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Sample records for salmon captive brood

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  2. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

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    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish And Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.

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    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

  8. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  9. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  10. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  11. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  12. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  13. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

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    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  14. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

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    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  16. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

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    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  17. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

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    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  18. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

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    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  20. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  3. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  10. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  12. Maintenance of Genetic Diversity in Natural Spawning of Captively-Reared Endangered Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka

    OpenAIRE

    Withler, Ruth E.; David S. O'Brien; Nicolette M. Watson; K. Janine Supernault

    2014-01-01

    Captive propagation of Pacific salmon is routine, but few captive breeding programs have been conducted to successfully re-establish extirpated wild populations. A captive breeding program for endangered Sakinaw Lake sockeye salmon was established from 84 adults between 2002 and 2005, just prior to extirpation of the wild population. After several years of absence, sockeye salmon released from captivity returned to spawn in Sakinaw Lake in 2010 and in all years thereafter. Freshwater surviv...

  13. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  17. Maintenance of Genetic Diversity in Natural Spawning of Captively-Reared Endangered Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Withler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive propagation of Pacific salmon is routine, but few captive breeding programs have been conducted to successfully re-establish extirpated wild populations. A captive breeding program for endangered Sakinaw Lake sockeye salmon was established from 84 adults between 2002 and 2005, just prior to extirpation of the wild population. After several years of absence, sockeye salmon released from captivity returned to spawn in Sakinaw Lake in 2010 and in all years thereafter. Freshwater survival rates of released hatchery fry and naturally produced progeny of reintroduced sockeye salmon have not limited abundance of the reintroduced population. In contrast, marine survival rates for Sakinaw sockeye salmon have been <1%, a level that precludes population restoration in the absence of supplementation. Genetic diversity commensurate with the number of parental founders has been maintained in captivity. The 517 adult second-generation captive fish that spawned in Sakinaw Lake in 2011 produced a smolt emigration of almost 28,000 juvenile fish with an effective population size of 132. Allelic richness and gene diversity levels in the smolts were similar to those observed in captivity. This indicates genetic contributions from all or most founding parents have been retained both in captivity and in the nascent reintroduced natural population.

  18. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  19. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basin once supported large runs of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and estimated peak escapements in excess of 10,000 occurred as recently as the late 1950's (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1975). Natural escapement declines in the Grande Ronde Basin have been severe and parallel those of other Snake River populations. Reduced productivity has primarily been attributed to increased mortality associated with downstream and upstream migration past eight dams and reservoirs in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reduced spawner numbers, combined with human manipulation of previously important spawning and rearing habitat in the Grande Ronde Basin, have resulted in decreased spawning distribution and population fragmentation of chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde Basin (Figure 1; Table 1). Escapement of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin included 1,799 adults in 1995, less than half of the previous record low of 3,913 adults in 1994. Catherine Creek, Grande Ronde River and Lostine River were historically three of the most productive populations in the Grande Ronde Basin (Carmichael and Boyce 1986). However, productivity of these populations has been poor for recent brood years. Escapement (based on total redd counts) in Catherine Creek and Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers dropped to alarmingly low levels in 1994 and 1995. A total of 11, 3 and 16 redds were observed in 1994 in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River, respectively, and 14, 6 and 11 redds were observed in those same streams in 1995. In contrast, the maximum number of redds observed in the past was 505 in Catherine Creek (1971), 304 in the Grande Ronde River (1968) and 261 in 1956 in the Lostine River (Tranquilli et al 2003). Redd counts for index count areas (a standardized portion of the total stream) have also decreased dramatically for most Grande Ronde Basin streams from 1964-2002, dropping to as low as 37 redds in the 119.5 km in the index

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  3. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  6. Bona fide evidence for natural vertical transmission of infectious salmon anemia virus in freshwater brood stocks of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Ramírez, Ramón; Labra, Alvaro; Carmona, Marisela; Muñoz, Cristián

    2014-06-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), causing outbreaks in seawater in most salmon-producing countries worldwide, with particular aggressiveness in southern Chile. The etiological agent of this disease is a virus belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family, named infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Although it has been suggested that this virus can be vertically transmitted, even in freshwater, there is a lack of compelling experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we demonstrate significant putative viral loads in the ovarian fluid as well as in the eggs of two brood stock female adult specimens that harbored the virus systemically but without clinical signs. The target virus corresponded to a highly polymorphic region 3 (HPR-3) variant, which is known to be virulent in seawater and responsible for recent and past outbreaks of this disease in Chile. Additionally, the virus recovered from the fluid as well as from the interior of the eggs was fully infective to a susceptible fish cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first robust evidence demonstrating mother-to-offspring vertical transmission of the infective virus on the one hand and the asymptomatic transmission of a virulent form of the virus in freshwater fish on the other hand. The robustness of the data presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the biology of the virus but most importantly will constitute a key management tool in the control of an aggressive agent constantly threatening the sustainability of the global salmon industry.

  7. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  8. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  9. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  10. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  12. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  14. Brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from fish reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. KLAOUDATOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of brood stock is considered to be one of the most important operations in order to acquire eggs and fry from any promising candidate finfish species for aquaculture production. The sex reversal observed in hermaphrodite species adds to confusion and creates additional complications in forming a brood stock. The present study describes the efforts and the results of the brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from individuals aged between 4 and 5 years (TL>300mm reared in floating cages. Six groups were formed (50 fish/group in all of which females were present comprising 20 to 40% of the population. The presence of females was in contrast to the literature, which reported that sex reversal of the common Pandora is complete in naturally occurring populations with the absence of females in sizes of a total length greater than 220mm, indicating that in captivity sex reversal is not complete for this species. Four of the groups formed spawned under natural environmental conditions without hormonal treatment and the other two groups were administered a different dosage (250 and 500 IU/kg of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG to induce spawning. The reproductive period started in the middle of May and ended at the beginning of July and spontaneous spawning occurred in all groups. Egg release lasted for a mean period of one month for the groups that spawned without hormonal treatment with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between groups. The groups that spawned under hormonal treatment released eggs for a period of six and seven days, for the group that spawned under the high and low hormonal treatment, respectively, with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between them. The hormonal induced spawning resulted in egg release within a short period of time ideal for a hatchery. However, the number of viable eggs produced was significantly lower

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  16. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  1. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  2. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  3. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  4. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnity, Philip; Jennings, Eleanor; DeEyto, Elvira; Allott, Norman; Samuelsson, Patrick; Rogan, Gerard; Whelan, Ken; Cross, Tom

    2009-10-22

    The assessment report of the 4th International Panel on Climate Change confirms that global warming is strongly affecting biological systems and that 20-30% of species risk extinction from projected future increases in temperature. It is essential that any measures taken to conserve individual species and their constituent populations against climate-mediated declines are appropriate. The release of captive bred animals to augment wild populations is a widespread management strategy for many species but has proven controversial. Using a regression model based on a 37-year study of wild and sea ranched Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawning together in the wild, we show that the escape of captive bred animals into the wild can substantially depress recruitment and more specifically disrupt the capacity of natural populations to adapt to higher winter water temperatures associated with climate variability. We speculate the mechanisms underlying this seasonal response and suggest that an explanation based on bio-energetic processes with physiological responses synchronized by photoperiod is plausible. Furthermore, we predict, by running the model forward using projected future climate scenarios, that these cultured fish substantially increase the risk of extinction for the studied population within 20 generations. In contrast, we show that positive outcomes to climate change are possible if captive bred animals are prevented from breeding in the wild. Rather than imposing an additional genetic load on wild populations by releasing maladapted captive bred animals, we propose that conservation efforts should focus on optimizing conditions for adaptation to occur by reducing exploitation and protecting critical habitats. Our findings are likely to hold true for most poikilothermic species where captive breeding programmes are used in population management.

  5. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  6. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  9. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  10. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from March 3, 2003 through to April 14, 2003 and a total of 242,776 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2001 egg source and included captive broodstock (141,860) and conventional broodstock (100,916) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2003 began April 30th, the first Chinook was captured on May 16, 2003 and the last Chinook was captured on September 21, 2003. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2003. A total of 464 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 239 natural origin fish and 225 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 45 natural and 4 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to LGH for holding and spawning, 366 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally, and 49 hatchery origin adult jack Chinook were transported and outplanted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in underseeded habitat. Of the 49 adults retained for broodstock at Lookingglass Hatchery, 21 natural females and no hatchery origin females were represented in spawning. These females produced a total of 106,609 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 95.50% which yielded a total of 101,811 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 5,077 eggs per female. These eggs were incubated and at Lookingglass Hatchery until eyed stage. At eye they were transferred to Oxbow Hatchery where they were reared to the fingerling state at which time they were transported back to LGH until they were smolts in the spring of 2005. Captive brood program eggs/fish will be added to the conventional program eggs to make up the entire juvenile release for the Lostine

  11. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  12. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    , acclimation of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from February 27, 2006 through to April 10, 2006 and a total of 240,568 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2004 egg source and included captive brood (40,982) and conventional (199,586) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2006 began May 15th, the first Chinook was captured on June 14, 2006 and the last Chinook was captured on September 27, 2006. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2006. A total of 534 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 205 natural origin fish and 329 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 33 natural and 120 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to LGH for holding and spawning and 397 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally. In 2006, no hatchery origin adult Chinook were transported and out planted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in under seeded habitat. In order to meet egg take goals for the conventional portion of the program, a determination was made that approximately 147 adults were needed for broodstock. As a result 16 (8 males and 8 females) of the 153 fish collected for broodstock were returned to the Lostine River to spawn naturally. Females that were spawned and provided the brood source were made up of 12 natural females and 45 supplementation females. One of these females tested positive for high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease and consequently this females eggs were destroyed. The remaining females produced a total of 241,372 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 85.47% which yielded a total of 206,309 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 4

  13. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  14. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  15. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    , acclimation of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from March 1, 2004 through to April 14, 2004 and a total of 250,249 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2002 egg source and included captive brood (133,781) and conventional (116,468) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2004 began May 10, the first Chinook was captured on May 19, 2004 and the last Chinook was captured on September 16, 2004. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2004. A total of 1,091 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 299 natural origin fish and 792 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 46 natural and 69 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to Lookingglass Hatchery for holding and spawning, 537 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally, and 447 hatchery origin adult Chinook were transported and outplanted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek to spawn in underseeded habitat. Of the 107 adults retained (eight additional hatchery females were collected and then later returned to the Lostine River to spawn naturally) for broodstock at Lookingglass Hatchery, 22 natural females and 30 supplementation females were represented in spawning. These females produced a total of 221,889 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 94.9% which yielded a total of 210,661 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 4,267 eggs per female. These eggs were incubated and at Lookingglass Hatchery until eyed stage and then transferred to Oxbow Hatchery where they will be reared to the fingerling stage. They will then be transported back to LGH and reared to the smolt stage and then transported to the Lostine

  17. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    , acclimation of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts occurred from 3/5/07 through to 4/17/07 and a total of 230,010 smolts were acclimated and released. These smolts were produced from the brood year (BY) 2005 egg source and included captive brood (24,604) and conventional (205,406) origin smolts that were all progeny of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon. Operation of the Lostine River adult monitoring and collection facility in 2007 began May 14th. The first Chinook was captured on June 2, 2007 and the last Chinook was captured on September 25, 2007. The weir and trap were removed on October 1, 2007. A total of 637 adult Chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. The composition of the run included 240 natural origin fish and 397 hatchery supplementation fish. There were no identified 'stray' hatchery fish from other programs trapped. Of the fish captured, 41 natural and 81 hatchery supplementation adults were retained for broodstock and transported to LGH for holding and spawning, 403 adult Chinook were passed or transported above the weir to spawn naturally, and only hatchery origin jack Chinook were transported and outplanted in the Wallowa River and Bear Creek in underseeded habitat. Of the 122 adult fish retained for broodstock, 20 natural females and 40 supplementation females were represented in spawning. The eggs from these females produced a total of 267,350 eggs at fertilization. Eye-up was 86.73% which yielded a total of 231,882 conventional program eyed eggs. The fecundity averaged 4,456 eggs per female. These eggs will be incubated and reared at Lookingglass Hatchery until they are smolts in the spring of 2009. Captive brood program eggs/fish will be added to the conventional program eggs to make up the entire juvenile release for the Lostine River program in 2009. Due to the success of the 2007 egg collection, the number of fish produced exceeded program needs and facility capabilities. As a result, there are plans to outplant

  18. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  19. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  20. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  1. Testing predictions of small brood models using parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guinnee, M.A.; Bernal, J.S.; Bezemer, T.M.; Fidgen, J.G.; Hardy, I.C.W.; Mayhew, P.J.; Mills, N.J.; West, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: How is variation in offspring size (between broods) related to brood size? Hypotheses: Variance in offspring size (between broods) should decrease with increasing brood size as predicted by Charnov and colleagues' (Charnov and Downhower, 1995; Charnov et al., 1995) small brood invariant.

  2. Imprinting and the origin of parasite-host species associations in brood-parasitic indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne; Payne; Woods; Sorenson

    2000-01-01

    Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host species, the red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, the Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Captive-reared female indigobirds were tested as adults for mate choice and for host choice. In tests of mate choice, female indigobirds responded preferentially towards mimicry songs of male indigobirds that were similar to those of the females' own foster parents. Females reared by Bengalese finches responded to male songs that mimicked Bengalese finch song rather than to male songs that mimicked their normal host species, the firefinch. In tests of host choice, females reared by Bengalese finches laid in the nests of Bengalese finches, and females reared by firefinches laid in the nests of firefinches. Wild-caught females showed the same behaviours as captive-bred females reared by firefinches. A female indigobird's social companions (firefinch or Bengalese) following her independence of her foster parents had no effect on her sexual response to male mimicry song or her choice of a host species in brood parasitism. The results support the predictions of a model of imprinting-like behaviour development in which young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, rather than a model of innate bias for songs and nests of their normal host species, or a null model of nonspecific brood parasitism and differential survival. The results provide experimental support for the recent origin of brood parasite-host associations and the significance of imprinting in speciation in these brood parasites. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1987-1988 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1988-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1988.

  4. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1988-1989 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-03-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation test the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock); the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1989. 2 tabs.

  5. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-01-01

    endemic fish stocks in future artificial propagation programs. The GRESCSSP was implemented in three Grande Ronde River basin tributaries; the Lostine and upper Grande Ronde rivers and Catherine Creek. The GRESCSSP employs two broodstock strategies utilizing captive and conventional brood sources. The captive brood program began in 1995, with the collection of parr from the three tributary areas. The conventional broodstock component of the program began in 1997 with the collection of natural adults returning to these tributary areas. Although LGH was available as the primary production facility for spring chinook programs in the Grande Ronde Basin, there were never any adult or juvenile satellite facilities developed in the tributary areas that were to be supplemented. An essential part of the GRESCSSP was the construction of adult traps and juvenile acclimation facilities in these tributary areas. Weirs were installed in 1997 for the collection of adult broodstock for the conventional component of the program. Juvenile facilities were built in 2000 for acclimation of the smolts produced by the captive and conventional broodstock programs and as release sites within the natural production areas of their natal streams. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) operate both the juvenile acclimation and adult trapping facilities located on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River under this project. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) operate the facilities on the Lostine River under a sister project. Hatcheries were also built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the LSRCP to compensate for losses of summer steelhead due to the construction and operation of the lowest four Snake River dams. Despite these harvest-driven hatchery programs, natural summer steelhead populations continued to decline as evidenced by declining counts at Lower Granite Dam since 1995 (Columbia River Data Access in Real Time, DART) and low steelhead redd counts on index

  7. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  8. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  9. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  10. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  11. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  12. EFFECT OF BROOD STOCK SIZE ON EGG FERTILIZATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of size of brood stock on egg fertilization, hatchability and fry survival rate of Clarias gariepinus in an intensive culture system, for a period of four weeks. Larger brood stock size (1200-1500g) produced larger eggs and bigger fry while moderate brood ...

  13. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  14. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    Fork Salmon River (IDFG). The East Fork Salmon River received supplementation treatments yearly through 1995. There have been no treatments since 1995, and no significant future treatments from local broodstock are conceivable due to extremely poor escapement. The West Fork Yankee Fork received a single presmolt treatment in 1994. Similarly, no significant future treatments are planned for the WFYF due to extremely poor escapement. However, small scale experimental captive rearing and broodstock techniques are currently being tested with populations from the EFSR and WFYF. Captive rearing/broodstock techniques could potentially provide feedback for evaluation of supplementation. The other three SBT-ISS streams are control streams and do not receive hatchery treatments.

  17. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  18. Brood size and body condition in the House Sparrow Passer domesticus : the influence of brooding behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chastel, O; Kersten, M.

    In many bird species, females undergo a marked decline in body condition during the first days of the nestling period. This decline may be because brooding young chicks reduces the time available for foraging. Alternatively, it might be viewed as an adaptive way to reduce flight costs when the food

  19. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  20. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  1. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Marsupial brood care in Cretaceous tanaidaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S; Bird, Graham J; Perrichot, Vincent; Peñalver, Enrique

    2017-06-29

    Parental care in animal evolution has long fascinated biologists, but tracing this complex of behavioural repertoires is challenging, as these transitory states often leave no corporeal traces as fossils. Among modern invertebrates, the tanaidaceans (Malacostraca: Peracarida), a lineage of marsupial crustaceans, show an interesting variety of brooding strategies. Here we report on fossil tanaidaceans from the Cretaceous of Spain and France that provide conclusive evidence for marsupial care of brood-offspring. Two exceptionally preserved female specimens of Alavatanais carabe and A. margulisae from Late Albian Peñacerrada I amber (Spain) possess four pairs of rudimentary oostegites, indicating formation of a marsupium. From Recent data, given the taxonomic distribution of a marsupium of four pairs of oostegites, we hypothesize that this may be plesiomorphic for the Tanaidomorpha. We also report on a peculiar tanaidacean specimen referable to the fossil family Alavatanaidae, Daenerytanais maieuticus gen. et sp. nov., from Early Cenomanian La Buzinie amber (France), preserved with its marsupial pouch and content. Our discoveries provide early evidence of the peracarid reproductive strategy, as seen in modern Tanaidacea, and argue that this form of parental care may have played a role in the diversification of the lineage during this period.

  3. Parental behaviour and mixed broods among cichlid fish of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that all species which show well developed parental behaviour may have foreign fry mix with their broods on occasion. A variety of species of fry were found in mixed broods. These come from two categories of fish: those which apparently do not guard their free swimming fry; and those which have a well ...

  4. Three-dimensional visualisation of brooding behaviour in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brooding in ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) is a highly-developed reproduction strategy and has evolved independently several times. In South African waters, brooding occurs both in the very small amphiurid Amphipholis squamata, which is hermaphroditic, and in the large ophiodermatid Ophioderma wahlbergii ...

  5. Begging and cowbirds : brood parasites make hosts scream louder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Saino, Nicola; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.

    2009-01-01

    Avian brood parasites have evolved striking begging ability that often allows them to prevail over the host progeny in competition for parental resources. Host young are therefore selected by brood parasites to evolve behavioral strategies that reduce the cost of parasitism. We tested the prediction

  6. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  7. It's a bear market: evolutionary and ecological effects of predation on two wild sockeye salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J E; Hard, J J; Naish, K A; Peterson, D; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2016-05-01

    Predation can affect both phenotypic variation and population productivity in the wild, but quantifying evolutionary and demographic effects of predation in natural environments is challenging. The aim of this study was to estimate selection differentials and coefficients associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) predation in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations spawning in pristine habitat that is often subject to intense predation pressure. Using reconstructed genetic pedigrees, individual reproductive success (RS) was estimated in two sockeye salmon populations for two consecutive brood years with very different predation intensities across brood years. Phenotypic data on individual adult body length, body depth, stream entry timing and reproductive lifespan were used to calculate selection coefficients based on RS, and genetic variance components were estimated using animal models. Bears consistently killed larger and more recently arrived adults, although selection differentials were small. In both populations, mean RS was higher in the brood year experiencing lower predation intensity. Selection coefficients were similar across brood years with different levels of predation, often indicating stabilizing selection on reproductive lifespan as well as directional selection for longer reproductive lifespan. Despite these selection pressures, genetic covariation of morphology, phenology and lifespan appears to have maintained variation in spawner body size and stream entry timing in both populations. Our results therefore suggest considerable demographic but limited evolutionary effects of bear predation in the two study populations.

  8. Impact of Common Kingfisher on a salmon population during the nestling period in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fish-eating birds on their fish-prey populations has been a matter of concern to conservationists, anglers and fishery interests, especially when both bird and fish species have conservation status and are afforded some protection by law. Understanding the predator-prey interactions will assist in managing these potential conflicts. This situation could arise with the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis, whose range covers many important Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar rivers. In order to increase our knowledge on predator-prey interactions between these species, we collected data on the diet and feeding rates of a kingfisher population breeding in an Atlantic salmon river in southern England (River Frome. Results showed that, during nestling period, kingfishers provided a mean of 62 fish per day to the nest and that the mean salmon intake was 2.5% of the entire diet, which is equivalent to 86 salmon parr consumed by each kingfishers pair for the entire breeding period (assuming 2.2 broods/pair/year. The total 0-group salmon population in the River Frome was 63 900. The estimated loss of 0-group salmon parr to the kingfishers over one season was 0.8%, thus supporting the view that the kingfisher has a negligible biological impact over this salmon population.

  9. Production Data - North Puget Sound Chinook salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries is a cooperator with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Lummi, Nooksack, and Stillaguamish Tribes in a 10-year program to rebuild...

  10. Water quality data - North Puget Sound Chinook salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries is a cooperator with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Lummi, Nooksack, and Stillaguamish Tribes in a 10-year program to rebuild...

  11. Growth Data - North Puget Sound Chinook salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries is a cooperator with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Lummi, Nooksack, and Stillaguamish Tribes in a 10-year program to rebuild...

  12. Fish Culture - North Puget Sound Chinook salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries is a cooperator with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Lummi, Nooksack, and Stillaguamish Tribes in a 10-year program to rebuild...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Profitability in Brood-and-Sell and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the profitability of brood-and-sell and brood-and-finish broiler enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules from 70 poultry farmers made up of 35 brood-and-sell and 35 brood-and-finish broiler farmers were analyzed using multiple ...

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

  15. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  17. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  20. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  1. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  2. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle and turn to tighten. Then take the plastic cover off of the top of the spray unit. ... room temperature in an upright position. Replace the plastic cover to keep the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon ...

  3. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purcell

    Full Text Available Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  4. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Avril, Amaury; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Bates, Sarah; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  5. Role of anxiety and brooding in specificity of autobiographical recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose Miguel; Muñoz, Maria Dolores; Aguilar, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Jose Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Overgeneral schemas and lack of autobiographical memory (AM) specificity about our past experiences can predict mood disturbance. Rumination, functional avoidance and executive processes are the main explanatory variables of such overgenerality. However, in non-clinical samples, rumination predicts overgenerality most consistently after the induction of dysphoric mood. Anxiety also activates rumination. Furthermore, anxiety predicts memory performance and has effects on mood which are independent of the effects of rumination. So, what might be the role of anxiety in autobiographical memory performance? A sample of 210 voluntary participants reported measures of autobiographical memory, anxiety, rumination (brooding and reflection), functional avoidance and executive functions (semantic and phonetic verbal fluency task). Autobiographical performance (specificity) was negatively associated with brooding and age and positively with phonetic verbal fluency but not with functional avoidance and anxiety. However, anxiety and brooding were positively correlated even after controlling for depression scores. Moreover, using structural equation modeling, anxiety showed a significant indirect effect on autobiographical specificity through brooding rumination. These results suggest a possible association of anxiety with autobiographical recall through brooding rumination. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  7. INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Shchelkanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work consists in the analysis of modern scientific conceptions about infectious salmon anemia (ISA etiologically linked with ISAV (infectious salmon anemia virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus. ISA is deadly disease of Salmonidae fishes.Discussion. ISA began to extend actively among salmon breeding farms since the extremity of the XX century and poses nowadays serious threat of fishing industry as there are no not only anti-ISAV chemopreparates and effective vaccines, but also scientifically based ideas of ISAV ecology. In the offered review data on the discovery history, taxonomical status, virion morphology and genome structure as well as ecology of ISAV, clinical features, pathogenesis and laboratory diagnostics, actions in the epizootic foci for the prevention of further distribution and prophylaxis of ISA, arrangement for protection against salmon louses and utilized approaches to anti-ISAV vaccines development are discussed. There is very important that ISAV is capable to be transferred by salmon louses – pelagic crustaceans (Copepoda: Caligidae that allows to classify ISAV as arbovirus ecological group which are transferred due to biological transmission by arthropods (copepods to vertebrate animals (salmons. It is the only example known so far when representatives of Crustacea act as a vector for arboviruses.Conclusion. Investigation of ISAV ecology turns into one of "touchstones" allowing to judge technological readiness of mankind to master resources of the World Ocean. 

  8. Salmon 2100: the future of wild Pacific salmon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lackey, R.T; Lach, D.H; Duncan, S.L

    2006-01-01

    Realistic options to restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and southern British Columbia are identified by 36 salmon scientists, resource managers, and policy experts...

  9. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  10. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  11. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  12. Social learning of a brood parasite by its host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

  13. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  14. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  15. Evaluation of captive bolus applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C K; McDougall, J A; Chan, K W; Luk, K H

    1990-01-01

    Three square (L, M, MS) and one rectangular (HN) applicators with captive boluses were provided by the Clini-Therm Corporation for evaluation. Surface cooling is achieved by attaching a mineral oil captive bolus to the built in water-circulating tubes at the aperture of the applicators. These applicators were tested on a phantom with a 2-cm fat slab over 10-cm-thick muscle. Surface and sagittal heating patterns were obtained using a thermograph. All captive-bolus applicators have heating patterns similar to that of the regular Clini-Therm applicators. Due to hot spots at the edges of the applicators where the E fields terminate, these modified applicators should not be placed in direct contact with patients when boluses are not used. Tests with Clini-Therm regular water bolus instead of the captive oil bolus indicated that the orientation of water flow should be parallel to the E field to minimize perturbation of the heating patterns. Thermal conduction studies showed that the captive bolus reacts too slowly for skin temperature control. The modified captive bolus applicators did not improve the performance of the system.

  16. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome.

  17. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  18. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...

  19. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  20. Costs of reproduction in the Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata : Manipulation of brood size in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH; Overkamp, GFJ

    1996-01-01

    Brood size of Zebra Finches Taeniopygia guttata was manipulated in an attempt to identify a trade-off between current and subsequent reproduction in a laboratory situation with ad libitum food availability. The birds were able to raise a larger brood than the most frequent brood size under the same

  1. The benefit of large broods in barnacle geese : a study using natural and experimental manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Black, JM; Drent, RH

    1. In precocial birds, where the young feed themselves, the costs and benefits of brood size are still poorly understood. An experimental manipulation of brood size was employed to examine the effects of brood size on both parents and young in a wild population of barnacle geese [Branta leucopsis

  2. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  3. Partial brood release in woodlice: A bet- hedging tactic?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-06

    Jun 6, 1994 ... natural selection. Observations of brood release in several species of woodlice revealed that approximately 7% of females released between two and 10 young up to 24 h in advance of their siblings. Although under laboratory conditions oHspring fitness measures between precocious young and their ...

  4. Controlled Artificial Reproduction in Mouth Brooding Tilapia with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol for induced breeding in mouth brooding tilapia for genetic improvement is discussed. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was suspended in calcium free Hanks' balanced salt solution (c-f HBSS), and injected into the back muscle of blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) females at the dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 IU g-1 ...

  5. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 21721, 9476 and 5400 W per week, respectively. When brooding started in the first week of August, poults needed only 5544 W supplementary heat. However, tom turkey poults would nevertheless benefit from supplementary heat during this period because they are not yet fully feathered and the digestive system has not ...

  6. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  7. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009- 2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  8. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  9. Increased brood size leads to persistent eroded telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eReichert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Costs of reproduction can be divided in mandatory costs coming from physiological, metabolic and anatomical changes required to sustain reproduction itself, and in investment-dependent costs that are likely to become apparent when reproductive efforts are exceeding what organisms were prepared to sustain. Interestingly, recent data showed that entering reproduction enhanced breeders’ telomere loss, but no data explored so far the impact of reproductive investment. Telomeres protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shortened telomeres were associated with shorter lifespan, telomere erosion being then proposed to powerfully quantify life’s insults. Here, we experimentally manipulated brood size in order to modify reproductive investment of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata below or beyond their (optimal starting investment and tested the consequences of our treatment on parents’ telomere dynamics. We show that an increased brood size led to a reduction in telomere lengths in both parents compared to control and to parents raising a reduced brood. This greater telomere erosion was detected in parents immediately after the reproductive event and the telomere length difference persisted up to one year later. However, we did not detect any effects of brood size manipulation on annual survival of parents kept under laboratory conditions. In addition, telomere lengths at the end of reproduction were not associated with annual survival. Altogether, although our findings highlight that fast telomere erosion can come as a cost of brood size manipulation, they provide mixed correlative support to the emerging hypothesis that telomere erosion could account for the links between high reproductive investment and longevity.

  10. WHY ARE THERE SO MANY SPECIES OF BROODING ANTARCTIC ECHINOIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Élie; Féral, Jean-Pierre

    1996-04-01

    Marine invertebrates display a great variety of life-history traits and reproductive strategies. In echinoids, four patterns of larval development are generally recognized: planktotrophy, pelagic lecithotrophy, bottom dwelling, and brood protecting. Each broad type of free and protected development is found in all the oceans, but comparisons of the principal reproductive modes between different geographic regions have shown that they are not equally distributed. Frequency of pelagic development (planktotrophic and lecithotrophic) decreases from equator to Antarctic, where brood protecting becomes dominant. Numerous theories have been proposed to explain the richness of nonpelagic development in most marine invertebrates within the Southern Ocean. These theories can be grouped into three categories: (1) larval survival, where selection acts on larval; (2) energy allocation; and (3) dispersal. All of them consider the adaptative significance of brood protecting as the key to the success of this strategy in the Antarctic. However, the adaptative significance of brooding and the evolutionary success of this strategy in the Antarctic must be considered as two separate questions. To consider the problem at an evolutionary level, we have examined the consequences of different reproductive strategies on the genetic structure of species and on the long-term evolution of the clade. We examine this problem in the case of echinoids, a clade particularly well suited to addressing this question. In echinoids, the reduction of larval-stage duration is associated with a decrease in gene flow and consequently in the geographical scale of genetic differentiation. This allows us to reconsider the high-speciation-rate model, which leads to an increase in the number of low-dispersal species (isolation by distance). This model, previously tested by means of fossils is not satisfactory in living echinoids. Thus, the model is rebuilt with the addition of differential extinction rate

  11. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  13. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1981-1990 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ``fitness`` of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990.

  14. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental investment with a superior alien in the brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Ø H; Johnstone, R A

    2007-11-01

    When a parent's parentage differs across breeding attempts, established theory predicts that the parent should invest more in a brood when perceived parentage is high. We present a model of parental investment in which offspring unrelated to the parent have a competitive advantage over the parent's own offspring and take a larger share of investment. We show that this can weaken or, if the competitive advantage is great, reverse the predicted relationship between perceived parentage and parental investment. A moderate competitive advantage of extra-pair young over within-pair young could partly explain the lack of any clear relationship between paternal care and paternity in many studies, and could easily arise if females choose extra-pair partners for good genes. Our results are also relevant to interspecific avian brood parasitism. As parasites reared together with host offspring are often superior competitors, their hosts could benefit from increasing investment in response to suspected parasitism.

  16. Evaluating smallholder brood- and- sale poultry operation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 92 crossbred pullet chicks of normal feather (44), naked neck (27) and frizzle (21) were used to evaluate early growth performance and monetary returns of a simulated smallholder brood-and-sale poultry production operation. Average day-old (D.O.) weight of chicks were 34.57±0.98g, 35.28±0.59g and ...

  17. Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505 · AJOL African ...

  18. Honeybee Colony Vibrational Measurements to Highlight the Brood Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bencsik

    Full Text Available Insect pollination is of great importance to crop production worldwide and honey bees are amongst its chief facilitators. Because of the decline of managed colonies, the use of sensor technology is growing in popularity and it is of interest to develop new methods which can more accurately and less invasively assess honey bee colony status. Our approach is to use accelerometers to measure vibrations in order to provide information on colony activity and development. The accelerometers provide amplitude and frequency information which is recorded every three minutes and analysed for night time only. Vibrational data were validated by comparison to visual inspection data, particularly the brood development. We show a strong correlation between vibrational amplitude data and the brood cycle in the vicinity of the sensor. We have further explored the minimum data that is required, when frequency information is also included, to accurately predict the current point in the brood cycle. Such a technique should enable beekeepers to reduce the frequency with which visual inspections are required, reducing the stress this places on the colony and saving the beekeeper time.

  19. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Mardones-Toledo

    Full Text Available Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor

  20. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

    2003-09-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  1. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Brood desertion involves a series of interactions between the members of a pair. This process is likely to be based on either member's perception of the other's propensity to desert. We manipulated this perception in males by experimentally increasing female body mass in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... to reduce the female's propensity to switch mate and desert or to increase her propensity to copulate with the male to obtain paternity in her next brood. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the perception of the risk of being deserted by the female does not necessarily induce males to desert first...

  2. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-05-03

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony.

  3. Growth and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, Melissa E.; Beckman, Brian R.; Andrews, Alexander G., III; Beaudreau, Anne H.; McPhee, Megan V.

    2017-01-01

    As the Arctic continues to warm, abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the northern Bering Sea are expected to increase. However, information regarding the growth and condition of juvenile salmon in these waters is limited. The first objective of this study was to describe relationships between size, growth, and condition of juvenile chum (O. keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon and environmental conditions using data collected in the northeastern Bering Sea (NEBS) from 2003-2007 and 2009-2012. Salmon collected at stations with greater bottom depths and cooler sea-surface temperature (SST) were longer, reflecting their movement further offshore out of the warmer Alaska Coastal Water mass, as the season progressed. Energy density, after accounting for fish length, followed similar relationships with SST and bottom depth while greater condition (weight-length residuals) was associated with warm SST and shallower stations. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found fish exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009, although these differences were not clearly attributable to environmental conditions. Our second objective was to compare size and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the NEBS between warm and cool spring thermal regimes of the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS). This comparison was based on a hypothesis informed by the strong role of sea-ice retreat in the spring for production dynamics in the SEBS and prevailing northward currents, suggesting that feeding conditions in the NEBS may be influenced by production in the SEBS. We found greater length (both species) and condition (pink salmon) in years with warm thermal regimes; however, both of these responses changed more rapidly with day of year in years with cool springs. Finally, we compared indicators of energy allocation between even and odd brood

  4. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  5. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  6. Parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in a Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luyer, Jérémy; Laporte, Martin; Beacham, Terry D; Kaukinen, Karia H; Withler, Ruth E; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Koop, Ben F; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-12-05

    Wild stocks of Pacific salmonids have experienced sharp declines in abundance over the past century. Consequently, billions of fish are released each year for enhancing abundance and sustaining fisheries. However, the beneficial role of this widely used management practice is highly debated since fitness decrease of hatchery-origin fish in the wild has been documented. Artificial selection in hatcheries has often been invoked as the most likely explanation for reduced fitness, and most studies to date have focused on finding signatures of hatchery-induced selection at the DNA level. We tested an alternative hypothesis, that captive rearing induces epigenetic reprogramming, by comparing genome-wide patterns of methylation and variation at the DNA level in hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with those of their wild counterparts in two geographically distant rivers. We found a highly significant proportion of epigenetic variation explained by the rearing environment that was as high as the one explained by the river of origin. The differentially methylated regions show enrichment for biological functions that may affect the capacity of hatchery-born smolts to migrate successfully in the ocean. Shared epigenetic variation between hatchery-reared salmon provides evidence for parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in the absence of genetic differentiation between hatchery and natural-origin fish for each river. This study highlights epigenetic modifications induced by captive rearing as a potential explanatory mechanism for reduced fitness in hatchery-reared salmon.

  7. Waptia and the Diversification of Brood Care in Early Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Vannier, Jean

    2016-01-11

    Brood care, including the carrying of eggs or juveniles, is a form of parental care, which, like other parental traits [1], enhances offspring fitness with variable costs and benefits to the parents [2]. Attempts to understand why and how parental care evolved independently in numerous animal groups often emphasize the role of environmental pressures such as predation, ephemeral resources, and, more generally, the harshness of environment. The fossil record can, in principle, provide minimum age constraints on the evolution of life-history traits, including brood care and key information on the reproductive strategies of extinct organisms. New, exceptionally preserved specimens of the weakly sclerotized arthropod Waptia fieldensis from the middle Cambrian (ca. 508 million years ago) Burgess Shale, Canada, provide the oldest example of in situ eggs with preserved embryos in the fossil record. The relatively small clutch size, up to 24 eggs, and the relatively large diameter of individual eggs, some over 2 mm, contrast with the high number of small eggs-found without preserved embryos-in the bivalved bradoriid arthropod Kunmingella douvillei from the Chengjiang biota (ca. 515 million years ago). The presence of these two different parental strategies suggests a rapid evolution of a variety of modern-type life-history traits, including extended investment in offspring survivorship, soon after the Cambrian emergence of animals. Together with previously described brooded eggs in ostracods from the Upper Ordovician (ca. 450 million years ago), these new findings suggest that the presence of a bivalved carapace played a key role in the early evolution of parental care in arthropods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  9. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... farm site enter a neighboring fjord containing another farm site. Farms were characterized as emitters, receivers or isolated, and we could identify two clusters of farms that were largely isolated from each other. The farm characteristics are a valuable input for the development of management plans...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    : 76.8% - natural chinook salmon, 68.1% - hatchery chinook salmon, 69.9% natural steelhead, and 78.0% - hatchery steelhead. A smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) index from LGR to LGR was calculated for migrating pre-smolt and smolt natural chinook salmon, that were PIT tagged in the fall and spring at the lower trap, for brood years 1996 to 1998 (migration years 1998 to 2000). The SARs are representative of in-river Imnaha natural chinook salmon. The LGR to LGR SAR index for presmolt chinook salmon is as follows: 3.08% (BY 1996), 2.41% (BY 1997), and 2.98% (BY 1998). Smolt-to-adult return rate index for spring tagged smolts was lower: 1.75% (BY 1996), 2.24% (BY 1997) and 2.94% (BY 1998). Fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper and lower trap and spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap all had significantly different (p < 0.05) median and cumulative arrival timing at LGR during migration year 2001.

  11. Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, John; Visser, Ingrid N; Ventre, Jeffrey; Waltz, Jordan; Loch, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted. Summary statistics described the distribution and severity of pathologies; inferential statistics examined how pathologies differed between sexes, between wild-captured and captive-born orcas and between captive orca at four facilities. We also evaluated how dental pathology and duration of captivity were related. Approximately 24% of whales exhibited "major" to "extreme" mandibular coronal tooth wear, with coronal wear and wear at or below gum line highly correlated. More than 60% of mandibular teeth 2 and 3 exhibited fractures. Bore holes were observed primarily among anterior mandibular teeth, with more than 61% of teeth 2 and 3 bearing evidence of having been drilled. Four of five orca with the highest age-adjusted tooth pathology indices were captive-born. Various dental pathologies were observed across all whales, with pathologies beginning at a young age. Oral stereotypies exhibited by captive orca contributed to the observed dental damage. By making dental and health records of captive whales publicly available, the theme park industry is uniquely positioned to provide further insight into dental pathology and resultant health consequences in captive orca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  13. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  14. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  15. Brooding in a temperate zone land snail: seasonal and regional patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulikowska-Drozd, A.; Maltz, T.K.; Kappes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess if the reproductive strategy of a brooding land snail shifts along a climatic gradient. We focused on the following traits: timing and length of the reproductive season, brood size, ontogenetic dynamics of embryos, and reproductive mode (viviparity versus

  16. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no…

  17. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the

  18. Effects of brood size manipulations on sexual attractiveness of offspring in the zebra finch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKogel, CH; Prijs, HJ

    In a laboratory study the effect of brood size manipulations on the sexual attractiveness of offspring was investigated. Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, were reared in small or large broods. Young were exchanged so that natural siblings from different rearing conditions could be compared. Birds

  19. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  20. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  1. Feeding babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in captivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Leus, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the available information on stomach anatomy, digestion, foraging behaviour and diet of wild and captive babirusa. Based on this information, suggestions for changes in the diet of captive babirusa are formulated, which will then need to be assessed.

  2. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Williams

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of

  3. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  4. Nurse honeybee workers tend capped brood, which does not require feeding, around the clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Moshe; Brenner, Yafit; Bloch, Guy

    2017-11-15

    'Nurse' honeybees tend brood around the clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were exposed to either various doses of larval extract or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larval extract showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies. Nurse bees treated with synthetic BEP showed rhythm attenuation in one of three tested colonies. Next, we tested the hypothesis that capped brood, which does not require feeding, nevertheless induces around-the-clock activity in nurses. By combining a new protocol that enables brood care by individually isolated nurse bees, detailed behavioral observations and automatic high-resolution monitoring of locomotor activity, we found that isolated nurses tended capped brood around the clock with attenuated circadian rhythms. Bees individually isolated in similar cages but without brood showed strong circadian rhythms in locomotor activity and rest. This study shows for the first time that the need to feed hungry larvae is not the only factor accounting for around-the-clock activity in nurse bees. Our results further suggest that the transition between activity with and without circadian rhythms is not a simple switch triggered by brood pheromones. Around-the-clock tending may enhance brood development and health in multiple ways that include improved larval feeding, thermoregulation or hygienic behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) in red and melanised foci in white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Håvard; Wessel, Øystein; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Sveier, Harald; Sæbø, Håkon Rydland; Enger, Katrine Bones; Monsen, Eirik; Kvellestad, Agnar; Rimstad, Espen; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2015-09-08

    Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. The occurrence of red or melanised foci varied significantly between the populations, from none in wild fish control group, low prevalence of small foci in fish kept in in-house tanks, to high prevalence of large foci in farm-raised salmon. Large amounts of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) antigen were detected in all foci. No other viruses were detected. Red focal changes contained significantly higher levels of PRV RNA than apparently non-affected areas in white muscle of the same individuals. Some changes displayed a transient form between a red and melanised pathotype, indicating a progression from an acute to a chronic manifestation. We conclude that PRV is associated with the focal pathological changes in the white muscle of farmed Atlantic salmon and is a premise for the development of focal melanised changes.

  6. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Lewis

    Full Text Available The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations, because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05 in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks have declined significantly (P < 0.05. Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline.

  7. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early

  8. Song learning in brood-parasitic indigobirds Vidua chalybeata: song mimicry of the host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne; Payne; Woods

    1998-06-01

    Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host, red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Male indigobirds reared by Bengalese finches developed the songs of Bengalese finches, and males reared by firefinches developed songs of firefinches. Males copied their foster father only when they had lived with him long after independence (45 days post-fledging), while males separated normally at independence (22-24 days post-fledging) copied songs of other individuals and not songs of their foster father. Males reared by Bengalese finches showed no preference to learn firefinch song over songs of the experimental foster species or other control finch species even when they had lived with firefinches as companions from the time of fledging to independence. Males copied several song themes, acquired the same number of mimicry songs, and acquired their songs at the same age, whether reared by Bengalese finches or by firefinches. When they lived with other indigobirds, the male indigobirds copied mimicry songs of male indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. We predicted mimicry-song specificity and repertoire size in experimental indigobirds from a hypothesis of an early developmental period when young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, and a later period when they direct their attention to other birds with similar songs. The predictions, based on field observations of wild birds, were that (1) males reared by a novel foster species other than the normal host would learn the song of that foster species, and (2) males that left their foster parents at the normal time of independence would copy the songs of other individuals, including other adult indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. Begging calls of young indigobirds did not mimic the calls of young firefinches. Indigobirds reared alone

  9. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-03

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management.

  10. How is anxiety involved in the longitudinal relationship between brooding rumination and depressive symptoms in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E; Weir, Kirsty F

    2013-08-01

    A growing body of research supports the application of Response Styles Theory to adolescent populations. Although the essential dynamic, namely that rumination increases the incidence of depressive symptoms, has been demonstrated among adolescents, a number of important empirical questions remain, such as: what are the gender differences and developmental trends for brooding and reflective rumination?; does a reciprocal relationship exist between brooding or reflective rumination, on the one hand, and depressive symptoms and anxiety, on the other hand, over time? and how do additional variables (i.e., anxiety) impact upon the rumination-depressive symptoms relationship? In this study, self-reported levels of rumination (both brooding and reflective), and anxious and depressive symptoms were measured longitudinally across 4 months in a sample of 976 community adolescents (46% females), aged 11-16 years old. Mean group differences showed that female adolescents reported engaging in more brooding rumination than male adolescents beginning at 13 years of age. A reciprocal brooding rumination to depressive symptoms relationship and a reciprocal brooding rumination to anxiety relationship were found over time, and they did not differ for boys and girls. We tested the possibility that anxious symptoms would function as a third variable, but the obtained model showed that brooding rumination and anxiety both contributed unique variance in predicting changes in depressive symptoms over time.

  11. Propagation of barn owls in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, J.R.

    1973-01-01

    Some aspects of the biology and life history of native birds often are more readily obtained in captivity than in the field. This is particularly true in evaluating the effects of pesticides or other pollutants on birds, because establishing cause-and-effect relationships requires experimental studies. Few wild species have been bred in captivity with sufficient success to permit the large-scale studies that are needed. This paper reports successful efforts to breed Barn Owls (Tyto alba prolinicola) in captivity and presents biological data concerning reproduction.

  12. Risk assessment of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in a captive-breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Njal; Keith, Dave M; Houde, Aimee Lee S; Debes, Paul V; McBride, Meghan C; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    Captive-breeding programs can be implemented to preserve the genetic diversity of endangered populations such that the controlled release of captive-bred individuals into the wild may promote recovery. A common difficulty, however, is that programs are founded with limited wild broodstock, and inbreeding can become increasingly difficult to avoid with successive generations in captivity. Program managers must choose between maintaining the genetic purity of populations, at the risk of inbreeding depression, or interbreeding populations, at the risk of outbreeding depression. We evaluate these relative risks in a captive-breeding program for 3 endangered populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In each of 2 years, we released juvenile F(1) and F(2) interpopulation hybrids, backcrosses, as well as inbred and noninbred within-population crosstypes into 9 wild streams. Juvenile size and survival was quantified in each year. Few crosstype effects were observed, but interestingly, the relative fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding varied from year to year. Temporal variation in environmental quality might have driven some of these annual differences, by exacerbating the importance of maternal effects on juvenile fitness in a year of low environmental quality and by affecting the severity of inbreeding depression differently in different years. Nonetheless, inbreeding was more consistently associated with a negative effect on fitness, whereas the consequences of outbreeding were less predictable. Considering the challenges associated with a sound risk assessment in the wild and given that the effect of inbreeding on fitness is relatively predictable, we suggest that risk can be weighted more strongly in terms of the probable outcome of outbreeding. Factors such as genetic similarities between populations and the number of generations in isolation can sometimes be used to assess outbreeding risk, in lieu of experimentation. © 2014 Society for

  13. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  14. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  15. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  16. An evaluation of the possible adaptive function of fungal brood covering by attine ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Myrmicinae: Attini) live in an obligate symbiotic relationship with a fungus that they rear for food, but they can also use the fungal mycelium to cover their brood. We surveyed colonies from 20 species of fungus-growing ants and show that brood-covering behavior occurs in most...... species, but to varying degrees, and appears to have evolved shortly after the origin of fungus farming, but was partly or entirely abandoned in some genera. To understand the evolution of the trait we used quantitative phylogenetic analyses to test whether brood-covering behavior covaries among attine...... ant clades and with two hygienic traits that reduce risk of disease: mycelial brood cover did not correlate with mutualistic bacteria that the ants culture on their cuticles for their antibiotics, but there was a negative relationship between metapleural gland grooming and mycelial cover. A broader...

  17. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  19. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  20. Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Darek T R; Conway, Corinne; Fleming, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the first transgenic animals being considered for commercial farming, yet ecological and genetic concerns remain should they enter the wild and interact reproductively with wild fish. Here, we provide the first empirical data reporting on the breeding performance of GH transgenic Atlantic salmon males, including that of an alternative male reproductive phenotype (i.e. small, precocially mature parr), in pair-wise competitive trials within a naturalised stream mesocosm. Wild anadromous (i.e. large, migratory) males outperformed captively reared transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity, quivering frequency and spawn participation. Similarly, despite displaying less aggression, captively reared nontransgenic mature parr were superior competitors to their transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity and spawn participation. Moreover, nontransgenic parr had higher overall fertilisation success than transgenic parr, and their offspring were represented in more spawning trials. Although transgenic males displayed reduced breeding performance relative to nontransgenics, both male reproductive phenotypes demonstrated the ability to participate in natural spawning events and thus have the potential to contribute genes to subsequent generations. PMID:25568019

  1. Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael M; Lachapelle, Kevin A; Kinnison, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Captive rearing often alters the phenotypes of organisms that are destined for release into the wild. Natural selection on these unnatural phenotypes could have important consequences for the utility of captive rearing as a restoration approach. We show that normal hatchery practices significantly advance the development of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry by 30+ days. As a result, hatchery fry might be expected to face strong natural selection resulting from their developmental asynchrony. We investigated patterns of ontogenetic selection acting on hatchery produced salmon fry by experimentally manipulating fry development stage at stocking. Contrary to simple predictions, we found evidence for strong stabilizing selection on the ontogeny of unfed hatchery fry, with weaker evidence for positive directional selection on the ontogeny of fed fry. These selection patterns suggest a seasonally independent tradeoff between abiotic or biotic selection favoring advanced development and physiological selection linked to risk of starvation in unfed fry. We show, through a heuristic exercise, how such selection on ontogeny may exacerbate problems in restoration efforts by impairing fry productivity and reducing effective population sizes by 13-81%.

  2. Mobbing and sitting tight at the nest as methods of avoiding brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2012-04-06

    The arms race between brood parasites and their hosts has led to many different host behaviours for avoiding parasitism. Some of these behaviours are social, and require the presence of conspecifics to work effectively: in response to alarm calls, some species engage in mobbing behaviour where neighbours join nest tenants in attacking and repelling an invading brood parasite. There are risks involved for the neighbours, but it has been demonstrated that social mobbing allows individuals to learn about the presence of brood parasites in the environment, suggesting that social learning is occurring. Here, I consider whether using social signals to alert naive individuals to the presence of brood parasites is a suitable strategy, compared with sitting tight on the nest in response to the signal (which should reduce the chances of being parasitized). I also compare the efficiency of these strategies with the case where individuals fail to change behaviour in response a brood parasite. Using an individual-based simulation model, I demonstrate that both mobbing and sitting tight are effective strategies in response to a signal, and that mobbing is more effective when the chances of being parasitized increase. These results are discussed and compared with known host-brood parasite relationships.

  3. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y; Sharma, Dhruv B; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  4. What role does heritability play in transgenerational phenotypic responses to captivity? Implications for managing captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K; Byrne, Phillip G

    2017-12-01

    Animals maintained in captivity exhibit rapid changes in phenotypic traits, which may be maladaptive for natural environments. The phenotype can shift away from the wild phenotype via transgenerational effects, with the environment experienced by parents influencing the phenotype and fitness of offspring. There is emerging evidence that controlling transgenerational effects could help mitigate the effects of captivity, improving the success of captively bred animals post release. However, controlling transgenerational effects requires knowledge of the mechanisms driving transgenerational changes. To better understand the genetic mechanisms that contribute to transgenerational effects in captivity we investigated the heritability of behavioral phenotypes using mid parent- and single parent-offspring regressions in a population of captive-reared house mouse (Mus musculus) that we had previously shown exhibit transgenerational changes in boldness and activity behavioral types. Slopes for boldness and activity were all positive, indicating a low to moderate degree of heritability. Though, none of the heritability estimates were statistically significant due to the large surrounding errors. However, the large error surrounding the heritability estimates may also indicate that there is variability in heritability between behavioral traits within the boldness and activity behavioral types. The implication of this finding is that the potential for heritable genetic changes in captivity varies considerably between traits. We conclude that continued investigation of the potential for traits to evolve in captivity is needed to better inform captive breeding and reintroduction programs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-10-21

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces.

  6. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  8. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, David (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A. (Utah State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Ecology Center and Watershed Science Unit); Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

    1994-06-01

    In 1990 the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River Sockeye salmon as endangered. As a result, Snake River Sockeye were listed and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding efforts to enhance sockeye stocks. Recovery efforts include development of a brood stock program, genetics work, describing fish community dynamics in rearing lakes, and completing limnology studies. The SBT, in cooperation with Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), are directing fish community and limnology studies. IDFG is managing the brood stock program. The University of Idaho and NMFS are completing genetics work. Part I of this document is the SBT 1993' annual report that describes findings related to fish community research. Part II is a document completed by Utah State University (USU). The SBT subcontracted USU to complete a limnology investigation on the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Management suggestions in Part II are those of USU and are not endorsed by the SBT and may not reflect the opinions of SBT biologists.

  10. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-01-01

    ... and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest...

  12. [Clusters of Fusarium solani infection in juvenile captive born Caretta caretta sea turtles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hartmann, M; Hennequin, C; Catteau, S; Béatini, C; Blanc, V

    2017-03-01

    Various yeasts and filamentous fungi are described as the cause of infection in sea turtles. Among them, Fusarium solani is responsible both for superficial and invasive infection in weakened adults (capture, stranding), and wild nest contamination, causing massive losses during hatching. We illustrate the pathogenicity of this fungus in sea turtles, through our experience with the species Caretta caretta (loggerhead turtle) and its reproduction, which was obtained for the first time in 2010 at the marine park Marineland, Antibes and renewed in 2011 and 2013. The first generation (6 viable newborns e.g. 0.9% of the nest) was severely affected by an infectious agent causing skin and multifocal organ lesions. Microbiological samples allowed to establish F. solani as the etiological agent. Antifungal therapy with posaconazole cured 2 (33%) of the brood. Epidemiological investigations, infection control and hygiene measures as well as diagnosis criteria, preemptive and curative treatment procedures allowed better prevention and cure and finally higher survival rates in subsequent broods, in 2011 and 2013 (80 viable newborns e.g. 6.6% of the nest and 50% survival rate). F. solani appears as a major threat for the successful reproduction of sea turtles in the wild. As observed, this threat is also of concern during captive breeding. The conditions of transmission and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. in these animals are discussed in light of the literature cases that occurred in adult sea turtles and in wild nests, and of our breeding experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Genomics Identifies Candidate Genes for Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Keith A. Boroevich; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three f...

  14. Three-dimensional visualisation of brooding behaviour in two distantly related brittle stars from South African waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landschoff, J; Griffiths, CL

    2015-01-01

    .... In South African waters, brooding occurs both in the very small amphiurid Amphipholis squamata, which is hermaphroditic, and in the large ophiodermatid Ophioderma wahlbergii, which is gonochoric...

  15. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Asian Elephants in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gary; Zimmerman, Ralph; Shashkina, Elena; Chen, Liang; Richard, Michael; Bradford, Carol M; Dragoo, Gwen A; Saiers, Rhonda L; Peloquin, Charles A; Daley, Charles L; Planet, Paul; Narachenia, Apurva; Mathema, Barun; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2017-03-01

    Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted.

  17. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  18. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  19. Species richness and distributions of boreal waterbirds in relation to nesting and brood-rearing habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bertram, Mark R.; Dubour, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of ecological factors that drive animal distributions allows us to understand why distributions vary temporally and spatially, and to develop models to predict future changes to populations–vital tools for effective wildlife management and conservation. For waterbird broods in the boreal forest, distributions are likely driven by factors affecting quality of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and the influence of these factors may extend beyond singles species, affecting the entire waterbird community. We used occupancy models to assess factors influencing species richness of waterbird broods on 72 boreal lakes, along with brood distributions of 3 species of conservation concern: lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca), and horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). Factors examined included abundance of invertebrate foods (Amphipoda, Diptera, Gastropoda, Hemiptera, Odonata), physical lake attributes (lake area, emergent vegetation), water chemistry (nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll a concentrations), and nesting habitats (water edge, non-forest cover). Of the 5 invertebrates, only amphipod density was related to richness and occupancy, consistently having a large and positive relationship. Despite this importance to waterbirds, amphipods were the most patchily distributed invertebrate, with 17% of the study lakes containing 70% of collected amphipods. Lake area was the only other covariate that strongly and positively influenced species richness and occupancy of scaup, scoters, and grebes. All 3 water chemistry covariates, which provided alternative measures of lake productivity, were positively related to species richness but had little effect on scaup, scoter, and grebe occupancy. Conversely, emergent vegetation was negatively related to richness, reflecting avoidance of overgrown lakes by broods. Finally, nesting habitats had no influence on richness and occupancy, indicating that, at a broad spatial scale, brood

  20. Releasing captive-reared masked bobwhite for population recovery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Gee, G.; Brennan, L.A.; Palmer, W.E.; Burger, L.W.; Pruden, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to it's former southern Arizona range have been ongoing since establishment of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Pre-release conditioning techniques developed prior to Refuge establishment continued to be utilized in an effort to improve post-release survival of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks. Foremost among these techniques was the use of wild Texas bobwhite (C. v. texanus) males as foster parents which were paired with all broods released on the Refuge. The efficacy of this technique was evaluated using radio telemetry in 1994, and the results indicated that the use of foster Texas males was not as effective as had been presumed because post-release chick survival was poor. Therefore, in 1995 pre-release conditioning protocol were modified in an effort to improve post-release survival. The primary intent of these modifications was to emphasize wild behavior among chicks prior to release. Modifications to established protocol included imprinting chicks to adult bobwhites immediately after eggs hatched and exposing 1-to-2 day old chicks to natural foods (insects and seeds) while they were in brooder units. Foster parents and their respective broods were then placed in flight pens that mimicked the natural conditions that would confront broods upon release. Family groups were held in flight pens for several weeks for acclimatization purposes and then transported to temporary enclosures erected at release sites where they were held for a week and then released. Finally all releases were conducted during fall after covey formation was apparent to ensure that foster parents and released chicks remained with a group of birds. Preliminary results indicated that post-release chick survival was higher than what was observed in 1994. Pre-conditioning research will continue in an effort to further quantify post-release survival of masked bobwhite chicks. Although the

  1. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  2. If I only knew why: the relationship between brooding, beliefs about rumination, and perceptions of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Yaakov; Mor, Nilly

    2014-07-01

    People who tend to engage in brooding, the maladaptive subtype of rumination, are at risk to develop depression. Brooders often endorse metacognitive beliefs that self-focused ruminative thinking is beneficial. In the current study, we examined whether brooding and positive beliefs about rumination are associated with perceptions of and preferences for treatments for depression. Participants (N=118) read descriptions of two different clusters of treatments for depression, Insight-Oriented (IO) treatments and Activation-Oriented (AO) treatments. They then rated treatment efficacy and credibility and completed self-report measures of rumination (including brooding and reflection subscales), beliefs about rumination, and depression. Brooding and metacognitive positive beliefs about rumination were associated with positive perceptions of IO (but not AO) treatments. Positive beliefs about rumination contributed to the prediction of perceptions of IO treatments (but not AO treatments) beyond the effect of brooding. We discuss the implications of these findings for individuals' decision-making processes regarding which type of treatment to seek. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sexual imprinting misguides species recognition in a facultative interspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Michael D; Hauber, Mark E; Derrickson, Scott R

    2010-10-22

    Sexual reproduction relies on the recognition of conspecifics for breeding. Most experiments in birds have implicated a critical role for early social learning in directing subsequent courtship behaviours and mating decisions. This classical view of avian sexual imprinting is challenged, however, by studies of megapodes and obligate brood parasites, species in which reliable recognition is achieved despite the lack of early experience with conspecifics. By rearing males with either conspecific or heterospecific brood mates, we experimentally tested the effect of early social experience on the association preferences and courtship behaviours of two sympatrically breeding ducks. We predicted that redheads (Aythya americana), which are facultative interspecific brood parasites, would show a diminished effect of early social environment on subsequent courtship preferences when compared with their host and congener, the canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Contrary to expectations, cross-fostered males of both species courted heterospecific females and preferred them in spatial association tests, whereas control males courted and associated with conspecific females. These results imply that ontogenetic constraints on species recognition may be a general impediment to the initial evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Under more natural conditions, a variety of mechanisms may mitigate or counteract the effects of early imprinting for redheads reared in canvasback broods.

  4. The Effect of Open Brood and Colony Strength on the Onset of Oviposition by Queen Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąbka Jakub

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In bee colonies without open brood, e.g., after swarming, there is no need for royal jelly, and nurse bees thus do not produce it. According to many beekeepers, adding combs with open brood restarts the production of royal jelly by nurse bees, and the virgin queens then are better fed and start earlier oviposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of open brood and the strength of the colonies affect the onset of oviposition by queen bees. Open brood in colonies with virgins before and during mating flights did not accelerate the initiation of oviposition by the queens. In addition, no differences were identified in starting oviposition by queens in strong colonies of more than 30,000 worker bees, or in weak colonies with up to 1,000 workers. Overall, the results showed that neither open brood in the nests, nor the strength of the colonies affects the onset of oviposition by queen bees.

  5. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  6. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  7. Reproductive indices and performance of captive reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two male and 8 female grasscutters were severally observed and paired to characterize certain indices of reproduction as important requirements for successful propagation of the animal in captivity. Observations on some of the reproductive indices are reported. Grasscutter possesses some specialized stages of courtship ...

  8. captive Chrysospa/ax treve/yani

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of rainfall on the ecology and energetics of a Namib. Desert dune ecosystem. J. Arid Environ. 3: 25 - 54. A preliminary report on locomotory activity in wild and captive Chrysospa/ax treve/yani. (Manunalia: Chrysochloridae). A.H. Maddock* and G.C. Hickman. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, P.O. Box 375, ...

  9. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  10. Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.; Van Laere, G.J.; Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    In a group of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we studied whether females received more social benefits from males when they were in oestrus than at other times and whether males distributed their beneficial acts especially to females with whom they mated more frequently. When in oestrus,

  11. 78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... worldwide have pledged themselves to a Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Corrupt dictatorships have... freedom's march and widening the circle of opportunity for all. Our commitment to universal rights is also... privileged few. Captive Nations Week is an opportunity to reaffirm America's role in advancing human rights...

  12. ASCARIDOSIS IN CAPTIVE RETICULATED PYTHON (PYTHON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of. Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...

  13. Suckling behaviour in captive Dendrohyrax arboreus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-11-06

    Nov 6, 1980 ... drohyrax dorsalis) Biologia Gabonica I. RUDNAI, J. 1984. Activity cycle and space utilization in a captive. Dendrohyrax arboreus group. S. Afr. J. Zool. 19: 124-128. SALE, J.B. 1 965a. Some aspects of the behaviour and ecology of the rock hyraces (Genera Procavia and Heterohyrax) Ph.D. thesis, Ju·.

  14. Flight restraint techniques for captive cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    Traditional techniques for preventing escape of captive cranes (i.e., tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, and amputation) are discussed briefly. Two additional techniques (i.e., brailing and vane trimming) are described in detail. The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  15. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the

  16. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...

  17. Using sightability-adjusted brood-pair ratios to estimate waterfowl productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Pieron, Matthew R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kimmel, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, biologists used brood-pair ratios (BPRs) as an index to waterfowl productivity to help guide management decisions and evaluate conservation practices. However, BPRs are biased by imperfect detection probabilities, especially for broods. We conducted roadside surveys for breeding waterfowl pairs on 7–8 study sites in the springs of 2006–2008 in northeastern North Dakota, USA. Later each year, we conducted replicate counts of broods on the same wetlands and used mark–recapture methods to estimate sightability-adjusted BPRs (SA-BPRs). Traditional roadside brood surveys detected only 30–45% of the available broods, depending on species. We explored the potential for using SA-BPRs to measure hen success (i.e., the probability a female hatches ≥1 egg across all nesting attempts) for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other upland-nesting dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). We found that SA-BPRs explained 40% of the variation in hen success over 5 species of dabbling ducks, and we were able to detect an effect of predator reduction on hen success in combined dabblers, but not in mallards alone. However, we found no relationship between SA-BPRs and mallard fledging rates (hen success × initial brood size × duckling survival). Our results suggest that SA-BPRs can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional measures of productivity such as nesting success, but not to measures of duckling survival. Nevertheless, SA-BPRs may be useful in areas where traditional measures of waterfowl productivity are logistically or financially challenging.

  18. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  19. Energy expenditure, nestling age, and brood size : an experimental study of parental behavior in the great tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ; Tinbergen, JM

    1999-01-01

    A brood manipulation experiment on great tits Parus major was performed to study the effects of nestling age and brood size on parental care and offspring survival. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of females feeding nestlings of 6 and 12 days of age was measured using the doubly-labeled water

  20. Varying congruence of hygienic responses to Varroa destructor and freeze-killed brood among different types of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., have been selectively bred for enhanced hygiene (i.e., removal of affected brood from sealed cells) to improve resistance to diseases and parasites. Bees selected for removal of freeze-killed brood (FKB) have protection from several microbial disease...

  1. Long-term effects of brood size manipulation on morphological development and sex-specific mortality of offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKogel, CH

    1. Little is known about long-term effects of brood size on fitness components of offspring. This is unfortunate because such information is needed to predict optimal brood size. Furthermore, ontogenetic circumstances are potentially important in explaining the large individual differences in

  2. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  3. Contrasting brood-sex ratio flexibility in two opiine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of tephritid (Diptera) fruit files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass-rearing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative release would be more economical if production could be biased towards females. If sex ratios are ever to be manipulated under rearing conditions it is important to determine if, then understand why, sex ratio flexibility exists. Unequal brood-s...

  4. Sex-specific nestling body mass in relation to brood sex composition in the Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O; Dijkstra, C; Dekker, AL; Waasdorp, S; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    The trade-off between brood size and offspring quality as predicted by life history theory, has been extensively studied in birds. However, in sexually size-dimorphic birds, where the larger sex requires more investment from the parents, the potential additional trade-off between brood sex ratio and

  5. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  6. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  7. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  8. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  9. Biased estimates of fitness consequences of brood size manipulation through correlated effects on natal dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, JM

    2005-01-01

    1. Dispersal of parents and offspring in relation to manipulated brood size were analysed in the great tit Parus major (L.) to study the potential confusion between dispersal and survival. The study area consisted of eight woodlots interspersed with nonbreeding habitat. The maximum distance between

  10. Brood parasite and host eggshells undergo similar levels of decalcification during embryonic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Igic, B.; Hauber, M. E.; Moskát, C.; Grim, T.; Shawkey, M. D.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2017), s. 165-173 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * decalcification * eggshell thickness * embryonic development * common cuckoo * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  11. Selecting honey bees for worker brood that reduces the reproduction of Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated an effect of Apis mellifera worker brood on the reproduction of Varroa destructor as a resistance trait by conducting seven generations of bidirectional selection. Initial tests showed two-fold differences in mite fecundity (progeny per foundress mites) between colonies of different...

  12. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fry and maximum return on investment, female brooders of body weights ranging between 400 599 g are recommended for hormone induced natural breeding exercises. (International exchange rate: N129.00/US$1.00 as at 01 April, 2006) Keywords: Clarias anguillaris, brood stock size, induced breeding, fry production

  13. Tests of landscape influence: nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Tewksbury; Lindy Garner; Shannon H. Garner; John D. Lloyd; Victoria A. Saab; Thomas E. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked...

  14. Effect of brood size manipulations on parents and offspring in the Barn owl, Tyto alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Ducrest, A.L; Dijkstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    When the overall food demand of the young increases, parents can either increase their effort to feed the brood, potentially reducing their residual reproductive value, or alternatively maintain their effort, leading to offspring mortality. In long-lived species where fitness is related to the

  15. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis.

  16. Physiological costs and carry-over effects of avian interspecific brood parasitism influence reproductive tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melissa M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2013-05-01

    Although models of co-evolution between brood parasites and their hosts primarily focus upon the cost to hosts in the current reproductive bout, the impact of brood parasitism may carry over to future reproductive attempts by altering resource allocation. Glucocorticoid stress hormones help mediate resource allocation to reproduction, yet they have rarely been examined in brood parasitic systems. Here we determined if shifts in parental care and corticosterone had carry-over effects on future reproductive effort in the rufous-and-white wren (Thryophilus rufalbus), a host of the Central American striped cuckoo (Tapera naevia). We found that parasitized parents had significantly higher stress-induced, but not baseline, corticosterone than natural parents during the fledgling stage, which was associated with changes in parental care. The high investment in current reproduction while parasitized may be due to the value of fledged chicks in tropical systems. This maladaptive response by parasitized parents was associated with delayed re-nesting and a reduced likelihood of nesting in the subsequent breeding season. Although a reduction in future reproductive effort can result from a combination of factors, this work suggests that fitness costs of brood parasitism are mediated by changes in corticosterone and parental care behavior that carry over into subsequent breeding seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Corticosterone metabolites in blue tit and pied flycatcher droppings: Effects of brood size, ectoparasites and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, E.; Merino, S.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Tomás, G.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Osorno, J.L.; Kuchar, A.; Möstl, E.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of birds induces the secretion of corticosterone (CORT) as a response to different ecological variables. In this study we tested experimentally if manipulations of brood size or ectoparasitism led to subsequent differences in the concentration of

  18. Interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Ryan J; Fresco, David M

    2016-10-01

    Awareness of the body (i.e., interoceptive awareness) and self-referential thought represent two distinct, yet habitually integrated aspects of self. A recent neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety incorporates the connections between increased but low fidelity afferent interoceptive input with self-referential and belief-based states. A deeper understanding of how self-referential processes are integrated with interoceptive processes may ultimately aid in our understanding of altered, maladaptive views of the self - a shared experience of individuals with mood and anxiety disorders. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine how negative self-referential processing (i.e., brooding rumination) relates to interoception in the context of affective psychopathology. Undergraduate students (N = 82) completed an interoception task (heartbeat counting) in addition to self-reported measures of rumination and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated an interaction effect of brooding rumination and interoceptive awareness on depression and anxiety-related distress. Specifically, high levels of brooding rumination coupled with low levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with the highest levels of depression and anxiety-related distress, whereas low levels of brooding rumination coupled with high levels of interoceptive awareness were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety-related distress. The findings provide further support for the conceptualization of anxiety and depression as conditions involving the integration of interoceptive processes and negative self-referential processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard methods for Apis mellifera brood as human food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Evans, Joshua David; Jonas-Levi, Adi

    2018-01-01

    Insects hold enormous potential to address food and nutritional security issues. The honey bee is a key insect, given its importance for pollination, as well as its products which can be directly consumed, like honey, pollen and brood. Research on edible insects is an emerging field that draws up...

  20. A password for species recognition in a brood-parasitic bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, M E; Russo, S A; Sherman, P W

    2001-05-22

    Recognition of conspecifics is an essential precursor of sexual reproduction. Most mammals and birds learn salient features of their parents or siblings early in ontogeny and later recognize individuals whose phenotypes match the mental image (template) of relatives closely enough as conspecifics. However, the young of brood parasites are reared among heterospecifics, so social learning will yield inappropriate species recognition templates. Initially, it was inferred that conspecific recognition in brood parasites depended on genetically determined templates. More recently it was demonstrated that learning plays a critical role in the development of parasites' social preferences. Here we propose a mechanism that accommodates the interaction of learned and genetic components of recognition. We suggest that conspecific recognition is initiated when a young parasite encounters some unique species-specific signal or "password" (e.g. a vocalization, behaviour or other characteristic) that triggers learning of additional aspects of the password-giver's phenotype. We examined the possibility that nestlings of the obligately brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) could use a species-specific vocalization, the "chatter", as a password. We found that six-day-old nestlings responded (begged) significantly more frequently to playbacks of chatters than to other avian sounds and that two-month-old fledglings approached playbacks of chatters more quickly than vocalizations of heterospecifics. Free-living cowbird fledglings and adults also approached playbacks of chatters more often than control sounds. Passwords may be involved in the ontogeny of species recognition in brood parasites generally.

  1. SEASONAL-VARIATION IN THE SEX-RATIO OF MARSH HARRIER CIRCUS-AERUGINOSUS BROODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, M; DAAN, S; BRUINENBERGRINSMA, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Analysis of the sexes of 2260 nestlings in 735 marsh harrier broods revealed an overall excess [sex ratio (SR) = 54.8%] of males, and a significant increase in the proportion of males with progressive laying date (d = day of the year): In [SR/(1-SR)] = -1.286 + 0.013 d. 2. We argue that it is

  2. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Post-fledging brood and care division in the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatch, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Extended post-fledging parental care is an important aspect of parental care in birds, although little studied due to logistic difficulties. Commonly, the brood is split physically (brood division) and/or preferential care is given to a subset of the brood by one parent or the other (care division). Among gulls and tern (Laridae), males and females generally share parental activities during the pre-fledging period, but the allocation of parental care after fledging is little documented. This study examined the behaviour of male and female roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) during the late chick-rearing and early post-fledging periods, and in particular the amount of feeds and the time spent in attendance given to individual chicks/fledglings. Pre-fledging parental care was biparental in all cases. Post-fledging parental care was dependent on the number of fledglings in the brood. Males and females continued biparental care in clutches with one surviving fledgling, while in two-fledgling clutches, males fed the A-fledgling while females fed the B-fledgling. Overall, there was no difference in attendance, only in feeds. This division of care may be influenced by the male only being certain of the paternity of the A-chick but not by chick sex. ?? 2011 Japan Ethological Society and Springer.

  4. An evaluation of the possible adaptive function of fungal brood covering by attine ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    ant clades and with two hygienic traits that reduce risk of disease: mycelial brood cover did not correlate with mutualistic bacteria that the ants culture on their cuticles for their antibiotics, but there was a negative relationship between metapleural gland grooming and mycelial cover. A broader...

  5. Is extrapair mating random? On the probability distribution of extrapair young in avian broods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, Jon E.; Korsten, Peter; Bouwman, Karen A.; Berg, Mathew L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A dichotomy in female extrapair copulation (EPC) behavior, with some females seeking EPC and others not, is inferred if the observed distribution of extrapair young (EPY) over broods differs from a random process on the level of individual offspring (binomial, hypergeometrical, or Poisson). A review

  6. Mortality in captive elk from salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Besser, T E; Lonning, S M

    2001-04-01

    Salmonella typhimurium DT104 infections of captive elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves resulted in mortality in eight of 13 affected calves. Salmonellosis in these elk calves was characterized by diarrhea, fever, lethargy, inappetence and depression, and death usually ensued within 72 hr of initial clinical signs. Affected calves did not respond to antibiotic and fluid therapy. The source of the bacteria likely was one or more of the calves when they were captured in the wild at less than 5 days of age. In our captive holding facility, the disease spread quickly and was difficult to control. Phage typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic sensitivity testing, and plasmid profiles determined that this Salmonella sp. strain was the epidemic strain common to cattle, sheep and humans.

  7. Fatal Parastrongylus dujardini infection in captive callitrichids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graille, M; Ferté, H; Petit, T; Ollivet Courtois, F; Gauchot, J-Y; Nougaillon, J-L; Vitaud, C; Wardzynski, C; Lemberger, K

    2015-03-01

    Intravascular nematodes were considered the cause of death of 14 captive callitrichids. All animals were captive born at zoos in France and died with little or no premonitory signs of disease. No consistent gross lesions were observed at necropsy, although in certain cases intracardiac adult parasites were noted. The most significant histologic findings were verminous pneumonia and pulmonary endarteritis. In all cases except one, intravascular adult nematodes were observed with eggs and larvae in the lungs. Adult nematodes were obtained from 8 animals and in all cases were identified as Parastrongylus dujardini. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intravascular angiostrongylosis with primary cardiopulmonary location in callitrichids in France. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-04

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged.

  9. Observational Learning in Wild and Captive Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Yeater, Deirdre B.; Stan A. Kuczaj II

    2010-01-01

    Many non-human species imitate the behavior of others, and dolphins seem particularly adept at this form of observational learning. Evidence for observational learning in wild dolphins is rare, given the difficulty of observing individual wild animals in sufficient detail to eliminate other possible explanations of purported imitation. Consequently, much of the evidence supporting observational learning in dolphins has involved animals in captive settings. This research suggests that dolphins...

  10. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  11. Hematologic values of captive Mexican wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, M D

    1991-11-01

    Hematologic reference values were determined for a captive population of 11 Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Wolf pups from 4 to 24 weeks old had progressive age-related increases in PCV, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and RBC counts similar to those seen in domestic dog pups (C familiaris). Hematologic indices in wolves older than 24 weeks were comparable to those of the adult domestic dog; however, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC counts were higher.

  12. Tests of landscape influence: Nest predation and brood parasitism in fragmented ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Garner, L.; Garner, S.; Lloyd, J.D.; Saab, V.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of landscape fragmentation on nest predation and brood parasitism, the two primary causes of avian reproductive failure, have been difficult to generalize across landscapes, yet few studies have clearly considered the context and spatial scale of fragmentation. Working in two river systems fragmented by agricultural and rural-housing development, we tracked nesting success and brood parasitism in >2500 bird nests in 38 patches of deciduous riparian woodland. Patches on both river systems were embedded in one of two local contexts (buffered from agriculture by coniferous forest, or adjacent to agriculture), but the abundance of agriculture and human habitation within 1 km of each patch was highly variable. We examined evidence for three models of landscape effects on nest predation based on (1) the relative importance of generalist agricultural nest predators, (2) predators associated with the natural habitats typically removed by agricultural development, or (3) an additive combination of these two predator communities. We found strong support for an additive predation model in which landscape features affect nest predation differently at different spatial scales. Riparian habitat with forest buffers had higher nest predation rates than sites adjacent to agriculture, but nest predation also increased with increasing agriculture in the larger landscape surrounding each site. These results suggest that predators living in remnant woodland buffers, as well as generalist nest predators associated with agriculture, affect nest predation rates, but they appear to respond at different spatial scales. Brood parasitism, in contrast, was unrelated to agricultural abundance on the landscape, but showed a strong nonlinear relationship with farm and house density, indicating a critical point at which increased human habitat causes increased brood parasitism. Accurate predictions regarding landscape effects on nest predation and brood parasitism will require an

  13. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Burke

    Full Text Available Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  14. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  15. A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Ida; Aldrin, Magne; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Jansen, Peder A

    2007-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major economical implications. Despite the strong regulatory interventions, the ISA epidemic is not under control, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic space-time model for the transmission of the virus. We model seaway transmission between farm sites, transmission through shared management and infrastructure, biomass effect...

  16. High frequency of multiple paternity in broods of a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2008-05-01

    In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.

  17. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  18. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  19. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  20. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  2. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  3. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  4. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  5. Differential metabolite levels in response to spawning-induced inappetence in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C; Smith, McKenzie L; Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Dove, Alistair D M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling. The two classes of animals were easily distinguished by their metabolite profiles. The sea-run fish had elevated ɷ-9 fatty acids relative to the domestic feeding animals, while other fatty acid concentrations were reduced. Sugar alcohols were generally elevated in inappetent animals, suggesting potentially novel metabolic responses or pathways in fish that feature these compounds. Compounds expected to indicate a pathological catabolic state were not more abundant in the sea-run fish, suggesting that the animals, while inappetent, were not stressed in an unnatural way. These findings demonstrate the power of discovery-based metabolomics for exploring biochemistry in poorly understood animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maladaptation and phenotypic mismatch in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar released in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringwell, R; Lock, A; Stutchbury, C J; Baggett, E; Taylor, J; Gough, P J; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2014-12-01

    Changes in body shape, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and crypsis were compared among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry kept as controls in captivity and those released and subsequently recaptured in the wild according to a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Hatchery fish that survived in the wild became more cryptic and displayed a much lower incidence of fin erosion and of asymmetric individuals than control fish kept in captivity. Significant differences in body shape were also apparent, and survivors had longer heads, thicker caudal peduncles and a more streamlined body shape than hatchery controls as early as 20 days following stocking, most likely as a result of phenotypic plasticity and non-random, selective mortality of maladapted phenotypes. Hatchery-reared fish typically perform poorly in the wild and the results of this study indicate that this may be due to phenotypic mismatch, i.e. because hatcheries generate fish that are phenotypically mismatched to the natural environment. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L. [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  8. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Comparative anatomy of the dorsal hump in mature Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ban, Masatoshi; Ichimura, Masaki; Kudo, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) demonstrate prominent morphological changes, such as the development of a dorsal hump. The degree of dorsal hump formation depends on the species in Pacific salmon. It is generally accepted that mature males of sockeye (O. nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon develop most pronounced dorsal humps. The internal structure of the dorsal hump in pink salmon has been confirmed in detail. In this study, the dorsal hump morphologies were analyzed in four Pacific salmon species inhabiting Japan, masu (O. masou), sockeye, chum (O. keta), and pink salmon. The internal structure of the dorsal humps also depended on the species; sockeye and pink salmon showed conspicuous development of connective tissue and growth of bone tissues in the dorsal tissues. Masu and chum salmon exhibited less-pronounced increases in connective tissues and bone growth. Hyaluronic acid was clearly detected in dorsal hump connective tissue by histochemistry, except for in masu salmon. The lipid content in dorsal hump connective tissue was richer in masu and chum salmon than in sockeye and pink salmon. These results revealed that the patterns of dorsal hump formation differed among species, and especially sockeye and pink salmon develop pronounced dorsal humps through both increases in the amount of connective tissue and the growth of bone tissues. In contrast, masu and chum salmon develop their dorsal humps by the growth of bone tissues, rather than the development of connective tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  11. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...

  12. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance......, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet......, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption....

  13. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  15. Handedness in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca M; Nystrom, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Species level right-handedness is often considered to be unique to humans. Handedness is held to be interrelated to our language ability and has been used as a means of tracing the evolution of language. Here we examine handedness in 3 captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus) comprising 22 individuals. We found no evidence for species level handedness. Conclusions that can be drawn from these findings are: (1) species level handedness evolved after the divergence of the Pan and Homo lineages; (2) inconsistent preferences may represent precursors to human handedness, and (3) Pan may have language abilities but these cannot be measured using handedness. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Reproductive management of captive psittacine collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Darrel K

    2002-09-01

    This discussion is intended to stimulate the reader to further investigate avicultural husbandry techniques, flock management procedures, and avian behavior. It is not intended to address in detail all the steps necessary to produce successful reproduction in the aviary, but to encourage more involvement in the study of aviculture and the captive psittacine behaviors. Veterinarians are encouraged to ally themselves with professional or skilled aviculturists and participate in the noble endeavor of aviculture. Only then will the clinician understand the miracle of reproduction beyond that defined by a textbook.

  17. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  18. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  19. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

    2006-04-18

    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  20. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  1. Spatial patterns, ecological niches, and interspecific competition of avian brood parasites: inferring from a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Noh, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yunkyoung; Kwon, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Hoe; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2014-09-01

    Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood

  2. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  3. Perinatal maternal and neonatal behaviour in the captive reticulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the captive reticulated giraffe. M.B. Kristal and M. Noonan. A captive reticulated giraffe was observed constantly for three weeks prior to, and periodically for 90 days subsequent to, the birth of her calf. Extensive observations were made of the birth sequence, feeding, drinking, sleeping and one instance of an infant distress.

  4. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  5. Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell; Diemer

    1999-01-01

    In many bird species, there is a floating population of females that are excluded from breeding because of competition for limited breeding resources. Female floaters may enhance their reproductive success by engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism. We studied female floaters in a population of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, in order to determine their identity and potential parasitic behaviour. Females were caught after being attracted to nestboxes with artificial nests during 1993-1995. None of the females was known to have a nest of her own at capture but 47% of the females either laid an egg in the nest or carried a fully developed egg within the reproductive tract, indicating that they were intraspecific brood parasites. The floating females were significantly younger and smaller than breeding females. Of 13 females equipped with radiotransmitters and followed daily, all but one started a breeding attempt of their own after 3-8 days and the majority settled as secondary females or mated with males where the original female had disappeared. This suggests that females that are unable to compete successfully for nest sites or males early in the breeding season may use intraspecific brood parasitism to enhance reproductive success during the period that they are constrained from breeding. The importance of settling rapidly because of a seasonal decline in reproductive success may also promote the evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism in the starling. The relative reproductive success of combining egg dumping with breeding compared with traditional breeding will depend on the costs of delaying breeding as well as the probability of finding a mate later in the breeding season. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Removal of Varroa jacobsoni infested brood in honey bee colonies with differing pollen stores

    OpenAIRE

    Janmaat, Alida; Winston, Mark

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The effects of high or low pollen storage on Apis mellifera L. brood removal behavior and Varroa jacobsoni reproduction were examined. High pollen storage colonies removed 49% of the infested larvae compared to 33% removal by the low pollen storage colonies. No difference was found in the proportion of fertile mites between those reared in high or low pollen storage colonies, although mite fertility appeared to decrease from mid to late summer in British Columbia, Cana...

  7. Brood Ball-Mediated Transmission of Microbiome Members in the Dung Beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  8. Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

    2011-03-22

    The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  10. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine.

  11. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  12. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  13. Patterns of avian nest predators and a brood parasite among restored riparian habitats in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Smiley, Peter C; Cooper, Charles M

    2005-09-01

    In fragmented edge-dominated landscapes, nest predation and brood parasitism may reduce avian reproductive success and, ultimately, populations of some passerine species. In the fragmented agroecosystem of northwest Mississippi, placement of drop-pipe structures has been used as a restoration technique for abating gully erosion along stream banks. These actions have formed small herbaceous and woody habitat extensions into former agricultural lands. We quantified species relative abundances, species richness, and evenness of avian nest predators and a brood parasite within four categories of constructed habitat resulting from drop-pipe installation. Differences in the abundance of two nest predators, cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) and blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), were observed among constructed habitats. However, relative abundances of other predators such as common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and the obligate brood parasite brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) did not differ among four habitat categories. Although species richness, abundance, and evenness of potential nest predators were generally similar among the constructed habitats, predator species composition varied, suggesting that these habitats supported different predator communities. This difference is important because as each predator species is added to or deleted from the community, variation may occur in the framework of prey search methods, predator strategies, and potentially overall predation pressure. We suggest that land managers using drop-pipes as part of stream restoration projects allow for the development of the constructed habitat with the largest area and greatest vegetative structure.

  14. Brood parasitism in the sand martin, Riparia riparia: evidence for two parasitic strategies in a colonial passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves; Bryant

    1998-12-01

    Sand martin parentage was studied at a large breeding colony in central Scotland. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting was used during the 3-year study to exclude some social parents as true parents, and thereby determine the frequency of monogamy, quasiparasitism (QP), intraspecific brood parasitism (ISBP) and extrapair fertilization (EPF) amongst 45 broods and 167 nestlings. Monogamous parentage characterized the majority of broods (60%), so most chicks were the offspring of their social parents (81%). QP (involving a male's extrapair mate laying in his nest) was found in 9% of broods and 2.4% of chicks and ISBP (or 'egg dumping') in 4% of broods and 1.8% of chicks. A substantial proportion of offspring arose from EPFs, affecting 36% of broods and 14% of chicks. On present evidence, the relatively high frequency of QP found in sand martins is unusual. We propose that its observed frequency is unlikely to be due to chance events and may represent a female-driven strategy. (c)1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  15. Effects of brooding periods on performance of poults and grow-out small bronze turkeys in hot humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaodu, Chibuzo Hope; Okoro, Victor Mela Obinna; Uchegbu, Martins Chigozie; Mbajiorgu, Christian Anayochukwu

    2018-01-06

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of varied brooding regimes on the performance of small bronze turkey poults and their grow-outs. One hundred and twenty (n = 120) poults were subjected to four brooding regimes of 0-5, 0-6, 0-7, and 0-8 weeks, designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. Each brooding regime (treatment) was applied to 3 replicates of 10 poults/replicate in a completely randomized design. The feed intake of T1 poults was higher (P grow-out turkeys in all the production parameters measured, as well as in the feed cost per kilogram weight gain of the treatment groups. This result shows that small bronze-type turkeys brooded from 0 to 8 weeks had higher efficiency in terms of feed intake, FCR, and lower economic costs compared to those brooded from 0 to 5, 0-6, and 0-7 weeks at the poult stage. However, at grow-out stage, the period of brooding did not have any effects on their performance.

  16. Simultaneous spawning by female stream goby Rhinogobius sp. and the association with brood cannibalism by nesting males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Iwao, H; Sakata, J; Inoue, M; Omori, K; Yanagisawa, Y

    2016-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted by varying the undersurface area of nesting substratum and the number of females in an experimental tank to elucidate the determinants of the mating pattern in the stream goby, Rhinogobius sp. cross-band type. Males with larger nests tended to attract two or more females to their nest in a tank. Moreover, males spawned simultaneously with multiple females and entire brood cannibalism by males was rarely observed under a female-biased sex ratio. When males spawned with a single female with low fecundity, however, entire brood cannibalism occurred at a high frequency, suggesting that a male guarding a nest with fewer eggs consumes the brood. Therefore, spawning behaviour of females that leads to a large egg mass would decrease the risk of entire brood cannibalism. In this species, simultaneous spawning by multiple females in a nest serves as a female counter-measure against entire brood cannibalism. These results suggest that a conflict of interest between the sexes through brood cannibalism is a major determinant of simultaneous spawning. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine salmon case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bölscher, T; Slobbe, van, E.J.J; Vliet, van, M.T.H; Werners, S.E

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment...

  18. The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

  19. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory

  20. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  1. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  2. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  3. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-01-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  4. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  5. Wild Tigers in Captivity: A Study of the Effects of the Captive Environment on Tiger Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsko, Leigh Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Humans maintain wild animals in zoological parks for the purposes of education,conservation, research, and recreation. However, abnormal behaviors may develop in animals housed in human-made environments, if those environments do not allow them to carry out their natural behaviors (such as swimming, climbing, stalking, and predation). Captive environments in zoological parks often do not provide for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. Tigers (Panthera ...

  6. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  7. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  8. The Effects of Captivity on the Mammalian Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Song, Se Jin; Delsuc, Frédéric; Prest, Tiffany L; Oliverio, Angela M; Korpita, Timothy M; Alexiev, Alexandra; Amato, Katherine R; Metcalf, Jessica L; Kowalewski, Martin; Avenant, Nico L; Link, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Feh, Claudia; Orlando, Ludovic; Mendelson, Joseph R; Sanders, Jon; Knight, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. As symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. Animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced contact with other individuals, species and variable environmental substrates that act as sources of bacterial diversity. Thus far, initial results from previous studies point to a pattern of decreased bacterial diversity in captive animals. However, these studies are relatively limited in the scope of species that have been examined. Here we present a dataset that includes paired wild and captive samples from mammalian taxa across six Orders to investigate generalizable patterns of the effects captivity on mammalian gut bacteria. In comparing the wild to the captive condition, our results indicate that alpha diversity of the gut bacteria remains consistent in some mammalian hosts (bovids, giraffes, anteaters, and aardvarks), declines in the captive condition in some hosts (canids, primates, and equids), and increases in the captive condition in one host taxon (rhinoceros). Differences in gut bacterial beta diversity between the captive and wild state were observed for most of the taxa surveyed, except the even-toed ungulates (bovids and giraffes). Additionally, beta diversity variation was also strongly influenced by host taxonomic group, diet type, and gut fermentation physiology. Bacterial taxa that demonstrated larger shifts in relative abundance between the captive and wild states included members of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Overall, the patterns that we observe will inform a range of disciplines from veterinary practice to captive breeding efforts for biological

  9. Hepatic capillariasis in two captive Callithrix penicillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the occurrence of hepatic capillariasis in two non-human primates of the species Callithrix penicillata that were kept in captivity. Case 1 was in a young female, whose liver presented pale coloring, softening due to autolysis and several noticeably whitish areas. Case 2 was in a male of unknown age, whose liver was slightly pale and brownish. Histological analysis on the samples revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with hemosiderotic areas. Adult nematodes of Capillaria hepatica and numerous eggs, morphologically characterized by their non-embryonic ellipsoid shape, with bipolar plugs that did not protrude from the shell, thick and birefringent, with a porous layer, thus giving a striated appearance to the eggs. Some cystic formations presented nematode eggs surrounded by numerous foreign-body giant cells. The literature consulted made little reference to reports of Capillaria hepatica in non-human primates. However, similar infections have been extensively studied in domestic rodents.

  10. Salmon: Robust Proxy Distribution for Censorship Circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many governments block their citizens’ access to much of the Internet. Simple workarounds are unreliable; censors quickly discover and patch them. Previously proposed robust approaches either have non-trivial obstacles to deployment, or rely on low-performance covert channels that cannot support typical Internet usage such as streaming video. We present Salmon, an incrementally deployable system designed to resist a censor with the resources of the “Great Firewall” of China. Salmon relies on a network of volunteers in uncensored countries to run proxy servers. Although any member of the public can become a user, Salmon protects the bulk of its servers from being discovered and blocked by the censor via an algorithm for quickly identifying malicious users. The algorithm entails identifying some users as especially trustworthy or suspicious, based on their actions. We impede Sybil attacks by requiring either an unobtrusive check of a social network account, or a referral from a trustworthy user.

  11. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Time-delayed subsidies: interspecies population effects in salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Nelson

    Full Text Available Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species.

  13. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glyphosate levels in larvae were measured on days 4 and 7. Glyphosate levels in pollen were approximately 10 times higher than in nectar and glyphosate demonstrated rapid decline in both matrices. Residue data along with foraging rates and food requirements of the colony were then used to set dose rates in the effects study. In the second stage, the toxicity of technical glyphosate to developing honeybee larvae and pupae, and residues in larvae, were then determined by feeding treated sucrose directly to honeybee colonies at dose rates that reflect worst-case exposure scenarios. There were no significant effects from glyphosate observed in brood survival, development, and mean pupal weight. Additionally, there were no biologically significant levels of adult mortality observed in any glyphosate treatment group. Significant effects were observed only in the fenoxycarb toxic reference group and included increased brood mortality and a decline in the numbers of bees and brood. Mean glyphosate residues in larvae were comparable at 4 days after spray application in the exposure study and also following dosing at a level calculated from the mean measured levels in pollen and nectar, showing the applicability and robustness of the approach for dose setting with honeybee brood studies. This study has developed a versatile and predictive approach for use in higher tier honeybee toxicity studies. It can be used to realistically quantify exposure of colonies to pesticides to allow the

  14. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... of the smoked product affected the liquid holding capacity. Thus, the producers of cold smoked salmon should be aware of this and should have a careful control of the raw material especially regarding the lipid content....

  15. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  16. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  17. Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stefan; Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Anthony B

    2012-12-29

    Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods - early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile - which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy. Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish.

  18. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  19. A neural basis for password-based species recognition in an avian brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Gaglio, Annmarie; Tyler, Elizabeth; Coculo, Joseph; Louder, Matthew I M; Hauber, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites are raised by heterospecific hosts and, therefore, lack crucial early exposure to relatives and other conspecifics. Yet, young brood parasites readily recognize and affiliate with others of their own species upon independence. One solution to this social recognition paradox is the ontogenetic 'password' mechanism used by obligate parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), whereby conspecific identification is initially mediated through the cowbird chatter: a non-learned vocal cue. We explored the neural basis of such password-based species recognition in juvenile and adult male cowbirds. We found that cowbird auditory forebrain regions express greater densities of the protein product of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to the password chatter call relative to control sounds of mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) coos. The chatter-selective induction of ZENK expression occurs in both the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) in adults, but only within the NCM in juveniles. In contrast, we discovered that juvenile cowbirds exhibit neural selectivity to presentations of either conspecific or heterospecific songs, but only in CMM and only after recent experience. Juvenile cowbirds that did not have previous experience with the song type they were exposed to during the test period exhibited significantly lower activity-dependent gene expression. Thus, in juvenile male cowbirds, there is early onset of species-specific selective neural representation of non-learned calls in NCM and recently experienced song in CMM. These results suggest that NCM is evolutionarily co-opted in parasitic cowbirds to selectively recognize the password chatter, allowing juvenile cowbirds to identify adult conspecifics and avoid mis-imprinting upon unrelated host species. These ontogenetic comparisons reveal novel insights into the neural basis of species recognition in brood parasitic species. © 2017. Published by

  20. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  1. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  2. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  3. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  4. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  5. Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

    2007-05-09

    The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon.

  6. Behavior of varroa mites in worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Fallas, Natalia; Zamora, Luis G; van Veen, Johan W; Sánchez, Luis A

    2009-12-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is currently the most important pest of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Because mite reproduction occurs within the sealed cell, the direct observation of varroa activity inside the cell is difficult. A video observation method using transparent polystyrol cells containing infested brood was used to analyze the behavior of varroa mites in worker brood of Africanized honey bees. We recorded how mites feed on the larva and pupa, construct a fecal accumulation site and how the bee larva carried out some longitudinal movements around the cell. The feeding activity of the foundress mite varies during the course of the cycle. On the prepupa mites were found to feed often (0.3 +/- 0.2 bouts h(-1)) for a period of 8.7 +/- 8.4 min h(-1) and there was no preference for a specific segment as feeding site. On the opposite, during the pupal stage mites fed less often (0.1 +/- 0.1 bouts h(-1)) for a period of 6.2 +/- 4.0 min h(-1) and almost always at a particular site (92.4%). On pupa, 83.7% of the feeding was on the 2nd abdominal segment (n = 92), and only few perforations were found on the thorax. Varroa shows a preference for defecation in the posterior part of the cell (cell apex), close to the bee's anal zone. We found a high correlation between the position of the feeding site on the pupa and the position of the fecal accumulation on the cell wall. Most infested cells have only one fecal accumulation site and it was the favorite resting site for the mite, where it spent 24.3 +/- 3.9 min h(-1). Longitudinal displacements were observed in 28.0% (n = 25) of the analyzed bee larvae. Turning movements around the cell, from the bottom to the top, were carried out by these larvae, mainly during the second day (47.7 +/- 22.5 min h(-1)), just before pupation, with a total time of 874.9 +/- 262.2 min day(-1) (n = 7 individuals). These results in worker brood of Africanized bees demonstrate adaptations of varroa mites to parasitizing the

  7. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in st...

  8. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  9. Mooreonuphis vespa, a new brooding species of Onuphidae (Annelida) from northern Spain (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Anadón, Nuria

    2013-11-29

    A new species of the genus Mooreonuphis Fauchald, 1982 collected from the Cantabrian shelf (Bay of Biscay) is described. Mooreonuphis vespa sp. nov. constitutes the first record of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: conspicuous dark brown transverse segmental pigment bands; antennae and palps with 3-5 basal ceratophoral rings and a very long distal ring; unusually long and slender peristomial and dorsal cirri; simple branchiae from chaetiger 17-19. We present observations on its reproductive biology (including brooding behaviour) and remark on the biogeography of the genus.

  10. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  11. Propagation of captive Red-necked Falcons Faico chicquera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D Olwagen

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The Red-necked Falcon Faico chicquera is a threat- ened species in southern Africa. Seven individuals were established at a breeding unit near Pretoria during 1980 to study breeding behaviour and experiment with captive propagation techniques. The falcons were acquired from the wild as adults. Two pairs were established and one pair bred during 1981. During 1982 both pairs produced young. Both pairs bred again during 1983, but a yearling pair (hatched in captivity during 1982 made no attempt at breeding. Unlike other Faico species in captivity, the female adopts the dominant role and feeds the male during pair-bond feeding. Detailed observations on copulation, eggs, incubation and nestlings are presented including a new behavioural pattern termed oe-crossing. The male participated in incubation previously unrecorded. The moult of adults and juve- niles is discussed. The vocalisations of Red-necked Falcons in captivity include at least three different calls.

  12. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction...

  13. Monthly morphometric data on captive loggerhead sea turtles 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  14. Comparative genomics identifies candidate genes for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieying; Boroevich, Keith A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three fingerprint contigs from the Atlantic salmon physical map that contains these markers. We made use of the extensive BAC end sequence database to extend these contigs by chromosome walking and identified additional two markers in this region. The BAC end sequences were used to search for conserved synteny between this segment of LG8 and the fish genomes that have been sequenced. An examination of the genes in the syntenic segments of the tetraodon and medaka genomes identified candidates for association with ISA resistance in Atlantic salmon based on differential expression profiles from ISA challenges or on the putative biological functions of the proteins they encode. One gene in particular, HIV-EP2/MBP-2, caught our attention as it may influence the expression of several genes that have been implicated in the response to infection by infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Therefore, we suggest that HIV-EP2/MBP-2 is a very strong candidate for the gene associated with the ISAV resistance QTL in Atlantic salmon and is worthy of further study.

  15. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Matthew; Baxter, Jared; Baxter, Rick; Day, Casey; Jensen, Ryan; Petersen, Steve; Larsen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery, we 1) determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2) assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3) created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii). Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures). Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter) spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern.

  16. Have somatic parameters of wild Equidae in captivity been changing?

    OpenAIRE

    NOVOTNÁ, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes commonly occurred to animals under domestication distinguish domestic animals from their wild ancestors. Similar changes on some wild animals kept in captivity (zoological gardens) can also be observed. This diploma thesis concerns these morphological changes on a skeleton of Equidae. For several species and subspecies of this family some osteometric data received from those kept in captivity are compared to those from the wild. A more deta...

  17. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  18. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (psalmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  20. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  1. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  2. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  3. Pacific Salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Gende; R.T. Edwards; M.F. Willson; M.S. Wipfli

    2002-01-01

    almon runs in the Pacific Northwest have been declining for decades, so much so that many runs are threatened or endangered; others have been completely extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). This "salmon crisis" looms large in the public eye, because it has serious and wideranging economic, cultural, and ecological repercussions. Billions of dollars have gone...

  4. Salmon theology: Return to traditional reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Clair

    2007-01-01

    When beauty and utility are divorced in the loss of wonder, beauty begins to perish. Salmon go extinct. The fragility of beauty is the fragility of wilderness. It does not perish due to weakness but from the generosity and vulnerability that are bound up with its usefulness.

  5. Description age-3 brood rainbow trout bred in the conditions of the industral fish farm "Sloboda Banyliv"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mendryshora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of cultivation and give fish-breeding and biological characteristics of age-3 brood rainbow trout grown using industrial technology in the conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv." Methodology. Fish cultivation was carried in tank conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv". The material for the study were age-3 brood rainbow trout obtained from eggs of the fall-spawning form of rainbow trout. Cultivation was carried out in a 216 m2 tank, stocking density of 255 fish/m2, using standard trout culture methods. Statistical analysis of the material was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. Analysis of the variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The analysis criteria were their mean values mean deviations (M±m, standard error (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with specialized feed manufactured by “BioMar” (Denmark with a high protein content (more than 40%. Findings. Based on the performed selective-breeding works aimed at creating brood stocks of rainbow trout, it was found that brood fish reared in the industrial conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv”, despite instable culture conditions, were characterized by a moderate growth rate and had high values of productive and reproductive features. Mean weight of age-3 rainbow trout females was 1282.5 g, fecundity — 3.48 thousand eggs. Mean weight of produced eggs was 239.17 g, while individual parameters were 70.4 mg for the weight and 4.58 mm for the diameter. Originality. For the first time a study aimed at the formation of brood stocks of rainbow trout with analysis of phenotypic and productive features in the conditions of a fish farm with instable temperature and water regimes has been conducted. Practical value. The results of the performed work will allow selecting and forming a brood stock with high values of productive and reproductive features.

  6. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Carr-Harris

    Full Text Available Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years, Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the

  7. Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetski, David J; Chaloner, Dominic T; Tiegs, Scott D; Lamberti, Gary A

    2009-03-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) disturb sediments and fertilize streams with marine-derived nutrients during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers and providers of resource subsidies. While these processes strongly influence the structure and function of salmon streams, the magnitude of salmon influence varies widely across studies. Here, we use meta-analysis to evaluate potential sources of variability among studies in stream ecosystem responses to salmon. Results obtained from 37 publications that collectively included 79 streams revealed positive, but highly inconsistent, overall effects of salmon on dissolved nutrients, sediment biofilm, macroinvertebrates, resident fish, and isotopic enrichment. Variation in these response variables was commonly influenced by salmon biomass, stream discharge, sediment size, and whether studies used artificial carcass treatments or observed a natural spawning run. Dissolved nutrients were positively related to salmon biomass per unit discharge, and the slope of the relationship for natural runs was five to ten times higher than for carcass additions. Mean effects on ammonium and phosphorus were also greater for natural runs than carcass additions, an effect attributable to excretion by live salmon. In contrast, we observed larger positive effects on benthic macroinvertebrates for carcass additions than for natural runs, likely because disturbance by live salmon was absent. Furthermore, benthic macroinvertebrates and biofilm associated with small sediments (salmon while those associated with large sediments (>32 mm) showed a positive response. This comprehensive analysis is the first to quantitatively identify environmental and methodological variables that influence the observed effects of salmon. Identifying sources of variation in salmon-stream interactions is a critical step toward understanding why engineering and subsidy effects vary so dramatically over space and

  8. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  9. CAPTIVE AS AN INSURANCE FORMULA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces subject of an insurance captive entity, with focus on how it could be used as insurance formula for risk management. Captive might be the most appropriate insurance formula for risk management. However, the level of achieved success depends on many factors.Insurance captivesare understood as entities which are formed and owned by companies mostly for the purpose of insuring own risks (pure captive or single parent captive. More and more often captives are also formed by a group of companies (group captives to insure their properties and liabilities towards 3rd parties. Captives are widely used by many companies nowadays. However, many of them,are used solely for a purpose of a risk cession and premium transfer, with an intention to use captivesmore as a profit center in a low taxation country rather than for the purpose of risk management (i.e. a more appropriate role for captive would be to support their owners in enterprise risk management - ERM. This article touches on why captives are not used to their full potential. It may be toochallenging for many decision makers to embrace on captives as risk management formula and extend captives' roles to utilize all possible advantages resulting from owning a captive. Captive can deliver risk management in a more comprehensive way than most commercial insurers on the market. The article also presents advantages and disadvantages of owning an insurance captive.

  10. Coevolutionary interactions between farmers and mafia induce host acceptance of avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Brood parasites exploit their host in order to increase their own fitness. Typically, this results in an arms race between parasite trickery and host defence. Thus, it is puzzling to observe hosts that accept parasitism without any resistance. The 'mafia' hypothesis suggests that these hosts accept parasitism to avoid retaliation. Retaliation has been shown to evolve when the hosts condition their response to mafia parasites, who use depredation as a targeted response to rejection. However, it is unclear if acceptance would also emerge when 'farming' parasites are present in the population. Farming parasites use depredation to synchronize the timing with the host, destroying mature clutches to force the host to re-nest. Herein, we develop an evolutionary model to analyse the interaction between depredatory parasites and their hosts. We show that coevolutionary cycles between farmers and mafia can still induce host acceptance of brood parasites. However, this equilibrium is unstable and in the long-run the dynamics of this host-parasite interaction exhibits strong oscillations: when farmers are the majority, accepters conditional to mafia (the host will reject first and only accept after retaliation by the parasite) have a higher fitness than unconditional accepters (the host always accepts parasitism). This leads to an increase in mafia parasites' fitness and in turn induce an optimal environment for accepter hosts.

  11. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Davies, Nicholas B

    2009-02-10

    Coevolutionary arms races, where adaptations in one party select for counter-adaptations in another and vice versa, are fundamental to interactions between organisms and their predators, pathogens, and parasites [1]. Avian brood parasites and their hosts have emerged as model systems for studying such reciprocal coevolutionary processes [2, 3]. For example, hosts have evolved changes in egg appearance and rejection of foreign eggs in response to brood parasitism from cuckoos, and cuckoos have evolved host-egg mimicry as a counter-response [4-6]. However, the host's front line of defense is protecting the nest from being parasitized in the first place [7-10], yet little is known about the effectiveness of nest defense as an antiparasite adaptation, and its coevolutionary significance remains poorly understood [10]. Here we show first that mobbing of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus by reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus is an effective defense against parasitism. Second, mobbing of cuckoos is a phenotypically plastic trait that is modified strategically according to local parasitism risk. This supports the view that hosts use a "defense in-depth strategy," with successive flexible lines of defense that coevolve with corresponding offensive lines of the parasite. This highlights the need for more holistic research into the coevolutionary consequences when multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolve in concert [11].

  12. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  13. Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

    2009-05-26

    We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood.

  14. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-07

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos.

  15. Enhanced innate immune responses in a brood parasitic cowbird species: degranulation and oxidative burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relative effectiveness of two innate immune responses in two species of New World blackbirds (Passeriformes, Icteridae) that differ in resistance to West Nile virus (WNV). We measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental components of phagocytosis, and we predicted that the functional effectiveness of these innate immune responses would correspond to the species' relative resistance to WNV. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), an obligate brood parasite, had previously shown greater resistance to infection with WNV, lower viremia and faster recovery when infected, and lower subsequent antibody titers than the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), a close relative that is not a brood parasite. We found that cowbird leukocytes were significantly more functionally efficient than those of the blackbird leukocytes and 50% more effective at killing the challenge bacteria. These results suggest that further examination of innate immunity in the cowbird may provide insight into adaptations that underlie its greater resistance to WNV. These results support an eco-immunological interpretation that species like the cowbird, which inhabit ecological niches with heightened exposure to parasites, experience evolutionary selection for more effective immune responses.

  16. Inbreeding influences within-brood heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCS) in an isolated passerine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sheena M; Jamieson, Ian G

    2013-08-01

    Molecular estimates of inbreeding may be made using genetic markers such as microsatellites, however the interpretation of resulting heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) with respect to inbreeding depression is not straightforward. We investigated the relationship between pedigree-determined inbreeding coefficients (f) and HFCs in a closely monitored, reintroduced population of Stewart Island robins (Petroica australis rakiura) on Ulva Island, New Zealand. Using a full sibling design, we focused on differences in juvenile survival associated specifically with individual sibling variation in standardized multilocus heterozygosity (SH) when expected f was identical. We found that within broods, siblings with higher SH at microsatellite loci experienced a higher probability of juvenile survival. This effect, however, was detected primarily within broods that experienced inbreeding or when inbreeding had occurred in their pedigree histories (i.e., at the parents' level). Thus we show, for the first time in a wild population, that the strength of an HFC is partially dependent on the presence of inbreeding events in the recent pedigree history. Our results illustrate the importance of realized effects of inbreeding on genetic variation and fitness and the value of full-sibling designs for the study of HFCs in the context of small, inbred populations. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in captive and pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Reil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of nontuberculous mycobacteria species in the pathology of various reptilian pet species as well as their epidemiological significance of infection transmission to humans. Faeces samples from six living reptiles and organs from ten carcasses were submitted to bacteriological testing during the years 2003–2015. Positive colonies from one faeces sample and two organs showed the presence of a gene coding 65kDa antigen common for all mycobacteria. Further identification to the species level revealed that the isolates belong to Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, later subjected to drug susceptibility testing which confirmed high resistance levels in both isolates. In conclusion, there is a great significance of the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in captive and pet reptiles, presenting reptiles as possible hosts representing a serious threat of transmission of high resistance mycobacterial isolates to humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. avium subsp. hominissuis occurrence in reptiles.

  18. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences.

  19. Initial transference of wild birds to captivity alters stress physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J; Earle, Kristen A; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining wild animals in captivity has long been used for conservation and research. While often suggested that captivity causes chronic stress, impacts on the underlying stress physiology are poorly understood. We used wild-caught chukar (Alectoris chukar) as a model avian species to assess how the initial 10 days of captivity alters the corticosterone (CORT) secretory pathway. In the first few days of captivity, birds lost weight, had lower hematocrit and demonstrated changes in CORT concentrations. Both baseline and restraint-stress-induced CORT concentrations decreased by days 3-5 of captivity and remained significantly lower throughout the 10 days although stress-induced concentrations began to recover by day 9. To delineate potential mechanisms underlying these CORT changes, we evaluated alterations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although chukar appear to be resistant to arginine vasotocin's (AVT) effects on CORT release, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulated CORT release; however, ACTH stimulation did not differ during the 10 days of captivity. In contrast, negative feedback axis sensitivity, as determined by both dexamethasone suppression as well as endogenous negative feedback, decreased by day 5 but was regained by day 9. In addition, the combined stressors of capture and long distance transport eliminated the animals' ability to mount an acute CORT response on the day following the move. Therefore, introduction into captivity appeared to shift the chukar into a temporary state of chronic stress that began to recover within 9days. The duration of these alterations likely varies due to differences in capture techniques, transport distance, and species studied.

  20. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats. © 2015

  1. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  2. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  3. Reduced reproductive success of hatchery coho salmon in the wild: insights into most likely mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Véronique; Moyer, Gregory R; Jackson, Laura S; Blouin, Michael S; Banks, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Supplementation of wild salmonids with captive-bred fish is a common practice for both commercial and conservation purposes. However, evidence for lower fitness of captive-reared fish relative to wild fish has accumulated in recent years, diminishing the apparent effectiveness of supplementation as a management tool. To date, the mechanism(s) responsible for these fitness declines remain unknown. In this study, we showed with molecular parentage analysis that hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) had lower reproductive success than wild fish once they reproduced in the wild. This effect was more pronounced in males than in same-aged females. Hatchery spawned fish that were released as unfed fry (age 0), as well as hatchery fish raised for one year in the hatchery (released as smolts, age 1), both experienced lower lifetime reproductive success (RS) than wild fish. However, the subset of hatchery males that returned as 2-year olds (jacks) did not exhibit the same fitness decrease as males that returned as 3-year olds. Thus, we report three lines of evidence pointing to the absence of sexual selection in the hatchery as a contributing mechanism for fitness declines of hatchery fish in the wild: (i) hatchery fish released as unfed fry that survived to adulthood still had low RS relative to wild fish, (ii) age-3 male hatchery fish consistently showed a lower relative RS than female hatchery fish (suggesting a role for sexual selection), and (iii) age-2 jacks, which use a sneaker mating strategy, did not show the same declines as 3-year olds, which compete differently for females (again, implicating sexual selection). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A stage-structured Bayesian hierarchical model for salmon lice populations at individual salmon farms – Estimated from multiple farm data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrin, Magne Tommy; Huseby, Ragnar Bang; Stien, Audun; Grøntvedt, Randi Nygaard; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jansen, Peder A

    2017-01-01

    Salmon farming has become a prosperous international industry over the last decades. Along with growth in the production farmed salmon, however, an increasing threat by pathogens has emerged. Of special concern is the propagation and spread of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To gain insight into this parasite’s population dynamics in large scale salmon farming system, we present a fully mechanistic stage-structured population model for the salmon louse, also allowing for complexiti...

  5. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  6. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Suhk, Hyo-Chung; Shin, Ho-Jun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Han, Eun-Taek; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2001-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after Ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea. PMID:11775333

  7. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  8. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  9. Captives of the First World War in the Kurgan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichkov Evgeniy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of locating foreign war prisoners in the Kurgan district from September 1914 to January 1917 and provides the data on their number and placement process. The author studies in detail the employment of captives in the economy of the district and characterizes the food, monetary and other regulations. The article also contains the information about companies and jobs where captives were involved and analyzes the legal rules applicable to captives and their practical implementation. The overview of the governance structure of captives is given. On the basis of extensive archival material, the author provides many early-unknown or little-studied historical facts about Trans-Urals in a given period. The conclusion is made about the importance of captives’ labor for the economic development of the Kurgan district during the First World War. The war prisoners were deeply involved in the economic development of the Kurgan district, their number was considerable, and they represented the major group of the population. It is also worth mentioning that the conditions of captives affected directly the military situation in the country – if at the beginning of the war, they were actually recognized by the Russian army, to its completion the allowance has been abbreviated in order to save the military.

  10. Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

  11. How Much of Language, If Any, Came About in the Same Sort of Way as the Brooding Chamber in Snails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2001-01-01

    Critically assesses the merits and limitations of four conceptions of language genesis. Focuses on the conception that language, like the brooding chamber in certain snail species, came about through cooption as a by-product of something else. (Author/VWL)

  12. The reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in worker brood of Africanized and hybrid honey bees in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon, R.A.; Sommeijer, M.J.; Ruijter, de A.; Veen, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    From February to July 2001, the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in artificially infested worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees (AHB) (Apis mellifera) and hybrids (HF1) of AHB x European honey bees was investigated in Costa Rica. No significant differences were found between AHB and

  13. First evidence of conspecific brood parasitism in song sparrows with comments on methods sufficient to document this behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; J. Letitia Grenier; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard; Mark E. Hauber

    2006-01-01

    Conspecific brood parasitism occurs in many songbird species but has not been reported in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). In three separate study areas where breeding Song Sparrows experience heavy nest predation pressure and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism, we observed six instances in which newly laid eggs were attributable to female Song Sparrows...

  14. Deep water, an effect on the temperature for the management of caligodosis in the Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, Roberto; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco; Olivares-Ferretti, Pamela; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery; Laboratorio de Inmuno Parasitología Molecular, Centro de Excelencia en Medicina Traslacional, Departamento de Ciencias Preclínicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco; Parodi, Jorge; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco

    2017-01-01

    Salmon farming is one of the pillars of the Chilean economy but due the emerging of many diseases, including the ecto-parasitism caused by Caligus rogercresseyi, the salmon industry has decreased their production indices. Based on that, alternative rearing systems are being evaluated for salmon cultivation, one of them fish farming in deep water, where the temperature is lower than the temperature of the surface, as C. rogercresseyi is a parasite whose life cycle is water temperature dependen...

  15. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  16. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  17. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samas, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights

  18. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  19. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica.

  20. A meta-analysis of lesser prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing habitats: implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and range of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been reduced by >90% since European settlement of the Great Plains of North America. Currently, lesser prairie-chickens occupy 3 general vegetation communities: sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia), sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and mixed-grass prairies juxtaposed with Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. As a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act, there is a need for a synthesis that characterizes habitat structure rangewide. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood habitats to determine whether there was an overall effect (Hedges' d) of habitat selection and to estimate average (95% CI) habitat characteristics at use sites. We estimated effect sizes (di) from the difference between use (nests and brood sites) and random sampling sites for each study (n = 14), and derived an overall effect size (d++). There was a general effect for habitat selection as evidenced by low levels of variation in effect sizes across studies and regions. There was a small to medium effect (d++) = 0.20-0.82) of selection for greater vertical structure (visual obstruction) by nesting females in both vegetation communities, and selection against bare ground (d++ = 0.20-0.58). Females with broods exhibited less selectivity for habitat components except for vertical structure. The variation of d++ was greater during nesting than brooding periods, signifying a seasonal shift in habitat use, and perhaps a greater range of tolerance for brood-rearing habitat. The overall estimates of vegetation cover were consistent with those provided in management guidelines for the species.

  1. Import risk assessment for salmon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, P T; Wilson, D W

    1993-12-01

    The authors discuss the risk assessment currently being conducted by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) on the importation of salmon products. AQIS conducted a public consultation on the proposal, in line with Australian Government policy on transparency and accountability in the quarantine decision-making process. The authors examine the factors which should be taken into account in the assessment of the risk associated with the importation of such products, and note the difficulties encountered with the epidemiology of fish diseases.

  2. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  3. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A critical size and period hypothesis to explain natural regulation of salmon abundance and the linkage to climate and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, R. J.; Mahnken, Conrad

    We hypothesise that salmon year class strength is determined in two stages during the first year in the ocean. There is an early natural mortality that is mostly related to predation, which is followed by a physiologically-based mortality. Juvenile salmon that fail to reach a critical size by the end of their first marine summer do not survive the following winter. In this study we describe our initial tests of this critical size and critical period hypothesis using data from ocean surveys of juvenile salmon and from experimental feeding studies on coho. Conservative swept volume abundance estimates for juvenile coho, and possibly chinook, indicate that there is high mortality in fall and winter during their first year in the sea. Studies of otolith weight show that the length and otolith-weight relationship for young coho changes in the early fall of their first ocean year. Studies of growth and associated hormone levels in feeding studies show that slow growing juvenile coho are stunted and deficient in an insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Juvenile coho sampled in September had low IGF-I values, indicative of poor growth. The results of these studies provide evidence for the general hypothesis that growth-related mortality occurs late in the first marine year and may be important in determining the strength of the year class (brood year). The link between total mortality and climate could be operating via the availability of nutrients regulating the food supply and hence competition for food (i.e. bottom-up regulation).

  6. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus) microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Junior,Rui S.; Siqueira,Amanda K.; Campagner,Michelle V.; Salerno,Tatiana; Soares,Taíssa C.S.; Lucheis,Simone B.; Paes,Antonio C.; Barraviera,Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ), individual captivity (IC) and collective captivity (CC). Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%), 38 (90.48%) and 21 (42.86%) microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%), 3 (7.14%) and 25 (51.02%) microor...

  7. Neosporosis in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronstedt-Fell, A; Richter, B; Voracek, T; Kübber-Heiss, A

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Neospora caninum has been diagnosed in a variety of animal species; however, reports in marsupials are rare. A captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) died suddenly and was subjected to necropsy examination. The main finding was necrotizing myocarditis associated with protozoan parasites. The protozoa were identified as N. caninum by use of immunohistochemistry and partial gene sequence analysis. Neospora and Toxoplasma should be considered a possible cause of disease in captive marsupials. Further work is required to determine whether marsupials are an accidental or terminal host of this protozoan in order to better understand the host-parasite relationship. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental Care in a Stressful World: Experimentally Elevated Cortisol and Brood Size Manipulation Influence Nest Success Probability and Nest-Tending Behavior in a Wild Teleost Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algera, Dirk A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Zolderdo, Aaron J; Cooke, Steven J

    Parental care is an advantageous reproductive behavior, as the fitness of the caregiver is increased through improving the chances of its offspring's survival. Parental care occurs in a variety of teleost fishes. The body size of parental fish and the size of their brood can affect nest abandonment decisions, where compared with smaller fish with smaller broods, larger fish with larger broods typically invest more energy into reproductive events because they have less future reproductive potential. Although essential for basal metabolism and body maintenance functions, when glucocorticoid hormones (e.g., cortisol) are chronically elevated, as can occur during stress, fish may experience impairments in behavior and immune function, leading to compromised health and condition. Anthropogenic stressors during parental care can lead to elevated stress, therefore making it necessary to understand how stress influences an already-challenging period. Using smallmouth bass as a model, a gradient of body sizes, and experimentally manipulated brood size (i.e., reducing large broods and supplementing small broods) and cortisol levels (i.e., elevated via slow-release intraperitoneal cocoa butter implants containing cortisol versus controls), we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive success and parental care behaviors (i.e., aggression, nest tending) of nest-guarding male smallmouth bass are influenced by parental body size, brood size, and cortisol level. Overall, there was a relationship between cortisol treatment and nest success in which larger fish exhibited lower success when cortisol levels were elevated. Brood size had a significant effect on fish-tending behavior, independent of cortisol level and body size. Lending partial support to our hypothesis, the results of this study indicate that the reproductive success of guarding male smallmouth bass is influenced by cortisol level and that tending behavior is affected by brood size.

  10. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  11. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied or...

  14. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  15. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw. PMID:28098540

  16. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand is d...

  17. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  18. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  19. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  20. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  1. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  2. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  3. Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2003-01-01

    In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon…

  4. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  5. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats Fed to Captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoological gardens showcase wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases had been described to be a big threat to animals in captivity, leading to high mortality in some cases. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats fed to ...

  6. An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, M. J. L.; Goris, M. G.; Bos, J. H.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Dorrestein, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity is described. In a zoo in The Netherlands 5 adult seals died within 12 days. At necropsy all animals showed signs of acute septicaemia, consistent with acute leptospirosis. Serological examination of one animal was positive for

  7. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Sterenborg, Marlijn; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress—or, more appropriately, “allostatic overload”—may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine

  8. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.

  9. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife

  10. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations

  11. Assessment of Captive Management of Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed captive management of Nile crocodile in three towns of Benue State (Makurdi, Gboko and Katsina-Ala). A research survey was carried out in the study area with structure questionnaires and oral interviews administered to the respondents. The assessment consist of the farm size, type, the quantity and ...

  12. Ascaridosis in captive reticulated python( Python reticulatus ) | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...

  13. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Service Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2042- PDM, 4401 North...

  14. Clinical case report of oesophagostomiasis in captive Hamadryas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present here a clinical case of Oesophagostomiasis in a captive hamadryas baboon (Papiohamadryas) in Ethiopia who died of acute peritonitis as a result of the infection with the parasite. Post-mortem was performed and colon tissue analyzed by cytology. This case highlights the importance of Oesophagostomiasis in ...

  15. Fatal trichuriosis in a captive baboon ( papio anubis ) in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of fatal trichuriosis in a captive baboon at the zoological garden of the university of Ibadan is reported. The baboon was diarrhoeic, emaciated and had severe haemorrhagic typhilitis. Large numbers of worms identified to be Trichuris trrichuria were found in the caecum. The pathological findings are discussed.

  16. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  17. Multiple spinal curvatures in a captive African dwarf crocodile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic Bone Disease is a non-infectious disease common to reptiles in captivity. It is a consequence of improper diet and husbandry. A diet of flesh without bone or calcium supplements can cause an imbalance leading to the signs and symptoms seen. This can also be worsened by lack of, or insufficient, Vitamin D. It ...

  18. Body growth of captive eland Taurotragus oryx in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body growth of captive eland Taurotragus oryx in. Natal. R.C.V. Jeffery and J. Hanks. Department of Zoology, and Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Post-natal growth in live mass and in body dimensions with age is described .... purely ideal representations of growth in live mass. In practice ...

  19. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  20. A preliminary report on locomotory activity in wild and captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... radio telemetry. In addition, locomotory activity of a captive juvenile male and adult female C. trevelyani was monitored in a special laboratory enclosure for 30 days. Preliminary results indicate that the giant golden mole has a primarily nocturnal regimen possibly associated with its feeding physiology or thermoregulation.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  2. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  3. Development of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and its effects on juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, E; Sweeten, T; Bennett, W; Jones, S R M

    2013-11-06

    Responses of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis were assessed in controlled laboratory trials. Juvenile salmon were exposed to 100 copepodids fish-1 (Trials 1 and 2) or 300 copepodids fish-1 (Trial 3) at mean weights of approximately 40, 80 and 135 g, respectively. Infections occurred on all salmon in all trials, and mean abundances (infection densities) ranged between 3.3 and 19.4 lice fish-1 (0.08 and 0.44 lice g-1 fish) in Trial 1, between 7.2 and 18.3 (0.09 and 0.22) in Trial 2 and between 19.5 and 60.7 (0.15 and 0.46) in Trial 3. A cumulative mortality of 24.4% occurred in Trial 3. At attachment sites on gills, we observed hyperplasia of basal epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae occasionally associated with a cellular infiltrate. At attachment sites on fins, partial to complete skin erosion occurred, with limited evidence of hyperplasia or inflammation. Scale loss and abrasions coincided with pre-adult lice around 20 d post infection (dpi). Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 dpi), 2 (15 and 36 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi), whereas haematocrit was significantly depressed in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 and 28 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi). Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated in exposed fish at 20 dpi (Trial 3). Physiological changes and mortality were related to the intensity of infection and became most prominent with pre-adult stages, suggesting patterns of infection and response in sockeye salmon similar to those reported for Atlantic and Chinook salmon.

  4. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Name Salmon Species Impassible Man-made Barrier (if present) 17110001 WA Fraser (Whatcom) Coho salmon n... Lower Columbia-Sandy River Chinook and coho salmon Impassable Man-made Barrier 17080002 WA Lewis River... salmon n/a 17020016 WA Upper Columbia - Priest Rapids Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17060101 OR/ID Hells...

  5. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  6. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  7. De novo lipogenesis in Atlantic salmon adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Torgersen, Jacob; Škugor, Stanko; Navarro, Isabel; Ruyter, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous teleost fish utilize glucose poorly, and the reason for this is not known. It is possible that the capacity of adipocytes to synthesize lipids from carbohydrate precursors through a process known as "de novo lipogenesis" (DNL) is one of the factors that contributes to glucose intolerance in Atlantic salmon. Primary adipocytes from Atlantic salmon differentiated in vitro were incubated with radiolabelled glucose in order to explore the capacity of salmon adipocytes to synthesize and deposit lipids from glucose through DNL. The lipid-storage capacity of adipocytes incubated with glucose was compared with that of cells incubated with the fatty acid palmitic acid. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to assess changes of genes and proteins involved in glucose and lipid transport and metabolism. Less than 0.1% of the radiolabelled glucose was metabolized to the fatty acids 16:0 and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase products 16:1 and 18:1 by DNL, whereas approximately 40% was converted to glycerol to form the triacylglycerol backbone of lipids. Transcriptional analysis indicated that adipocytes ensure the availability of necessary cofactors and other substrates for lipid synthesis and storage from glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and glyceroneogenesis. We have shown for the first time that the DNL pathway is active in fish adipocytes. The capacity of the pathway to convert glucose into cellular lipids for storage is relatively low. The limited capacity of adipocytes to utilize glucose as a substrate for lipid deposition may contribute to glucose intolerance in salmonids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  9. Effect of Varroa destructor, Wounding and Varroa Homogenate on Gene Expression in Brood and Adult Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleoglu, Gun; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls. The effect of V. destructor parasitism in adults relative to the controls was not significantly different from buffer injection for AmHym and AmVit2 expression, and it was not significantly different from homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. In brood, V. destructor parasitism, buffer injection and homogenate injection decreased AmVit2 expression, whereas AmHym expression was decreased by V. destructor parasitism but increased by buffer and homogenate injection relative to the controls. The effect of varroa parasitism in brood was not significantly different from buffer or homogenate injection for AmPuf68 and AmVit2. Expression levels of the four genes did not correlate with detectable viral levels in either brood or adults. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of V. destructor parasitism on honey bee gene expression are also shared with other types of stresses. Therefore, some of the effects of V. destructor on honey bees may be mostly due to wounding and injection of foreign compounds into the hemolymph of the bee during parasitism. Although both brood and adults are naturally parasitized by V. destructor, their gene expression responded differently, probably the result of different mechanisms of host responses during development.

  10. Intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation and adjustment symptoms in couples: The role of co-brooding and co-reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Horn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult emotion regulation is not only occurring within the person but includes strategies that happen in social interactions and that are framed as co-regulating. The current study investigates the role of the interpersonal emotion regulation strategies of co-reappraisal and co-brooding in couples for adjustment disorder symptoms as the disorder will be outlined in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11. Methods Couples registered together in an online questionnaire study reporting whether or not they are adjusting to a major stressor that is psychologically challenging to them. In total, one hundred and forty-six participants (N = 73 male; N = 73 female reported having experienced a major stressor in the last 12 months and were thus be identified as at risk for adjustment disorder. Those individuals at risk were assessed for adjustment disorder and depressive symptoms; intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation (co-/brooding, co-/reappraisal were assessed not only in the individual at risk but also in the romantic partner. Results Regression-based dyadic analyses revealed that above and beyond intrapersonal emotion regulation, interpersonal co-brooding and for the female participants also co-reappraisal were significantly associated with symptoms of adjustment disorder and depression, standardized betas varied between .24 and .36, suggesting medium effect sizes. An association with the female partner’s tendency to reappraise with fewer symptoms in the male partner at risk for adjustment disorder could also be observed. Conclusions Co-brooding and co-reappraisal represent emotion regulation strategies that happen in social interaction and seem to play a relevant role in the context of adjustment disorders above and beyond the commonly assessed intrapersonal emotion regulation strategies.

  11. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  12. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  13. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  14. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  15. White-cheeked Pintail duckling and brood survival across wetland types at Humacao Nature Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Lancaster, Joseph D.; Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Duckling survival is an important influence on recruitment in several North American Anas species. White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis) breeding in Puerto Rico encounter a variety of wetland types that may influence duckling survival. We monitored fates of 92 radio-tagged ducklings in 31 broods in 5 wetland habitat types at Humacao Nature Reserve in southeastern Puerto Rico from 2000 to 2002. Wetlands included 2 separate coastal lagoon complexes, mangrove forest, and managed and unmanaged wetland impoundments containing herbaceous vegetation. We used known-fate models to estimate daily and interval survival rates of ducklings and broods. We conducted conservative and liberal analyses of survival because of uncertain fates of 36 ducklings. In the conservative analysis, the most parsimonious model for duckling survival contained wetland type and a positive influence of daily precipitation. In the liberal analysis, duckling survival also varied among wetlands, was positively influenced by daily precipitation, but negatively influenced by hatch date. Brood survival was also positively influenced by precipitation and female body mass. Managed wetland impoundments and shallowly flooded lagoon habitats containing ferns, interspersed cattail (Typha dominguensis), and other herbaceous cover promoted up to 3 times higher survival of ducklings over the course of a 30-day duckling period than we found in mangroves, more deeply flooded lagoons with predominately restricted shoreline cover, or unmanaged impoundments overgrown with vegetation. Broad confidence intervals for survival estimates among wetlands preclude unequivocal interpretation, but our results suggest that White-cheeked Pintail ducklings survive poorly in mangroves but benefit from appropriate management.

  16. Repression and Recuperation of Brood Production in Bombus terrestris Bumble Bees Exposed to a Pulse of the Neonicotinoid Pesticide Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cresswell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days ‘on dose’ followed by 14 days ‘off dose’) to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae) produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers). During the initial ‘on dose’ period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg−1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following ‘off dose’ period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg−1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop. PMID:24224015

  17. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Laycock

    Full Text Available Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose' to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers. During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  18. Effect of the presence of brood and fungus on the nest architecture and digging activity of Acromyrmex subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the stimuli that trigger digging behavior in Acromyrmex subterraneus during nest building. The hypothesis was that the presence of the fungus garden and/or brood triggers the excavation of tunnels and chambers. For the experiment, the excavation rate of individually marked workers kept in plastic cylinders filled with soil was recorded. Four treatments were applied: (1 30 medium-sized workers, 5 g fungus garden and 30 brood items (larvae and pupae; (2 30 medium-sized workers and 5 g fungus garden; (3 30 medium-sized workers and 30 brood items; (4 30 medium-sized workers without fungus and brood. After 24 h, morphological parameters of nest structure (length and width of the chambers and tunnels in cm and the volume of excavated soil were recorded. In contrast to the expected findings, no change in morphological structure, rate of excavation by workers, or volume of excavated soil was observed between treatments, except for tunnel width, which was greater, when no brood or fungus garden was present. Thus, the results do not support the hypothesis that the fungus garden and/or brood are local stimuli for nest excavation or that they mold the internal architecture of the nest. Although this hypothesis was confirmed for Acromyrmex lundii and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, the same does not apply to A. subterraneus. The digging behavior of workers is probably the result of adaptation during nest building in different habitats.

  19. Brooding rumination as a mediator in the relation between early maladaptive schemas and symptoms of depression and social anxiety in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther; Padilla, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Theory states that different cognitive constructs can be included in an integrated sequential model. This 3-wave longitudinal study assessed whether schema domains predict brooding rumination and brooding in turn predict depression and social anxiety symptoms among adolescents. A total of 1170 adolescents (M(age) = 13.44 years old, SD(age) = 1.30) completed measures of schema domains, brooding rumination, depression and social anxiety symptoms at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up (T1, T2, T3, respectively). Results revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain at T1 predicted prospective depression symptoms at T3 directly but not through brooding rumination. However, this schema domain did not predict social anxiety symptoms. The Other-Directedness schema domain at T1 predicted social anxiety symptoms at T3 both directly and through brooding at T2. Furthermore, this schema domain also predicted depression symptoms at T3 through brooding at T2. Identifying specific schema domains and the mechanisms through which these domains predict psychological symptoms has implications for interventions with adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body.

  1. Reproductive biology of a brooding Diopatra species: Diopatra marocensis Paxton et al., 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A.; Quintino, V.; Gentil, F.; Freitas, R.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of Diopatra marocensisPaxton et al., 1995 has been studied in a population from Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal with monthly samples, during a two-year period. This species presents a direct development with brooding in the parental tube and specimens with gametes inside the coelom and female tubes with eggs and/or larvae were observed in every sampling month. This suggested that the species reproduces during the whole year, with the main reproductive period from April to September. The male:female sex ratio ranged from 1:2 to 1:4, with females always dominating the population. A comparison with other Diopatra Audouin and Milne Edwards, 1833 (Onuphidae) showed that D. marocensis is the largest species with direct development and with the highest number of eggs and larvae inside the parental tube. With the exception of the colour, due to the presence of the gametes in the coelom cavity, no morphological differences between males and females were observed.

  2. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  3. A generalist brood parasite modifies use of a host in response to reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louder, Matthew I M; Schelsky, Wendy M; Albores, Amber N; Hoover, Jeffrey P

    2015-09-07

    Avian obligate brood parasites, which rely solely on hosts to raise their young, should choose the highest quality hosts to maximize reproductive output. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are extreme host generalists, yet female cowbirds could use information based on past reproductive outcomes to make egg-laying decisions thus minimizing fitness costs associated with parasitizing low-quality hosts. We use a long-term (21 years) nest-box study of a single host, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea), to show that local cowbird reproductive success, but not host reproductive success, was positively correlated with the probability of parasitism the following year. Experimental manipulations of cowbird success corroborated that female cowbirds make future decisions about which hosts to use based on information pertaining to past cowbird success, both within and between years. The within-year pattern, in particular, points to local cowbird females selecting hosts based on past reproductive outcomes. This, coupled with high site fidelity of female cowbirds between years, points to information use, rather than cowbird natal returns alone, increasing parasitism rates on highly productive sites between years. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Rumination in Adolescence: the Distinctive Impact of Brooding and Reflection on Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-06-20

    Rumination has a crucial role in the onset, severity and maintenance of depression in adolescent and adult populations. The Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) is the most widely self-report instrument used to assess individual differences in the tendency to engage in ruminative responses style. This paper aims to test the factor structure of the 10-item RRS and the gender-based measurement invariance, in a community sample of adolescents, using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Participants were 542 adolescents (53% females) with a mean age of 14 years old (SD = 1.75) from middle and secondary schools (years of education's mean = 9.46, SD = 1.60) in Portugal. Results confirm the two-factor structure of the RRS composed by brooding and reflection dimensions (GFI = .93, CFI = .90, TLI = .87, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .11, 90% C.I. [0.092 to 0.121]) and the invariance across gender (GFI = .91, CFI = .89, TLI = .85, RMSEA = .08, 90% C.I. [0.069 to 0.090], p anxiety and stress symptoms (p rumination than male adolescents. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Portuguese version of RRS and suggest that this short version is an economical, valid and reliable measure to assess ruminative response styles in adolescence.

  5. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  6. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Moskát, Csaba; Bán, Miklós; Grim, Tomás; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2009-11-11

    Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  7. Characterization of pollen and bacterial community composition in brood provisions of a small carpenter bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-05-01

    Many insects obtain gut microbes from their diet, but how a mother's foraging patterns influence the microbes found in her offspring's food remains an open question. To address this gap, we studied a bee that forages for pollen from multiple species of plants and may therefore acquire diverse bacteria from different plants. We tested the hypothesis that pollen diversity correlates with bacterial diversity by simultaneously characterizing these two communities in bee brood provisions for the first time. We used deep sequencing of the plant RBCL gene and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize pollen and bacterial diversity. We then tested for associations between pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, as well as co-occurrence of specific bacteria and pollen types. We found that both pollen and bacterial communities were extremely diverse, indicating that mother bees visit a wide variety of flowers for pollen and nectar and subsequently bring a diversity of microbes back into their nests. Pollen and bacterial species richness and community composition, however, were not correlated. Certain pollen types significantly co-occurred with the most proportionally abundant bacteria, indicating that the plants these pollen types came from may serve as reservoirs for these bacteria. Even so, the overall diversity of these communities appears to mask these associations at a broader scale. Further study of these pollen and bacteria associations will be important for understanding the complicated relationship between bacteria and wild bees. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.

    1954-01-01

    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  9. Production of trout offspring from triploid salmon parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Shikina, Shinya; Kanno, Megumi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2007-09-14

    Many salmonids have become at risk of extinction. For teleosts whose eggs cannot be cryopreserved, developing techniques other than egg cryopreservation to save genetic resources is imperative. In this study, spermatogonia from rainbow trout were intraperitoneally transplanted into newly hatched sterile triploid masu salmon. Transplanted trout spermatogonia underwent spermatogenesis and oogenesis in male and female recipients, respectively. At 2 years after transplantation, triploid salmon recipients only produced trout sperm and eggs. With use of these salmon as parents, we successfully produced only donor-derived trout offspring. Thus, by transplanting cryopreserved spermatogonia into sterile xenogeneic recipients, we can generate individuals of a threatened species.

  10. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  12. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang; Gordon H. Reeves; James D. Hall; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchrcs kisutch) on the density, growth rate, body condition, and survival to outmigration of juvenile coho salmon on the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA. During the fall of 1999 and 2000, fish rearing in beaver ponds that received spawning salmon were compared with fish from...

  13. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  14. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  16. Captivity influences immune responses, stress endocrinology, and organ size in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ashley C; Lovern, Matthew B; DuRant, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We tested how captivity influences stress endocrinology, immune responses, and organ mass, and also investigated if the production or regulation of corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, correlated with changes in immunity. We found that baseline corticosterone concentrations and maximum capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone increase following captivity and remain elevated after 9weeks of captivity. A measure of innate immune function, the bactericidal ability of plasma, also increased with time spent in captivity. Wound healing was also influenced by time spent in captivity, with birds taking almost 2days longer to heal if they were wounded after 3weeks in captivity when compared with birds that were wounded immediately upon capture. Additionally, captivity caused notable reductions in spleen and liver mass. Together, these results imply that captivity can have long-lasting effects on house sparrow corticosterone release and immune function, and suggest that even after 9weeks house sparrows do not acclimate physiologically to life in captivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief communication: Morphological effects of captivity: A geometric morphometric analysis of the dorsal side of the scapula in captive-bred and wild-caught Hominoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Potau, Josep Maria; Arias-Martorell, Julia; Pastor, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Many osteological collections from museums and research institutions consist mainly of remains from captive-bred animals. The restrictions related to the space of their enclosures and the nature of its substrate are likely to affect the locomotor and postural behaviors of captive-bred animals, which are widely considered uninformative regarding bone morphology and anatomical adaptations of wild animals, especially so in the case of extant great apes. We made a landmark-based geometric morphometrics analysis of the dorsal side of the scapular bone of both wild-caught and captive-bred great apes to clarify the effect of captivity on the morphology of a bone greatly involved in locomotion. The comparison suggested that captivity did not have a significant effect on the landmark configuration used, neither on average scapular shape nor shape variability, being impossible to distinguish the scapulae of a captive-bred animal from that of a wild-caught one. This indicates that the analyzed scapulae from captive Hominoidea specimens may be used in morphological or taxonomic analyses since they show no atypical morphological traits caused by living conditions in captivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groman David B

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV, which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to elute from Atlantic salmon erythrocytes cause low mortality in challenge experiments using Atlantic salmon. Previous work on ISAV-induced haemagglutination using the highly pathogenic ISAV strain NBISA01 and the low pathogenic ISAV strain RPC/NB-04-0851, showed endocytosis of NBISA01 but not RPC/NB-04-0851. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess the viral RNA levels in the ISAV-induced haemagglutination reaction samples, and we observed a slight increase in viral RNA transcripts by 36 hours in the haemagglutination reaction with NBISA01 virus when the experiment was terminated. However, a longer sampling interval was considered necessary to confirm ISAV replication in fish erythrocytes and to determine if the infected cells mounted any innate immune response. This study examined the possible ISAV replication and Type I interferon (IFN system gene induction in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes following ISAV haemagglutination. Results Haemagglutination assays were performed using Atlantic salmon erythrocytes and one haemagglutination unit of the two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-0851, of differing genotypes and pathogenicities. Haemagglutination induced by the highly pathogenic NBISA01 but not the low pathogenic RPC/NB-04-0851 resulted in productive infection as evidenced by increased ISAV segment 8 transcripts and increase in the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 by 5 days of incubation. Moreover, reverse transcription (RT quantitative PCR used to compare mRNA levels of key Type I IFN system

  19. Predation of Karluk River sockeye salmon by coho salmon and char

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J.D.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Emlen, J.M.; Wilmot, R.L.; Finn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The number of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Alaska's Karluk River (Fig. 1) declined from millions to thousands during the early part of the present century. Rounsefell (1958) discussed alternative explanations for the decline including a general loss offertility ofthe system as the number of salmon carcasses declined, competition, overfishing, subtle changes in climate, and predation; he concluded that the combined effect of predation and fishing was the most probable explanation. Later, Van Cleave and Bevan (1973) suggested that the weir constructed in the river each year to facilitate counting the fish as they entered the system was the most probable cause ofthe decline. Itprevented free movement of both adults and juveniles in the river. All of these hypotheses remain as potential explanations for the decline

  20. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    House, Bailey R; Silk, Joan B; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial...... behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained...... and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing...

  1. Skin mycoflora of Cebus primates kept in captivity and semicaptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedullo, José Daniel L; Rossi, Claudio N; Gambale, Walderez; Germano, Pedro Manuel L; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the fungal mycoflora in healthy tufted capuchins primates (Cebus sp) kept in captivity and semicaptivity to allow a more realistic interpretation on the basis of fungi isolated from their skin. Furthermore, we aimed at evaluating the potential risk of infection to humans by fungi perpetuated in the tegument of monkeys of this genus. For the collection of skin material, the carpet method was used, followed by seeding in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media, Mycosel agar, Dermatophyte Test Medium and Sabouraud agar supplemented with olive oil. Seventeen genera of fungi were detected, being three of them isolated only in the captivity animals (Acremonium - Cephalosporium, Phoma and Trichosporon). The genera of fungi with the higher frequencies were identified in the semicaptivity capuchins (Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium). Many of the genera of fungi identified are potential pathogens for immune-compromised monkeys and humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  3. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  4. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  5. Serratospiculosis in Captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Inês B; Schediwy, Marion; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Marreros, Nelson; Stokar-Regenscheit, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.

  6. An approach to salmon farming in Norway : a future for land based salmon farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Tvete, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give an overview over the salmon farming industry in Norway. It presents some theory around production- and investment costs associated with land basedand sea based fish farming, as well as challenges around environmental issues, technology, fish feed etc. Several production concepts such as open cages in the sea, cages offshore, closed operations in the sea, both exposed and protected and land based production sites are available today, and the cha...

  7. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anna M.; Hobson, Elizabeth A.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post-breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life history data for an at-risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively managing captive populations of parrots. PMID:22389582

  8. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  9. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Dolphin Population Cory D Champagne & Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92106 phone...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. It determines...baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluates the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops

  10. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K.; Reddy, P. Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90?% of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to ac...

  11. Lumbar laminectomy in a captive, adult polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, John F.; Vakharia, Kunal; Moreland, Douglas B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. Case Description: A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found t...

  12. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  13. Spontaneous Reproductive Tract Lesions in Aged Captive Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffee, B. K.; Beck, A. P.; Owston, M. A.; Kumar, S.; Baze, W. B.; Magden, E. R.; Dick, E. J.; Lammey, M.; Abee, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have served as an important model for studies of reproductive diseases and aging-related disorders in humans. However, limited information is available about spontaneously occurring reproductive tract lesions in aging chimpanzees. In this article, the authors present histopathologic descriptions of lesions identified in the reproductive tract, including the mammary gland, of 33 female and 34 male aged chimpanzees from 3 captive populations. The most common findin...

  14. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  15. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  16. AFSC/FMA/Salmon Genetics From Observer Speimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data of salmon bycatch samples collected by fisheries observers are used for mixed-stock analyses to determine geographic region of origin. This work is done...

  17. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  18. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  19. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...