison of various methods of enhancing frequency of Salmonella isolations revealed that inoculation of a second enrichment broth, with culture from the first, was no improvement over the single direct enrichment method. It was inferior to centrifugation. Selenite was observed to produce more positive isolations at 48 hr than at 24. No change occurred in tetrathionate. Reconstitution of dried albumen with water produced a significant increase in isolations over direct inoculation of enrichment broth in the case of tetrathionate but not selenite broth. Pre-enrichment in lactose broth before inoculation of enrichment media was vastly superior to reconstitution in water for both enrichment broths. A comparison of results obtained using dulcitol, mannitol, lactose and carbohydrate-free purple broths in pre-enrichment indicated that the carbohydrate added was immaterial. PMID:13920002

  11. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...... in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S....... Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles...

  12. Serotype determination of Salmonella by xTAG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Haoqiu; Pan, Jincao; Pu, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens. Compared with the serotyping results of traditional serum agglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the xTAG assay were 95.1% and 100%, respectively. The agreement rate of these two assays was 95.2%. Compared with Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) kit, the advantages of this xTAG assay are: First, the magnetic beads make it applicable to both the Luminex®100/200™ and MAGPIX® systems. Second, only primers rather than both primers and probes are needed in the xTAG assay, and the process of coupling antigen-specific oligonucleotide probes to beads is circumvented, which make the xTAG assay convenient to be utilized by other laboratories. The xTAG assay may serve as a rapid alternative or complementary method for traditional Salmonella serotyping tests, especially for laboratories that utilize the MAGPIX® systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Salmonella rarely detected in Mississippi coastal waters and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M R; Wang, S Y; McLean, T I; Flood, C J; Ellender, R D

    2010-12-01

    Standards for the rapid detection of individual pathogens from environmental samples have not been developed, but in their absence, the use of molecular-based detection methods coupled with traditional microbiology techniques allows for rapid and accurate pathogen detection from environmental waters and sediment. The aim of this research was to combine the use of enrichment with PCR for detection of Salmonella in Mississippi coastal waters and sediment and observe if that presence correlated with levels of enterococci and climatological variables. Salmonella were primarily found in samples that underwent nutrient enrichment and were present more frequently in freshwater than marine waters. Salmonella were detected infrequently in marine and freshwater sediments. There was a significant positive correlation between the presence of detectable Salmonella and the average enterococcal count. An inverse relationship, however, was observed between the frequency of detection and the levels of salinity, turbidity and sunlight exposure. Results from this study indicated the presence of Salmonella in Mississippi coastal waters, and sediments are very low with significant differences between freshwater and marine environments. Using pathogenic and novel nonpathogenic molecular markers, Salmonella do not appear to be a significant pathogenic genus along the Mississippi Coast. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.

  15. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

  16. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.

  18. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 10 4 cfu.mL −1 and 10 3 cfu.mL −1 , respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  19. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ogunleye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated at Debiwise Poultry Farm during a fulminating outbreak was tested. Twenty 16-week-old pullets were inoculated orally with 0.5 ml of 1.3 x 108 CFU/bird Salmonella Paratyphi A, while 20 others of the same age served as uninfected control. By the fourth day postinoculation (p.i. dullness, ruffled and unkempt feathers, somnolence, yellowish- green diarrhea, decreased water and feed consumption were observed in the infected birds; mortality was 95% by day 16 p.i. Remarkable pathological lesions were recorded between days 7 and 14 p.i. The liver was moderately enlarged, with multiple necrotic foci, and dark brown to bronze coloration. The kidneys were swollen, with widespread focal pale necrotic areas, while the spleen was slightly enlarged. Histopathologically, the proventriculus showed focal glandular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and moderate perivascular leucocytic infiltration. There was mucosal hemorrhage, matting of intestinal villi with reduction of villous height and presence of epithelial debris in the lumen with increased leucocytic infiltration in the lamina propriae. The liver showed moderate, diffuse congestion of the sinusoid and central veins, as well as multiple foci of necrosis of hepatocytes, mononuclear infiltration and perivascular cellular infiltration. There was diffuse lymphoid depletion in the nodule and around the splenic arterioles as well as throughout the parenchyma. The kidneys were congested with tubular epithelial necrosis characterized by karyorrhexis of the nuclei. The organism was recovered from the liver, spleen, heart, heart blood and bone marrow of infected birds. No clinical sign or gross lesion or pathogen was observed in the negative control.

  20. Acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for systemic salmonellae virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kevin G; Delbecq, Scott P; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Dove, Katja K; Prost, Lynne R; Daley, Margaret E; Zeth, Kornelius; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-05-23

    Salmonella PhoQ is a histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain (PD) that promotes virulence by detecting the macrophage phagosome. PhoQ activity is repressed by divalent cations and induced in environments of acidic pH, limited divalent cations, and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP). Previously, it was unclear which signals are sensed by salmonellae to promote PhoQ-mediated virulence. We defined conformational changes produced in the PhoQ PD on exposure to acidic pH that indicate structural flexibility is induced in α-helices 4 and 5, suggesting this region contributes to pH sensing. Therefore, we engineered a disulfide bond between W104C and A128C in the PhoQ PD that restrains conformational flexibility in α-helices 4 and 5. PhoQ(W104C-A128C) is responsive to CAMP, but is inhibited for activation by acidic pH and divalent cation limitation. phoQ(W104C-A128C) Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is virulent in mice, indicating that acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for virulence.

  1. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  2. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate mice trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Dong, Chunlan; Chen, Xiaojun; Fang, Zhihong; Xu, Jie; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Gu, Dong Sheng; Wang, Ding; Du, Weiting; Zhu, Delin; Han, Zhong Chao

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are poorly immunogenic and have potent immunosuppressive activities, have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for the treatment of disorders caused by abnormal immune responses. In this study we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could ameliorate colitis in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. TNBS-treated colitic mice were infused with hUC-MSCs or vehicle control. The mice were sacrificed on day 1, 3, and 5 after infusion, and their clinical and pathological conditions were evaluated by body weight, colon length, and histological analysis. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine proteins in colon were examined by ELISA. The homing of hUC-MSCs was studied by live in vivo imaging and immunofluorescent microscopy. hUC-MSCs were found to migrate to the inflamed colon and effectively treated the colitic mice with improved clinical and pathological signs. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 as well as IFN-γ and IL-6 were significantly lower in the colon tissues of the hUC-MSC-treated mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated mice. Coculture experiments showed that hUC-MSCs not only could inhibit IFN-γ expression but also significantly inhibit IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) or splenocytes of the colitic mice or by those isolated from normal animals and stimulated with IL-23. Systemically infused hUC-MSCs could home to the inflamed colon and effectively ameliorate colitis. In addition to the known suppressive effects on Th1-type immune responses, hUC-MSC-mediated modulation of IL-23/IL-17 regulated inflammatory reactions also plays an important role in the amelioration of colitis.

  3. Mutagenic activity of 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol in strains TA1538 and TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G; Bouter, S; de Knijff, P

    1982-12-01

    The mutagenicity of 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol (2,4-DAPE) was compared with that of 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-DAA), a chemically related compound previously used in hair-dye formulations. Both chemicals were tested in standard procedures with the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test as described by Ames and colleagues. In several experiments, which extended over a total period of 2 years, 2,4-DAA exhibited definite, but variable mutagenicity toward strain TA1538 when S9 preparations of rat liver induced with Aroclor 1254 were present in the incubation mixtures. The compound 2,4-DAPE did not exhibit detectable mutagenic activity when tested concomitantly under the same experimental conditions. We conclude that 2,4-DAPE is not mutagenic for Salmonella under conditions of the standard mammalian microsome assay with strain TA1538 and TA98 as indicators.

  4. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota of oligo-saccharide fed mice exhibiting reduced resistance to Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    recently demonstrated a reduced resistance to Salmonella infection in mice fed diets containing fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). In the present study, faecal and caecal samples from the same mice were analysed in order to study microbial changes potentially explaining...... the observed effects on the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the microbiota in faecal samples from mice fed FOS or XOS were different from faecal samples collected before the feeding trial as well as from faecal profiles generated from control animals...... of short-chain fatty acids was recorded. In conclusion, diets supplemented with FOS or XOS induced a number of microbial changes in the faecal microbiota of mice. The observed effects of XOS were qualitatively similar to those of FOS, but the most prominent bifidogenic effect was seen for XOS. An increased...

  5. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes aerobic growth of Salmonella Typhimurium under nitrosative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Mee; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kook, Joong-Ki; Choy, Hyon E; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Bang, Iel Soo

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inactivates iron-sulfur enzymes in bacterial amino acid biosynthetic pathways, causing amino acid auxotrophy. We demonstrate that exogenous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can restore the NO resistance of hmp mutant Salmonella Typhimurium lacking principal NO-metabolizing enzyme flavohemoglobin, and of mutants further lacking iron-sulfur enzymes dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) and isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) that are essential for BCAA biosynthesis, in an oxygen-dependent manner. BCAA supplementation did not affect the NO consumption rate of S. Typhimurium, suggesting the BCAA-promoted NO resistance independent of NO metabolism. BCAA supplementation also induced intracellular survival of ilvD and leuCD mutants at wild-type levels inside RAW 264.7 macrophages that produce constant amounts of NO regardless of varied supplemental BCAA concentrations. Our results suggest that the NO-induced BCAA auxotrophy of Salmonella, due to inactivation of iron-sulfur enzymes for BCAA biosynthesis, could be rescued by bacterial taking up exogenous BCAA available in oxic environments.

  6. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  7. Proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Tyhimurium Grown in Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-04

    To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  8. Broad-range (pan) Salmonella and Salmonella serotype typhi-specific real-time PCR assays: potential tools for the clinical microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Doyle, Laura J; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    We describe broad-range salmonellae (ie, Salmonella) and Salmonella serotype Typhi-specific LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We validated these with a battery of 280 bacteria, 108 of which were salmonellae representing 20 serotypes. In addition, 298 isolates from 170 clinical specimens that were suspected to possibly represent Salmonella were tested with the pan- Salmonella assay. Finally, the pan-Salmonella assay also was used to test DNA extracts from 101 archived, frozen stool specimens, 55 of which were culture-positive for salmonellae. Both assays were 100% sensitive and specific when cultured isolates of the battery were tested. The pan- Salmonella assay also characterized correctly all salmonellae on the primary isolation agar and was 96% sensitive (53/55) and 96% specific (49/51) when nucleic acid extracts from direct stool specimens were tested. These assays represent potential tools the clinical microbiologist could use to screen suspect isolates or stool specimens for Salmonella.

  9. Multilocus Sequence Typing of the Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tehran Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most important serovars of Salmonella enterica and is associated with human salmonellosis worldwide. Many epidemiological studies have focused on the characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium in many countries as well as in Asia. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Methods: Clinical samples (urine, blood, and stool were collected from patients, who were admitted to 2 hospitals in Tehran between April and September, 2015. Salmonella Typhimurium strains were identified by conventional standard biochemical and serological testing. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates against 16 antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion assay. The clonal relationship between the strains of Salmonella Typhimurium was analyzed using MLST. Results: Among the 68 Salmonella isolates, 31% (n=21 were Salmonella Typhimurium. Of the total 21 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 76% (n=16 were multidrug-resistant and showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotic families. The Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were assigned to 2 sequence types: ST19 and ST328. ST19 was more common (86%. Both sequence types were further assigned to 1 eBURST group. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in Iran to determine the sequence types of the clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tehran hospitals using MLST. ST19 was detected as the major sequence type of Salmonella Typhimurium.

  10. EFFECT OF THE ANTIMUTAGENS VANILLIN AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON THE SPONTANEOUS MUTATION SPECTRA OF SALMONELLA TA104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of the Antimutagens Vanillin and Cinnamaldehyde on the / Spontaneous Mutation Spectra of Salmonella TAlO4 Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutagens that, when added to assay plates, reduced the spontaneous mutant frequency in Salmonella typhi...

  11. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Tze Y; Radu, Son; Mahyudin, Nor A; Rukayadi, Yaya; Zakaria, Zunita; Mazlan, Nurzafirah; Tan, Boon H; Lee, Epeng; Yeoh, Soo L; Chin, Yih Z; Tan, Chia W; Kuan, Chee H; Basri, Dayang F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che W J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60) were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  12. Isolation and significance of Salmonella sp. from some beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    to be some relation between the coliforms, E. coli counts and the presence of Salmonella. The occurrence and significance of Salmonella in bathing beaches in relation to public health hazard have been highlighted...

  13. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the transmission of Salmonella spp. between production animals (pigs and cattle) and wildlife on production animal farms in Denmark. Methods and Results: In the winter and summer of 2001 and 2002, 3622 samples were collected from Salmonella-infected and noninfected herds...... of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...... to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence...

  14. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratories......, which did not result in any DNA band. A total of 32 out of the 36 rough presumptive isolates were positive in the PCR. All but one isolate were also identified as Salmonella by the two biochemical methods. All 80 Salmonella strains were also tested in the two multiplex serogroup tests based on PCR beads....... The sensitivity of the BAX Salmonella PCR test was assessed by testing a total of 80 Salmonella isolates, covering most serogroups, which correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in one 800-bp band in the sample tubes. The specificity of the PCR was assessed using 20 non-Salmonella strains...

  15. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; Hochmuth, George J.; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H.; Teplitski, Max

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous

  16. Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn, which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice. The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively. The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.

  17. Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory-scale drinking water biofilms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schaefer, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available biofilms in monoculture and the fate and persistence of Salmonella in a mixed aquatic biofilm was examined. In monoculture S. Typhimurium formed loosely structured biofilms. Salmonella colonized established multi-species drinking water biofilms within 24...

  18. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  19. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of community-acquired bloodstream infection in Africa. The contribution of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars to invasive disease varies considerably in place and time, even within the same country. Nonetheless, many African countries are now thought to experience typhoid fever incidence >100 per 100,000 per year with approximately 1% of patients dying. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease was estimated to cause 3.4 million illnesses and 681 316 deaths in 2010, with the most disease in Africa. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing problem in S. enterica that threatens to further compromise patient outcomes. Reservoirs for nontyphoidal Salmonella and the predominant routes of transmission for typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella are not well understood in Africa, hampering the design of evidence-based, non-vaccine- and vaccine-based prevention measures. It is difficult to distinguish clinically invasive Salmonella disease from febrile illnesses caused by other pathogens. Blood cultures are the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis, but lack sensitivity due to the low magnitude of bacteremia, do not produce results at point of care, and are not widely available in Africa. Serologic approaches to diagnosis remain inaccurate, and nucleic acid amplification tests are also compromised by low concentrations of bacteria. High-throughput whole-genome sequencing, together with a range of novel analytic pipelines, has provided new insights into the complex pattern of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and host adaptation. Concerted efforts are therefore needed to apply these new tools in the context of high-quality field surveillance to improve diagnosis, patient management, control, and prevention of invasive Salmonella infections in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H; Aarestrup, Frank M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20). Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored bla(CTX-M-63) and one bla(CMY-2). PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  1. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  2. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiologica...

  4. New vaccine strategies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: II: Enhanced systemic and secreted antibody responses against the CFA/I fimbriae by priming with DNA and boosting with a live recombinant Salmonella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lásaro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of systemic (IgG and mucosal (IgA antibody responses against the colonization factor I antigen (CFA/I of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC was evaluated in mice primed with an intramuscularly delivered CFA/I-encoding DNA vaccine followed by two oral immunizations with a live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing the ETEC antigen. The booster effect induced by the oral immunization was detected two weeks and one year after the administration of the DNA vaccine. The DNA-primed/Salmonella-boosted vaccination regime showed a synergistic effect on the induced CFA/I-specific systemic and secreted antibody levels which could not be attained by either immunization strategy alone. These results suggest that the combined use of DNA vaccines and recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains can be a useful immunization strategy against enteric pathogens.

  5. A Rare Case of Salmonella typhi Meningitis in an Eleven Month Old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are infrequent causes of childhood meningitis. Most reports of Salmonella typhi meningeal infections are confined to neonates. A rare instance of S. typhi in an otherwise healthy eleven month old infant is being reported. Keywords: Salmonella typhi, meningitis, infant.

  6. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in environmental water by molecular technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Shen, Tsung Yu; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The taxonomy of Salmonella is very complicated and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. The detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time consuming. To overcome this drawback, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using molecular technology and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 70 environmental water samples in Taiwan. The analytical procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella. After that, we isolated Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. Both selective enrichment and culture plates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally, the serovars of Salmonella were confirmed by using biochemical tests and serological assay. In this study, 15 water samples (21.4%) were identified as Salmonella by PCR. The positive water samples will further identify their serotypes by culture method. The presence of Salmonella in environmental water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed. Consequently, the authorities need to provide sufficient source protection and to maintain the system for disease prevention. Keywords: Salmonella spp., serological assay, PCR

  7. Breast abscess in a man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncic, Nada; Gorup, Lari; Strcic, Miroslav; Abram, Maja; Mustac, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae can cause breast infection only exceptionally. A case of breast abscess in a 70-year-old man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is reported. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of surgical and antibiotic treatment.

  8. Drug resistant Salmonella in broiler chicken sold at local market in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to isolate and identify Salmonella spp. from cloacal swabs of apparently healthy broiler chickens in Bangladesh. Salmonella was characterized culturally, biochemically and also via PCR method. Among 50 isolates, 16 were found to be positive for Salmonella. PCR using 16S rRNA gene primers ...

  9. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  10. 75 FR 66769 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...] Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed; Availability; Extension of Comment... that are adulterated due to the presence of Salmonella. The Agency is taking this action in response to... action against animal feed or feed ingredients that are adulterated due to the presence of Salmonella...

  11. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  12. Spatial surveillance during control of infectious diseases – Salmonella Dublin in Denmark 2002-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. ...

  13. Elicitation of expert knowledge on controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, v.d. M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important risks for food safety, and pork is one of the sources of human salmonellosis. A chain approach is essential to reduce Salmonella in pork products. A survey was carried out among Dutch and Danish experts in the field of Salmonella to evaluate the entire pork

  14. Reduced salmonella fecal shedding in swine administered porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health, food safety and public health. Key objectives of pre-harvest food safety programs are to detect asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, reduce colonization, and prevent transmission of Salmonella to other animals and ...

  15. Evaluation of an x-ray microprobe technique as a possible aid to detect salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.R.; Banwart, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Specific bacterial antigen (Salmonella) increased in phosphorus and sqlfur after reaction with the flukrescain isothiocyanate-tagged anti-Salmonella antibody, while nonspecific antigen (Escherichia coli) did not. X-ray microprobe analysis may be useful in detecting salmonellae or other bacteria by determining increases in the elemental constituents of bacterial cells when reacted with elemental-tagged antibodies

  16. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on salmonella in high immunity egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Haili; Han Keguang; Zheng Mingxue; Li Guozhu

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella were inoculated into the yolk and irradiated with different dose of 60 Co γ-ray. The results show that 3 kGy irradiation dose can kill all Salmonella in the yolk and D 10 value of Salmonella in the yolk is 0.36-0.46 kGy

  17. In vitro and in vivo virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104: a parallelogram approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella is present in different food products. In this research it is concluded that Salmonella, which can survive the stomach of humans better (acid resistant bacteria), have a higher probability of causing an infection than Salmonella strains that are less able to survive the stomach (acid

  18. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects on the various stages of Salmonella infection including intracellular and extracellular Salmonella growth rates, virulence gene regulation, and adhesion. We show that EcN affects the initial Salmonella invasion steps by modulating Salmonella virulence gene regulation and Salmonella SiiE-mediated adhesion, but not extra- and intracellular Salmonella growth. However, the inhibitory activity of EcN against Salmonella invasion always correlated with EcN adhesion capacities. EcN mutants defective in the expression of F1C fimbriae and flagellae were less adherent and less inhibitory toward Salmonella invasion. Another E. coli strain expressing F1C fimbriae was also adherent to IPEC-J2 cells, and was similarly inhibitory against Salmonella invasion like EcN. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that EcN affects Salmonella adhesion through secretory components. This mechanism appears to be common to many E. coli strains, with strong adherence being a prerequisite for an effective reduction of SiiE-mediated Salmonella adhesion.

  19. Incentive systems for food quality control with repeated deliveries: Salmonella control in pork production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, R.P.; Backus, G.B.C.; Gaag, van der M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic principal-agent analysis of incentive systems for Salmonella control. The European Union will require Salmonella testing from 2008. On the basis of the producer's performance history in controlling Salmonella, the incentive systems analysed determine quality premiums to

  20. Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region.

  1. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999-2015 for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1-2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA and Statistics Netherlands (CBS allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09-2.10 among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed <60 years of age. Such increased risk concerned specifically the ascending/transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38-3.09 after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73-4.76. Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade

  2. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999–2015) for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264) were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1–2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite) among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09–2.10) among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38–3.09) after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73–4.76). Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with severe

  3. Salmonella enteridis Septic Arthritis: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Uygur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis causes significant morbidity, is transmitted via fecal-oral route, and is a worldwide cause of gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and local infections. Salmonella is a less common etiologic factor for septic arthritis compared with other gram-negative bacteria. Cases. We present two septic arthritis cases with Salmonella enteridis as a confirmed pathogen and also discuss the predisposing factors and treatment. Discussion. Septic arthritis is an orthopedic emergency. The gold standard treatment of septic arthritis is joint debridement, antibiotic therapy according to the culture results, and physiotherapy, which should start in the early postoperative period to prevent limitation of motion. Salmonella is an atypical agent for septic arthritis. It must be particularly kept in mind as an etiologic factor for the acute arthritis of a patient with sickle cell anemia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinicians should be cautious that the white blood cell count in synovial fluid can be under 50.000/mm3 in immune compromised individuals with septic arthritis. The inflammatory response can be deficient, or the microorganism may be atypical. Conclusion. Atypical bacteria such as Salmonella species in immune compromised patients can cause joint infections. Therefore, Salmonella species must always be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of septic arthritis in a clinically relevant setting.

  4. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2018-05-01

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we critically review three major paradigms facing Salmonella source attribution today: (i) the use of genotyping data, particularly Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA), which is replacing traditional Salmonella phenotyping beyond serotyping; (ii) the integration of case-control data into source attribution to improve risk factor identification/characterization; (iii) the investigation of non-food sources, as attributions tend to focus on foods of animal origin only. Population genetics models or simplified MLVA schemes may provide feasible options for source attribution, although there is a strong need to explore novel modelling options as we move towards whole-genome sequencing as the standard. Classical case-control studies are enhanced by incorporating source attribution results, as individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different sources have different associated risk factors. Thus, the more such analyses are performed the better Salmonella epidemiology will be understood. Reparametrizing current models allows for inclusion of sources like reptiles, the study of which improves our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology beyond food to tackle the pathogen in a more holistic way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  7. Salmonella Dublin i oksekød, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Hansen, Tina Beck

    Case-by-case overvågningen af dansk og udenlandsk fersk kød af kvæg ophørte ved årsskiftet til 2013 som følge af meget få fund. I 2012 blev der imidlertid påvist Salmonella i 14,3 % af de undersøgte partier af fersk dansk oksekød, mens man i samme periode ikke så den samme stigning i fund af...... Salmonella på slagterierne. Det er derfor muligt, at der er andre kilder til salmonellas forekomst i det ferske oksekød. En del oksekød opskæres typisk på andre virksomheder end på slagteriet, og krydskontaminering med Salmonella her kan derfor være en af årsagerne til det høje fund, da disse virksomheder...... typisk forarbejder store mængder dansk og udenlandsk kød i de samme produktionslinjer. Siden planlægningen af dette projekt er forekomsten af Salmonella Dublin faldet i oksekød, men projektet er blevet gennemført som oprindeligt planlagt. Formålet med dette projekt har været at afklare forekomsten af...

  8. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  10. Salmonella Typhimurium gastroenteritis leading to chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  11. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  12. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 with Human Dendritic Cells: Interleukin-23-Inducing Mycoplasmal Lipoproteins and Inflammasome Activation of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goret, J; Béven, L; Faustin, B; Contin-Bordes, C; Le Roy, C; Claverol, S; Renaudin, H; Bébéar, C; Pereyre, S

    2017-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis lacks a cell wall, and lipoproteins anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane are in direct contact with the host components. A Triton X-114 extract of M. hominis enriched with lipoproteins was shown to stimulate the production of interleukin-23 (IL-23) by human dendritic cells (hDCs). The inflammasome activation of the host cell has never been reported upon M. hominis infection. We studied here the interaction between M. hominis PG21 and hDCs by analyzing both the inflammation-inducing mycoplasmal lipoproteins and the inflammasome activation of the host cell. IL-23-inducing lipoproteins were determined using a sequential extraction strategy with two nondenaturing detergents, Sarkosyl and Triton X-114, followed by SDS-PAGE separation and mass spectrometry identification. The activation of the hDC inflammasome was assessed using PCR array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We defined a list of 24 lipoproteins that could induce the secretion of IL-23 by hDCs, 5 with a molecular mass between 20 and 35 kDa and 19 with a molecular mass between 40 and 100 kDa. Among them, lipoprotein MHO_4720 was identified as potentially bioactive, and a synthetic lipopeptide corresponding to the N-terminal part of the lipoprotein was subsequently shown to induce IL-23 release by hDCs. Regarding the hDC innate immune response, inflammasome activation with caspase-dependent production of IL-1β was observed. After 24 h of coincubation of hDCs with M. homini s, downregulation of the NLRP3-encoding gene and of the adaptor PYCARD-encoding gene was noticed. Overall, this study provides insight into both protagonists of the interaction of M. hominis and hDCs. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma hominis is a human urogenital pathogen involved in gynecologic and opportunistic infections. M. hominis lacks a cell wall, and its membrane contains many lipoproteins that are anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we focused on

  14. Modeling the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium during the fermentation of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Derya; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Halkman, A Kadir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, the two most important serovars of salmonellosis , during the fermentation of yogurt. The microorganisms were enumerated in milk throughout the fermentation process at three initial inoculum levels (3, 5 and 7 log CFU/mL). DMFit software was used in the fitting procedure of the data (IFR, Norwich, UK, Version 3.5). The data provided sigmoidal curves that were successfully displayed with the Baranyi model. The results showed that the initial inoculum level did not affect the growth for both pathogens; thus, the µ max values (maximum specific growth rate) did not significantly differ across all the contamination levels, ranging from 0.26 to 0.38 for S. Enteritidis and from 0.50 to 0.56 log CFU/g/h for S. Typhimurium ( P > 0.05). However, the µ max values significantly differed between the two serovars ( P fermentation process of milk even at a low contamination level. In addition, the models presented in this study can be used in quantitative risk assessment studies to estimate the threat to consumers.

  15. Discovery of Novel Secreted Virulence Factors from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Proteomic Analysis of Culture Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Gustin, Jean K.; Stufkens, Afke; Shaikh-Kidwai, Afshan S.; Li, Jie; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the world. This pathogen has two type-III secretion systems (TTSS) necessary for virulence that are encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and are expressed during extracellular or intracellular infectious states, respectively, to deliver virulence factors (effectors) to the host cell cytoplasm. While many have been identified and at least partially characterized, the full repertoire of effectors has not been catalogued. In this mass spectrometry-based proteomics study, we identified effector proteins secreted under minimal acidic medium growth conditions that induced the SPI-2 TTSS and its effectors, and compared the secretome from the parent strain to the secretome from strains missing either essential (SsaK) or regulatory components (SsaL) of the SPI-2 secretion apparatus. We identified 75% of the known TTSS effector repertoire. Excluding translocon components, 95% of the known effectors were biased for identification in the ssaL mutant background, which demonstrated that SsaL regulates SPI-2 type III secretion. To confirm secretion to animal cells, we made translational fusions of several of the best candidates to the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis and assayed cAMP levels of infected J774 macrophage-like cells. From these infected cells we identified six new TTSS effectors and two others that are secreted independent of TTSS. Our results substantiate reports of additional secretion systems encoded by Salmonella other than TTSS.

  16. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to promote a deviation from T lymphocyte production of pathogenic Th1 cytokines to less detrimental Th2 cytokines, but this is still controversial. We studied patterns of in vivo blood mononuclear cell (MNC...... of any Th1 or Th2 cytokines. The largest changes in cytokine mRNA levels occurred early (~9-12 h) after an IFN-beta injection. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a Th1- or Th2-mRNA-promoting effect of IFN-beta therapy. The therapeutic effect of IFN-beta is more likely attributable to the induction...

  17. Differential aktivity of IL-12 and IL-23 in mucosal and systemic innate immune pathology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlig, H. H.; Mckenzie, B. S.; Hue, S.; Thompson, C.; Joyce-Shaikh, B.; Štěpánková, Renata; Robinson, N.; Buonocore, S.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Cua, D. J.; Powrie, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2006), s. 309-318 ISSN 1074-7613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pathogenesis * immunology * effector cytokine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 18.306, year: 2006

  18. Confirmation of TNIP1 and IL23A as susceptibility loci for psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bowes, John

    2011-09-01

    To investigate a shared genetic aetiology for skin involvement in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) by genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), reported to be associated in genome-wide association studies of psoriasis, in patients with PsA.

  19. IL-23 and T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human beings with allergic contact dermatitis; in particular, the innate response of keratinocytes to contact allergen, the induction of allergen-specific T(H)17 cells, and the presence of T(H)17-related effector cells in inflamed skin. METHODS....... CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the involvement of T(H)17-mediated immunopathology in human allergic contact dermatitis, including both innate and adaptive immune responses to contact allergens....

  20. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of balneotherapy with hae-un-dae thermal water on imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Yun, Seong Taek; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hong Jig; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2014-04-01

    Balneotherapy, although not a well-established dermatological treatment, is thought to have therapeutic properties for psoriasis and is used as an alternative treatment modality throughout the world. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the therapeutic immunologic effects of thermomineral water. A murine model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation was used for evaluating the therapeutic effects of balneotherapy with Hae-Un-Dae hot spring mineral water. The clinical improvements were evaluated by a dermatologist. Lesional cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23, and IL-22, were quantitatively measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cell proportions in the spleen were evaluated by flow cytometry, and histopathological evaluation of the skin was also performed. The mineral water balneotherapy group showed faster improvement in skin erythema and scales than the distilled water bathing group. A substantial reduction was observed in the lesional mRNA levels of IL-17A and IL-23 in the mineral water group. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly decreased in the mineral water group but not in the distilled water group. Normalized T cell proportions were observed after bathing. Balneotherapy showed immunomodulatory effects in a psoriasis-like murine model. Balneotherapy suppressed lesional IL-23 and IL-17A, which are important cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. These results suggest that balneotherapy can be used as an effective and safe treatment for psoriasis.

  2. Isolated lymphoid follicles are not IgA inductive sites for recombinant Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tomomi; Momoi, Fumiki; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira; Kataoka, Kosuke; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Kweon, Mi-Na; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) play a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA antibody (Ab) responses. The transfer of wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM) to lymphotoxin-α-deficient (LTα -/- ) mice resulted in the formation of mature ILF containing T cells, B cells, and FDC clusters in the absence of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Although the ILF restored total IgA Abs in the intestine, antigen (Ag)-specific IgA responses were not induced after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin. Moreover, Ag-specific cell proliferation was not detected in the ILF. Interestingly, no IgA anti-LPS Abs were detected in the fecal extracts of LTα -/- mice reconstituted with WT BM. On the basis of these findings, ILF can be presumed to play a role in the production of IgA Abs, but lymphoid nodules are not inductive sites for the regulation of Ag-specific intestinal IgA responses to recombinant Salmonella

  3. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  5. Obacunone Represses Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-Dependent Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Amit; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.

    2012-01-01

    Obacunone belongs to a class of unique triterpenoids called limonoids, present in Citrus species. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that obacunone possesses antivirulence activity and demonstrates inhibition of cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The present work sought to determine the effect of obacunone on the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 by using a cDNA microarray. Transcriptomic studies indicated that obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), the maltose transporter, and the hydrogenase operon. Furthermore, phenotypic data for the Caco-2 infection assay and maltose utilization were in agreement with microarray data suggesting repression of SPI1 and maltose transport. Further studies demonstrated that repression of SPI1 was plausibly mediated through hilA. Additionally, obacunone seems to repress SPI2 under SPI2-inducing conditions as well as in Caco-2 infection models. Furthermore, obacunone seems to repress hilA in an EnvZ-dependent fashion. Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium. PMID:22843534

  6. A second wave of Salmonella T3SS1 activity prolongs the lifespan of infected epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran E Finn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1 is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ΔsopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments.

  7. Expression of chicken LEAP-2 in the reproductive organs and embryos and in response to Salmonella enterica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Georgios

    2010-06-01

    In recent years host antimicrobial peptides and proteins have been recognised as key mediators of the innate immune response in many vertebrate species, providing the first line of defense against potential pathogens. In chickens a number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been recently identified. However, although these peptides have been studied extensively in the avian gastrointestinal tract, little is known about their function in the chicken reproductive organs and embryos. Chicken Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide-2 (cLEAP-2) has been previously reported to function in protecting birds against microbial attack. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cLEAP-2 gene in the chicken reproductive organs, as well as in chicken embryos during embryonic development, and to determine whether cLEAP-2 expression in the chicken reproductive organs was constitutive or induced as a response to Salmonella enteritidis infection. RNA was extracted from ovary, oviduct, testis and epididymis of sexually mature healthy and Salmonella infected birds, as well as from chicken embryos until day ten of embryonic development. Expression analysis data revealed that cLEAP-2 was expressed in the chicken ovary, testis and epididymis as well as in embryos during early embryonic development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that cLEAP-2 expression was constitutive in the chicken epididymis, but was significantly up regulated in the chicken gonads, following Salmonella infection. In addition, expression of cLEAP-2 during chicken embryogenesis appeared to be developmentally regulated. These data provide evidence to suggest a key role of cLEAP-2 in the protection of the chicken reproductive organs and the developing embryos from Salmonella colonization.

  8. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  9. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  10. [Little epidemic caused by Salmonella panama (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M; Licht, W; Richter, M

    1977-05-06

    Between 8. 1. 1976 and 10. 8. 1976 16 new or premature born children got a gastroenteritis due to salmonella panama. All these children were together in one pediatric ward of the hospital. Most of them came directly for the labour ward or from the newborn-ward. They had antibiotic therapy due to the indication of the mother or the child. It was impossible to fine the source of the salmonella infection, therefore, finally the ward was closed. After radical desinfection new patients came to the ward. Again they were infected with salmonella panama. Now it became clear that contaminated milk (Humanan-Heilnahrung) was the source of infections. Most papers mention a mild benign course of the infections. In contrary we could see severe conditions dependent on the pre-damage of the child or his reduced immunity. The minimal number of germs of dietic food products needs to be examinated.

  11. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a Zoo education setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hydeskov, H. B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Aalbæk, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives...... of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective...... enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were...

  12. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, A.; Hanning, I.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  13. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels.

  14. Automated 5 ' nuclease PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Ahrens, Peter; Rådström, P.

    2000-01-01

    -point fluorescence (FAM) signals for the samples and positive control (TET) signals (relative sensitivity [Delta Rn], >0.6). The diagnostic specificity of the method was assessed using 120 non-Salmonella strains, which all resulted in negative FAM signals (Delta Rn, less than or equal to 0.5). All 100 rough...... Salmonella strains tested resulted in positive FAM and TET signals. In addition, it was found that the complete PCR mixture, predispensed in microwell plates, could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 degrees C, Thus, the diagnostic TaqMan assay developed can be a useful and simple alternative method......A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica...

  15. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galanis, E.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Patrick, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella...... serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman...... professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide....

  16. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Pucciarelli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w to determine the destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10 and medium (power level 6; The relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. The destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. After 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples (100g, but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.Foi investigado o efeito do aquecimento por microondas sobre Salmonella Enteritidis inoculada em frangos frescos usando um forno de microondas doméstico (800 W para determinar a destruição da Salmonella Enteritidis isolada a partir de carcaças de frangos, em relação com o tempo de aquecimento a dois níveis de potência: alta (nível 10 e média ( nível 6; a relação entre tempo de aquecimento e temperatura também foi estudada. A destruição foi de 6 log em 95 s de tempo para o nível alto e 5 log em 140 s de tempo para o nível médio de potência. Depois de 110 s no nível de potência alta, não foi detectada sobrevivência de Salmonella Enteritidis em amostras de 100g de peso, porém, depois de 140 s a potência média, esse patôgeno nos alimentos ainda permanecia.

  18. Silencing by H-NS potentiated the evolution of Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial H-NS protein silences expression from sequences with higher AT-content than the host genome and is believed to buffer the fitness consequences associated with foreign gene acquisition. Loss of H-NS results in severe growth defects in Salmonella, but the underlying reasons were unclear. An experimental evolution approach was employed to determine which secondary mutations could compensate for the loss of H-NS in Salmonella. Six independently derived S. Typhimurium hns mutant strains were serially passaged for 300 generations prior to whole genome sequencing. Growth rates of all lineages dramatically improved during the course of the experiment. Each of the hns mutant lineages acquired missense mutations in the gene encoding the H-NS paralog StpA encoding a poorly understood H-NS paralog, while 5 of the mutant lineages acquired deletions in the genes encoding the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 (SPI-1 Type 3 secretion system critical to invoke inflammation. We further demonstrate that SPI-1 misregulation is a primary contributor to the decreased fitness in Salmonella hns mutants. Three of the lineages acquired additional loss of function mutations in the PhoPQ virulence regulatory system. Similarly passaged wild type Salmonella lineages did not acquire these mutations. The stpA missense mutations arose in the oligomerization domain and generated proteins that could compensate for the loss of H-NS to varying degrees. StpA variants most able to functionally substitute for H-NS displayed altered DNA binding and oligomerization properties that resembled those of H-NS. These findings indicate that H-NS was central to the evolution of the Salmonellae by buffering the negative fitness consequences caused by the secretion system that is the defining characteristic of the species.

  19. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

    2013-06-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n = 7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.