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Sample records for salivary parc5 cells

  1. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  2. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  3. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-01-01

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4?5 weeks)...

  4. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

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    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  5. Salivary

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    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  6. Role of glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor in salivary gland stem cell response to irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xiaohong; Varendi, Kärt; Maimets, Martti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Recently, stem cell therapy has been proposed to allow regeneration of radiation damaged salivary glands. It has been suggested that glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of mice salivary gland stem cells (mSGSCs). The purpose of this study...... was to investigate the role of GDNF in the modulation of mSGSC response to irradiation and subsequent salivary gland regeneration. Methods Salivary gland sphere derived cells of Gdnf hypermorphic (Gdnfwt/hyper) and wild type mice (Gdnfwt/wt) were irradiated (IR) with γ-rays at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy. mSGSC survival...

  7. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...

  8. Adenoviral delivery of Tousled kinase for the protection of salivary glands against ionizing radiation damage.

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    Palaniyandi, S; Odaka, Y; Green, W; Abreo, F; Caldito, G; De Benedetti, A; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, G

    2011-03-01

    Oral complications of salivary hypofunction often afflict cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Dry mouth or xerostomia is an undesirable consequence of radiotherapy that compromises normal oral functions in addition to causing odynophagia and increasing the patient's risk of oral infections and dental caries. Radiation-induced xerostomia is irreversible, and palliative measures to provide symptomatic relief remain the mainstay of treatment. Previously, we identified a splice variant of a cellular kinase, Tousled-like kinase 1B (TLK1B), which when overexpressed protects normal epithelial cells against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death. To address the need to protect salivary glands in patients undergoing regional radiotherapy, we investigated whether preemptive expression of TLK1B in salivary glands protects against IR. In stably-derived salivary cell lines in vitro, TLK1B expression increased cell survival after IR. Cells expressing exogenous TLK1B were less radiosensitive (A5-TLK1B, α/β=0.67 Gy; ParC5-TLK1B, α/β=4.3 Gy) compared to control cells (A5-BK, α/β=1.7 Gy; ParC5-BK, α/β=32.7 Gy). Using a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 viral vector for TLK1B gene transfer into rat submandibular salivary glands in vivo, we demonstrated that TLK1B protects the saliva-secreting acinar cells and better preserves salivary gland function against IR relative to control glands. After a single fraction of 16 Gy, the decline in salivary function at 8 weeks was less pronounced in TLK1B-treated animals (40%) as compared to saline-treated controls (67%). Histopathological analysis demonstrated increase in acinar atrophy, decrease in acinar cell number, and increase in inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis in irradiated control tissues relative to TLK1B-treated glands. These results show the radioprotective benefits of TLK1B and implicate its usefulness in the management of regional radiotherapy-induced xerostomia.

  9. Breast cancer exosome-like microvesicles and salivary gland cells interplay alters salivary gland cell-derived exosome-like microvesicles in vitro.

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    Chang S Lau

    Full Text Available Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles encapsulating both protein and mRNA. We also showed that the interaction with breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles communicated and activated the transcriptional machinery of the salivary gland cells. Thus, the interaction altered the composition of the salivary gland cell-derived exosome-like microvesicles on both the transcriptomically and proteomically.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of MYB in salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma and basal cell adenoma.

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    Rooney, Sydney L; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Basal cell predominant salivary gland neoplasms can be difficult to separate histologically. One of the most aggressive of basaloid salivary gland neoplasms is adenoid cystic carcinoma. MYB expression by immunohistochemistry has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Some investigators have suggested that using this expression can help in establishing the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Utilizing tissue microarrays, we studied a group of basal cell adenocarcinomas and basal cell adenomas to determine: (i) whether either tumor expressed MYB and (ii) the frequency of any expression in either tumors. Seventeen salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 30 salivary gland basal cell adenomas were used to construct microarrays. These tissue microarrays were used to assess for immunohistochemical MYB expression. Fifty-three percent (nine of 17) of salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 57% (17 of 30) of salivary gland basal cell adenomas showed MYB overexpression. For comparison, we studied 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas for MYB expression and found that 64% (seven of 11) overexpressed MYB. We found no relation to clinical course for basal adenomas or basal cell adenocarcinomas that overexpressed MYB vs those that did not. MYB expression does not help separate basal cell adenocarcinomas from basal cell adenomas, and our data suggest it does not differentiate between either of these neoplasms and adenoid cystic carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

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    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  12. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  13. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland with Metastatic Spread to the Pancreas

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    Jessica L. Geiger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic disease to the pancreas is rare among solid tumors and has not been well described for salivary cancers. We report a patient who developed an isolated metastatic lesion in the pancreas from acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, presenting as acute pancreatitis.

  14. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands with stem cell marker expressing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanduri, Lalitha S. Y.; Maimets, Martti; Pringle, Sarah A.; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald P.; Coppes, Robert P.

    Background: Stem cell therapy could be a potential way for reducing radiation-induced hyposalivation and improving the patient's quality of life. However, the identification and purification of salivary gland stem cells have not been accomplished. This study aims to better characterize the

  15. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

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    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi, E-mail: bcmkxo@gwu.edu; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  17. Encapsulation of primary salivary gland cells in enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels promotes acinar cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Andrew D; Felong, Timothy J; Schutrum, Brittany E; Joe, Debria S L; Ovitt, Catherine E; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers leads to permanent xerostomia due to the loss of secretory acinar cells in the salivary glands. Regenerative treatments utilizing primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells show modest improvements in salivary secretory function, but there is limited evidence of salivary gland regeneration. We have recently shown that poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels can support the survival and proliferation of SMG cells as multicellular spheres in vitro. To further develop this approach for cell-based salivary gland regeneration, we have investigated how different modes of PEG hydrogel degradation affect the proliferation, cell-specific gene expression, and epithelial morphology within encapsulated salivary gland spheres. Comparison of non-degradable, hydrolytically-degradable, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable, and mixed mode-degradable hydrogels showed that hydrogel degradation by any mechanism is required for significant proliferation of encapsulated cells. The expression of acinar phenotypic markers Aqp5 and Nkcc1 was increased in hydrogels that are MMP-degradable compared with other hydrogel compositions. However, expression of secretory acinar proteins Mist1 and Pip was not maintained to the same extent as phenotypic markers, suggesting changes in cell function upon encapsulation. Nevertheless, MMP- and mixed mode-degradability promoted organization of polarized cell types forming tight junctions and expression of the basement membrane proteins laminin and collagen IV within encapsulated SMG spheres. This work demonstrates that cellularly remodeled hydrogels can promote proliferation and gland-like organization by encapsulated salivary gland cells as well as maintenance of acinar cell characteristics required for regenerative approaches. Investigation is required to identify approaches to further enhance acinar secretory properties. Regenerative strategies to replace damaged salivary glands require the function and

  18. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands.

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    Eri O Maruyama

    Full Text Available The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts.

  19. Basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland: Cribriform type, a rare case with review of literature

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    Raghunath Prabhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA of the salivary glands is a rare benign tumor resembling pleomorphic adenoma, but with a prominent basaloid cell layer. The majority of these tumors arise in the parotid glands and account for only 1% of all salivary gland epithelial tumors. We report one such case of a swelling in the floor of the mouth in a 55-year-old female where BCA is the most likely diagnosis; however, histological variation does show a similarity to malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma, thereby making the diagnosis difficult. The incidence of malignancy is relatively higher in the submandibular, sublingual and minor salivary glands. Approximately, 85% of sublingual gland tumors are malignant. Thus, we should be more careful when making a diagnosis in minor salivary gland tumors. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 246-249

  20. Estimation of salivary lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical study.

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    Patel, Shrikant; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in the cells of almost all body tissues. The profile of salivary total LDH enzymes is similar to that found in oral epithelium, indicating that the major source of salivary LDH is probably the oral epithelium-shedding cells. Consequently, LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Study comprised of three groups as follows: Group I: Comprised of 25 healthy individuals of comparable age. Group II: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting patients with oral leukoplakia (OL). Group III: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Biochemical estimation of LDH was done with the help of Semiautomatic Analyzer. Inter comparison of salivary total LDH levels between all the three groups revealed that salivary LDH levels increase from healthy control group to Oral Leukoplakia group to further increase in OSCC group. On comparisons between the histopathological grades of OSCC group the level of LDH were found to increase from well differentiated to moderately differentiated to further increase in poorly differentiated patients. The present salivary analysis for LDH enzyme reveals an overall altered salivary LDH enzyme level in OL and OSCC cases.

  1. CD29 is highly expressed on epithelial, myoepithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells of human salivary glands.

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    Togarrati, Padma Priya; Dinglasan, Nuntana; Desai, Shivani; Ryan, William R; Muench, Marcus O

    2017-12-02

    The phenotype of the cells present in the ductal region of salivary glands have been well characterized. However, it is imperative to identify novel biomarkers that can identify different cell types present in other glandular components for the development of therapeutic strategies and diagnostics of salivary gland disorders and malignancies. Our study aimed at the characterization of the expression and distribution of various cell surface markers, especially with a focus on CD29 in human fetal as well as adult glands. Paired human midgestation fetal and adult parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands were collected. Phenotypic expression of various lineage-specific cell surface markers including CD29 was investigated in freshly collected glands. The findings were further corroborated by immunohistochemistry assay. Enriched expression of CD29 was found on acinar and ductal epithelial, mesenchymal stromal and myoepithelial cells; CD29+ cells co-expressed epithelial (CD324, CD326, NKCC1 and CD44), mesenchymal (CD73, CD90, vimentin and CD34) and myoepithelial (α-SMA) cell-specific progenitor markers in both fetal as well as adult salivary glands. CD29 is widely expressed in human salivary glands and, it could serve as a potential biomarker for devising novel cellular therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for salivary gland disorders and malignancies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective functionalization of nanofiber scaffolds to regulate salivary gland epithelial cell proliferation and polarity

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    Cantara, Shraddha I.; Soscia, David A.; Sequeira, Sharon; Jean-Gilles, Riffard; Castracane, James; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cell types typically lose apicobasal polarity when cultured on 2D substrates, but apicobasal polarity is required for directional secretion by secretory cells, such as salivary gland acinar cells. We cultured salivary gland epithelial cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds that mimic the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix, and examined cell proliferation and apicobasal polarization. Although cells proliferated on nanofibers, chitosan-coated nanofiber scaffolds stimulated proliferation of salivary gland epithelial cells. Although apicobasal cell polarity was promoted by the nanofiber scaffolds relative to flat surfaces, as determined by the apical localization of ZO-1, it was antagonized by the presence of chitosan. Neither salivary gland acinar nor ductal cells fully polarized on the nanofiber scaffolds, as determined by the homogenous membrane distribution of the mature tight junction marker, occludin. However, nanofiber scaffolds chemically functionalized with the basement membrane protein, laminin-111, promoted more mature tight junctions, as determined by apical localization of occludin but did not affect cell proliferation. To emulate the multifunctional capabilities of the basement membrane, bifunctional PLGA nanofibers were generated. Both acinar and ductal cell lines responded to signals provided by bifunctional scaffolds coupled to chitosan and laminin-111, demonstrating the applicability of such scaffolds for epithelial cell types. PMID:22938763

  3. Purification and Ex Vivo Expansion of Fully Functional Salivary Gland Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanduri, Lalitha S Y; Baanstra, Mirjam; Faber, Hette; Rocchi, Cecilia; Zwart, Erik; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Hyposalivation often leads to irreversible and untreatable xerostomia. Salivary gland (SG) stem cell therapy is an attractive putative option to salvage these patients but is impeded by the limited availability of adult human tissue. Here, using murine SG cells, we demonstrate single-cell

  4. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

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    Kajohnkiart Janebodin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10, decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors.

  5. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

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    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  6. Carbonic anhydrase VI: a novel marker for salivary serous acinar differentiation and its application to discriminate acinic cell carcinoma from mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

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    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lin, Chiao-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) is present in serous acinar cells of human salivary glands. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of CA6 in differentiating acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) from its morphological mimic mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland. CA6 immunostaining was performed in 28 cases of AciCC and 14 cases of MASC. All cases of AciCC showed positive CA6 staining. The staining pattern correlated with the number of serous acinar cells in tumours. All MASCs stained negatively for CA6. The results were compared with those obtained with currently used markers, including DOG1, mammaglobin, S100, and vimentin. CA6 showed sensitivity and specificity as high as those of DOG1 in diagnosing AciCC. CA6 expression was focally observed in basal cell adenoma and in one case of cystadenocarcinoma (1/3), but not in other salivary gland tumours, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma. CA6 is a specific marker for serous acinar cells of salivary glands and AciCC. CA6 has sensitivity and specificity equal to those of DOG1 in the differential diagnosis between AciCC and MASC. A combination of CA6 and DOG1 could be an ideal immunohistochemical panel for AciCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transient activation of Hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation

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    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine effects and mechanisms of transient activation of Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in head and neck cancer survivors. Experimental Design Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by single 15Gy dose. Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands by shortly over-expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating Smoothened Agonist and in human salivary epithelial cells by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. Activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by expression of Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. Salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), parasympathetic innervation and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, IHC, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. Results Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh over-expression activated Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and that after irradiation rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by rescue of signaling activities of Bmi1 and Chrm1/HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was related with rescue of expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. Conclusions These findings suggest that transient activation of Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore irradiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:24150232

  8. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

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    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  9. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke S Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control.

  10. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  11. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. IL-22 regulation of functional gene expression in salivary gland cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegan N. Lavoie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TH17 cells and their associated signature cytokines, IL-17 and IL-22, are highly elevated in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSjS. The levels of IL-22 present in sera showed significant correlations with many disease parameters, specifically hyposalivation, anti-SSB, anti-SSA/SSB, hypergammaglobulinemia and rheumatoid factor. The present study aims to examine the biological function of IL-22 on human salivary glands. To accomplish the goal, microarray analysis using the HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip was utilized to determine the biological function of IL-22. Differential expression analyses were conducted using the LIMMA package from the Bioconductor project. MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to identify the function of IL-22 on human salivary gland cells. Results indicate an extensive effect of IL-22 on many major molecular functions including activation of antimicrobial genes and downregulation of immune-associated pathways. Functional studies performed in-vitro using human salivary gland cells treated with IL-22 indicated a direct effect of IL-22 on cell cycling, specifically reducing cellular proliferation at the G2-M phase by activation of STAT3. These results suggest the important role of IL-22 in the salivary gland function. The present study suggests that IL-22 might be involved in regulating inflammation and controlling the cell proliferation in SjS.

  13. Transient activation of hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Qin, Lizheng; Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects and mechanisms of transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in survivors of head and neck cancer. Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by a single 15-Gy dose. The Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands, by briefly overexpressing the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating smoothened agonist, and in human salivary epithelial cells, by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. The activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by the expression of the Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. The salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPC), parasympathetic innervation, and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh overexpression activated the Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and, after irradiation, rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by the rescue of signaling activities of the Bmi1 and Chrm1-HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was associated with the rescue of the expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. These findings suggest that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore salivary gland function after irradiation-induced dysfunction.

  14. Rat cytomegalovirus replication in the salivary glands is exclusively confined to striated duct cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloover, JS; Hillebrands, JL; de Wit, G; Grauls, G; Rozing, J; Bruggeman, CA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2000-01-01

    The salivary gland is the preferred organ for cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication and viral persistence. In order to identify the nature of infected cells and to study viral replication in more detail, several experiments were conducted. Using the rat CMV (RCMV) model, acutely infected young adult

  15. Chronic intoxication by methylmercury leads to oxidative damage and cell death in salivary glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Miranda, Giza Hellen Nonato; Oliveira Bittencourt, Leonardo; de Oliveira Paraense, Ricardo Sousa; Silva, Márcia Cristina Freitas; Sagica, Fernanda do Espírito Santo; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic species of mercury, causing several systemic damages; however, its effect on the salivary glands has rarely been explored to date. This study was aimed at analyzing the mercury deposit, oxidative stress markers, and cell viability in parotid and submandibular rat salivary glands after chronic methylmercury intoxication. Herein, forty male Wistar rats (40 days old) were used in the experiment. The animals of the experimental group were intoxicated by intragastric gavage with MeHg at a dose of 0.04 mg per kg body weight per day for 35 days, whereas the control group received only corn oil, a diluent. After the period of intoxication, the glands were obtained for evaluation of total mercury deposit, cell viability, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and the nitrite levels. Our results indicated mercury deposits in salivary glands, with a decrease in cell viability, higher levels of MDA in both glands of intoxicated animals, and a higher concentration of nitrite only in the submandibular gland of the mercury group. Thus, the intoxication by MeHg was able to generate deposits and oxidative stress in salivary glands that resulted in a decrease in cell viability in both types of glands.

  16. The Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 Promotes CD8+ T Cell Accumulation in Uninfected Salivary Glands but Is Not Necessary after Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira-Dantas, Sofia; Furmanak, Thomas; Smith, Corinne; Quinn, Michael; Teos, Leyla Y; Ertel, Adam; Kurup, Drishya; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Snyder, Christopher M

    2017-12-29

    Recent work indicates that salivary glands are able to constitutively recruit CD8+ T cells and retain them as tissue-resident memory T cells, independently of local infection, inflammation, or Ag. To understand the mechanisms supporting T cell recruitment to the salivary gland, we compared T cell migration to the salivary gland in mice that were infected or not with murine CMV (MCMV), a herpesvirus that infects the salivary gland and promotes the accumulation of salivary gland tissue-resident memory T cells. We found that acute MCMV infection increased rapid T cell recruitment to the salivary gland but that equal numbers of activated CD8+ T cells eventually accumulated in infected and uninfected glands. T cell recruitment to uninfected salivary glands depended on chemokines and the integrin α4 Several chemokines were expressed in the salivary glands of infected and uninfected mice, and many of these could promote the migration of MCMV-specific T cells in vitro. MCMV infection increased the expression of chemokines that interact with the receptors CXCR3 and CCR5, but neither receptor was needed for T cell recruitment to the salivary gland during MCMV infection. Unexpectedly, however, the chemokine receptor CXCR3 was critical for T cell accumulation in uninfected salivary glands. Together, these data suggest that CXCR3 and the integrin α4 mediate T cell recruitment to uninfected salivary glands but that redundant mechanisms mediate T cell recruitment after MCMV infection. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Katharina; Sassen, Andrea; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Kroemer, Susanne; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Harréus, Ulrich; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2007-11-01

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl(2)) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl(2)concentrations from 1 to 50 microM. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl(2) in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl(2)concentrations of 5 microM in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 microM) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation.

  18. Artificial Induction of Native Aquaporin-1 Expression in Human Salivary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pradhan-Bhatt, S; Farach-Carson, M C; Passineau, M J

    2017-04-01

    Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i.e., viral vectors and genetic sequences of bacterial origin). In this study, we applied 2 emerging technologies, artificial transcriptional complexes and epigenetic editing, to explore whether AQP1 expression could be achieved by activating the native gene locus in a human salivary ductal cell line and primary salivary human stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs), as opposed to the conventional approach of cytomegalovirus promoter-driven expression from an episomal vector. In our first study, we used a cotransfection strategy to express the components of the dCas9-SAM system to create an artificial transcriptional complex at the AQP1 locus in A253 and hS/PCs. We found that AQP1 expression was induced at a magnitude comparable to adenoviral infection, suggesting that AQP1 is primarily silenced through pretranscriptional mechanisms. Because earlier literature suggested that pretranscriptional silencing of AQP1 in salivary glands is mediated by methylation of the promoter, in our second study, we performed global, chemical demethylation of A253 cells and found that demethylation alone induced robust AQP1 expression. These results suggest the potential for success by inducing AQP1 expression in human salivary ductal cells through epigenetic editing of the native promoter.

  19. Tumor-derived exosomes enhance invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Fangyuan; Liu, Xiaohao; Song, Mengyang; Yin, Xuemin

    2018-02-01

    Tumor-derived exosomes (TDE) have been shown to participate in different steps of the dissemination of cancer cells. However, the role of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma-derived (SACC-derived) exosomes had not been documented in SACC. The study aims to explore the functions of SACC-derived TDE in SACC progression and investigate potential mechanisms. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83 was used to generate TDE. Afterward, SACC-83 or HUVECs were cocultured with or without TDE. Tumor migration, tumor invasion, and endothelial permeability were examined by wound healing assay, tumor invasion assay, endothelial permeability assay, and tumor cell transendothelial migration assay, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of cell junction-related proteins were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma -83-derived exosomes were taken up by their host cells. Meanwhile, TDE increased migration and invasion capacity of SACC-83 cells and enhanced endothelial cell permeability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of cell junction-related proteins (Claudins and ZO-1) was downregulated, which is presumably involved in the TDE-mediated promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis. The results suggested that SACC cell-derived exosomes were loaded with individual components that could enhance invasiveness and induce microenvironment changes, thus promoting SACC aggression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Salivary glands of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients express factors vital for plasma cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The presence of circulating Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies has become an important marker in the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Plasma cells producing these autoantibodies are mainly high affinity plasma cells originating from germinal centre reactions. When exposed to the right microenvironment these autoimmune plasma cells become long-lived and resistant to immunosuppressive treatment. Since autoimmune plasma cells have been detected in the salivary glands of SS patients, we wanted to investigate if the glandular microenvironment is suitable for plasma cell survival and if glandular residing plasma cells are the long-lived plasma cell subset. Methods Single, double and triple immunohistochemistry as well as immunofluorescence staining was performed on minor salivary gland tissue retrieved from pSS, chronically inflamed and normal subjects. Results We detected significant numbers of CD138+, non-proliferating, Bcl-2 expressing plasma cells in the salivary glands of pSS patients with high focus score (FS). Furthermore, we demonstrated that CXCL12 and interleukin (IL)-6 survival factors were highly expressed in pSS salivary gland epithelium and by focal mononuclear infiltrating cells. Notably, adipocytes when present in the salivary gland tissue were an important source of CXCL12. We clearly demonstrate that plasma cells are localised in close proximity to CXCL12 and IL-6 expressing cells and thus that the environment of salivary glands with high FS provide factors vital for plasma cell survival. Conclusions Plasma cells residing in the salivary glands of pSS patients with high FS showed phenotypic characteristics of the long-lived plasma cell subtype. Furthermore, the pSS salivary gland microenvironment provided niches rich in factors vital for plasma cell survival. PMID:21214903

  1. Functional spheroid organization of human salivary gland cells cultured on hydrogel-micropatterned nanofibrous microwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Soo; Kook, Yun-Min; Hong, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Mo; Koh, Won-Gun; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-11-01

    Development of a tissue-engineered, salivary bio-gland will benefit patients suffering from xerostomia due to loss of fluid-secreting acinar cells. This study was conducted to develop a bioengineering system to induce self-assembly of human parotid epithelial cells (hPECs) cultured on poly ethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel-micropatterned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous microwells. Microwells were fabricated by photopatterning of PEG hydrogel in the presence of an electrospun PCL nanofibrous scaffold. hPECs were plated on plastic dishes, Matrigel, PCL nanofibers, or PCL nanofibrous microwells. When the cells were plated onto plastic, they did not form spheres, but aggregated to form 3D acinar-like spheroids when cultured on Matrigel, PCL, and PCL microwells, with the greatest aggregating potency being observed on the PCL microwells. The 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells expressed higher levels of salivary epithelial markers (α-amylase and AQP5), tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin), adherence protein (E-cadherin), and cytoskeletal protein (F-actin) than those on the Matrigel and PCL. Furthermore, the 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells showed higher levels of α-amylase secretion and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) than those on the Matrigel and PCL nanofibers, suggesting more functional organization of hPECs. We established a bioengineering 3D culture system to promote robust and functional acinar-like organoids from hPECs. PCL nanofibrous microwells can be applied in the future for bioengineering of an artificial bio-salivary gland for restoration of salivary function. Three dimensional (3D) cultures of salivary glandular epithelial cells using nanofibrous bottom facilitate the formation of acinar-like organoids. In this study, we adapted a PEG hydrogel-micropatterned PCL nanofibrous microwell for the efficient bioengineering of human salivary gland organoids, in which we could easily produce uniform size of 3D organoids

  2. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  3. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Par-1b is required for morphogenesis and differentiation of myoepithelial cells during salivary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Elise M; Sequeira, Sharon J; Wang, Weihao; Abraham, Stanley; Kim, Janice H; Leonard, Daniel; DeSantis, Kara A; Larsen, Melinda

    2016-10-01

    The salivary epithelium initiates as a solid mass of epithelial cells that are organized into a primary bud that undergoes morphogenesis and differentiation to yield bilayered acini consisting of interior secretory acinar cells that are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells in mature salivary glands. How the primary bud transitions into acini has not been previously documented. We document here that the outer epithelial cells subsequently undergo a vertical compression as they express smooth muscle α-actin and differentiate into myoepithelial cells. The outermost layer of polarized epithelial cells assemble and organize the basal deposition of basement membrane, which requires basal positioning of the polarity protein, Par-1b. Whether Par-1b is required for the vertical compression and differentiation of the myoepithelial cells is unknown. Following manipulation of Par-1b in salivary gland organ explants, Par-1b-inhibited explants showed both a reduced vertical compression of differentiating myoepithelial cells and reduced levels of smooth muscle α-actin. Rac1 knockdown and inhibition of Rac GTPase function also inhibited branching morphogenesis. Since Rac regulates cellular morphology, we investigated a contribution for Rac in myoepithelial cell differentiation. Inhibition of Rac GTPase activity showed a similar reduction in vertical compression and smooth muscle α-actin levels while decreasing the levels of Par-1b protein and altering its basal localization in the outer cells. Inhibition of ROCK, which is required for basal positioning of Par-1b, resulted in mislocalization of Par-1b and loss of vertical cellular compression, but did not significantly alter levels of smooth muscle α-actin in these cells. Overexpression of Par-1b in the presence of Rac inhibition restored basement membrane protein levels and localization. Our results indicate that the basal localization of Par-1b in the outer epithelial cells is required for myoepithelial cell

  5. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary gland: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S Panchbhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarity of primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary gland coupled with degree of morphological diversity of the salivary gland carcinomas make this group of lesions, one of the most interesting and challenging diagnosis in the head and neck region. Owing to clinical and the histological diversity, the histological examination of an entire specimen is needed for diagnosis. Although tumor grading is important, it is not an independent prognostic indicator; the diagnosis and management need careful consideration of clinical and pathological features together. There are very few reports of this tumor originating in the submandibular gland. The present article reports the rare case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular gland in a 58-year-old male with brief review.

  6. Isolation and characterization of human salivary gland cells for stem cell transplantation to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Jielin; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P.

    Background: Recently, we showed that transplantation of 100-300 c-Kit(+) stem cells isolated from cultured salispheres ameliorates radiation-damage in murine salivary glands. The aim of this study is to optimize and translate these findings from mice to man. Methods: Mouse and human non-malignant

  7. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15. Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.

  8. Cell fate specification in the Drosophila salivary gland: the integration of homeotic gene function with the DPP signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, K D; Isaac, D D; Andrew, D J

    1999-01-01

    Salivary gland formation in the Drosophila embryo is linked to the expression of the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr). When Scr function is missing, salivary glands do not form, and when SCR is expressed everywhere, salivary glands form in new places. However, not every cell that expresses Scr is recruited to a salivary gland fate. Along the anterior-posterior axis, the posteriorly expressed proteins encoded by the teashirt (tsh) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) genes block SCR activation of salivary gland genes, and along the dorsal-ventral axis, the secreted signaling molecule encoded by decapentaplegic (dpp) prevents activation of salivary gland genes by SCR in dorsal regions of parasegment 2. We have identified five downstream components in the DPP signaling cascade required to block salivary gland gene activation. These components include two known receptors, the type I receptor encoded by the thick veins (tkv) gene and the type II receptor encoded by the punt (put) gene; two of the four known Drosophila members of the Smad family of proteins which transduce signals from the receptors to the nucleus, Mothers against dpp (Mad) and Medea (Med); and, finally, a large zinc-finger transcription factor encoded by the schnurri (shn) gene. These results reveal how anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral patterning information is integrated at the level of organ-specific gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia: a systematic review of preclinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Oliveri, Roberto Stefan; Trojahn-Kølle, Stig-Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The most severe forms of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction, as well as a severely reduced quality of life, are seen in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. For both conditions, no effective regenerative therapies yet exist. Thus, the aim of this article...... was to assess, through systematic review, the potential benefit of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in radiation-induced and SS-related salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the World Health Organization...... gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Nonetheless, the preliminary studies identified in the present review were encouraging for further research....

  10. Cutting edge: Salivary gland NK cells develop independently of Nfil3 in steady-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Victor S; Fuchs, Anja; Cella, Marina; Gilfillan, Susan; Colonna, Marco

    2014-05-15

    Nfil3 is viewed as an obligate transcription factor for NK cell development. However, mouse CMV (MCMV) infection recently was shown to bypass the requirement for Nfil3 by inducing the appearance of NK cells that express the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. Thus, signals transmitted by Ly49H and proinflammatory cytokines are sufficient to promote NK cell differentiation in the absence of Nfil3. In this study, we report that salivary gland (SG) NK cells develop in an Nfil3-independent fashion in the steady-state in the absence of MCMV or any infection. Moreover, we show that SG NK cells have an integrin profile reminiscent of tissue-resident lymphocytes and express TRAIL for killing target cells. These results demonstrate that SG NK cells, although related to conventional NK cells, are a distinct subset of innate lymphoid cells that deviates from the conventional developmental pathway, perhaps under the influence of tissue-specific factors.

  11. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  12. Systemic disease-induced salivary biomarker profiles in mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Saliva (oral fluids is an emerging biofluid poised for detection of clinical diseases. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer is intuitive, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unclear.In this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles of tumor-bearing mice to those of control mice. Microarray analysis showed that salivary transcriptomes were significantly altered in tumor-bearing mice vs. controls. Significant overlapping among transcriptomes of mouse tumors, serum, salivary glands and saliva suggests that salivary biomarkers have multiple origins. Furthermore, we identified that the expression of two groups of significantly altered transcription factors (TFs Runx1, Mlxipl, Trim30 and Egr1, Tbx1, Nr1d1 in salivary gland tissue of melanoma-bearing mice can potentially be responsible for 82.6% of the up-regulated gene expression and 62.5% of the down-regulated gene expression, respectively, in the saliva of melanoma-bearing mice. We also showed that the ectopic production of nerve growth factor (NGF in the melanoma tumor tissue as a tumor-released mediator can induce expression of the TF Egr-1 in the salivary gland.Taken together, our data support the conclusion that upon systemic disease development, significant changes can occur in the salivary biomarker profile. Although the origins of the disease-induced salivary biomarkers may be both systemic and local, stimulation of salivary gland by mediators released from remote tumors plays an important role in regulating the salivary surrogate biomarker profiles.

  13. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  14. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  15. Cell-Based Multi-Parametric Model of Cleft Progression during Submandibular Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Dhulekar, Nimit; Oztan, Basak; Yener, Bülent; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix) adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft progression was determined

  16. Precise temporal regulation of roughest is required for correct salivary gland autophagic cell death in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Claudio R; Moda, Livia M R; Octacilio-Silva, Shirlei; Anhezini, Lucas; Machado-Gitai, Luciana C H; Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman P

    2009-07-01

    The Drosophila roughest (rst) locus encodes an immunoglobulin superfamily transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in a variety of embryonic and postembryonic developmental processes. Here we demonstrate a previously unnoticed role for this gene in the autophagic elimination of larval salivary glands during early pupal stages by showing that overexpression of the Rst protein ectodomain in early pupa leads to persistence of salivary glands up to at least 12 hours after head eversion, although with variable penetrance. The same phenotype is observed in individuals carrying the dominant regulatory allele rst(D), but not in loss of function alleles. Analysis of persistent glands at the ultrastructural level showed that programmed cell death starts at the right time but is arrested at an early stage of the process. Finally we describe the expression pattern and intracellular distribution of Rst in wild type and rst(D) mutants, showing that its downregulation in salivary glands at the beginning of pupal stage is an important factor in the correct implementation of the autophagic program of this tissue in space and time. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Salivary and serum level of CYFRA 21-1 in oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Ramya, R; Nandhini, G; Rajashree, P; Ramesh Kumar, A; Nirmala Anandan, S

    2015-01-01

    CYFRA 21-1, a constituent of the intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells, is known to be increased in many cancers. This study was designed to estimate the levels of salivary and serum CYFRA 21-1 in patients with oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and compare them with healthy controls. Each group comprised of 100 subjects. Saliva and blood samples were collected from patients with OSCC, premalignant subjects, and normal healthy subjects. Serum and salivary CYFRA 21-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Appropriate statistical tests were employed to assess diagnostic potency of CYFRA 21-1. We found a significant increase in CYFRA 21-1 level in OSCC compared with PML and healthy subjects. Salivary CYFRA 21-1 levels in OSCC was threefold higher when compared to serum levels. PML group showed increased salivary CYFRA 21-1 when compared to control subjects, but it was significantly lower compared with OSCC. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed salivary CYFRA 21-1 to have superior sensitivity in detecting OSCC compared with serum CYFRA 21-1. The outcome of this study suggests that salivary CYFRA 21-1 can be utilized as a biomarker in early detection of oral cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  19. Stem cell injury and restitution after ionizing irradiation in intestine, liver, salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Sun Joo; Jang, Won Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    There is little information about radiation injury on stem cell resident in other organs. In addition there is little experimental model in which radiation plays a role on proliferation stem cell in adult organ. This study was carried out to evaluate the early response of tissue injury and restitution in intestine, liver, salivary gland and lymph node, and to develop in vivo model to investigate stem cell biology by irradiation. The study is to assay the early response to radiation and setup an animal model for radiation effect on cellular response. Duodenal intestine, liver, submandibular salivary gland and mesenteric lymph node were selected to compare apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression to radiosensitivity. For the effect of radiation on cellular responses, rats were irradiated during starvation. Conclusionly, this study showed the value of apoptosis in detection system for evaluating cellular damage against radiation injury. Because apoptosis was regularly inducted depending on tissue-specific pattern, dose and time sequence as well as cellular activity. Furthermore in vivo model in the study will be helped in the further study to elucidate the relationship between radiation injury and starvation or malnutrition. (author). 22 refs., 6 figs

  20. Programmed cell death in salivary glands of Drosophila arizonae and Drosophila mulleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianella, P; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Itoyama, M M

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in insect metamorphosis assumes a great diversity of morphology and controlling processes that are still not well understood. With the objective of obtaining information about the PCD process, salivary glands of Drosophila arizonae and D. mulleri were studied during larval-pupal development. From the results, it can be concluded that the type of the PCD that occurs in these organs is morphologically typical of apoptosis (formation of apoptotic nuclei, followed by fragmentation into apoptotic bodies). Histolysis happens in both species, between 22 and 23 h after pupation. There were no significant differences between the species studied. Apoptosis does not occur simultaneously in all cells. Cytoplasmic acid phosphatase activity gradually increases during development, suggesting the existence of acid phosphatases that are only expressed during the apoptotic stage. Twenty hours after pupation, salivary glands already show biochemical alterations relative to nuclear permeability such as acidification, possibly due to the fusion of lysosomes with the nucleus a few hours before apoptosis. Autophagy seems to act together with apoptosis and has a secondary role in cell death.

  1. Purification and Ex Vivo Expansion of Fully Functional Salivary Gland Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha S.Y. Nanduri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyposalivation often leads to irreversible and untreatable xerostomia. Salivary gland (SG stem cell therapy is an attractive putative option to salvage these patients but is impeded by the limited availability of adult human tissue. Here, using murine SG cells, we demonstrate single-cell self-renewal, differentiation, enrichment of SG stem cells, and robust in vitro expansion. Dependent on stem cell marker expression, SG sphere-derived single cells could be differentiated in vitro into distinct lobular or ductal/lobular organoids, suggestive of progenitor or stem cell potency. Expanded cells were able to form miniglands/organoids containing multiple SG cell lineages. Expansion of these multipotent cells through serial passaging resulted in selection of a cell population, homogenous for stem cell marker expression (CD24hi/CD29hi. Cells highly expressing CD24 and CD29 could be prospectively isolated and were able to efficiently restore radiation-damaged SG function. Our approach will facilitate the use of adult SG stem cells for a variety of scientific and therapeutic purposes.

  2. The contribution of specific cell subpopulations to submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae Ryong; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-06-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program responsible for generating a large surface to volume ratio in many secretory and absorptive organs. To accomplish branching morphogenesis, spatiotemporal regulation of specific cell subpopulations is required. Here, we review recent studies that define the contributions of distinct cell subpopulations to specific cellular processes during branching morphogenesis in the mammalian submandibular salivary gland, including the initiation of the gland, the coordination of cleft formation, and the contribution of stem/progenitor cells to morphogenesis. In conclusion, we provide an overview of technological advances that have opened opportunities to further probe the contributions of specific cell subpopulations and to define the integration of events required for branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to salivary glands – a series of 9 cases: clinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Majewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors involving salivary glands arising from the non-head and neck area are very rare. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is known for its high propensity for metastasis to unusual localizations. RCC metastasis to the maxillofacial area is an uncommon event (16%, but metastasis to salivary glands is extremely rare. We report a series of 9 such cases retrieved from two institutions. The group included 6 females and 3 males. The age at diagnosis ranged from 60 to 97 years (mean 72.6 years. The tumors involved the parotid gland in 7 cases, and the submandibular and small salivary gland of the oral cavity in 1 case each. The size of tumors ranged from 0.4 to 5 cm. Total parotidectomy with selective neck dissection was performed in 4 cases, while superficial parotidectomy was performed in 1 case and simple resection in 3 cases. Histologically, all the tumors were clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and therefore the differential diagnosis mainly included clear cell variants of salivary gland carcinomas. The parotid gland was the initial manifestation of renal malignancy in 4 of the cases, while in the remaining 5 cases a history of RCC had been known. The salivary gland involvement developed from 11 months to 13 years after the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor. In 2 cases it was the first site of dissemination. Pathologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion for the possibility of metastasis when confronted with oncocytic or clear cell neoplasms developing in salivary glands. RCC, although rare, should be included in this differential diagnosis.

  4. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  5. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Wada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.

  6. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Jun Li, Xin-Juan Wang, Xiao-Li Zhou Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China Background: WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC cells.Methods: In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated.Results: It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21, associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells.Conclusion: We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. Keywords: WISP-1, SGCs, proliferation, MMP-2

  8. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  9. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  10. Melatonin inhibits embryonic salivary gland branching morphogenesis by regulating both epithelial cell adhesion and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana-Koshino, Aya; Ono, Hitomi; Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or "brake" of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development.

  11. Salivary and Serum Interleukin-6 Levels in Oral Premalignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Diagnostic Value and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Ashwini, Balakuntla Krishnamurthy; Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Rajashree, Padmanaban; Ramya, Ramadas; Rajkumar, Krishnan

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic utility of serum and salivary interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in the differential diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions and conditions (PMLs/PMCs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a high oral cancer prevalence region. Methods: After appropriate ethical clearance and informed consent, salivary and blood samples were collected from 100 participants in each group (OSCC, PMLs, and healthy controls). Serum and salivary IL-6 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences in IL-6 concentration were noted between OSCC and PML/C patients in both serum and saliva, with salivary levels being 2 to 3 fold higher than serum values in all the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated 96% specificity and 99% sensitivity for salivary IL-6 in differentiating PML from OSCC. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, is elevated in the saliva of patients with OSSC compared to PMD and controls, and thus may prove to have diagnostic and/or prognostic significance. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Concise review: Adult salivary gland stem cells and a potential therapy for xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Sarah; Van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to speak, swallow, masticate, taste food, and maintain a healthy oral cavity is heavily reliant on the presence of saliva, the hugely important effect of which on our everyday lives is often unappreciated. Hyposalivation, frequently experienced by people receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, results in a plethora of symptoms whose combined effect can drastically reduce quality of life. Although artificial lubricants and drugs stimulating residual function are available to ameliorate the consequences of hyposalivation, their effects are at best transient. Such management techniques do not address the source of the problem: a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells, resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Post-radiotherapy stimulation of cell proliferation only results in improved saliva secretion when part of the tissue has been spared or when the dose to the salivary gland (SG) remains below a certain level. Therefore, stem cell replacement therapy may be a good option to treat radiation-induced hyposalivation. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of cell turnover in the SG, and the recent identification of stem and progenitor cell populations in the SG provides a basis for studies toward development of a stem cell-based therapy for xerostomia. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of SG stem cells and their potential for use in a cell-based therapy that may provide a more durable cure for hyposalivation. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Increased frequency of CD16+monocytes and the presence of activated dendritic cells in salivary glands in primary Sjogren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenberg, M. E.; Welzen-Coppens, J. M. C.; van Helden-Meeuwsen, C. G.; Bootsma, H.; Vissink, A.; van Rooijen, N.; de Merwe, J. P. van; Drexhage, H. A.; Versnel, M. A.

    Objectives: In the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren Syndrome (pSjS) an accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) is seen, which is thought to play a role in stimulating local inflammation. Aberrancies in subsets of monocytes, generally considered the blood precursors for DCs, may play a

  14. Increased frequency of CD16+monocytes and the presence of activated dendritic cells in salivary glands in primary Sjogren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenberg, M.E.; Welzen-Coppens, J.M.C.; Helden-Meeuwsen, van C.G.; Bootsma, H.; Vissink, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Merwe, de J.P.V.; Drexhage, H.A.; Versnel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: In the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren Syndrome (pSjS) an accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) is seen, which is thought to play a role in stimulating local inflammation. Aberrancies in subsets of monocytes, generally considered the blood precursors for DCs, may play a

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Salivary Function and Reduce Lymphocytic Infiltrates in Mice with Sjogren's-Like Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili, Saeed; Liu, Younan; Kornete, Mara; Roescher, Nienke; Kodama, Shohta; Peterson, Alan; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A.; Tran, Simon D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjogren's-like disease (SS-like) with loss of saliva flow and increased lymphocytic infiltrates in salivary glands (SGs). There are recent reports using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases

  16. Secretome profiling of primary cells reveals that THBS2 is a salivary biomarker of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Wei; Yu, Jau-Song; Peng, Pei-Hua; Liu, Shu-Chen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2014-11-07

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality. The discovery of body fluid-accessible biomarkers may help improve the detection of OSCC. In the present work, we established primary cell cultures derived from OSCC and adjacent noncancerous epithelium and performed comparative profiling of their secretomes. Using spectral counting-based label-free quantification, we found that 64 proteins were significantly higher in primary OSCC cells compared with primary adjacent noncancerous cells. We then retrieved the mRNA expression levels of these 64 proteins in oral cavity tumor and noncancerous tissues from public domain array-based transcriptome data sets and used this information to prioritize the biomarker candidates. We identified 19 candidates; among them, the protein levels of THBS2, UFD1L, and DNAJB11 were found to be elevated in OSCC tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous epithelia. Importantly, higher levels of THBS2 in OSCC tissues were associated with a higher overall pathological stage, positive perineural invasion, and a poorer prognosis. Moreover, the salivary levels of THBS2 in OSCC patients were elevated compared to those of noncancer controls. Our results collectively indicate that analysis of the primary cell secretome is a feasible strategy for biomarker identification, and that THBS2 is a potentially useful salivary marker for the detection of OSCC.

  17. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  18. Re-evaluating historic cohort of salivary acinic cell carcinoma with new diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Chiosea, Simion I

    2012-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) was recently identified as a distinct salivary gland neoplasm, morphologically resembling intercalated duct cell predominant acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). To determine how frequently MASC has mimicked an intercalated duct cell predominant AciCC, we reviewed AciCC diagnosed from 1956 to 1975. Nine AciCC consecutively diagnosed in that period were identified. Based on morphologic examination, one case diagnosed as AciCC in a male patient in 1960 was re-classified as MASC [confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showing ETV6 translocation]. Another case diagnosed as AciCC of the palate in a female patient in 1975 was re-classified as mucoepidermoid carcinoma (based on the lack of acinar differentiation, presence of mucous cells, and confirmed by FISH showing MAML2 translocation). In this proof-of-principle study, we show that 1 in 9 cases historically designated as AciCC represents a MASC. "Intercalated duct cell predominant AciCC", especially among male patients, most likely represent examples of MASC. For anatomic sites outside of the parotid glands, broader differential diagnoses should be considered before accepting morphologic variants of AciCC as the final diagnosis.

  19. Salivary Tick Cystatin OmC2 Targets Lysosomal Cathepsins S and C in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zavašnik-Bergant

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure successful feeding tick saliva contains a number of inhibitory proteins that interfere with the host immune response and help to create a permissive environment for pathogen transmission. Among the potential targets of the salivary cystatins are two host cysteine proteases, cathepsin S, which is essential for antigen- and invariant chain-processing, and cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase 1, DPP1, which plays a critical role in processing and activation of the granule serine proteases. Here, the effect of salivary cystatin OmC2 from Ornithodoros moubata was studied using differentiated MUTZ-3 cells as a model of immature dendritic cells of the host skin. Following internalization, cystatin OmC2 was initially found to inhibit the activity of several cysteine cathepsins, as indicated by the decreased rates of degradation of fluorogenic peptide substrates. To identify targets, affinity chromatography was used to isolate His-tagged cystatin OmC2 together with the bound proteins from MUTZ-3 cells. Cathepsins S and C were identified in these complexes by mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunoblotting. Furthermore, reduced increase in the surface expression of MHC II and CD86, which are associated with the maturation of dendritic cells, was observed. In contrast, human inhibitor cystatin C, which is normally expressed and secreted by dendritic cells, did not affect the expression of CD86. It is proposed that internalization of salivary cystatin OmC2 by the host dendritic cells targets cathepsins S and C, thereby affecting their maturation.

  20. Validation of the diagnostic utility of salivary interleukin 8 in the differentiation of potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma in a region with high endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Nandhini, G; Ramya, R; Rajashree, P; Kumar, A Ramesh; Anandan, S Nirmala

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of salivary interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the differential diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions (PMLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a region with high oral cancer prevalence. Saliva and blood samples were collected from 100 participants in each group (OSCC, PMLs, and healthy controls). Serum and salivary IL-8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. A significant increase in levels of serum and salivary IL-8 was found in OSCC compared with PMLs and healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found salivary IL-8 to have superior sensitivity in detecting OSCC. A significant increase in IL-8 levels based on the histologic grading of OSCC was also observed. This study confirms that salivary IL-8 can be a potent marker that can be used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of PMLs and OSCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistence of immunoglobulin-producing cells in parotid salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome after B cell depletion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, Nishath; Bootsma, Hendrika; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Haacke, Erlin A.; Pollard, Rodney P. E.; Visser, Annie; Vissink, Arjan; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the persistence of immunoglobulin-producing cell populations in the parotid salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) after B cell depletion therapy with rituximab. Methods Thirteen patients with pSS and four control patients were included in this study.

  2. Ultrastructural Characterization of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: A Distinct Entity from Acinic Cell Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Julie; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Faquin, William C; Selig, Martin; Nosé, Vânia; Chi, Anthony W S; Sadow, Peter M

    2017-02-13

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands is a recently described neoplasm of the salivary glands with a characteristic morphology complemented by a specific cytogenetic translocation and gene rearrangements. Although immunophenotypic and cytogenetic differences allow for a more reliable distinction, ultrastructural features can also provide important information about the relationship between MASC, classic acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), and AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant. Following approval from the hospital's institutional review board, 7 cases of MASC, 8 cases of classic AciCC, and 4 cases of AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant were retrieved from the pathology files of Massachusetts General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Electron microscopy was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Ultrastructural features of all 19 neoplasms of the salivary glands were recorded. The predominant cell-types observed in MASC are those with intercalated/striated duct cell differentiation. These features include prominent invaginations of the cell surface studded with microvilli, and some intra- and intercellular lumina also with a microvillous surface. Classic AciCC dominant cell-type recapitulates acinar cell differentiation. These cells contain large intracytoplasmic zymogen-like granules. AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant showed both cell populations in various proportions with the intercalated/striated duct cell type usually being the dominant one. MASC presents with distinctive ultrastructural features that allows its proper differentiation from classic AciCC. However, significant ultrastructural features overlaps between both AciCC intercalated duct cells-predominant and classic AciCC and MASC. These findings indicate a very close proximity between these tumors.

  3. Lysozyme Expression Can be Useful to Distinguish Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma from Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Gómez, Camila Andrea Concha; de Souza do Nascimento, Juliana; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Egal, Erika Said; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Altemani, Albina

    2016-12-01

    Lysozyme is an enzymatic marker of acinar and intercalated duct cells of normal salivary glands. The aim of this study was to verify whether lysozyme expression could be useful to distinguish acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) from its main mimic, mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC). For comparison, DOG1 expression was analyzed as well. Seventeen cases of ACC, 15 MASC, and 125 other salivary tumors were studied. Lysozyme expression was found in tumor cells as well as in secreted material of MASC (86.6 % of cases) and in ductal cells of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC-53.8 %), pleomorphic adenoma (PA-29.1 %) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA-23.8 %). However, in ACC, lysozyme was not expressed. Three patterns of DOG1 staining were seen: apical-luminal, cytoplasmic, and mixed cytoplasmic/membranous. The apical-luminal pattern was detected in ductal cells of ACC (58.8 % of cases), EMC (38.4 %), adenoid-cystic carcinoma (AdCC-35.3 %), PA (8.3 %), and PLGA (4.8 %). These tumors also showed mixed membranous/cytoplasmic staining for DOG1. MASC, mucoepidermoid, and salivary duct carcinomas exhibited only DOG1 cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, lysozyme cannot be used as a marker of acinar differentiation in salivary tumors. However, lysozyme expression can be helpful to distinguish MASC from ACC due to its high frequency in the former and absence in ACC. It is likely that in MASC, lysozyme expression may reflect a lactational-like secretory differentiation since lysozyme belongs to breast milk proteins. Regarding DOG1 expression, the apical-luminal pattern is related to acinar and intercalated duct differentiation whereas the cytoplasmic staining does not seem to be associated with a specific cellular phenotype.

  4. Biochemical changes of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells induced by SGI-1776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiuxiu, E-mail: show-1989@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Yu, Yunfang, E-mail: yyf_8247425@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Feng, Jianguo, E-mail: fengjg@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Wang, Jiafeng, E-mail: 15990081256@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zheng, Chuanming, E-mail: mingdoc@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ling, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lingzq@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ge, Minghua, E-mail: gemh@zjcc.org.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zhu, Xin, E-mail: zhuxin@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) has proved to be an oncogene and it is known that to depress Pim-1 activity may be a novel oncological treatment strategy. SGI-1776, a small molecule, is the first clinically tested inhibitor of the Pim kinase family. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of SGI-1776 on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Expression of Pim-1 was confirmed in SACC and control tissues by qRT-PCR. After SGI-1776 treatment, the Pim-1 expressions and Pim-1 kinase activity in both SACC-83 and SACC-LM cell lines were measured. Cell proliferation, cell invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed. Also, the expression of FOXO3a, p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, BAD, p-BAD, Bim and p-Bim were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Pim-1 was significantly overexpressed in SACC tissues. SGI-1776 down-regulated the Pim-1 expression, inhibited Pim-1 kinase activity, reduced cell proliferation, decreased invasive ability, increased caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial depolarization. Reduced expression was also seen in p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, p-BAD and p-Bim, whereas no significant changes were observed from FOXO3a, BAD and Bim. These results confirm the pivotal role of Pim-1 in SACC and suggest that targeting Pim-1 kinase signal pathway by SGI-1776 might be a promising therapeutic modality for SACC.

  5. Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC Detection: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sannam Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer refers to malignancies that have higher morbidity and mortality rates due to the late stage diagnosis and no early detection of a reliable diagnostic marker, while oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is amongst the world’s top ten most common cancers. Diagnosis of cancer requires highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools which can support untraceable hidden sites of OSCC, yet to be unleashed, for which plenty of biomarkers are identified; the most recommended biomarker detection medium for OSCC includes biological fluids, such as blood and saliva. Saliva holds a promising future in the search for new clinical biomarkers that are easily accessible, less complex, accurate, and cost effective as well as being a non-invasive technique to follow, by analysing the malignant cells’ molecular pathology obtained from saliva through proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches. However, protein biomarkers provide an immense potential for developing novel marker-based assays for oral cancer, hence this current review offers an overall focus on the discovery of a panel of candidates as salivary protein biomarkers, as well as the proteomic tools used for their identification and their significance in early oral cancer detection.

  6. Invariant NKT cells are expanded in peripheral blood but are undetectable in salivary glands of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggino, Giuliana; Ciccia, Francesco; Raimondo, Stefania; Giardina, Giuseppina; Alessandro, Riccardo; Dieli, Francesco; Sireci, Guido; Triolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells play a role in regulating the function of autoreactive B cells before their entry into germinal centres. Absence and/or reduction of iNKT cells have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) together with an increase of autoreactive B cell activity. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphocyte infiltration and organisation in lymphoid structures of inflamed salivary glands occurs. The aim of the study was to investigate the percentage and function of iNKT in the salivary glands and peripheral blood of patients with pSS. Minor salivary gland biopsies were obtained from patients with pSS and with non-specific chronic sialoadenitis (nSS). Flow cytometry analysis of CD1d/α-GalactosylCeramide (α-GalCer) tetramer positive cells, producing IFN-γ and IL-17, and quantitative gene expression analysis by TaqMan real-time PCR for Vα24 were performed on salivary glands biopsies and peripheral blood samples obtained from patients and controls. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis for autoreactive B lymphocytes and ELISA for anti-SSA antibodies (Ab) detection were also performed. An increase of iNKT was detected ex vivo in peripheral blood of pSS patients; after α-GalCer stimulation this subset produce IL-17 and IFN-iNKT were undetectable in the salivary glands of pSS patients and anti-SSA specific B cells were found in target tissue. Invariant NKT cells were able to inhibit autoantibody production by B cells obtained from salivary glands of pSS. Impaired iNKT migration to inflamed sites might induce the activation of autoreactive B cells specific for SSA-antigen in salivary glands of pSS patients.

  7. Differential proteomics of Aedes albopictus salivary gland, midgut and C6/36 cell induced by dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichun; Zheng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yu; Gan, Ming; He, Ai; Li, Zhuoya; Zhang, Dongjing; Wu, Xiansheng; Zhan, Ximei

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between dengue virus (DENV) and vector mosquitoes are still poorly understood at present. In this study, 2-D DIGE combined with MS was used to analyze the differential proteomes of Aedes albopictus salivary gland, midgut and C6/36 cells induced by DENV-2. Our results indicated that the virus infection regulated several functional classes of proteins. Among them, 26 were successfully analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of 15 were the highest in salivary gland, 2 in midgut and none in C6/36 cells, however, 18 were the least in fat body compared to other organs. Interestingly, the changes of differential proteins mRNA were the most obvious in fat body post-infection. Chaperone, cytoskeleton and energy metabolism enzyme were the most down- or up- regulated proteins after DENV-2 infection. The abundant expression of these proteins in salivary gland may relate to its high susceptibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of Salivary Gland Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harunaga, J.; Hsu, J. C.; Yamada, K M

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands form during embryonic development by a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The architecture of these glands is generated by branching morphogenesis, revealed by recent research to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, ...

  9. Role of flotillins in the endocytosis of GPCR in salivary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Yong; Kim, Nahyun; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-08-05

    Endocytosis has numerous functions in cellular homeostasis. Defects in the endocytic pathway of receptors may lead to dysfunction of salivary gland secretion. Therefore, elucidating the complex mechanisms of endocytosis may facilitate solutions for disease treatment and prevention. The muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located in the plasma membrane, is involved in numerous physiological activities such as smooth muscle contraction and saliva secretion. M3R enters cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), while flotillins (flot-1 and -2), highly conserved proteins residing in lipid-raft microdomains, make use of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) for their internalization. Since these two proteins use two discrete pathways for endocytic entry, the association of flotillins with CME is poorly understood. We examined whether flotillins play a role in CME of M3R using immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference techniques in secretory epithelial cells. Upon stimulation with a cholinergic agonist, M3R, flot-1, and flot-2 each internalized from the plasma membrane into intracellular sites. The addition of chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D, well-known inhibitors of CME, inhibited internalization of M3R via CME. Filipin III and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) acting as lipid raft inhibitors disrupted internalization of flot-1/2 via CIE. Interestingly, filipin III and mβCD slightly reduced expression level of M3R whereas chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D did not affect internalization of the flotillin isoforms. M3R and flot-1/2 colocalized and interacted with each other as they entered the cytosol during limited periods of incubation. Moreover, knockdown of flot-1 or -2 by flotillin-specific siRNA prevented internalization and reduced the endocytic efficiency of M3R. Our results suggest that flot-1 and -2 are partially involved in CME of M3R by

  10. Salivary thiols and enzyme markers of cell damage in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Manni, Armando; Persichilli, Silvia; Boari, Antonia; Scribano, Donata; Minucci, Angelo; Raffaelli, Luca; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2007-06-01

    Recent studies describe the potential use of biochemical markers in the evaluation of the severity of periodontitis; moreover, patients suffering from periodontitis frequently complain of halitosis (breath malodour), mainly depending on volatile compounds (e.g. hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, etc.) produced by anaerobic metabolism of oral bacteria and involving sulphur-containing amino acids. In this study, salivary sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, cysteinylglycine and glutathione and some markers of cellular damage (lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase), were measured in periodontitis patients and correlated with the periodontal probing pocket's depth. Twenty-two periodontitis patients and forty control subjects were studied for the salivary activities of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase and cysteine, cysteinylglycine and glutathione concentrations. The periodontitis patients were divided into two subgroups based on the severity of periodontal disease, expressed as median periodontal probing pocket depth (> or detector. A statistically significant increase of the salivary parameters level (cysteine, cysteinylglycine, glutathione, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase) was found in the patient subgroup with periodontal probing pocket depth >5 mm, the salivary cysteine concentrations showing the most significant correlation. Salivary cysteine, a direct precursor of hydrogen sulphide, could be considered reliable markers for the oral tissue damage severity in periodontitis patients.

  11. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  12. RAGE Expression and NF-κB Activation Attenuated by Extracellular Domain of RAGE in Human Salivary Gland Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Chuong, Christopher; Katz, Joseph; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Bulosan, Marievic; Cha, Seunghee

    2009-01-01

    The receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) has been implicated as a pro-inflammatory factor in chronic inflammatory conditions such as diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of the soluble-RAGE (sRAGE), the extracellular domain of RAGE, on RAGE expression and NF-κB translocation in human-salivary gland-cell-lines (HSG). Cells were stimulated with agonist S100A4, fusion protein of RAGE encompassing the extracellul...

  13. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  14. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential

  15. Ultrastructure and lectin characterization of granular salivary cells from Ixodes ricinus females

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 431-440 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * salivary glands * lectin labeling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  16. Altered serum and salivary C-reactive protein levels in patients with oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, R; Bajaj, S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein synthesized primarily in the liver, is a marker for inflammation and for the progression of many cancers. We compared serum and salivary CRP levels in 20 normal individuals, 20 patients with oral premalignant lesions and 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to assess its efficacy as a prognostic indicator for OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for CRP levels. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with oral premalignant lesions compared to controls. CRP levels in OSCC patients were elevated and were associated with advanced tumor stages.

  17. Significance of Interleukin-6/STAT Pathway for the Gene Expression of REG Iα, a New Autoantigen in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients, in Salivary Duct Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takanori; Fujimoto, Takashi; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Miyaoka, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Kiyomi; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takeda, Maiko; Tsujinaka, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takasawa, Shin

    2017-06-01

    The regenerating gene, Reg, was originally isolated from a rat regenerating islet complementary DNA (cDNA) library, and its human homologue was named REG Iα. Recently, we reported that REG Iα messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as its product, was overexpressed in ductal epithelial cells in the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. Furthermore, autoantibodies against REG Iα were found in the sera of Sjögren's syndrome patients, and the patients who were positive for the anti-REG Iα antibody showed significantly lower saliva secretion than antibody-negative patients. We found the mechanism of REG Iα induction in salivary ductal epithelial cells. Reporter plasmid containing REG Iα promoter (-1190/+26) upstream of a luciferase gene was introduced into human NS-SV-DC and rat A5 salivary ductal cells. The cells were treated with several cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, etc.), upregulated in Sjögren's syndrome salivary ducts, and the transcriptional activity was measured. IL-6 stimulation significantly enhanced the REG Iα promoter activity in both cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the -141∼-117 region of the REG Iα gene was responsible for the promoter activation by IL-6, which contains a consensus sequence for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding. The introduction of small interfering RNA for human STAT3 abolished IL-6-induced REG Iα transcription. These results indicated that IL-6 stimulation induced REG Iα transcription through STAT3 activation and binding to the REG Iα promoter in salivary ductal cells. This dependence of REG Iα induction upon IL-6/STAT in salivary duct epithelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis/progression of Sjögren's syndrome.

  18. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  19. Adult stem cells and tissue engineering strategies for salivary gland regeneration: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Chankee; Vines, Jeremy B; Alexander, Grant; Murdock, Kyle; Hwang, Patrick; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is an important compound produced by the salivary glands and performs numerous functions. Hyposalivation (dry mouth syndrome) is a deleterious condition often resulting from radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, Sjogren?s Syndrome, or as a side effect of certain medications. Hyposalivation negatively affects speaking, mastication, and swallowing in afflicted patients, greatly reducing their quality of life. Current treatments for this pathology include modifying lifestyl...

  20. Analysis of the cell populations composing the mononuclear cell infiltrates in the labial minor salivary glands from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sicca syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, George E; Fragkioudaki, Sofia; Reilly, James H; Kerr, Shauna C; McInnes, Iain B; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2016-09-01

    Sicca symptoms occur in around 30% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Herein, we examined the characteristics of RA patients bearing sicca symptomatology (RA-sicca) with a special focus on the immunohistopathological features of their labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) biopsies. Our cohort included 100 consecutive RA patients which were interrogated using a sicca symptoms questionnaire. Positive responders were evaluated for ocular and oral dryness and underwent an LMSG biopsy. All samples were immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence and distribution of specific leukocyte subsets using appropriate markers and for the expression of certain immunoregulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells. Positively stained and total mononuclear cells (MNC) were counted in the entire section. Counts were expressed as cell frequency (percentage of cell type number/total infiltrating MNC number). In the majority (86.1%) of the 44 RA-sicca cases, periductal infiltrates were observed in LMSG biopsies. The frequencies of infiltrating cell subtypes and their correlation with lesion severity were different from that previously described in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Moreover, DCs and ΜΦs frequencies were increased in RA-sicca patients who had a biopsy focus score <1 and absence of anti-Ro/anti-La autoantibodies, in contrast to what was observed for B cells. In about half of the biopsies, salivary gland epithelial cells expressed CD80/B7.1 molecules, most commonly in patients with a positive biopsy or anti-Ro/anti-La autoantibodies. LMSG infiltrates composition in RA-sicca patients is distinct from that described in pSS. These differences, further attest to diverse pathophysiologic processes operating in these two entities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Long-Term In Vitro Expansion of Salivary Gland Stem Cells Driven by Wnt Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martti Maimets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are the ultimate source for replenishment of salivary gland (SG tissue. Self-renewal ability of stem cells is dependent on extrinsic niche signals that have not been unraveled for the SG. The ductal compartment in SG has been identified as the location harboring stem cells. Here, we report that rare SG ductal EpCAM+ cells express nuclear β-catenin, indicating active Wnt signaling. In cell culture experiments, EpCAMhigh cells respond potently to Wnt signals stimulating self-renewal and long-term expansion of SG organoids, containing all differentiated SG cell types. Conversely, Wnt inhibition ablated long-term organoid cultures. Finally, transplantation of cells pre-treated with Wnt agonists into submandibular glands of irradiated mice successfully and robustly restored saliva secretion and increased the number of functional acini in vivo. Collectively, these results identify Wnt signaling as a key driver of adult SG stem cells, allowing extensive in vitro expansion and enabling restoration of SG function upon transplantation.

  2. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  3. Increased frequency of CD16+ monocytes and the presence of activated dendritic cells in salivary glands in primary Sjögren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenberg, M. E.; Welzen-Coppens, J. M. C.; van Helden-Meeuwsen, C. G.; Bootsma, H.; Vissink, A.; van Rooijen, N.; van de Merwe, J. P.; Drexhage, H. A.; Versnel, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSjS) an accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) is seen, which is thought to play a role in stimulating local inflammation. Aberrancies in subsets of monocytes, generally considered the blood precursors for DCs, may play a role in this

  4. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland origin in the head and neck: clinical and histopathological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-H; Liu, L; Shi, Y-Y; Hu, Y-J; Hu, Q-G; Zhang, P

    2017-12-04

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an extremely rare neoplasm of salivary gland origin with a low-grade indolent nature. It is difficult to distinguish from other malignant salivary gland tumours. Clinical outcomes following surgery are generally reported as good. The aim of this study was to further determine the features of HCCC. This study was approved by Medical ethics review of affiliated hospital of jiangsu university. Fourteen new cases of HCCC are reported. The clinical and histopathological data of these 14 cases were analysed alongside those of 141 cases identified in a systematic review of the literature (up to 2016). Demographic data, histopathological findings, clinical presentation, primary treatment, and outcomes were extracted. Histologically, HCCC tumour cells had a clear cell morphology with hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemical results were positive for cytokeratins and EMA, but negative for SMA, S100, vimentin, and calponin. Twelve of the 14 patients showed EWSR1 translocation. Local nodal metastasis on presentation was present in 17.3% and the overall recurrence rate was 17.7% in the total population (N=155), compared with 35.7% and 21.4%, respectively, in the new cases alone. Focal necrosis and local metastasis were identified as possibly associated with recurrence. The overall prognosis was good: only 3.8% of patients died of the disease. HCCC is less indolent than was previously thought, but overall the prognosis is good. Risk factors for recurrence may include focal necrosis and local metastasis at presentation. The best treatment for patients with HCCC is wide local excision combined with regional lymph node dissection. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of a human salivary gland cells to paraoxon: an in vitro model for organophosphate oral exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, John M.; Chao, Chih-Kai; Jacobson, Saskia M.; Thompson, Charles M.; George, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as insecticides, acaracides, and chemical agents and share a common neurotoxic mechanism of action. The biochemical alterations leading to many of the deleterious effects have been studied in neuronal cell lines, however, non-neuronal toxic effects of OPs are far less well characterized in vitro, and specifically in cell lines representing oral routes of exposure. To address this void, the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, representing likely intera...

  6. MYB fusions and CD markers as tools for authentication and purification of cancer stem cells from salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Panaccione

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSC are considered the major cause of aggressive tumor behavior, recurrence, metastases, and resistance to radiation, making them an attractive therapeutic target. However, isolation of CSC from tumor tissue and their characterization are challenging due to uncertainty about their molecular markers and conditions for their propagation. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC, which arises predominantly in the salivary glands, is a slow-growing but relentless tumor that frequently invades nerves and metastasizes. New effective treatment approaches for ACC have not emerged over the last 40 years. Previously, based on a highly conserved SOX10 gene signature that we identified in the majority of ACC tumors, we suggested the existence in ACC of SOX10+ cells with neural stem properties and corroborated this hypothesis via isolation from ACC tissue a novel population of CSC, termed ACC-CSC. These cells activated NOTCH1 signaling and co-expressed SOX10 and other ACC-intrinsic neural crest stem cell markers with CD133, a CSC cell surface marker, suggesting that ACC is driven by a previously uncharacterized population of SOX10+/CD133+ cells with neural stem cell properties. Here, we authenticated ACC identity of our primary cultures by demonstrating that most of them harbor MYB-NFIB fusions, which are found in 86% of ACC. We demonstrated using CyTOF, a novel mass cytometry technology, that these cells express high β-catenin and STAT3 levels and are marked by CD24 and CD44. Finally, to streamline development of ACC cell lines, we developed RT-PCR tests for distinguishing mouse and human cells and used immunomagnetic cell sorting to eliminate mouse cells from long-term cell cultures. Overall, this study describes a new population of CSC that activates signaling pathways associated with poor prognosis, validates their ACC identity, and optimizes approaches that can be used for purification of ACC-CSC and generation of cell lines.

  7. 18 wheeler regulates apical constriction of salivary gland cells via the Rho-GTPase-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Tereza; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-07-01

    Rho GTPase and its upstream activator, guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (RhoGEF2), have emerged as key regulators of actin rearrangements during epithelial folding and invagination (Nikolaidou, K.K., Barrett, K. (2004). A Rho-GTPase-signaling pathway is used reiteratively in epithelial folding and potentially selects the outcome of Rho activation. Curr. Biol. 14, 1822-1826). Here, we show that Drosophila 18 wheeler (18W), a Toll-like receptor protein, is a novel component of the Rho-signaling pathway involved in epithelial morphogenesis. 18w Mutant embryos have salivary gland invagination defects similar to embryos that lack components of the Rho pathway, and ubiquitous expression of 18W results in an upregulation of Rho signaling. Transheterozygous genetic interactions and double mutant analysis suggest that 18W affects the Rho-GTPase-signaling pathway not through Fog and RhoGEF2, but rather by inhibiting Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs). We show that RhoGAP5A and RhoGAP88C/Crossveinless-c (CV-C) are required for proper salivary gland morphogenesis, implicating them as potential targets of 18W.

  8. 18 wheeler Regulates Apical Constriction of Salivary Gland Cells via the Rho-GTPase Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Tereza; Beckendorf, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Rho GTPase and its upstream activator, guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (RhoGEF2), have emerged as key regulators of actin rearrangements during epithelial folding and invagination (Nikolaidou and Barrett, 2004). Here, we show that Drosophila 18 wheeler (18W), a Toll-like receptor protein, is a novel component of the Rho-signaling pathway involved in epithelial morphogenesis. 18w mutant embryos have salivary gland invagination defects similar to embryos that lack components of the Rho pathway, and ubiquitous expression of 18W results in an upregulation of Rho signaling. Transheterozygous genetic interactions and double mutant analysis suggest that 18W affects the Rho GTPase signaling pathway not through Fog and RhoGEF2, but rather by inhibiting Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs). We show that RhoGAP5A and RhoGAP88C/Crossveinless-c (CV-C) are required for proper salivary gland morphogenesis, implicating them as potential targets of 18W. PMID:17512518

  9. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands

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    Ling Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location.

  10. Detection of IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and Mikulicz's disease: Potential role of Th17•Th1 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanke, Yuki; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

      Objective: Th17 cells, which mainly produce interleukin (IL)-17, have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The plasticity of Th17 cells, in which these cells shift to a Th1 phenotype in the presence of IL-12, has recently been reported. However, the role of IL-17 in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and Mikulicz's disease (MD) currently remains unknown. The submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of a MD patient and the salivary glands of 15 SS patients were collected. IFN-γ+ cells, IL-17+ cells, and IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells were detected by immunohistochemical staining. IFN-γ+ cells, IL-17+ cells, and IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells were detected in the submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of the MD patient and salivary glands of the 15 SS patients. IFN-γ+IL-17+cells in the salivary glands of patients were speculated to be Th1/Th17 cells in the present study. Th1/Th17 cells are known to be derived from Th17 cells and differentiate into Th1 cells, and IL-17-derived Th1 cells have been suggested to induce the deterioration of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Thus, Th1/Th17 cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SS and MD. IFN-γ+, IFN-γ+IL-17+, and IL-17+ cells were detected in the submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of a MD patient and the salivary glands of 15 SS patients.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 in salivary cells correlate with blood cells in Fibromyalgia: improvement in clinical and biochemical parameter after oral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Mario D; Santos-García, Rocio; Bermejo-Jover, David; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Jaramillo-Santos, María Reyes; Bullón, Pedro

    2012-04-01

    We have determined Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) levels in salivary cells (SCs) and mononuclear blood cells (BMCs) from Fibromyalgia (FM), and we study the influence of oral CoQ(10) supplementation on cells levels and clinical symptoms. CoQ(10) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ten patients were supplemented daily with 300 mg of CoQ(10) during 3 months. CoQ(10) were reduced in both cell models. Oral supplementation showed an improvement in clinical symptoms and restored levels. Patients with FM showed an important dysfunction in CoQ(10) levels and might benefit from oral supplementation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of resin monomers in human salivary gland tissue and lymphocytes as assessed by the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Norbert H; Schmid, Katharina; Sassen, Andrea W; Harréus, Ulrich A; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Folwaczny, Matthias; Glas, Jürgen; Reichl, Franz-Xaver

    2006-03-01

    Malignant tumors of the three major pairs and the numerous minor salivary glands in humans are rare, and little is known about their various etiologies. Considering the fact that resin monomers from dental restorative materials are released into the saliva and diffuse into the tooth pulp or gingiva, mucosa, and salivary glands, this may potentially contribute to tumorigenesis. Resin monomers may also be reabsorbed and reach the circulating blood as well. Whereas the cytotoxic potential of some components has been clearly documented, data on genotoxicity in human target cells require further investigation. In the present study, genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of three common methacrylates are investigated in human samples of salivary glands and peripheral lymphocytes. The Comet assay was used to quantify DNA single strand breaks, alkali labile and incomplete excision repair sites in salivary gland probes and lymphocytes of 10 volunteers. The xenobiotics investigated were triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as controls. DNA migration was analyzed using the tail moment according to Olive (OTM). Cytotoxicity was monitored using trypan blue staining. With TEGDMA concentrations at 10(-5)m (10(-3)m), UDMA at 10(-7)m (10(-7)m), and HEMA at 10(-3)m (10(-5)m) significant enhancements of DNA migration were achieved in tissue cells (lymphocytes) as compared to the negative controls. At higher concentrations of up to 2.5x10(-2)m, induced DNA migration was expressed by OTM at 10.7 for TEGDMA in tissue cells (8.7 in lymphocytes), 10.5 for UDMA (6.4), and 9.7 for HEMA (6.1). The viability of the cell systems was not affected as concerns the threshold level for the assay of 75% viable cells except for the highest concentration tested for TEGDMA and UDMA in tissue cells. At higher concentration levels, all tested substances

  13. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  14. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting Nanotechnologies towards Clinical Application of Stem Cells and Their Secretome in Salivary Gland Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao N. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland (SG functional damage and severe dry mouth (or xerostomia are commonly observed in a wide range of medical conditions from autoimmune to metabolic disorders as well as after radiotherapy to treat specific head and neck cancers. No effective therapy has been developed to completely restore the SG functional damage on the long-term and reverse the poor quality of life of xerostomia patients. Cell- and secretome-based strategies are currently being tested in vitro and in vivo for the repair and/or regeneration of the damaged SG using (1 epithelial SG stem/progenitor cells from salispheres or explant cultures as well as (2 nonepithelial stem cell types and/or their bioactive secretome. These strategies will be the focus of our review. Herein, innovative 3D bioprinting nanotechnologies for the generation of organotypic cultures and SG organoids/mini-glands will also be discussed. These bioprinting technologies will allow researchers to analyze the secretome components and extracellular matrix production, as well as their biofunctional effects in 3D mini-glands ex vivo. Improving our understanding of the SG secretome is critical to develop effective secretome-based therapies towards the regeneration and/or repair of all SG compartments for proper restoration of saliva secretion and flow into the oral cavity.

  15. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  16. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma of the Submandibular Salivary Gland as an Unusual Manifestation of Richter’s Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Vadim R. Gorodetskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Richter’s syndrome is the development of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL or Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL. In most patients with Richter’s syndrome, the high-grade NHL is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Only a small minority of CLL/SLL patients develop T-cell malignancies. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old male patient presenting with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS in the submandibular salivary gland, two years after the diagnosis of CLL/SLL. The PTCL-NOS consisted of small lymphocytes, which complicated diagnosis. Immunohistochemical, cytological, and molecular studies allowed the correct diagnosis of composite lymphoma (SLL/PTCL-NOS of the submandibular salivary gland. The PTCL-NOS had a cytotoxic phenotype and aberrant expression of CD79a. There was no evidence to suggest that the PTCL-NOS of the submandibular salivary gland developed from an intimately associated submandibular lymph node or by PTCL-NOS dissemination. A review of the literature and presented case suppose that the PTCLs developed following CLL/SLL have the cytotoxic phenotype and can clinically mimic typical Richter’s syndrome.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents autoimmune-associated down- regulation of p21 in salivary gland cells through a p53-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Douglas; Yu, Hongfang; Ohno, Seiji; Thomas, Cristina; Derossi, Scott; Ma, Yat-Ho; Yates, Nicole; Hahn, Emily; Bisch, Frederick; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    The submandibular salivary glands of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for Sjogren's syndrome and type-1 diabetes, show an elevated level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein involved in cell proliferation and repair of DNA damage. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant green tea catechin, normalizes the PCNA level. PCNA's activity can be regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which is also important for epithelial cell differentiation. In turn, expression of p21 and PCNA are partially regulated by Rb phosphorylation levels. EGCG was found to modulate p21 expression in epithelial cells, suggesting that EGCG-induced p21 could be associated with down-regulation of PCNA in vivo. The current study examined the protein levels of p21 and p53 (which can up-regulate p21) in NOD mice fed with either water or EGCG, and the effect of EGCG on p21 and p53 in cell line models with either normal or defective Rb. In NOD mice, the p21 level was low, and EGCG normalized it. In contrast to HSG cells with functional Rb, negligible expression of p21 in NS-SVAC cells that lack Rb was not altered by EGCG treatment. Inhibition of p53 by siRNA demonstrated that p21 and p53 were induced independently in HSG cells by a physiological concentration range of EGCG, suggesting p53 could be an important but not conditional factor associated with p21 expression. In conclusion, PCNA and p21 levels are altered inversely in the NOD model for SS and in HSG cells, and warrant further study as candidate new markers for salivary dysfunction associated with xerostomia. Induction of p21 by EGCG could provide clinically useful normalization of salivary glands by promoting differentiation and reducing PCNA levels.

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  19. Differences in MYB expression and gene abnormalities further confirm that salivary cribriform basal cell tumors and adenoid cystic carcinoma are two distinct tumor entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Gu, Ting; Li, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    In practices, some cases of salivary basal cell tumors that consist mainly of cribriform growth pattern are difficult to differentiate from adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). Identification of reliable molecular biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between them is required. Twenty-two cases of cribriform salivary basal cell tumors (at least 10% cribriform pattern present in each tumor) comprising 18 cases of basal cell adenoma (BCA) and four cases of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BcAC) were collected between 1985 and 2008. Twenty cases of cribriform AdCC were retrieved from our archives. MYB protein expression and gene abnormalities were detected in all cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, respectively. Neither MYB protein nor split genes were detected in any of the cases of cribriform basal cell tumors, while 55% (11/20) of cases of cribriform AdCC had MYB protein expression. High MYB expression was detected in 81.8% (9/11) cases, while low expression was found in the remaining cases. FISH analysis indicated that nine AdCC tumors with high MYB protein expression were split gene-positive, while MYB gene splitting was not detected in the 11 cases with low or absent MYB protein expression. The molecular changes in AdCC differ from those associated with cribriform basal cell tumors, which further confirms that cribriform basal cell tumors and AdCC are two distinct tumor entities. Simultaneous detection of MYB protein expression and the associated molecular changes could be beneficial in differentiating salivary cribriform basal cell tumors from AdCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. lmmunohistochemical and Molecular Characterization of Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma in Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    in its classification to refer to a primary extranodal lymphoma composed of morphologically heterogeneous small B- cells (marginal zone cells...this review. In addition to characteristic morphologic appearance during microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques...lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia , mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma.40 The ten cases (59%) with κ light-chain

  1. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  2. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  3. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  4. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Pratt, T L; Van Rooyen, A

    2017-03-29

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  5. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  6. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  7. Epithelial disruptions, but not immune cell invasion, induced secretory dysfunction following innate immune activation in a novel model of acute salivary gland injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Abeer; Carpenter, Guy; Proctor, Gordon

    2017-11-21

    Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)). Secretory capacity of the infected SMGs was substantiated by assessing the flow rate in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Depletion of the acute inflammatory cells was achieved by pre-treating mice with RB6-8C5 depletion antibody. Flow cytometry, histology and immunohistochemistry were conducted to verify the immune cell depletion. Epithelial expression of saliva-driving molecules: muscarinic 3 receptor (M3R), aquaporin 5 water channel (AQP5), Na-K- CL-Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), were characterized using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Tight junction (TJ) protein; zonula occludens (ZO-1) and basement membrane (BM) protein; laminin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Innate immune challenge prompted dysfunction in the exocrine salivary glands (SGs). Dysregulated gene and protein expression of molecules that drive saliva secretion was substantiated. Aberrant expression of TJ and BM proteins followed innate immune activation. Hyposalivation in the current model was independent of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive, acute inflammatory cells. In the present study, we developed a novel injury model of the SGs, featuring acute secretory dysfunction and immediate structural disruptions. Our results ruled out the injurious role of aggressively infiltrating inflammatory cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Stem cells and the repair of radiation-induced salivary gland damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R. P.; Stokman, M. A.

    Hyposalivation underlying xerostomia after radiotherapy is still a major problem in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in

  9. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Silva de Moraes R L M 1977 Comportamento nuclear em glândulas salivares de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Lep. durante o desenvolvimento larval; Papéis Avul. Zool. 31. 49–77. Silva de Moraes R L M and Bowen I D 2000 Modes of cell death in the hypopharyngeal gland of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.);.

  10. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  11. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  12. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib activates Akt and increases side population in a salivary gland tumor cell line (A253).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Yuka; Tonogi, Morio; Ochiai, Hiromi; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Azuma, Toshifumi

    2012-07-01

    We and others have reported that cancer side population (SP) cells have self-renewal and multidrug resistance capabilities. These phenotypes are similar to those of cancer stem cells (CSCs), cancer stem-like cells and tumor-initiating cells (TICs). It has also been reported that upregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) significantly increases the number of cancer SP cells, conversely, molecular targeting of EGFR tyrosine kinases using specific kinase inhibitors downregulates CSCs. Thus, we used flow cytometric analysis and cell sorting to examine cancer SP cells in the SCA9.cl-15, WR21 and A253 cell lines that originate from a salivary gland tumor (SGT). We successfully isolated cancer SP cells from all of these cell lines. SP cells were detected following treatment of these cell lines with the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) lapatinib, erlotinib and vandetanib. Several studies reported that RTKIs mostly reduced the SP population in cancer cells. We did not observe any detectable morphological differences between SP cells and non-SP cells. We found that the EGF RTKI lapatinib decreased the number of cancer SP cells in all cell lines investigated; however, the EGF RTKI erlotinib did not cause significant differences in the frequency of cancer SP cells in these cell lines. Addition of vandetanib significantly increased the number of cancer SP cells and upregulated the phosphorylated Akt. As far as we know, this is the first report to show that one of the RTKIs, vandetanib, can activate Akt and increase the number of cancer SP cells. It has been reported that RTKIs could competitively inhibit ABC transporters and subsequently reduced the number of SP cells. However, our observation indicated that signaling changes induced by RTKIs could even activate Akt and induce the SP population. Investigation of the SP phenotype of SGTs is important for the establishment of optimal cancer therapy.

  13. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  15. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl- channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO3- secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  17. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

  18. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  19. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of a human salivary gland cells to paraoxon: an in vitro model for organophosphate oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, John M; Chao, Chih-Kai; Jacobson, Saskia M; Thompson, Charles M; George, Kathleen M

    2014-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as insecticides, acaricides, and chemical agents and share a common neurotoxic mechanism of action. The biochemical alterations leading to many of the deleterious effects have been studied in neuronal cell lines, however, non-neuronal toxic effects of OPs are far less well characterized in vitro, and specifically in cell lines representing oral routes of exposure. To address this void, the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, representing likely interactions in the oral cavity, was exposed to the representative OP paraoxon (PX; O,O-diethyl-p-nitrophenoxy phosphate) over a range of concentrations (0.01-100 μM) and analyzed for cytotoxicity. PX induced cytotoxicity in HSG cells at most of the exposure concentrations as revealed by MTT assay, however, the release of LDH only occurred at the highest concentration of PX tested (100 μM) at 48 h. Slight increases in cellular ATP levels were measured in PX-exposed (10 μM) HSG cells at 24 h. Exposing HSG cells to 10 μM PX also led to an increase in DNA fragmentation prior to loss of cellular membrane integrity implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a trigger of toxicity. The ROS genes gss, gstm2, gstt2 and sod2 were upregulated, and the presence of superoxide following 10 μM PX exposure was determined via dihydroethidium fluorescence studies further implicating PX-induced oxidative stress in HSG cells. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  1. Reactions of seven basic fluorochromes with unfixed cells obtained from the salivary glands of the dipteran fly Megaselia scalaris Loew (Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S K; Cowden, R R; Benner, D B

    1986-01-01

    Seven basic fluorochromes with varying specificities were used to stain the large squamous epithelial cells isolated from the larval salivary glands of Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae). Although the EDTA-based method selected for isolating the cells produced permeabilization and a loss of viability of the cells, consistent results were obtained with the various fluorochromes. The "classical" pattern of green nuclear and red cytoplasmic fluorescence observed in cells stained with acridine orange could be changed to green cytoplasmic and red nuclear fluorescence by pretreatment with RNase. The predominantly cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence obtained with pyronine Y could be changed to mainly nuclear fluorescence by RNase pretreatment. The other five fluorochromes tested were not affected appreciably by extraction with RNase. Quinacrine mustard, dicarbocyanine (DiOC3(3)), and rhodamine 123 produced primarily cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence, while nile red revealed mainly cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Phosphine 3R initially stained lipid droplets but very rapidly redistributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. Because of their large size, flatness, and content of histochemically demonstrable components, the cells of Megaselia are especially appropriate for use as "optical objects" or controls in various studies. New methods of isolating the cells, however, will be needed to prevent permeabilization and loss of viability of the cells.

  2. Inhibitory effects of silibinin on proliferation and lung metastasis of human high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via autophagy induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Canhua Jiang,1 Shufang Jin,1 Zhisheng Jiang,1 Jie Wang2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the possible mechanisms and effects of silibinin (SIL on the proliferation and lung metastasis of human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M.Methods: A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effects of SIL on the proliferation of ACC-M cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the autophagic process. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3. An experimental adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC lung metastasis model was established in nude mice to detect the impacts of SIL on lung weight and lung cancer nodules. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of LC3 in human ACC samples and normal salivary gland tissue samples.Results: SIL inhibited the proliferation of ACC-M cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and inductively increased the autophagic bodies in ACC-M cells. Furthermore, SIL could increase the expression of LC3 in ACC-M cells and promote the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the ACC lung metastasis model, the lung weight and left and right lung nodules in the SIL-treated group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05. The expressions of LC3-I and LC3-II as well as the positive expression rate of LC3 (80% significantly increased, but the positive expression of LC3 in human ACC (42.22% reduced significantly.Conclusion: SIL could inhibit the proliferation and lung metastasis of ACC-M cells by possibly inducing tumor cells autophagy. Keywords: silibinin, adenoid cystic carcinoma, ACC-M cells, autophagy

  3. Expression of cancer cell-derived IgG and extra domain A-containing fibronectin in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wan-Qi; Peng, Jing; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Chen, De-Ping; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Li, Cui-Ying

    2017-09-01

    Cancer-IgG is a newly-discovered molecule, mainly derived from epithelial carcinoma cells and is significantly correlated with differentiation, metastasis, local invasion, and poor prognosis of many cancers. In our previous study we detected IgG expression in oral epithelial carcinoma, including salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), using an IgG-specific commercial antibody. Here, we explored the correlation between cancer-IgG and clinicopathological features of SACC. A total of 68 human SACC tissue specimens and 2 siRNAs were used to analyze the correlation between cancer-IgG and extra domain A (EDA(+))-containing fibronectin using the cancer-IgG-specific monoclonal antibody, RP215. We found an unexpected correlation between cancer-IgG and EDA(+) fibronectin, both of which showed aberrant expression in SACC tissue samples. Both were highly expressed in SACC with nerve invasion. In our previous study, EDA(+) fibronectin overexpression in SACC cells decreased N-cadherin expression. In the present study, we used SACC-83 cells, wherein EDA(+) fibronectin is overexpressed and cancer-IgG is knocked down. EDA(+) fibronectin expression was reduced with cancer-IgG knockdown, while cancer-IgG expression did not affect EDA(+) fibronectin overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of non-B cell-derived IgG in SACC cells decreased cellular motility (PIgG potentially regulates EDA(+) fibronectin expression, thereby suggesting possible new therapeutic approaches for SACC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammatory cells in minor salivary glands of patients with chronic hepatitis C: immunophenotype, pattern of distribution, and comparison with liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Oliveira e Silva, Karla Rachel; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Grossmann, Soraya de Mattos Camargo; do Carmo, Maria Auxiliadora Vieira

    2014-05-01

    To characterize the immunophenotype and the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate (INF) in salivary glands (SG) of patients with chronic hepatitis C, comparing with laboratorial data (genotype, viral load, METAVIR, and HCV RNA in SG), and liver. INF was classified as diffuse or focal. Immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD20, CD8, CD4, CD57, CD68, and S100 was performed in 61 SG and 59 livers. Diffuse INF was more common in SG than in liver. CD3(+), CD20(+), and CD8(+) were the most frequent cells in both tissues, with few CD57(+), CD68(+), and S100(+) cells. CD4(+) cells were common in liver, but rare in SG. Liver presented higher indexes for all markers, except S100(+) (p<0.05). Higher CD3(+), CD20(+), and CD8(+) (p<0.05) were observed in SG with focal infiltrate than with diffuse infiltrate. In liver, CD20(+) and CD3(+) were higher in focal infiltrate, and CD68(+) in diffuse infiltrate (p<0.05). Comparisons with laboratorial data did not show statistical significance. The INF in SG was mainly composed by T and B lymphocytes, mostly cytotoxic T cells. The glandular INF can present differences in composition according to its distribution. A more intense inflammation was observed in liver, but similar cell types were identified in SG, except for CD4(+). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  7. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  8. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  9. Suppression by Ghrelin of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase S-Nitrosylation and Apoptosis in Salivary Gland Acinar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw L. Slomiany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis, and its key virulence factor, LPS, are characterized by a massive rise in epithelial cell apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in rat sublingual salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity and a marked increase in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. We demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested by the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to inhibition by iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decrease in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation. Our findings imply that P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in the acinar cell NO signaling pathways result from upregulation in iNOS-derived NO that causes cNOS S-nitrosylation that interferes with its activation through phosphorylation. We also show that ghrelin protection against P. gingivalis-induced disturbances involves cNOS activation associated with a decrease in its S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation.

  10. Establishment and characterization of pleomorphic adenoma cell systems: an in-vitro demonstration of carcinomas arising secondarily from adenomas in the salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Yoshiko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the salivary gland carcinomas, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma has been regarded as a representative carcinoma type which arises secondarily in the background of a pre-existent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is still poorly understood how and which benign pleomorphic adenoma cells transform into its malignant form, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Methods We have established five cell systems from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland of a 61-year-old woman. They were characterized by immunofluorescence, classical cytogenetics, p53 gene mutational analysis, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of their xenografts, to demonstrate their potency of secondary transformation. Results We established and characterized five cell systems (designated as SM-AP1 to SM-AP5 from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. SM-AP1 to SM-AP3 showed polygonal cell shapes while SM-AP4 and SM-AP5 were spindle-shaped. SM-AP1-3 cells were immunopositive for keratin only, indicating their duct-epithelial or squamous cell differentiation, while SM-AP4/5 cells were positive for both keratin and S-100 protein, indicating their myoepithelial cell differentiation. Chromosome analyses showed numeral abnormalities such as 5n ploidies and various kinds of structural abnormalities, such as deletions, translocations, derivatives and isodicentric chromosomes. Among them, der(9t(9;13(p13.3;q12.3 was shared by all five of the cell systems. In addition, they all had a common deletion of the last base G of codon 249 (AGG to AG_ of the p53 gene, which resulted in generation of its nonsense gene product. Transplanted cells in nude mice formed subcutaneous tumors, which had histological features of squamous cell carcinoma with apparent keratinizing tendencies. In addition, they had ductal arrangements or plasmacytoid appearances of tumor cells and myxoid or hyaline stromata

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary peptide maxadilan alters murine dendritic cell expression of CD80/86, CCR7, and cytokine secretion and reprograms dendritic cell-mediated cytokine release from cultures containing allogeneic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, William H; Pauken, Kristen E; Morris, Robin V; Titus, Richard G

    2008-06-15

    Leishmania protozoan parasites, the etiologic agent of leishmaniasis, are transmitted exclusively by phlebotomine sand flies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. In addition to parasites, the infectious bite inoculum contains arthropod salivary components. One well-characterized salivary component from Lutzomyia longipalpis is maxadilan (MAX), a vasodilator acting via the type I receptor for the pituitary cyclic AMP activating peptide. MAX has been shown to elicit immunomodulatory effects potentially dictating immune responses to Leishmania parasites. When exposed to MAX, both resting and LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) show reduced CD80 and CD86 expression on most DCs in vitro. However, CD86 expression is increased significantly on a subpopulation of DCs. Furthermore, MAX treatment promoted secretion of type 2 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) while reducing production of type 1 cytokines (IL-12p40, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) by LPS-stimulated DCs. A similar trend was observed in cultures of MAX-treated DCs containing naive allogeneic CD4(+) T cells: type 2 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-13) increased while type 1 cytokines (TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) decreased. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta was increased in cultures containing MAX-treated mature DCs. MAX treatment of LPS-stimulated DCs also prevented optimal surface expression of CCR7 in vitro. These MAX-dependent effects were evident in DCs from both Leishmania major-susceptible (BALB/c) and -resistant (C3H/HeN) murine strains. These data suggest that modification of DC phenotype and function by MAX likely affects crucial cellular components that determine the pathological response to infection with Leishmania.

  12. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  13. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Rastogi; Sumeet Bhargava; Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna; Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain ra...

  14. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6...

  15. Analysis of age-related changes in the functional morphologies of salivary glands in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Park, In Suh; Kim, Seok-ki; Lim, Jae-Yol; Kim, Young-Mo

    2013-11-01

    Salivary glands in the elderly commonly exhibit salivary dysfunction resulting dry mouth, poor oral hygiene, and dental caries. However, in vivo changes of salivary glands during aging have not been well documented in the literature. This study was undertaken to determine age-related morphometric and functional changes of salivary glands using an aging mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups, group A (10 weeks old; n=10), group B (30 weeks old; n=10), and group C (90 weeks old; n=10). Body weights, salivary gland weights, salivary flow rates, and salivary lag times were measured and compared. Histomorphometric examinations and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. In addition, changes in salivary uptake and excretion were observed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Body and gland weights increased with age. Gland weight was significantly higher in group B than in groups A and C. Salivary lag time was significantly greater in group C than in groups A and B, and salivary flow rate was significantly greater in group B than in groups A and C. Histologic evaluations exhibited acinar cell atrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lymphocyte infiltration, small mucin component and more periductal fibrosis in salivary glands of group C. TUNEL assays revealed that apoptotic salivary epithelial cells were significantly more numerous in group C than in groups A and B. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate excretion rate was significantly lower in group C than in groups A and B in SPECT. Various morphometric and histopathological changes were observed in the salivary glands of aging mouse as well as relevant functional alterations, such as, decreased saliva production and excretion. Increased number of apoptotic salivary epithelial cells may contribute to the observed functional deterioration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  17. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  18. Salivary protein histatin 3 regulates cell proliferation by enhancing p27{sup Kip1} and heat shock cognate protein 70 ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yimamura@po.mdu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Wang, Pao-Li [Department of Bacteriology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Masuno, Kazuya [Department of Dental Education Innovation, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Sogawa, Norio [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Histatins are salivary proteins with antimicrobial activities. We previously reported that histatin 3 binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is constitutively expressed, and induces DNA synthesis stimulation and promotes human gingival fibroblast (HGF) survival. However, the underlying mechanisms of histatin 3 remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the KRHH sequence of histatin 3 at the amino acid positions 5–8 was essential for enhancing p27{sup Kip1} (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) binding to HSC70 that occurred in a dose-dependent manner; histatin 3 enhanced the binding between p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 during the G{sub 1}/S transition of HGFs as opposed to histatin 3-M(5–8) (substitution of KRHH for EEDD in histatin 3). Histatin 3, but not histatin 3-M(5–8), stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted HGF survival. Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination, whereas histatin 3-M(5–8) did not. These findings provide further evidence that histatin 3 may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, particularly during G{sub 1}/S transition, via the ubiquitin–proteasome system of p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70. - Highlights: • KRHH amino acid sequence was required in histatin 3 to bind HSC70. • Histatin 3 enhanced HSC70 binding to p27{sup Kip1} during the G{sub 1}/S transition in HGFs. • KRHH sequence stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted cell survival. • Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination. • Histatin 3 stimulates cell proliferation via the ubiquitin–proteasome system.

  19. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  20. Effects of small interfering RNA targeting thymidylate synthase on survival of ACC3 cells from salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakehata Seiji

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is an important target for chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and high expression of TS has been associated with poor prognosis or refractory disease in several cancers including colorectal and head and neck cancer. Although TS is known to regulate cell cycles and transcription factors, its potency as a therapeutic target has not been fully explored in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC. Methods An ACC cell line (ACC3 was transfected with siRNA targeting the TS gene and inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis-associated molecules were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the in vivo effect of TS siRNA on tumor progression was assessed using a xenograft model. Results Our results demonstrated that ACC3 cells showed significantly higher TS expression than non-cancer cell lines and the induction of TS siRNA led to inhibition of cell proliferation. The effect was associated with an increase in p53, p21, and active caspase-3 and S-phase accumulation. We also found up-regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT, a polyamine metabolic enzyme. Furthermore, treatment with TS siRNA delivered by atelocollagen showed a significant cytostatic effect through the induction of apoptosis in a xenograft model. Conclusion TS may be an important therapeutic target and siRNA targeting TS may be of potential therapeutic value in ACC.

  1. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  2. Salivary mRNA markers having the potential to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma segregated from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Evangelia; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Konstantinos; Kouidou, Sofia; Markopoulos, Anastasios; Antoniades, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    In the current study the presence of extracellular IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNAs in the saliva was evaluated as a tool in the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma. 34 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1N0M0/T2N0M0, 20 patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia (15 patients with mild dysplasia and 5 with severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma) and 31 matched healthy-control subjects were included in the study. The presence of IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNA was evaluated in extracellular RNA isolated from saliva samples using sequence-specific primers and real-time RT-PCR. ROC curve analysis was used to estimate the ability of the biomarkers to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The data reveal that the combination of these four biomarkers provides a good predictive probability of up to 80% (AUC=0.799, p=0.002) for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma but not patients suffering from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia. Moreover, the combination of only the two biomarkers (SAT and IL-8) also raises a high predictive ability of 75.5% (AUC=0.755, p=0.007) approximately equal to the four biomarkers suggesting the use of the two biomarkers only in the prediction model for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients limiting the economic and health cost in half. SAT and IL-8 mRNAs are present in the saliva in high quality and quantity, with a good discriminatory ability for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients only but not for patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia an oral potentially malignant disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg-1 min-1 peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇2peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2peak. Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45+), granulocytes (CD45+CD15+), monocytes (CD45+CD14+), T-cells (CD45+CD3+), and B-cells (CD45+CD20+) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  4. Co-inoculation of Borrelia afzelii with tick salivary gland extract influences distribution of immunocompetent cells in the skin and lymph nodes of mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severinová, Jana; Salát, Jiří; Kročová, Z.; Řezníčková, Jana; Demová, Hana; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 457-463 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : tick salivary gland extract * inflammation * Borrelia Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  5. Stimulation of human cheek cell Na+/H+ antiporter activity by saliva and salivary electrolytes: amplification by nigericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, G S; Leifert, W R; Burnard, S L; Head, R J; McMurchie, E J

    1996-01-26

    Proton-dependent, ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA)-sensitive Na+ uptake (Na+/H+ antiporter) studies were performed to examine if saliva, and ionophores which alter cellular electrolyte balance, could influence the activity of the cheek cell Na+/H+ antiporter. Using the standard conditions of 1 mmol/l Na+, and a 65:1 (inside:outside) proton gradient in the assay, the uniport ionophores valinomycin (K+) and gramicidin (Na+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 177% (p < 0.01) and 227% (p < 0.01), respectively. The dual antiporter ionophore nigericin (K(+)-H+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 654% (p < 0.01), with maximal Na+ uptake achieved by 1 min and at an ionophore concentration of 50 mumol/l, with an EC50 value 6.4 mumol/l. Pre-incubation of cheek cells with saliva or the low molecular weight (MW) components of saliva (saliva activating factors, SAF) for 2 h at 37 degrees C, also significantly stimulated EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. This stimulation could be mimicked by pre-incubation with 25 mmol/l KCl or K(+)-phosphate buffer. Pre-incubating cheek cells with SAF and the inclusion of 20 mumol/l nigericin in the assay, produced maximum EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. After pre-incubation with water, 25 mmol/l K(+)-phosphate or SAF, with nigericin in all assays, the initial rate of proton-gradient dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake was saturable with respect to external Na+, with Km values of 0.9, 1.7, and 1.8 mmol/l, and Vmax values of 13.4, 25.8, and 31.1 nmol/mg protein/30 sec, respectively. With 20 mumol/l nigericin in the assay, Na+ uptake was inhibited by either increasing the [K+]o in the assay, with an ID50 of 3 mmol/l. These results indicate that nigericin can facilitate K+i exchange for H+o and the attending re-acidification of the cheek cell amplifies 22Na+ uptake via the Na+/H+ antiporter. The degree of stimulation of proton-dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake is therefore dependent, in part, on the intracellular [K+]i.

  6. Salivary gland diseases in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  7. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  8. Oral mucosa biology and salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rosie; Steel, Andrea; Fazel, Nasim

    Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers. Within the oral cavity, saliva shows great promise as a noninvasive and sensitive marker for many systemic diseases. Biomarkers are being used as diagnostic or monitoring tools for a wide variety of diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren disease, Behçet disease, and autoimmune blistering disorders, as well as premalignant and malignant lesions of the mouth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  10. Effects of milking frequency in automatic milking systems on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, somatic cell count and melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, S; Wechsler, B; Hauser, R; Gygax, L

    2016-03-01

    In barns with an automatic milking system (AMS), both the milking frequency and the number of nighttime milkings vary between cows. A low milking frequency might indicate problems in gaining access to the milking unit. Also, nighttime lighting in the waiting area of the AMS and in the milking unit increases exposure to light at night and could suppress nocturnal melatonin synthesis. These effects could result in increased stress, suppressed immune response, and poor udder health. A total of 125 cows (14-16/farm) on 8 farms with AMS were selected based on their average milking frequency. Eight to 10 saliva samples per cow were taken over the course of 4 days, and cortisol, IgA and melatonin concentrations were determined. Somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined in milk samples. Milking frequency had no significant relationship with mean cortisol and IgA levels, but a higher milking frequency tended to be associated with lower SCC levels. Nocturnal melatonin levels tended to be negatively associated with the number of nighttime milkings. In conclusion, no indication of increased stress or reduced immune defense was found in relation to milking frequency on farms with an AMS.

  11. Clock genes show circadian rhythms in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Seon, Y J; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, S; Papagerakis, P

    2012-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by "clock" transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow.

  12. 5-Fluorouracil induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the major salivary glands affecting salivary flow and saliva composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfin, Luana E; Braga, Cíntia M; Oliveira, Thais A; Martins, Conceição S; Foschetti, Danielle A; Santos, Ana A Q A; Costa, Deiziane V S; Leitão, Renata F C; Brito, Gerly A C

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation. Oxidative stress and oxidative defense system were also investigated in the salivary gland tissues using MDA (malondialdehyde), nitrite, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase). In addition, the CAT and lysozyme activities and the IgA and SOD levels were evaluated in the saliva samples. 5-FU significantly reduced the pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow rate on the 4th experimental day, associated with an increase in the SOD levels in saliva. Recovery of the salivary flow and SOD were observed on day 10, when an increase in the saliva lysozyme levels was detected. In addition, 5-FU promoted vacuolization in parotid (P) and periductal edema in submandibular (SM) gland, combined with an increase in the inflammatory cells influx, mostly observed on the 4th day in SM gland and on 4th and 10th days in P. Oxidative stress was found mostly on day 10 in SM, SL and P glands, associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, observed in SM and SL glands, but not in P. 5-FU induces an inflammatory response in the major salivary glands, most observed ten days after its first injection, which may contribute to the major salivary glands hypofunction, leading to alterations in the salivary flow rate and composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  13. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  14. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  15. Enhanced transduction of mouse salivary glands with AAV5-based vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katano, H.; Kok, M. R.; Cotrim, A. P.; Yamano, S.; Schmidt, M.; Afione, S.; Baum, B. J.; Chiorini, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) can direct transgene expression in salivary gland cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not known how other rAAV serotypes perform when infused into salivary glands. The capsids of serotypes 4

  16. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  17. Salivary Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances and Malondialdehyde – Their Relationship to Reported Smoking and to Parodontal Status Described by the Papillary bleeding index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Celec

    2005-01-01

    of epithelial cells in saliva (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Salivary TBARS are a simple parameter that partially reflects the parodontal status with a potential usefulness in the clinical stomatology. We show herein that salivary MDA is dependent on age and smoking, but there is no correlation between MDA and PBI. Further studies should uncover the main salivary TBARS compound in patients with altered parodontal status and trace the origin of these salivary lipoperoxidation markers.

  18. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  19. Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Sebastiano; Venturi, Mattia

    2009-01-01

    The authors hypothesize that dietary deficiency or excess of iodine (I) has an important role in oral mucosa and in salivary glands physiology. Salivary glands derived from primitive I-concentrating oral cells, which during embryogenesis, migrate and specialize in secretion of saliva and iodine. Gastro-salivary clearance and secretions of iodides are a considerable part of "gastro-intestinal cycle of iodides", which constitutes about 23% of iodides pool in the human body. Salivary glands, stomach and thyroid share I-concentrating ability by sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and peroxidase activity, which transfers electrons from iodides to the oxygen of hydrogen peroxide and so protects the cells from peroxidation. Iodide seems to have an ancestral antioxidant function in all I-concentrating organisms from primitive marine algae to more recent terrestrial vertebrates. The high I-concentration of thymus supports the important role of iodine in the immune system and in the oral immune defence. In Europe and in the world, I-deficiency is surprisingly present in a large part of the population. The authors suggest that the trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the presumed antitumour activity of iodides might be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands diseases, as for some other extrathyroidal pathologies.

  20. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  1. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  3. Anti-Ro and anti-La autoantibodies induce TNF-α production by human salivary gland cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo: Lo scopo di questo studio è stato valutare la produzione di TNF-α, induttore della via estrinseca del processo apoptotico, in seguito al trattamento con gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro ed anti-La isolati da pazienti con sindrome di Sjögren primaria in un modello sperimentale rappresentato dalla linea cellulare di ghiandole salivari umane, A- 253. È stata, inoltre, valutata la presenza sulla superficie di tali cellule di recettori specifici per tale induttore, TNFR1 e TNFR2. Materiali e metodi: Gli autoanticorpi anti-La ed anti-Ro sono stati purificati su una colonna cromatografia ad alta affinità. Le metodiche utilizzate per la valutazione della produzione di TNF-α e lo studio dei recettori di superficie sono state immunofluorescenza, RT-PCR e saggi immunoenzimatici. Risultati: I nostri risultati hanno dimostrato che le cellule A-253 esprimono in superficie i recettori TNFR1 e TNFR2 e che gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro e anti-La sono in grado di indurre la produzione di TNF-α nelle stesse cellule. Conclusioni: Il trattamento con gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro ed anti-La induce la produzione di TNF-α in cellule di ghiandole salivari umane e questo potrebbe spiegare la attivazione della via estrinseca della apoptosi.

  4. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  5. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Frankie K.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Ho, Allen S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neo...

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'heygere, Emmanuel; Meulemans, Jeroen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2018-01-25

    The review puts new information on geno- and phenotype of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the perspective of the updated 2017 WHO classification. The proportion of SDC is increasing. This may be because of a true rise in incidence, but certainly to better diagnostic tests and changed WHO definitions. In this light, a substantial proportion of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma is now attributed to the category of SDC. 'Low-grade SDC' and 'SDC in-situ' of the former WHO classification, are now named low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma (IDC), respectively. Recent series quantify biologic aggressiveness: perineural growth, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension in lymph node metastasis are each observed in two out of three patients with SDC. Most patients die within 3 years, but once 5-year disease-free survival is reached, further disease activity is exceptional. The typical molecular biological profile with high human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and androgen receptor expression is increasingly successfully exploited in clinical trials for advanced SDC. The aggressive SDC is increasingly diagnosed. Despite intensive combined surgery and radiation therapy, many patients recur, for whom new bullets, targeting the molecular biological mechanisms, are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

  9. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated

  10. Three-dimensional organotypic culture of human salivary glands: the slice culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Fang, D; Liu, Y; Ramamoorthi, M; Zeitouni, A; Chen, W; Tran, S D

    2016-10-01

    A challenge in studying human salivary glands is to maintain the cells ex vivo in their three-dimensional (3D) morphology with an intact native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. This paper established a human salivary 3D organotypic slice culture model that could maintain its physiological functions as well as allowing a direct visualization of the cells. Human salivary biopsies from six patients were embedded in agarose and submerged in cold buffer for thin (50 μm) sectioning using a vibratome. 'Salivary slices' were mechanically supported by a porous membrane insert that allowed an air-liquid interface and cultured in serum-free culture media. Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, physiological functions, and gene expression were assessed during 14 days of culture. Human salivary slices maintained cell survival (70-40%) and proliferation (6-17%) for 14 days ex vivo. The protein secretory (amylase) function decreased, but fluid (intracellular calcium mobilization) function was maintained. Acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell populations survived and maintained their 3D organization within the slice culture model. The human salivary slice culture model kept cells alive ex vivo for 14 days as well as maintaining their 3D morphology and physiological functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Common immunophenotypic features of submandibular salivary glands and thymus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dožić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Submandibular salivary gland is a part of the neuro-immune-endocrine system. It contains biological factors which regulate a number of functions in the body including the modulation of thymus function. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate immunophenotypic characteristics of submandibular salivary glands of rats during ontogenesis, using the panels of monoclonal antibodies and to compare with the phenotypic characteristics of epithelial components of the thymus. Methods. Submandibular salivary glands and thymus were obtained from 1, 30 and 60 days old male AO (Albino, Oxford rats. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method was used for staining. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat submandibular salivary glands showed phenotypic heterogeneity of particular components of this gland during the postnatal development. We demonstrated that rat submandibular salivary glands share common antigens with rat thymic epithelial cells, but the observed phenotypic similarity between the individual regions was considered much more significant. Our data showed that the phenotypic similarity between duct epithelial cells and subcapsular epithelial cells and most medullary cells, whereas cortical epithelial cells are phenotypically similar to acinar cells. Conclusion. This immunohistological study showed phenotypic complexity of the submandibular salivary gland and similarity to the thymus that opens new perspectives in studying phenotypic similarities between this gland and lymphatic organs.

  12. Salivary gland-like breast carcinomas: An infrequent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwell-Cabello, Santiago; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Ríos-Luna, Nina Paola; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    To show the incidence, as well as the clinical and histopathological characteristics, of patients diagnosed with mammary salivary gland-like carcinomas at our institution. A retrospective study was conducted in all women diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution from January 2005 to February 2016. Patients with diagnosis of salivary gland-like breast carcinomas were included. In this period, 6384 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution; salivary gland-like carcinomas were found in 7 patients (0.1%), adenoid cystic carcinoma was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.07%), acinic cell carcinoma in 1 patient (0.015%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1 patient (0.015%). The triple-negative subtype was found in all of the tumors. Median follow-up was 66.3 months (range, 1-108 months). No patient developed local or distant recurrence. Salivary gland-like breast tumors are extremely rare. We found a global incidence of 0.1%. Adenoid cystic, acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas were the three histologic types diagnosed. Although the triple-negative subtype is mainly found, good prognosis is expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructure of the Salivary Glands of the Stink Bug Predator Podisus distinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis C; Zanuncio, José C; Morais, Wagner C C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Cedeño-Loja, Pedro E; Serrão, José E

    2015-12-01

    Podisus distinctus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect with significant potential for use as a biological control agent in agriculture and forestry because their nymphs and adults actively prey on diverse insect species. The saliva of this insect possesses active substances that cause paralysis and death of the prey. As the first step in identifying compounds of P. distinctus saliva, this study describes the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of this predator. The salivary system of P. distinctus possesses a pair of main salivary glands with a short anterior lobe, a long posterior lobe, and a pair of tubular accessory glands. The main salivary gland of P. distinctus has no associated muscles, suggesting that the saliva-release mechanism occurs with the help of certain thorax muscles. The main salivary gland epithelium has a single layer of cells (varying from cubical to columnar) with cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, spherical granules of different sizes, a nucleus with a predominance of decondensed chromatin, and nucleolus. The apical cell region has a few short microvilli and the basal region has plasma membrane infoldings. The epithelium of the accessory salivary glands possesses a single-layered epithelium of cubic cells delimiting a narrow lumen. The apical cell region has a high density of microvilli and pleomorphic mitochondria, whereas the central cell region is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum with a well-developed nucleus and decondensed chromatin. The basal cell region is characterized by the presence of several basal plasma membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria and numerous openings to the hemocoel forming large channels. The ultrastructural characteristics suggest that the main salivary glands and accessory salivary glands play a vital role in protein synthesis for saliva production and that the accessory glands are involved in transport of materials of the hemolymph.

  14. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Nathaly; Martínez, Luis C; Silva, Eder H; Teodoro, Adenir V; Serrão, José Eduardo; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, which is a major component of the pentatomid pest complex on soybeans, Glycine max, in the neotropics. Our results revealed a salivary gland complex consisting of two lobes (i.e., anterior and posterior), with a constriction between them (i.e., the hilum), in which the salivary and accessory gland ducts are inserted. The principal gland epithelium has a single layer of cells lining an enlarged lumen filled with saliva, and these cells are cuboidal, rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, with well-developed nuclei, all of which are typical features of protein-secreting cells. We report, for the first time in insects, the presence of a layer of muscle cells surrounding the columnar hilum epithelium. The accessory salivary gland cells are cuboidal with nuclei containing condensed chromatin and cytoplasm rich in vacuoles and rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating the potential involvement of these glands in water transport/secretion. The lumen content of each lobe of the principal gland suggests that the lobes produce different compounds. Thus, our results suggest that the E. heros salivary complex might have unconventional mechanisms to mix/release saliva, which might help explain the polyphagous abilities of these insects.

  16. Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Current methods to prevent that damage are radiation techniques to reduce radiation-injury to salivary gland tissue, surgical techniques to relocate salivary glands to a region receiving a lower cumulative radiation dose, and techniques to make salivary gland cells more resistant to radiation injury. These preventive techniques cannot be applied in all cases, also reduce tumor sensitivity, or do not result in a sufficient amelioration of the dryness-related complaints. Therefore, alternative methods on techniques to salvage salivary glands that are damaged by radiation are explored with promising results, such as stem cell therapies and gene transfer techniques to allow the radiation-injured salivary gland tissue to secrete water. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salivary gland of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Bates, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    The salivary glands of male and female Toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. Each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. In the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. The general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. No secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted from long microvilli and collect in a periductal space surrounding the duct. In addition, a number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a very large nucleus were observed, suggesting a high energy requirement for producing the salivary proteins involved in sugar feeding. The size of the gland is approximately 50 microm in diameter and 1.5 mm in length. These dimensions correlate with high protein content of these salivary glands (2.88+/-0.14 microg/gland pair). Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic protein profiles of the male and female salivary glands were identical. No dominant major proteins were found. Compared with Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, the protein profile of T. splendens was similar to that observed in the males of these other species but different to that shown by the females, thus making T. splendens an excellent organism for studying the biochemistry of sugar feeding in mosquitoes.

  18. Sialogogue-related radioprotection of salivary gland function : The degranulation concept revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    To investigate whether secretory granules play a role in the radiosensitivity of the salivary glands of rats, parotid acinar cells, submandibular acinar cells and/or submandibular granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells were degranulated prior to irradiation. Degranulation of GCT cells was obtained

  19. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  20. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  1. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  2. Caspase-1 participates in apoptosis of salivary glands in Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinmao; Zhou, Yongzhi; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Gong, Haiyan; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-05-08

    Ticks are among the most harmful vectors worldwide. Their salivary glands play essential roles in blood-feeding and pathogen transmission and undergo apoptosis after feeding. Although it was previously reported that salivary degeneration in ixodid ticks is in response to hormonal stimulation, questions still exist with the underlying mechanisms of salivary gland apoptosis. Salivary glands of Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were collected from 1 to 7 days after attachment to the host. TUNEL and Annexin V assays were used to check apoptosis during this time. To confirm the role of caspase-1, RNA interference was used to silence its expression, and the dynamic changes of associated cysteine proteases were also shown by quantitative real time PCR and western blot, while TUNEL and Annexin V assays were used to confirm apoptosis. In the present study, apoptosis of salivary glands in R. haemaphysaloides occurred 3 or 4 days after attachment to the host as determined by TUNEL and Annexin V assays. The expression of caspase-1 increased at 5-7 days. When the latter was silenced by RNA interference, apoptosis in the salivary glands was delayed. While there seemed to be another form of cell death in salivary glands of ticks, such occurrence may be caused by compensatory autophagy which involved autophagy-related gene 4D. This study describes the apoptosis of salivary glands in R. haemaphysaloides and the dynamic changes in cysteine proteases in this activity. Cysteine proteases were involved in this process, especially caspase-1. Caspase-1 participated in the apoptosis of salivary glands.

  3. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bågesund, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  5. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  6. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  7. Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of salivary glands of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect with a potential for use as a biological control agent in agriculture because nymphs and adults actively prey on various insects by inserting mouthparts and regurgitating the contents of the salivary glands inside the prey, causing rapid paralysis and death. However, the substances found in saliva of P. nigrispinus that causes the death of the prey are unknown. As a first step to identify the component of the saliva of P. nigrispinus, this study evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The salivary system of P. nigrispinus has a pair of principal salivary glands, which are bilobed with a short anterior lobe and a long posterior lobe, and a pair of tubular accessory glands. The principal gland epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells enclosing a large lumen. Epithelial cells of the principal salivary gland vary from cubic to columnar shape, with one or two spherical and well-developed nuclei. Cells of the anterior lobe of the principal salivary gland have an apical surface with narrow, short, and irregular plasma membrane foldings; apical and perinuclear cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum; and mitochondria with tubular cristae. The basal portion of the secretory cells has mitochondria associated with many basal plasma membrane infoldings that are short but form large extracellular canals. Secretory granules with electron-dense core and electron-transparent peripheral are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Cells of the posterior lobe of the principal salivary gland are similar to those of the anterior lobe, except for the presence of mitochondria with transverse cristae. The accessory salivary gland cells are columnar with apical microvilli, have well-developed nucleus and cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, and have secretory granules. Cytochemical tests showed positive reactions for carbohydrate, protein

  8. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  9. Overview of Human Salivary Glands: Highlights of Morphology and Developing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Fernanda; Teshima, Tathyane Harumi Nakajima; Hsieh, Ricardo; Souza, Milena Monteiro; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Lourenco, Silvia Vanessa

    2017-07-01

    Salivary glands are essential organs that produce and secrete saliva to the oral cavity. During gland morphogenesis, many developmental processes involve a series of coordinated movements and reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme that generate the ductal system and the secretory units. Recent studies have shown new findings about salivary gland development, particularly regarding lumen formation and expansion, with the involvement of apoptosis and cell polarization, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that human minor salivary glands start forming earlier than previously published and that distinct apoptotic mediators can trigger duct lumen opening in humans. This review summarizes updated morphological and cellular features of human salivary glands and also explores new aspects of the human developmental process. Anat Rec, 300:1180-1188, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  11. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-08

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  13. Atypical vimentin expression in a feline salivary gland adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Christelle; Benal, Yasmine; Caplier, Laura; Rakotovao, Farasoa; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques

    2009-12-01

    We report herein a feline salivary gland adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases to draining lymph nodes, liver and lung, as well as an unusual metastasis to the spleen. Histologically, the primary salivary gland tumor consisted of low columnar to polygonal epithelial cells forming tubules and trabeculae. The spleen was infiltrated with sheets of poorly differentiated large round cells. Interestingly, morphologic change in epithelial cells was accompanied with the acquisition of vimentin intermediate filaments, a feature particularly evident in the splenic metastasis. This study highlights the role of epithelial cell plasticity during carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Vaz Goulart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA, the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-flled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation.

  15. Anopheles Gambiae PRS1 Modulates Plasmodium Development at Both Midgut and Salivary Gland Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Sylvie; Sautereau, Jean; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Thiery, Isabelle; Bourgouin, Catherine; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1), whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. Conclusions/Significance While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history. PMID:20634948

  16. Anopheles gambiae PRS1 modulates Plasmodium development at both midgut and salivary gland steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chertemps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1, whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history.

  17. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  19. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by oral contraceptives so women taking birth control pills can still participate in the study. Summary Salivary cortisol is an effective...in cortisol binding globulin (found in oral contraceptives ). Salivary cortisol is not influenced by saliva flow rate and there are obvious

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies ... in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET ...

  1. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  2. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Misk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases, parotid duct fistula (15 cases and sialocele (3 cases. Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  3. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  4. Alterations of total non stimulated salivary flow in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx submitted to hyperfractionated radiation therapy; Alteracoes do fluxo salivar total nao estimulado em pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe submetidos a radioterapia por hiperfracionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebur, Maria Isabela [Faculdades Integradas Espirita, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: isabelaguebur@aol.com; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Buco-Maxico-Facial; Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir de; Ramos, Gyl Henrique Albrecht [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco; Pereira, Jose Carlos Gasparin [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2004-07-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis are actually the most effective measures that we dispose to improve the prognostic of the malignant tumors. The mouth and oropharynx tumors are treated with success, when early diagnosed. The radiotherapy is almost always one of the selected treatments for these tumors. When cancer is diagnosed in advanced stages, many a time the treatment needs to be carried out swiftly to be efficient, and consequently the radio therapist use the hyperfractionated therapy, with the patient receiving two lower doses of radiation in two sessions daily, amounting to a higher daily dosage, of about 160 cGy/2x/day. When the major salivary glands are present in the radiated field, the xerostomia appears by the second week of treatment (1500 to 2000 cGy), changing the patient's health, and causing difficulties for him to eat, speak and sleep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative alterations of the total non stimulated salivate flow of patients who underwent hyperfractionated therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of mouth and oropharynx. Samples of twelve male patients saliva from Erasto Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were examined. Two samples of saliva were collected from each patient, the first one before the beginning of the radiotherapy, and the second at the end of the treatment. As a result, we obtained salivary loss in 91.7% of the patients, with a percentage of total salivary flow loss of 62.9%, registered in the second collection. We concluded that the hyperfractionated therapy causes a marked xerostomia when the major salivary glands are in the radiated field. (author)

  5. Taste of a pill: organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) mediates metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nora; Duan, Haichuan; Hebert, Mary F; Liang, C Jason; Rice, Kenneth M; Wang, Joanne

    2014-09-26

    Drug-induced taste disturbance is a common adverse drug reaction often triggered by drug secretion into saliva. Very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying salivary gland transport of xenobiotics, and most drugs are assumed to enter saliva by passive diffusion. In this study, we demonstrate that salivary glands selectively and highly express OCT3 (organic cation transporter-3), a polyspecific drug transporter in the solute carrier 22 family. OCT3 protein is localized at both basolateral (blood-facing) and apical (saliva-facing) membranes of salivary gland acinar cells, suggesting a dual role of this transporter in mediating both epithelial uptake and efflux of organic cations in the secretory cells of salivary glands. Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug known to induce taste disturbance, is transported by OCT3/Oct3 in vitro. In vivo, metformin was actively transported with a high level of accumulation in the salivary glands of wild-type mice. In contrast, active uptake and accumulation of metformin in salivary glands were abolished in Oct3(-/-) mice. Oct3(-/-) mice also showed altered metformin pharmacokinetics and reduced drug exposure in the heart. These results demonstrate that OCT3 is responsible for metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands. Our study uncovered a novel carrier-mediated pathway for drug entry into saliva and sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced taste disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Simple mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn carbohydrate antigens in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoplastic transformation is associated frequently with changes in the glycosylation process. Simple mucin-type glycosylation in cancer cells has been found to be characterized by incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation, leading to the exposure of the structures Tn and sialosyl......-Tn, which are normally cryptic in human cells and secretions, including saliva and salivary glands. METHODS: Paraffin sections from 50 salivary gland carcinomas of different histologic types were investigated with immunohistologic studies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies with well-defined specificity......: Mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn may be regarded as markers of a glandular differentiation pattern in salivary gland carcinomas. The cellular location of the antigen-antibody complex indicates that they are synthesized and secreted from the tumor cells into saliva or serum....

  7. Determination of salivary glucose in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria-Sueli-Marques; Batista-Filho, Mário-Márcio-Vasconcelos; Pimentel, Marcele-Jardim; Passos, Isabela-Albuquerque; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the concentration of salivary glucose in healthy individuals and to compare it with the capillary glycemia. Samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 63 non-diabetic patients. The concentration of salivary glucose and capillary blood was measured in all of the patients. The salivary glucose was determined by enzymatic method and spectrophotometry. The data was then analyzed using the Spearman correlation test, considering values of pglucose among the males studied was 100.05+/-13.51 mg/dL, and among females, it was 99.5+/-13.9 mg/dL. The average salivary glucose for the whole sample was 5.97+/-1.87 mg/dL, with 5.91+/-2.19 mg/dL among males and 5.97+/-1.56 mg/dL among females, respectively, without presenting any significant differences (p=0.908). The concentration of salivary glucose did not present any statistically significant correlation with the capillary glycemia (p=0.732). The results suggest that the concentration of salivary glucose is not dependent on capillary glycemia and that the concentration of salivary glucose does not present significant differences between the measurements for males and females.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehghani Ashkezari, Atefeh; Oliaie Rezaie, Nooshin; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = −0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.16 to −0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS. PMID:28422987

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  10. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  11. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  12. Salivary MicroRNA in Pancreatic Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Humeau

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Western countries, with the lowest 1-year survival rate among commonly diagnosed cancers. Reliable biomarkers for pancreatic cancer diagnosis are lacking and are urgently needed to allow for curative surgery. As microRNA (miRNA recently emerged as candidate biomarkers for this disease, we explored in the present pilot study the differences in salivary microRNA profiles between patients with pancreatic tumors that are not eligible for surgery, precancerous lesions, inflammatory disease or cancer-free patients as a potential early diagnostic tool.Whole saliva samples from patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 7, pancreatitis (n = 4, IPMN (n = 2, or healthy controls (n = 4 were obtained during endoscopic examination. After total RNA isolation, expression of 94 candidate miRNAs was screened by q(RTPCR using Biomark Fluidgm. Human-derived pancreatic cancer cells were xenografted in athymic mice as an experimental model of pancreatic cancer.We identified hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-23a, hsa-miR-23b and miR-29c as being significantly upregulated in saliva of pancreatic cancer patients compared to control, showing sensitivities of 71.4%, 85.7%, 85,7% and 57%, respectively and excellent specificity (100%. Interestingly, hsa-miR-23a and hsa-miR23b are overexpressed in the saliva of patients with pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. We found that hsa-miR-210 and let-7c are overexpressed in the saliva of patients with pancreatitis as compared to the control group, with sensitivity of 100% and 75%, and specificity of 100% and 80%, respectively. Last hsa-miR-216 was upregulated in cancer patients as compared to patients diagnosed with pancreatitis, with sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 100%. In experimental models of PDAC, salivary microRNA detection precedes systemic detection of cancer cells markers.Our novel findings indicate that salivary miRNA are discriminatory in pancreatic cancer patients

  13. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

  14. Scientific frontiers: emerging technologies for salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B J; Yates, J R; Srivastava, S; Wong, D T W; Melvin, J E

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic 'omics' era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB), now have taken center stage in the dissemination of the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers and other translational and clinical utilities. © International & American Associations for Dental Research

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  16. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  18. Elective neck management for high-grade salivary gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michael P; Werning, John W; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Mendenhall, William M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether patients with clinically node negative (cNo) high grade salivary gland carcinomas benefit from an elective neck dissection prior to postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Between October 1964 and October 2009, 59 previously untreated patients with cNo high-grade salivary gland carcinomas (squamous cell carcinomas were excluded) were treated with curative intent using elective neck dissection (END; n=41), or elective neck irradiation (ENI; n=18) at the University of Florida College of Medicine (Gainesville, FL). All patients underwent resection of the primary cancer followed by postoperative RT. The median follow-up period was 5.2years (range, 0.3-34years). Occult metastases were found in 18 (44%) of the 41 patients in the END group. There were 4 recurrences (10%) in the END group and 0 recurrence in the ENI group. Neck control rates at 5years were: END, 90%; ENI, 100%; and overall, 93% (p=0.1879). Cause-specific survival was 94% in the ENI group, 84% in the END group, and 86% for all patients (p=0.6998). There were 3 reported grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Two patients had a postoperative fistula and one patient had a grade 4 osteoradionecrosis that required a partial mandibulectomy. Patients with cNo high grade salivary gland carcinomas who are planned to undergo surgery and postoperative RT likely do not benefit from a planned neck dissection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frankie K; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L; Ho, Allen S

    2017-06-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of large extracellular pools of mucin, which contained papillary and acinar aggregates, and small nodules of ductal type epithelium with minimal nuclear enlargement, powdery chromatin and little pleomorphism. The nodules comprised 20 % of the tumor and showed morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Examination revealed histologic features comparable to mammary gland analogues in mucin predominance, ductal type morphology, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and GATA-3 positivity. This is the first case reported of mucin-rich carcinoma of salivary gland origin exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation.

  20. Salivary

    OpenAIRE

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa; Hassan Mohamed Abouelkheir; Shaban El-Fadly Khodiar; Mohamed, Gamal Aldeen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Asthma patients can be effectively treated and controlled with currently available medications, inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids have harmful effects on dentition. Therefore we aimed to investigate the influence of exposure to inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids on the composition of saliva as a risk factor to increase the incidence of dental caries among children aged 8–14 years old. The study group is compared with a control group of healthy children of ...

  1. Malt lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasić Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. Case report. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather manymonth- long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. Conclusion. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

  2. WISP-2 expression in human salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzu, Yukinao; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kato, Masaki; Higo, Morihiro; Nimura, Yoshinori; Harada, Koji; Numata, Tsutomu; Seki, Naohiko; Sato, Mitsunobu; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) for development of novel independent marker. We constructed an in-house cDNA microarray carrying 2,201 cDNA clones derived from SGT and oral squamous cell carcinoma cDNA libraries. Four cell lines that originated from the SGT-derived cell lines were analyzed using this microarray system. The genes identified by our microarray system were further analyzed at the mRNA or protein expression level in other types of human cancer cell lines and clinical samples (ten normal salivary glands [NSGs], eleven pleomorphic adenomas, ten adenoid cystic carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas). Two up-regulated genes and six down-regulated genes were identified in common when compared with the control RNA. Of the up-regulated genes, WISP-2, which plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis, was selected for further analyses. We found a higher expression of the WISP-2 gene in the SGT-derived cell lines compared with other types of human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, WISP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in NSGs were significantly higher than those in SGTs. These results suggest that WISP-2 could be a reliable independent marker and that down-regulation or loss of the WISP-2 gene may be associated with the development of SGTs.

  3. Expression of two drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450-enzymes in human salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, C; Hansen, C; Torpet, L A

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The oral cavity is constantly lubricated by saliva and even small amounts of xenobiotics and / or their metabolites in the saliva may affect the oral mucosa. Our aim was therefore to clarify if xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are expressed in salivary glands. METHODS...... and seromucous / serous acinar cells in all gland types although to a varying degree and intensity. Mucous acinar cells were positive to a lesser extent. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a xenobiotic metabolizing capability of salivary glands. This may have implications for development of oral mucosal disease...

  4. Serotonergic Innervation of the Salivary Glands and Central Nervous System of Adult Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae), and the Impact of the Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) on the Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Laura; Stoffolano, John G; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Using a serotonin antibody and confocal microscopy, this study reports for the first time direct serotonergic innervation of the muscle sheath covering the secretory region of the salivary glands of adult tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen. Reports to date, however, note that up until this finding, dipteran species previously studied lack a muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands. Direct innervation of the salivary gland muscle sheath of tsetse would facilitate rapid deployment of saliva into the host, thus delaying a host response. Our results also suggest that the neuronal and abnormal pattern seen in viral infected glands by the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) is due to a compensatory increased branching of the neurons of the salivary glands, which is associated with the increased size of the salivary glands in viral infected flies. This study shows for the first time serotonin in the cell bodies of the brain and thoracico-abdominal ganglion in adult tsetse, G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae). A hypothesis is proposed as to whether innervation of the muscle sheath covering of the secretory region of the salivary glands is present in brachyceran compared with nematoceran dipterans; and, a plea is made that more research is needed to develop a blood feeding model, similar to that in the blow flies, for elucidating the various mechanisms involved in production and deployment of saliva. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of salivary agglutination on oral streptococcal clearance by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzek, A; Chen, Z; Merritt, J; Kreth, J

    2017-06-01

    Salivary agglutination is an important host defense mechanism to aggregate oral commensal bacteria as well as invading pathogens. Saliva flow and subsequent swallowing more easily clear aggregated bacteria compared with single cells. Phagocytic clearance of bacteria through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes also seems to increase to a certain extent with the size of bacterial aggregates. To determine a connection between salivary agglutination and the host innate immune response by phagocytosis, an in vitro agglutination assay was developed reproducing the average size of salivary bacterial aggregates. Using the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii as a model organism, the effect of salivary agglutination on phagocytic clearance through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Here we describe how salivary aggregates of S. gordonii are readily cleared through phagocytosis, whereas single bacterial cells showed a significant delay in being phagocytosed and killed. Furthermore, before phagocytosis the polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes were able to induce a specific de-aggregation, which was dependent on serine protease activity. The data presented suggest that salivary agglutination of bacterial cells leads to an ideal size for recognition by polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes. As a first line of defense, these phagocytic cells are able to recognize the aggregates and de-aggregate them via serine proteases to a more manageable size for efficient phagocytosis and subsequent killing in the phagolysosome. This observed mechanism not only prevents the rapid spreading of oral bacterial cells while entering the bloodstream but would also avoid degranulation of involved polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, so preventing collateral damage to nearby tissue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  8. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  10. Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

  11. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  12. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. High degree of conservancy among secreted salivary gland proteins from two geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies populations (Mali and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissoko Ibrahim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salivary proteins from sandflies are potential targets for exploitation as vaccines to control Leishmania infection; in this work we tested the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandfly populations are highly divergent due to the pressure exerted by the host immune response. Salivary gland cDNA libraries were prepared from wild-caught P. duboscqi from Mali and recently colonised flies of the same species from Kenya. Results Transcriptome and proteome analysis resulted in the identification of the most abundant salivary gland-secreted proteins. Orthologues of these salivary proteins were identified by phylogenetic tree analysis. Moreover, comparative analysis between the orthologues of these two different populations resulted in a high level of protein identity, including the predicted MHC class II T-cell epitopes from all these salivary proteins. Conclusion These data refute the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distinct populations of the same Phlebotomus sandfly species are highly divergent. They also suggest the potential for using the same species-specific components in a potential vector saliva-based vaccine.

  14. Toll-like receptor 5 and 7 expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, K; Bäck, L; Haglund, C; Leivo, I; Jouhi, L; Mäkitie, A A; Hagström, J

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands has a poor long-term prognosis and high metastatic rate. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been related to tumour progression but have also tumour growth-inhibiting responses. To the best of our knowledge, they have not been studied previously in ACC. We studied the immunoexpression of TLR 5 and 7 in ACC of the major salivary glands. From a cohort of 54 patients with ACC of the major salivary glands treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland in 1974-2009, there were 34 primary tumours and six metastases available for immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical expression of TLR 5 and 7 were correlated to clinicopathological findings and patient survival. Both TLR 5 and 7 were expressed in ACCs and their metastases, mostly on the cell membranes. The expression was heterogeneous in individual tumours. TLR 5 was expressed less in male samples, and TLR 7 had lower expression in ACCs with solid growth pattern. No correlation with survival was found. In the normal salivary gland, the TLR 5 and 7 expression was mainly negative. Both TLR 5 and 7 are expressed in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma on the cell membranes as well as in cytoplasm.

  15. Salivary Gland Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth V. Shetty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient who presented with pain and multiple swellings in the face. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. The patient was successfully treated by surgical drainage and oral administration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case from India on N. asteroides affecting the salivary gland.

  16. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila Baliga; Sangeeta Muglikar; Rahul Kale

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study D...

  17. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  18. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured...... levels decreased and remained low during development and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Initial inflammation in gingival tissues is associated with a decrease in inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Further studies are needed to evaluate if inflammatory cytokines bind to their functional receptors...

  19. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Is Necessary for Salivary Glands and Pancreas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, K A; Do, M A; Nguyen, K; Mallick, S; Kin, K; Farokhnia, N; Jun, G; Fakhouri, W D

    2017-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) acts as a tumor suppressor and controls cell differentiation in ectodermal and craniofacial tissues by regulating expression of target genes. Haploinsufficiency of IRF6 causes Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndrome, 2 syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Around 85% of patients with Van der Woude express pits on the lower lip that continuously or intermittently drain saliva, and patients with the common cleft lip and palate have a higher prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis. This study aims to identify the role of IRF6 in development of exocrine glands, specifically the major salivary glands. Our transgenic mouse model that expresses LacZ reporter under the control of the human IRF6 enhancer element showed high expression of IRF6 in major and minor salivary glands and ducts. Immunostaining data also confirmed the endogenous expression of IRF6 in the developing ductal, serous, and mucous acinar cells of salivary glands. As such, we hypothesized that Irf6 is important for proper development of salivary glands and potentially other exocrine glands. Loss of Irf6 in mice causes an increase in the proliferation level of salivary cells, disorganized branching morphogenesis, and a lack of differentiated mucous acinar cells in submandibular and sublingual glands. Expression and localization of the acinar differentiation marker MIST1 were altered in Irf6-null salivary gland and pancreas. The RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that 168 genes are differentially expressed and confer functions associated with transmembrane transporter activity, spliceosome, and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in the EGF pathway-that is, Ereg, Ltbp4, Matn1, Matn3, and Tpo-was decreased at embryonic day 14.5, while levels of apoptotic proteins were elevated at postnatal day 0. In conclusion, our data report a novel role of Irf6 in exocrine gland development and support a rationale for performing exocrine

  20. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Hofstede, Theresa M; Chambers, Mark S; Lai, Stephen Y; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2016-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19months, range: 4-72months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50Gy (1 case) to 70Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8-14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location of SGM is very important, with cases that developed ORN disproportionally having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Papillary-cystic pattern is characteristic in mammary analogue secretory carcinomas but is rarely observed in acinic cell carcinomas of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) has a specific ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and morphologically overlaps with acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). Before the recognition of MASC, in AciCC, four histologic patterns were identified including microcystic, solid, papillary-cystic, and follicular. The aim of this study was to evaluate histologic patterns in these two neoplasms through comprehensive histologic subtyping. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified 14 cases of MASC and 21 cases of AciCC. We used comprehensive histologic subtyping to provide a semiquantitive assessment of histologic patterns in each tumor and performed immunohistochemical analyses including S100/vimentin/mammaglobin/DOG1. MASC often presented papillary-cystic patterns without a solid component, previously considered to be one of the four major patterns associated with AciCC. However, in our study, this histologic feature was rarely seen in AciCC and more characteristic of MASC. In aspiration cytology samples, MASC was associated with more cellular atypia. An immunohistochemical panel of S100/mammaglobin/DOG1 was found useful for differential diagnosis. Comprehensive subtyping of histologic patterns is a useful screening method prior to initiation of molecular testing.

  2. Salivary pellicles on titanium and their effect on metabolic activity in Streptococcus oralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. Methods Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student’s t-test or ANOVA. Results Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α2-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. Conclusions We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was

  3. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands in Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) according to seasonal and circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, K; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Ostróżka, A; Marchewka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M

    2016-11-01

    The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae. The salivary glands are composed of a terminal acinar component and a system of tubular ducts that are lined with a cuticle. The glandular part is composed of secretory epithelial cells that are at various stages of their secretory activity. The saliva that is produced by the secretory cells of the acini is secreted into the salivary ducts, which are lined with a simple epithelium that is based on the non-cellular basal lamina. The ultrastructural variations suggest that salivary glands function differently depending on seasonal rhythms and prepare the animal for overwintering. Therefore, the salivary glands of the centipedes that were analyzed participate in the accumulation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides during the spring, summer and autumn. Subtle differences in the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the salivary glands during the circadian cycle must be related to the physiological reactions of the organism. The salivary ducts showed no differences in the specimens that were analyzed during the day/night cycle or during the seasonal cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salivary Amylase as a Marker of Salivary Gland Function in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant; Ganapathy, Sivadas

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary amylase in patients with primary oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as the main modality of treatment. The study was conducted on ten histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Stimulated whole saliva was collected at three stages of radiotherapy-0, 3, and 6 weeks. Salivary amylase was estimated using Henry-Chiamori method and comparison was made with appropriate age- and gender-matched controls. Salivary amylase levels showed significant decrease in healthy subjects when compared to oral cancer patients (P salivary amylase could be used as a surrogate marker of salivary gland function in patients with oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as primary treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a new entity associated with ETV6 gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Stodulski, Dominik; Klimková, Adéla; Steiner, Petr; Stankiewicz, Czesław; Biernat, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma.

  6. Change of salivary IgA secretion and caries development in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T; Aono, W; Nagashima, S; Yoshida, T; Hashida, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    1994-09-01

    Xerostomia is a serious side-effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and often enhances caries activity. However, the relationship between caries induction and the IgA level in saliva in rats subjected to irradiation of the salivary glands is unclear. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats infected with or without Streptococcus mutans MT8148R (serotype c). The flow rate of saliva and the protein concentration in saliva were significantly reduced in irradiated rats, regardless of infection of S. mutans. The caries activity was enhanced in these rats, and and irradiation level of 50 Gy significantly increased the caries score. However, longitudinal study indicated that the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans whole cells maintained similar or significantly higher levels in irradiated rats, when compared with those of nonirradiated rats. In addition, there was no negative correlation between the caries score and the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans. These findings suggest that the secreted IgA against S. mutans may not play a significant role in the caries induction of hyposalivated rats.

  7. The immune response to sand fly salivary proteins and its influence on Leishmania immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis eGomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During Leishmania transmission, sand fly saliva is co-inoculated with parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Sand fly saliva consists of roughly thirty different salivary proteins, many with known roles linked to blood feeding facilitation. Apart from the anti-hemostatic capacity of saliva, several sand fly salivary proteins have been shown to be immunogenic upon multiple contacts with a mammalian host. Immunization with single immunogenic salivary proteins or exposure to uninfected bites can produce protective immune responses against leishmaniasis. These sand fly salivary proteins induce cellular immune responses and/or antibodies. Antibodies to saliva are not required for protection in a mouse model against leishmaniasis. A strong body of evidence points to the role for saliva-specific T cells producing IFN-γ in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction at the bite site as the main protective response. Herein, we review immunity to sand fly salivary proteins in the context of its vector-parasite-host combinations and vaccine potential, as well as some recent advances to shed light on the mechanism of how an immune response to sand fly saliva protects against leishmaniasis.

  8. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community.

  9. Salivary Duct Carcinoma: An Update on Morphologic Mimics and Diagnostic Use of Androgen Receptor Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Chiosea, Simion I

    2017-09-01

    More than 15 years ago, seminal studies by Dr. E. Leon Barnes and colleagues transformed our understanding of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and, in doing so, paved the way for contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this aggressive salivary adenocarcinoma. In particular, attention to the apocrine phenotype of SDC and expression of androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry has improved the diagnostic accuracy and showed how SDC can be reliably distinguished from its morphologic mimics (i.e., other salivary gland carcinomas with high grade transformation, low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinomas involving parotid). Furthermore, the observation that SDC shares AR expression with prostate cancer and apocrine breast cancer foresaw the discovery of common molecular alterations between SDC and these tumor types and draw attention to androgen deprivation therapy for SDC patients.

  10. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since...... met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine...... treatment, and immunotherapy. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly...

  11. Cytokine Treatment Improves Parenchymal and Vascular Damage of Salivary Glands after Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: During radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, co-irradiation (IR) of salivary glands results in acute and often lifelong hyposalivation. Recently, we showed that bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) can partially facilitate postradiation regeneration of the mouse submandibular gland. In this

  12. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption.

  13. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  14. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  15. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ponte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  16. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  17. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of neurotrophins related to stress in saliva and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Juri; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in neurogenesis, differentiation, growth, and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play key roles in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when the developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimuli. Early life events, such as psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis, thereby affecting brain development and contributing to inter-individual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. Immobilization stress modifies BDNF mRNA expression in some organs. We studied the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rat submandibular glands, and found increased BDNF expression in duct cells under immobilization stress. Upon further investigation on the influence of salivary glands on plasma BDNF using an acute immobilization stress model, we found that acute immobilization stress lasting 60 min significantly increases the plasma BDNF level. However, plasma BDNF elevation is markedly suppressed in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. This suggests that salivary glands may be the primary source of plasma BDNF under acute immobilization stress. This report reviews the structure of salivary glands, the role of neurotrophins in salivary glands, and the significance of BDNF in saliva and salivary glands, followed by a summary of the evidence that indicates the relationship between immobilization stress and BDNF expression within salivary glands.

  20. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  1. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  2. Does salivary duct repositioning prevent complications after tumor resection or salivary gland surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-05-01

    Tissue that is resected for the treatment of oral tumors often includes salivary gland ducts. At their institution, the authors conserve and transfer as much of the salivary duct as possible during these procedures to avoid obstructive complications. Differentiating these obstructive complications from a metastatic node can be challenging and can confound subsequent oncologic management. This study compared and examined the effectiveness of salivary duct repositioning in decreasing the incidence of obstructive complications. Cases of oromandibular disease treated with salivary duct resection at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two cases (25 patients) of Wharton duct resection and 31 cases (31 patients) of Stensen duct resection were included. The incidence of complications after salivary duct repositioning, duct ligation, and retention of the sublingual gland around the Wharton duct was compared. Wharton ducts were repositioned in 30 cases and ligated in 2 cases. Complications, including oral swelling at the Wharton duct, were observed in 5 cases of repositioning and 2 cases of ligation. Stensen ducts were repositioned in 9 cases and ligated in 22 cases. The only complication reported was a single case of salivary fistula after ligation. Salivary duct repositioning is performed to prevent blockage of physiologic salivary discharge. Complications were more frequently associated with Wharton ducts than with Stensen ducts because of the unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics of the Wharton duct. Repositioning of the salivary duct is a suitable method for preventing complications associated with the Wharton duct. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  4. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  5. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  6. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken Saavedra, Juan; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes Coloma, Andrea; Reyes Rojas, Montserrat; Viera Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca Martínez, Claudia; Morales Bozo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and ...

  7. Salivary and plasma insulin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Korec, R; Feketeova, E; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-07-01

    Changes in plasma and salivary immunoreactive insulin were studied in saliva and blood of 9 healthy subjects following either oral glucose or a test meal ingestion at 30 min intervals for up to 3h. The levels of plasma immunoreactive insulin reached maximum at 60 min with a value of 62.77 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the glucose load and 62.62 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the test meal. In the case of salivary immunoreactive insulin levels, the maximum was attained at 90 min with a value of 18.47 +/- 2.68 microU/min after the glucose load and 22.40 +/- 2.01 microU/min after the test meal. Positive linear correlation (r = 0.74) was found between the salivary and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels.

  8. Detecting viruses by using salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostics that involve the use of oral fluids have become increasingly available commercially in recent years and are of particular interest because of their relative ease of use, low cost and noninvasive collection of oral fluid for testing. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors discuss the use of salivary diagnostics for virus detection with an emphasis on rapid detection of infection by using point-of-care devices. In particular, they review salivary diagnostics for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus. Oral mucosal transudate contains secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A, as well as IgM and IgG, which makes it a good source for immunodiagnostic-based devices. Clinical Implications Because patients often visit a dentist more regularly than they do a physician, there is increased discussion in the dental community regarding the need for practitioners to be aware of salivary diagnostics and to be willing and able to administer these tests to their patients. PMID:23034833

  9. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of ncRNA species in saliva. These methods indicate that salivary exRNA provides an efficient medium for biomarker discovery of oral and systemic diseases.

  10. MyD88 deficiency alters expression of antimicrobial factors in mouse salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Into, Takeshi; Takigawa, Toshiya; Niida, Shumpei; Shibata, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    The surfaces of oral mucosa are protected from infections by antimicrobial proteins and natural immunoglobulins that are constantly secreted in saliva, serving as principal innate immune defense in the oral cavity. MyD88 is an important adaptor protein for signal transduction downstream of Toll-like receptors and TACI, receptors for regulation of innate immunity and B cell responses, respectively. Although MyD88-mediated signaling has a regulatory role in the intestinal mucosal immunity, its specific role in the oral cavity has remained elusive. In the present study, we assessed the influence of MyD88 deficiency on the oral innate defense, particularly the expression of antimicrobial proteins in salivary glands and production of salivary basal immunoglobulins, in mice. Microarray analysis of the whole tissues of submandibular glands revealed that the expression of several genes encoding salivary antimicrobial proteins, such as secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), S100A8, and lactotransferrin, was reduced due to MyD88 deficiency. Histologically, SLPI-expressing acinar cells were evidently decreased in the glands from MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B cell populations, including B-1 cells and IgA+ plasma cells, residing in submandibular glands were increased by MyD88 deficiency. The level of salivary anti-phosphorylcholine IgA was elevated in MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Thus, this study provides a detailed description of the effect of MyD88 deficiency on expression of several salivary antimicrobial factors in mice, illustrating the role for MyD88-mediated signaling in the innate immune defense in the oral cavity.

  11. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands.

  12. Salivary glands and human congenital cytomegalovirus infection: What happens in early fetal life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Liliana; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Chiereghin, Angela; Piccirilli, Giulia; Santini, Donatella; Pavia, Claudia; Turello, Gabriele; Squarzoni, Diego; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2017-02-01

    Salivary glands are a site of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication, latency, and persistence. Prolonged secretion of virus in saliva for months following a primary infection contribute to horizontal transmission. In order to better understand the early effects of CMV on salivary glands and the mechanisms of viral persistent replication, submandibular glands of six CMV congenitally infected fetuses at 21 weeks gestation were studied. Three fetuses at the same gestational age from CMV-seronegative women were compared as negative controls. Tissue viral load and the type of inflammatory infiltrate were evaluated. Moreover, development and branching of salivary glands, the number of myoepithelial cells, cellular proliferation, and expression of secretory proteins of the saliva (Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 and lysozyme) were studied. A low viral load and rare CMV-positive cells associated with T CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed. Branching was impaired with a decrease in terminal acinar structures, the number of myoepithelial cells, and cellular proliferation were reduced. In addition, a compromised secretion of defense proteins involved in the oral humoral immunity was observed. These findings suggest that CMV may affect salivary glands, impairing structure development and secretion of defense proteins, probably responsible for the prolonged viral shedding in saliva. J. Med. Virol. 89:318-323, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Expression and Localization of Glucose Transporters in Rodent Submandibular Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cetik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The submandibular gland is one of the three major salivary glands, producing a mixed secretion; this saliva is hypotonic compared to plasma. It also secretes glucose, but the mechanisms responsible for this process are poorly understood. Our study addressed the question whether glucose transporters are expressed and how are they localized within specific rodent submandibular cells, in order to estimate a possible implication in salivary glucose disposal. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the presence/localization of glucose transporters in rodent submandibular glands. Results: GLUT4 was identified in the submandibular salivary gland at both mRNA and protein level. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed its localization preponderantly in the ductal cells of the gland, near to the basolateral. SGLT1 and GLUT1 were highly expressed in submandibular tissues in both acinar and ductal cells, but not GLUT2. These results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. It was also documented that insulin stimulates the net uptake of D-glucose by ductal rings prepared from submandibulary salivary glands, the relative magnitude of such an enhancing action being comparable to that found in hemidiaphragms. Conclusion: At least three major glucose transporters are expressed in the rodent submandibular glands, of which GLUT4 is specifically localized near the basolateral side of ductal structures. This points-out its possible role in regulating glucose uptake from the bloodstream, most likely to sustain ductal cellular metabolism.

  14. Salivary Interleukine 6 and its role on developing periodentitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Mohammed Juda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines .These cytokines are produced by leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells, and it is involved mainly in inflammatory processes. IL-6 has a role in stimulating the immune response as trigger to infection or trauma through the production of acute-phase proteins that accompany the inflammatory process. IL-6 synthesized according to code from messenger RNA, so their production in tissue in responce of inflammation are increased by the action of increasing expression of its own specific messenger RNA and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up- or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells according to the state of periodontal in health and disease so the local concentration of cytokines reflect the state of inflammatory process under control at nuclear level. The aim of study is to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine that associated the process of periodentitis Methods: Salivary specimens were obtained from patients having chronic periodentitis and healthy subject act as control group. The assessment of IL6 concentrations were established by technique enzyme linked immunoassay. . Results: level of IL-6 in saliva sample after evaluation the result showed statistically significant difference between patients and control . Conclusions: The result obtained from this study revealed that estimated salivary IL 6 can be used in management protocol of process of periodentitis

  15. Salivary diagnostics: moving to the next level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ole; Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T W

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of salivary diagnostics has reached a new level toward the goal of using saliva as a powerful fluid for early detection and the first line of diagnosis for life-threatening diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Newly developed tools such as the novel saliva-based POCT and the SKB are helping to realize the goal of making salivary diagnostics available to clinicians worldwide. This is a unique moment where dentistry may be paving a new path for primary healthcare.

  16. Loss of PKCδ results in characteristics of Sjögren’s syndrome including salivary gland dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banninger, Gregg P.; Cha, Seunghee; Said, M Sherif; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Carter, Cristan J.; Ornate, Mairelys; Pauley, Brad A.; Anderson, Steven M.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infiltration of lymphocytes into the salivary and lacrimal glands of Sjögren’s Syndrome patients leads to destruction of acinar cells and loss of exocrine function. Protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ) is known to play a critical role in B cell maintenance. Mice in which the PKCδ gene has been disrupted have a loss of B cell tolerance, multiple organ lymphocytic infiltration, and altered apoptosis. To determine if PKCδ contributes to the pathogenesis of Sjögren’s Syndrome, we quantified changes in indicators of Sjögren’s Syndrome in PKCδ−/− mice as a function of age. Salivary gland histology, function, the presence of autoantibodies, and cytokine expression were examined. Materials and Methods: Submandibular glands were examined for the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates, and the type of infiltrating lymphocyte and cytokine deposition was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Serum samples were tested by autoantibody screening, which was graded by its staining pattern and intensity. Salivary gland function was determined by saliva collection at various ages. Results: PKCδ−/− mice have reduced salivary gland function, B220+ B cell infiltration, anti-nuclear antibody production, and elevated IFN-γ in the salivary glands as compared to PKCδ+/+ littermates. Conclusions: PKCδ−/− mice have exocrine gland tissue damage indicative of a Sjögren’s Syndrome-like phenotype. PMID:21702866

  17. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotté, Violaine; Sabatier, Laurence; Schnell, Gilles; Carmi-Leroy, Annick; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Malandrin, Laurence; Sertour, Natacha; Namane, Abdelkader; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie

    2014-01-16

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to I. ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would

  18. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  20. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  1. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  2. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location.In Cameroon, existing studies give ...

  3. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  4. The effect of exercise on salivary viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Liem, E.H.S.; Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2016-01-01

    A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both

  5. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  6. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  7. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  8. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Jasvir S.; Pilgrim, Mark J.; Grewal, Suman; Kasman, Laura; Werner, Phillip; Bruorton, Mary E.; London, Steven D.; London, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that salivary gland inoculation stimulates formation of ectopic germinal centers (GCs), transforming the gland into a mucosal inductive site. Intraglandular infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV; control: UV-inactivated MCMV) induces salivary gland ectopic follicles comprising cognate interactions between CD4+ and B220+ lymphocytes, IgM+ and isotype-switched IgG+ and IgA+ B cells, antigen presenting cells, and follicular dendritic cells. B cells coexpressed the GC markers GCT (57%) and GL7 (52%), and bound the lectin peanut agglutinin. Lymphoid follicles were characterized by a 2- to 3-fold increase in mRNA for CXCL13 (lymphoid neogenesis), syndecan-1 (plasma cells), Blimp-1 (plasma cell development/differentiation), and a 2- to 6-fold increase for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, PAX5, and the nonexcised rearranged DNA of an IgA class-switch event, supporting somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination within the salivary follicles. Intraglandular inoculation also provided protection against a systemic MCMV challenge, as evidenced by decreased viral titers (105 plaque-forming units to undetectable), and restoration of normal salivary flow rates from a 6-fold decrease. Therefore, these features suggest that the salivary gland participates in oral mucosal immunity via generation of ectopic GCs, which function as ectopic mucosal inductive sites.—Grewal, J. S., Pilgrim, M. J., Grewal, S., Kasman, L., Werner, P., Bruorton, M. E., London, S. D., London, L. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection. PMID:21307334

  9. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands by Expansion of the Stem/Progenitor Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Kampinga, Harm H.; De Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of salivary glands during radiotherapy treatment of patients with head and neck cancer evokes persistent hyposalivation. This results from depletion of stem cells, which renders the gland incapable of replenishing saliva to produce acinar cells. The aim of this study was to investigate

  10. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  11. Salivary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 localization and glycosylation profile analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2011-01-01

    tissue samples (four parotid gland and four submandibular gland biopsies) were analysed for the presence of TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. To assess TIMP-1 glycosylation profiles in blood and saliva, the protein was isolated from plasma and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva as well...... of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been associated with pathological conditions in the oral cavity, but the origin of TIMP-1 in saliva remains unknown. Hence, we studied the localization of TIMP-1 in salivary gland tissue and also investigated if TIMP-1 found in blood and saliva is identical. Human salivary gland...... as stimulated parotid and submandibular saliva and analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. TIMP-1 protein was demonstrated in mucous acinar cells of the submandibular gland and in ductal cells of both the parotid and submandibular gland. However, no TIMP-1 mRNA was detected in any of these cells...

  12. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary glands: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, N; Wilson, M H; Pring, M; Hughes, C W; Thomas, S J

    2017-04-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently identified salivary gland neoplasm that can mimic other salivary gland tumours such as acinic cell carcinoma and cystadenocarcinoma. It is distinguished from these by differences in immunohistochemical profile and the identification of an ETV6-NTRK3 translocation (12;15)(p13;q25), which is also found in secretory carcinomas of the breast. Previous publications have suggested that MASC tumours have similar biological behaviour to acinic cell carcinoma. We report two cases of MASC that affected the upper lip, and showed an infiltrative and locally aggressive growth pattern that required several operations to ensure clearance of microscopic tumour cells. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, ETV6-NTRK3, Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma, secretory breast carcinoma. PMID:25481229

  14. Major salivary gland involvement in graft-versus-host disease: considerations related to pathogenesis, the role of cytokines and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, R M; Nagler, A

    1999-12-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is an autoimmune-like complication often occurring in patients who have been treated with bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Various tissues and organs are damaged via the cytotoxicity rendered by the infiltrating donor graft T cells. The mucosal insult is enhanced by the reduced quantity and the altered quality of the saliva, since the salivary glands are a known major target of GVHD. The salivary changes are also expressed by a reduction in related functions, such as anti-infection activity, protection against mechanical and chemical epithelial injuries, assistance in controlling periodontal disease and caries, etc. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data that have been published recently concerning salivary involvement in GVHD and to suggest an underlying mechanism for the disease and its related 'state-of-the-art' therapeutic policy.

  15. From Nitrate to Nitric Oxide: The Role of Salivary Glands and Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, X M; Wu, Z F; Pang, B X; Jin, L Y; Qin, L Z; Wang, S L

    2016-12-01

    The salivary glands and oral bacteria play an essential role in the conversion process from nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO) in the human body. NO is, at present, recognized as a multifarious messenger molecule with important vascular and metabolic functions. Besides the endogenous L-arginine pathway, which is catalyzed by complex NO synthases, nitrate in food contributes to the main extrinsic generation of NO through a series of sequential steps (NO3--NO2--NO pathway). Up to 25% of nitrate in circulation is actively taken up by the salivary glands, and as a result, its concentration in saliva can increase 10- to 20-fold. However, the mechanism has not been clearly illustrated until recently, when sialin was identified as an electrogenic 2NO3-/H+ transporter in the plasma membrane of salivary acinar cells. Subsequently, the oral bacterial species located at the posterior part of the tongue reduce nitrate to nitrite, as catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzymes. These bacteria use nitrate and nitrite as final electron acceptors in their respiration and meanwhile help the host to convert nitrate to NO as the first step. This review describes the role of salivary glands and oral bacteria in the metabolism of nitrate and in the maintenance of NO homeostasis. The potential therapeutic applications of oral inorganic nitrate and nitrite are also discussed. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  16. Members of the Salivary Gland Surface Protein (SGS) Family Are Major Immunogenic Components of Mosquito Saliva*

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonas G.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675

  17. Temporal reduction in size of salivary acinus in rats induced by theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Satoru; Takeuchi, Ayano; Nii, Aisuke; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    Repeated administration of theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, induces the enlargement of the salivary glands in rats. Time-course changes after a single administration of theophylline were examined in the salivary glands, including phosphodiesterase enzyme activity, and the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a water channel. We also examined the contribution of beta-adrenergic receptors to theophylline-induced salivary changes. Male F344 rats were given 50 mg/kg of theophylline intraperitoneally either alone or concurrently with a 10 mg/kg subcutaneous injection of propranolol. After treatment with theophylline alone, the weight and histology of the submaxillary and parotid glands were examined. Phosphodiesterase activity and AQP5 were detected by enzyme- and immuno-histochemistry, respectively. At 4 hours, 8 hours, or both, organ weights were decreased with depletion of secretory vesicles in the acinar cells. In the submaxillary glands, reduced activity of phosphodiesterase and increased expression of AQP5 in the intercalated ducts were observed at 4 hours. When co-administered, propranolol partially abolished theophylline-induced glandular reduction. These results suggest that the theophylline-induced transient reduction in size of the salivary glands is attributable not only to phosphodiesterase inhibition but also to beta-adrenergic receptor activation and that the intercalated ducts in submaxillary glands play a role in the production of saliva.

  18. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihoon Nam

    Full Text Available Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration.

  19. Salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers in individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma M; Bhatia, Kishor; Engels, Eric A

    2010-05-15

    Individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifest an increased risk of cancer, particularly cancers caused by oncogenic viruses. Because some salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers are associated with Epstein Barr virus, the impact of AIDS on these cancers needs further evaluation. We used linked U.S. AIDS and cancer registry data (N = 519,934 people with AIDS) to derive standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) comparing risk of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers to the general population. For salivary gland cancers (N = 43 cases), individuals with AIDS had strongly elevated risks for lymphoepithelial carcinoma (SIR 39, 95% CI 16-81) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-8.6). Among nasopharyngeal cancers (N = 39 cases), risks were elevated for both keratinizing and nonkeratinizing carcinomas (SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7 and SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.4, respectively). The elevated risks of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers among people with AIDS suggest that immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections are etiologically important.

  20. Comparison of salivary epidermal growth factor levels in patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Moosavijazi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a polypeptide molecule, with important functions in epithelial growth and wound repair. It exerts its effects on cells by binding to receptors on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare salivary EGF levels in patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis as well as in healthy controls.Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. The clinical parameters of plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL were measured and recorded using a Williams probe. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine salivary levels of EGF. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis.The mean salivary level of EGF in healthy individuals (99.27 was significantly higher than that in patients with gingivitis (61.53. This value in patients with gingivitis (61.53 was also significantly higher than that in subjects with periodontitis (36.14 (P<0.001.The reduction in salivary level of EGF in patients with periodontal disease may be related to the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  1. Spatial mapping of gene expression in the salivary glands of the dengue vector mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses to humans. Understanding their biology and interactions with the pathogen are prerequisites for development of dengue transmission control strategies. Mosquito salivary glands are organs involved directly in pathogen transmission to vertebrate hosts. Information on the spatial distribution of gene expression in these organs is expected to assist in the development of novel disease control strategies, including those that entail the release of transgenic mosquitoes with impaired vector competence. Results We report here the hybridization in situ patterns of 30 transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of adult Ae. aegypti females. Distinct spatial accumulation patterns were identified. The products of twelve genes are localized exclusively in the proximal-lateral lobes. Among these, three accumulate preferentially in the most anterior portion of the proximal-lateral lobe. This pattern revealed a salivary gland cell type previously undescribed in Ae. aegypti, which was validated by transmission electron microscopy. Five distinct gene products accumulate in the distal-lateral lobes and another five localize in the medial lobe. Seven transcripts are found in the distal-lateral and medial lobes. The transcriptional product of one gene accumulates in proximal- and distal-lateral lobes. Seven genes analyzed by quantitative PCR are expressed constitutively. The most abundant salivary gland transcripts are those localized within the proximal-lateral lobes, while previous work has shown that the distal-lateral lobes are the most active in protein synthesis. This incongruity suggests a role for translational regulation in mosquito saliva production. Conclusions Transgenic mosquitoes with reduced vector competence have been proposed as tools for the control of dengue virus transmission. Expression of anti-dengue effector molecules in the distal-lateral lobes of Ae. aegypti salivary glands has been

  2. Spatial mapping of gene expression in the salivary glands of the dengue vector mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolucci Pimenta Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses to humans. Understanding their biology and interactions with the pathogen are prerequisites for development of dengue transmission control strategies. Mosquito salivary glands are organs involved directly in pathogen transmission to vertebrate hosts. Information on the spatial distribution of gene expression in these organs is expected to assist in the development of novel disease control strategies, including those that entail the release of transgenic mosquitoes with impaired vector competence. Results We report here the hybridization in situ patterns of 30 transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of adult Ae. aegypti females. Distinct spatial accumulation patterns were identified. The products of twelve genes are localized exclusively in the proximal-lateral lobes. Among these, three accumulate preferentially in the most anterior portion of the proximal-lateral lobe. This pattern revealed a salivary gland cell type previously undescribed in Ae. aegypti, which was validated by transmission electron microscopy. Five distinct gene products accumulate in the distal-lateral lobes and another five localize in the medial lobe. Seven transcripts are found in the distal-lateral and medial lobes. The transcriptional product of one gene accumulates in proximal- and distal-lateral lobes. Seven genes analyzed by quantitative PCR are expressed constitutively. The most abundant salivary gland transcripts are those localized within the proximal-lateral lobes, while previous work has shown that the distal-lateral lobes are the most active in protein synthesis. This incongruity suggests a role for translational regulation in mosquito saliva production. Conclusions Transgenic mosquitoes with reduced vector competence have been proposed as tools for the control of dengue virus transmission. Expression of anti-dengue effector molecules in the distal-lateral lobes of Ae

  3. Expressions of ABCG2, CD133, and Podoplanin in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is one of the most common salivary gland malignant tumors with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Current studies on cancer stem cells (CSCs have verified that CSCs are the driving force behind tumor initiation and progression, suggesting that new cancer therapies may be established by effectively targeting and killing the CSCs. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in ACC of minor salivary glands by immunohistochemistry analysis. We found that ABCG2 was weakly expressed in normal looking salivary gland tissues. A significant upregulation of ABCG2 expression in ACC was observed with a similar expression pattern of Ki-67. CD133 was detected in apical membrane of epithelial cells and podoplanin was expressed positively in myoepithelial cells of both normal looking tissue and ACC. However, no significant difference was found of the expression pattern of CD133 and podoplanin between normal looking tissues and ACC. Our observations suggest that CSCs may exist in quiescent cells with ABCG2 positive staining, which are surrounded by cells with positive expression of ABCG2 and Ki-67 in ACC, and costaining with ABCG2 and Ki-67 may help predict the location of CSCs.

  4. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Glands in Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedi, Jehona Reçica; Ahmedi, Enis; Perjuci, Ferjall; Ademi, Resmije; Gashi, Ali; Agani, Zana; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Reçica, Bylbyl

    2017-10-01

    Tumors of salivary glands are very rare in children overall, and rarely in minor salivary glands. Among them pleoomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands in children and it acounts 60% of all salivary neoplasms, frequently found in major salivary glands (85 %) and rarely in minor salivary glands (10-15%). PA appears as painless oval mass, elastic consistency and smooth surface. It characterized by slow evolution of growing. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histopathological features, after total excision of the lesion. This case report present the uncommon case of the formation well circumscribed in upper lip region, nearby the frenulum labii oris superior in 10 years old school girl. After clinical intraoral examination of the formation approximately 2cm in size the surgical treatment has been done and histopathologic analysis resulted as PA. Long term follow-up examination is necessary due to possible recurence or malignancy alteration.

  5. Congenital absence of salivary glands in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Hershkovits, Miriyam; Bornstein, Jacob; Loberant, Norman; Blumenthal, Monique; Ophir, Ella

    2013-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome have different saliva composition compared to normal children. The presence or absence of the salivary glands has not been previously reported. To examine the presence or absence of the salivary glands in children with Down syndrome. 15 children with Down syndrome underwent an ultrasound examination of the salivary glands. The control group consisted of 31 healthy children. The areas of the parotid and submandibular glands on both sides were scanned in an attempt to demonstrate all four glands. The result was reported as 'present' or 'absent'. In four children out of 15 with Down syndrome, one or more salivary glands were absent (26.7%), while in the controls all salivary glands were present. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.008). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and sex. At least one salivary gland is undetected by ultrasound in some children with Down syndrome.

  6. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  7. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya PatiI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of the salivary glands. It is an unusual type of a tumour in that it varies in its aggressiveness from a low-grade slow growing to high-grade rapidly growing behaviour. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas maybe masqueraded in their clinical presentation, thus need to be looked at with a suspicious eye. We present two intraoral cases of this unique tumour.

  12. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

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    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  13. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  14. Salivary gland surgery and medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Steven S; Yheulon, Christopher G; Sniezek, Joseph C

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the causes and outcomes of lawsuits involving salivary gland surgery by analyzing malpractice litigation trends to prevent future litigation and improve physician education. Analysis of a national database. All US civil trials. The WESTLAW database was reviewed from January 1987 to March 2011. Data were compiled on the demographics of the defendant, anatomic site of injury, initial pathology, nature of injury, legal allegations, verdicts, and indemnities. Twenty-six cases met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Verdicts/settlements for the plaintiffs predominated (58%), and the average sum of the plaintiff's monetary award was $933,235. Sixteen cases (62%) involved injury to the parotid gland/duct, with 10 cases involving injury to the facial nerve. No cases were filed on the grounds of failure to use facial nerve monitoring. Nine cases (35%) involved injury to the submandibular gland/duct. The most common legal allegations listed were improper performance followed by unnecessary procedures. If failure or inadequate consent was a component of the legal allegations, the verdict outcome significantly favored the defendants. Our study reveals that the plaintiffs in litigations involving salivary gland surgery have a slight advantage in outcomes with a fairly substantial award. Our litigation review reiterates the importance of detailed anatomic knowledge of the lingual and facial nerve to avoid the pitfalls of surgical error and consequent litigation. In addition, thorough preoperative evaluation of salivary gland pathology, including radiographic studies and needle biopsy, may help avoid errors in diagnosis and subsequent litigations.

  15. Salivary Biomarkers in Pediatric Metabolic Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is now considered a global pandemic. The main goal of the pediatric obesity research community is to identify children who are at risk of becoming obese before their body mass index rises above age norms. To do so, we must identify biomarkers of metabolic health and immunometabolism that can be used for large-scale screening and diagnosis initiatives among at-risk children. Because blood sampling is often unacceptable to both parents and children when there is no direct benefit to the child, as in a community-based research study, there is a clear need for a low-risk, non-invasive sampling strategy. Salivary analysis is now well recognized as a likely candidate for this purpose. In this review, we discuss the physiologic role of saliva and its strengths and limitations as a fluid for biomarker discovery, obesity screening, metabolic disease diagnosis, and response monitoring after interventions. We also describe the current state of the salivary biomarker field as it pertains to metabolic research, with a special emphasis on studies conducted in children and adolescents. Finally, we look forward to technological developments, such as salivary "omics" and point of service diagnostic devices, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of research and discovery in this vitally important field.

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  17. Salivary mucins promote the coexistence of competing oral bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Mucus forms a major ecological niche for microbiota in various locations throughout the human body such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and oral cavity. The primary structural components of mucus are mucin glycoproteins, which crosslink to form a complex polymer network that surrounds microbes. Although the mucin matrix could create constraints that impact inhabiting microbes, little is understood about how this key environmental factor affects interspecies interactions. In this study, we develop an experimental model using gel-forming human salivary mucins to understand the influence of mucin on the viability of two competing species of oral bacteria. We use this dual-species model to show that mucins promote the coexistence of the two competing bacteria and that mucins shift cells from the mixed-species biofilm into the planktonic form. Taken together, these findings indicate that the mucus environment could influence bacterial viability by promoting a less competitive mode of growth.

  18. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands, containing the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene: a hitherto undescribed salivary gland tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Laco, Jan; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Starek, Ivo; Geierova, Marie; Simpson, Roderrick H W; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Ryska, Ales; Leivo, Ilmo; Kinkor, Zdenek; Michal, Michal

    2010-05-01

    We present a series of 16 salivary gland tumors with histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features reminiscent of secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is a hitherto undescribed and distinctive salivary gland neoplasm, with features resembling both salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and displaying strong similarities to breast secretory carcinoma. Microscopically, the tumors have a lobulated growth pattern and are composed of microcystic and glandular spaces with abundant eosinophilic homogenous or bubbly secretory material positive for periodic acid-Schiff, mucicarmine, MUC1, MUC4, and mammaglobin. The neoplasms also show strong vimentin, S-100 protein, and STAT5a positivity. For this tumor, we propose a designation mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands (MASC). The 16 patients comprised 9 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 46 years (range 21 to 75). Thirteen cases occurred in the parotid gland, and one each in the minor salivary glands of the buccal mucosa, upper lip, and palate. The mean size of the tumors was 2.1 cm (range 0.7 to 5.5 cm). The duration of symptoms was recorded in 11 cases and ranged from 2 months to 30 years. Clinical follow-up was available in 13 cases, and ranged from 3 months to 10 years. Four patients suffered local recurrences. Two patients died, 1 of them owing to multiple local recurrences with extension to the temporal bone, and another owing to metastatic dissemination to cervical lymph nodes, pleura, pericardium, and lungs. We have shown a t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation in all but one case of MASC suitable for analysis. One case was not analyzable and another was not available for testing. This translocation was not found in any conventional salivary AciCC (12 cases), nor in other tumor types including pleomorphic adenoma (1 case) and low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (1 case), whereas ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangements were proven in all 3 tested cases of

  19. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  20. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-27

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  1. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  2. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  3. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  4. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompon, Julien; Manuel, Menchie; Ng, Geok Kee; Wong, Benjamin; Shan, Chao; Manokaran, Gayathri; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bradrick, Shelton S; Ooi, Eng Eong; Missé, Dorothée; Shi, Pei-Yong; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2017-07-01

    Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3' UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA) quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3'UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3'UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3'UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts.

  5. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pompon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3' UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3'UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3'UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3'UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts.

  6. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  7. Mucosal and salivary microbiota associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Yun Sik; Baek, Keum Jin; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Hee Kyung; Choi, Youngnim

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis. Although recent studies of the oral microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes have suggested that imbalances in the oral microbiota may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of RAS, no specific bacterial species associated with RAS have been identified. The present study aimed to characterize the microbiota in the oral mucosa and saliva of RAS patients in comparison with control subjects at the species level. The bacterial communities of the oral mucosa and saliva from RAS patients with active lesions (RAS, n = 18 for mucosa and n = 8 for saliva) and control subjects (n = 18 for mucosa and n = 7 for saliva) were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were no significant differences in the alpha diversity between the controls and the RAS, but the mucosal microbiota of the RAS patients showed increased inter-subject variability. A comparison of the relative abundance of each taxon revealed decreases in the members of healthy core microbiota but increases of rare species in the mucosal and salivary microbiota of RAS patients. Particularly, decreased Streptococcus salivarius and increased Acinetobacter johnsonii in the mucosa were associated with RAS risk. A dysbiosis index, which was developed using the relative abundance of A. johnsonii and S. salivarius and the regression coefficients, correctly predicted 83 % of the total cases for the absence or presence of RAS. Interestingly, A. johnsonii substantially inhibited the proliferation of gingival epithelial cells and showed greater cytotoxicity against the gingival epithelial cells than S. salivarius. RAS is associated with dysbiosis of the mucosal and salivary microbiota, and two species associated with RAS have been identified. This knowledge may provide a diagnostic tool and new targets for therapeutics for RAS.

  8. The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    .... Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands...

  9. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Park, Hyounggeun; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction.

  10. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community. PMID:27274868

  11. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: a national study of incidence, site and histology. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    years. The parotid gland was the most common site (52.5%) followed by the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity (26.3%). The most frequent histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16.9%), adenocarcinoma NOS (12.2%) and acinic cell carcinoma (10......To describe the incidence, site and histology (WHO 2005) of salivary gland carcinomas in Denmark. Nine hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 were identified from three nation-wide registries. The associated clinical data were retrospectively retrieved from patient medical.......2%). The revision process changed the histological diagnosis in 121 out of 886 cases (14%). The incidence of salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark is higher than previously reported. More than half of salivary gland carcinomas are located in the parotid gland with adenoid cystic carcinoma being the most frequent...

  12. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  13. Identification and subcellular localization of paracellin-1 (claudin-16) in human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Homann, Veronika; Kinne-Saffran, Evamaria; Kinne, Rolf K H

    2007-07-01

    Salivary calcium plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dental caries and the bio-mineralization of dental enamel and exposed dentin. The cellular and molecular basis of calcium secretion by the human salivary glands is, however, poorly understood. Recently a transcellular transport of calcium by the acinus cells has been proposed. In this paper we looked for evidence for paracellular calcium transport by investigating the presence and cellular localization of paracellin-1 (claudin-16) that has been implied in paracellular magnesium and calcium transport in the kidney. At the mRNA level, using RT-PCR with primers of appropriate sequence, paracellin-1 mRNA could be found in human Glandula parotis, Glandula submandibularis, Glandula labialis and Glandula sublingualis samples. In addition, a splice variant was detected in three out of 15 glands consisting of exons one and five of the paracellin gene. In immunohistochemical studies paracellin-1 colocalised in the salivary excretory ducts with the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin suggesting a potential role in paracellular calcium and magnesium transport. In the acini no such colocalisation was observed; paracellin was instead detected at the basal poles of the cells, between cells of the same acinus as well as between cells of neighboring acini. At this location paracellin-1 might act as selectivity filter for the paracellular movement of ions and water during stimulated secretion. Thus, both in the ducts and in the acini a paracellular transport of calcium appears possible. Whether it occurs at all and the extent to which it contributes to the overall salivary calcium secretion remains, however, to be determined.

  14. A comparative analysis of LEF-1 in odontogenic and salivary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A; Acquafondata, Marie; Barnes, E Leon; Seethala, Raja R

    2015-02-01

    LEF-1 is a nuclear transcription factor of the Wnt pathway that regulates multipotent skin stem cell differentiation. β-Catenin is considered a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with LEF-1.This study evaluates LEF-1 in a variety of odontogenic and salivary tumors and determines the prevalence of β-catenin coexpression. Ninety-eight salivary gland tumors and 51 odontogenic tumors were evaluated for LEF-1 and β-catenin immunohistochemical staining. Positivity was defined as at least 2+ intensity in more than 50% of tumor cells, which required a composite score of 6 or more. LEF-1 was positive in 64% (7/11) of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT). Nuclear β-catenin was present in 82% (9/11) of CCOT. Coexpression of LEF-1 and nuclear β-catenin was noted in all LEF-1-positive CCOT. Strong and diffuse LEF-1 expression was seen in 69% (11/16) of basal cell adenocarcinomas (BCAC) and 63% (5/8) of basal cell adenomas (BA). Nuclear β-catenin was present in 50% (4/8) of BA and 43% (6/14) of BCAC. For BA, 4 of 5 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression of β-catenin, and for BCAC, 5 of 9 LEF-1-positive tumors showed coexpression. In conclusion, this study documents for the first time the presence of LEF-1 expression and nuclear β-catenin coexpression in select basaloid salivary gland tumors and various odontogenic tumors. We demonstrate LEF-1 expression in both BA and BCAC preferentially over other salivary gland tumors suggesting some utility as a diagnostic marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Botulinum Toxin Confers Radioprotection in Murine Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, Youssef H., E-mail: zeidan@miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Kong, Christina [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu; Sirjani, Davud [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a common radiation sequela, which has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer. Current treatment strategies offer only partial relief. Botulinum toxins (BTX) have been successfully used in treating a variety of radiation sequelae such as cystitis, proctitis, fibrosis, and facial pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BTX on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Methods and Materials: We used a previously established model for murine salivary gland irradiation (IR). The submandibular glands (SMGs) of C5BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were injected with saline or BTX 72 hours before receiving 15 Gy of focal irradiation. Saliva flow was measured 3, 7, and 28 days after treatment. The SMGs were collected for immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. A cytokine array consisting of 40 different mouse cytokines was used to evaluate cytokine profiles after radiation treatment. Results: Irradiated mice showed a 50% reduction in saliva flow after 3 days, whereas mice preinjected with BTX had 25% reduction in saliva flow (P<.05). Cell death detected by TUNEL staining was similar in SMG sections of both groups. However, neutrophil infiltrate, detected by myeloperoxidase staining, was 3-fold lower for the BTX treated mice. A cytokine array showed a 2-fold upregulation of LPS-induced chemokine (LIX/CXCL5) 3 days after IR. BTX pretreatment reduced LIX levels by 40%. At 4 weeks after IR, the saline (control) group showed a 40% reduction in basal SMG weight, compared with 20% in the BTX group. Histologically, BTX-pretreated glands showed relative preservation of acinar structures after radiation. Conclusions: These data suggest that BTX pretreatment ameliorates radiation-induced saliva dysfunction. Moreover, we demonstrate a novel role for CXCL5 in the acute phase of salivary gland damage after radiation. These results carry important clinical implications for the treatment of

  16. The role of salivary histatin and the human cathelicidin LL-37 in wound healing and innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudhoff, M.J.; Blaauboer, M.E.; Nazmi, K.; Scheres, N.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional in innate immunity and wound repair of multicellular organisms. We were the first to discover that histatins, a family of salivary antimicrobial peptides, enhance epithelial cell migration, suggesting a role in oral wound healing. It is unknown whether

  17. Sorting Behavior of a Transgenic Erythropoietin–Growth Hormone Fusion Protein in Murine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Yuval; Cawley, Niamh X.; Zheng, Changyu; Cotrim, Ana P.; Loh, Y. Peng; Baum, Bruce J.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary glands are useful gene transfer target sites for the production of therapeutic proteins, and can secrete proteins into both saliva and the bloodstream. The mechanisms involved in this differential protein sorting are not well understood, although it is believed, at least in part, to be based on the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. We hypothesized that a transgenic protein, human erythropoietin (hEpo), normally sorted from murine salivary glands into the bloodstream, could be redirected into saliva by fusing it with human growth hormone (hGH). After transfection, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was expressed and glycosylated in both HEK 293 and A5 cells. When packaged in an adenovirus serotype 5 vector and delivered to murine submandibular cells in vivo via retroductal cannulation, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was also expressed, albeit at ~26% of the levels of hEpo expression. Importantly, in multiple experiments with different cohorts of mice, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was sorted more frequently into saliva, versus the bloodstream, than was the hEpo protein (p salivary gland cells after gene transfer in vivo, a finding that may facilitate developing novel treatments for certain upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:18303958

  18. A pathological study of the salivary glands of rabid dogs in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Manalo, Daria Llenaresas; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shimatsu, Taichi; Shiwa, Nozomi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Takahashi, Yurika; Tanaka, Naoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus. While the salivary glands are important as exit and propagation sites for the rabies virus, the mechanisms of rabies excretion remain unclear. Here, we investigated the histopathology of the salivary glands of rabid dogs and analyzed the mechanism of excretion into the oral cavity. Mandibular and parotid glands of 22 rabid dogs and three control dogs were used. Mild to moderate non-suppurative sialadenitis was observed in the mandibular glands of 19 of the 22 dogs, characterized by loss of acinar epithelium and infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic cells. Viral antigens were detected in the mucous acinar epithelium, ganglion neurons and myoepithelium. Acinar epithelium and lymphocytes were positive for anti-caspase-3 antibodies and TUNEL staining. In contrast, no notable findings were observed in the ductal epithelial cells and serous demilune. In the parotid gland, the acinar cells, myoepithelium and ductal epithelium all tested negative. These findings confirmed the path through which the rabies virus descends along the facial nerve after proliferation in the brain to reach the ganglion neurons of the mandibular gland, subsequently traveling to the acinar epithelium via the salivary gland myoepithelium. Furthermore, the observation that nerve endings passing through the myoepithelium were absent from the ductal system suggested that viral proliferation and cytotoxicity could not occur there, ensuring that secretions containing the virus are efficiently excreted into the oral cavity.

  19. Aspiration cytology of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-04-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), a newly established salivary gland neoplasm defined by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, are not fully characterized to date. We report cytologic descriptions of nine cases of molecularly confirmed MASC, including two with unusual findings. Aspiration smears from nine MASCs of the salivary glands were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed according to the cellular and structural features of the corresponding surgical specimens. Aspiration smears of MASC generally reflected the histologic diversity of the tumors. Among usual histologic findings, a micropapillary pattern was associated with a predominance of vacuolated individual cells on aspiration smears, a papillary-cystic pattern with a predominance of thin branching papillary structures, and a microcystic pattern with a predominance of irregular sheets of eosinophilic cells. There were two unusual cases, one with three-dimensional groups of high-grade atypical cells, and one with epithelial clusters floating in a notably mucinous background. These cases represented MASC with high-grade transformation and MASC with cystadenocarcinoma-like features, respectively. The secretory activity of MASC was not prominent in the aspiration specimens. Although unusual cases were present, most MASC cases showed characteristic cytologic findings, which could aid the cytologic diagnosis of MASC. And knowledge of the histologic spectrum of MASC, including high-grade transformation, could be valuable for cytological differential diagnoses of salivary gland tumors, and the management of patients with MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Peculiar salivary glands in a silk-producing mite Bakericheyla chanayi (Cheyletidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Svetlana A; Amosova, Ludmila I

    2015-07-01

    This is the first ultrastructural investigation of salivary glands in the family Cheyletidae. In both sexes of Bakericheyla chanayi, paired acinous salivary glands and tubular coxal glands were shown to be united into the common podocephalic system. The secretory portion of the salivary gland includes medial and lateral lobes composed of the five and two cells, respectively, with clearly distinct ultrastructure. The cytoplasm of the cells is occupied by the secretory granules containing fine fibrous material. The fine structure of both cell types suggest a proteinaceous nature of their secretions. A single central process extending from the apical face of each secretory cell passes through the common acinar cavity to enter the conducting duct. A pair of intercalary cells at the base of the conducting duct links it with the secretory portion of the gland. Extending towards the acinar cavity, protrusions of intercalary cells alternate the apical regions of the secretory cells and form with them highly-specialized contacts characterized by the apical network of microtubules and microfilaments. Two possible ways of secretion are suggested: 1) exocytosis into the acinar cavity and 2) direct passage via the central processes. The detection of axon profiles in the gland body suggests a neural control for the glandular cell function. In tritonymphs, neither secretion nor large lateral lobe cells were observed up to the pharate stage when the lateral lobe undergoes rapid differentiation. The arrangement of the acinous gland is compared to that of other arthropods. Its composition appears to be close to the class three of insect glands. The involvement of the lateral lobe cells in silk production is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mitochondrial resequencing arrays detect tumor-specific mutations in salivary rinses of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Smith, Ian M; Zhou, Shaoyu; Gray, Andrew; Koch, Wayne M; Maitra, Anirban; Califano, Joseph A

    2007-12-15

    Alterations of the mitochondrial genome have been identified in multiple solid tumors and in many head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Identification of mitochondrial mutations in the salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC has potential application in disease detection. In this study, we used the MitoChip v2.0 mitochondrial genome resequencing array to detect minor populations of mitochondrial DNA in salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC. Salivary rinses from 13 patients with HNSCC, whose tumors carried mitochondrial mutations, were collected before surgical resection. DNA isolated from salivary rinses and serial dilutions of DNA derived from HNSCC-derived cell lines with known mitochondrial mutations were sequenced using the MitoChip, and analyzed using a quantitative algorithm which we developed to detect minor populations of mitochondrial DNA from MitoChip probe intensity data. We detected heteroplasmic populations of mitochondrial DNA up to a 1:200 dilution using MitoChip v2.0 and our analysis algorithm. A logarithmic relationship between the magnitude of assay intensity and concentration of minor mitochondrial populations was shown. This technique was able to identify tumor-specific mitochondrial mutations in salivary rinses from 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients with head and neck cancer. Minor populations of mitochondrial DNA and disease-specific mitochondrial mutations in salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC can be successfully identified using the MitoChip resequencing array and the algorithm which we have developed. This technique has potential application in the surveillance of patients after resection and may have applicability in the surveillance of body fluids in other tumor types.

  2. Human salivary micro-RNA in patients with parotid salivary gland neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matse, J.H.; Yoshizawa, J.; Wang, X.; Elashoff, D.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Leemans, C.R.; Pegtel, M.D.; Wong, D.T.W.; Bloemena, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical examination, ultrasound scanning (with or without fine needle aspiration cytology), preoperative CT-scan and MRI are available for the differential diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. A preliminary non-invasive salivary diagnostic tool may be helpful in the clinical

  3. Toll-like receptor 9 expression in mucoepidermoid salivary gland carcinoma may associate with good prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvala, Johanna; Harjula, Teresa; Siirilä, Kristiina; Almangush, Alhadi; Aro, Katri; Mäkitie, Antti A; Grénman, Reidar; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Leivo, Ilmo; Kauppila, Joonas H; Salo, Tuula

    2014-08-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Although several biomarkers have been evaluated, histological grade remains the most valuable prognostic marker. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an immune receptor recognizing microbial DNA. Its expression associates with prognosis or cancer properties in several cancers. This study examined the role of TLR9 in MEC. Sixty patients with salivary gland MEC were collected from two Finnish university hospitals, and tumor samples were stained for TLR9. Salivary gland high-grade MEC cell line (UT-MUC-1) was cultured to assess TLR9 and MMP-13 expression. The function of TLR9 was studied in vitro using traditional Matrigel(®) invasion assay and novel human myoma organotypic model. Cancer-specific survival was related with tumor grade (P = 0.01), and there were no deaths in patients with low-grade MEC. TLR9 was expressed in 56 of 60 (93%) tumors. High TLR9 expression indicated better survival in the patient series (P = 0.002) and showed a trend for association with lower disease stage (P = 0.06) and higher differentiation grade (P = 0.068). In multivariate analysis, TLR9 expression was prognostically insignificant due to heavy correlation to disease stage and higher gradus. Treating UT-MUC-1 cells with TLR9 ligand CpG in vitro induced MMP-13 expression and invasion in Matrigel(®) invasion assay, whereas decreased invasion was seen in myoma organotypic model. Functional TLR9 is present in salivary MEC, and high level of expression may indicate good prognosis. However, more studies are needed to evaluate biological consequences of TLR9 interaction in tumor cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Clinicopathologic features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X P; Ni, H; Wang, X; Chen, H; Shi, S S; Yu, B; Zhou, X J; Rao, Q

    2017-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands, and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology. Methods: Seventeen cases of MASC were enrolled, with 9 cases of salivary acinar cell carcinoma and 18 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma as control groups from Nanjing General Hospital from 1997 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study, combined with immunohistochemistry and molecular detection of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. All cases were histologically reviewed with immunohistochemical staining (EnVision) for S-100 protein, SOX10, GATA3, CD117 expression in each group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Results: The age of MASC patients ranged from 27 to 74 years with mean age of 47 and ratio of male and female was 4∶3. All cases showed infiltrative growth and diverse cytology and histology, including lobular (8 cases), cystic papillary (3 cases), cribriform mixed with papillary and glandular structures (6 cases) at various proportions. Some tumors of MASC also exhibited solid growth areas with occasional microcystic honeycombed pattern composed of small cysts merged into larger cysts resembling thyroid follicles. S-100 protein and SOX10 were strongly positive in all MASC cases (17/17). In addition, there was insignificant positivity for GATA3 (3/17) and CD117 (4/17). ETV6 gene fusion detection was informative in 12 MASC cases by FISH with 10 positive cases and 2 negative cases. Conclusions: Combined immunohistochemical positivity of S-100 protein, CD117 and SOX10 are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MASC. FISH detection of ETV6-NTRK3 fusion offers an additional molecular diagnostic marker for the diagnosis.

  5. Human antibody response to Lethocerus salivary antigens as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly in addition to a few immunogenic salivary proteins (85, 64, 37 and 33 kDa bands), a 28 kDa protein derived from salivary glands homogenate of aquatic insects was able to bind to Mycobacterium ulcerans and to be recognized by IgG antibodies of healthy subjects in endemic areas. The antibody responses to ...

  6. Digestive and Nondigestive Functions of Rodents' Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V V; Milto, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Serebryakova, O N; Buzenkova, A V

    2017-01-01

    Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Special attention has been paid to the characteristics of specific (parotin, sialorphin, etc.) and nonspecific (epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, kallikrein, etc.) active substances of the major salivary glands and their involvement in wound healing, mineral metabolism, regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity system. Summarized and analyzed major salivary glands endocrine function in the organs and systems. Available literature data suggest: the structure of the major salivary glands, as well as the synthesis and secretion of a number of biologically active substances are controlled by sex hormones. In turn, these biologically active factors of the salivary glands, as epidermal growth factor, and parotin, sialorphin, whose expression is regulated by androgens, have an impact on the morphological and functional state of the gonads. Thus, major salivary glands operate a wide range of functions and involved in the regulation of sexual behavior of reproductive function and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

  7. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, S.T.G.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Terlouw, B.; Brouwer, M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Wouters, D.

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  9. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria | Ajike | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation and management of minor salivary gland tumours at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods: Retrospective study of minor salivary gland tumours at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Results: The ...

  10. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. Methods A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic

  11. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Salivary gland tumours are common head and neck tumours. Malignant salivary gland tumours generally occur less frequently than benign ones and account for greater morbidity and mortality. Patients in our environment are seen to present at late stages and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the commonest ...

  12. Summary of: Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  13. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  14. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of salivary gland tumors is claimed to be influenced by geographical and racial factors. The pathological classification and nomenclature of salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature regarding the spectrum of ...

  15. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a descriptive study of all histotogically confirmed benign salivary gland tumours over a period of ten years. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made and classification done according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours.

  16. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, Sabrina T. G.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses

  17. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  18. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  20. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  1. Antimicrobial activity of synthetic salivary peptides against voice prosthetic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, GJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AV; Veerman, ECI; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ

    Objectives: To investigate whether synthetic salivary antimicrobial peptides have an inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria and yeasts isolated from used silicone rubber voice prostheses. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of six synthetic salivary peptides (histatin 5, dhvar1, dhvar4,

  2. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short‑term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH.

  4. P27 expression in pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakji, Bassel; Umair, Ayesha; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Mahmoud, Abla Sayed; Darwish, Shourouk; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ashok, Nipun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to characterise alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of p27 in normal tissue of the salivary gland surrounding pleomorphic adenoma and in the tumour cells of pleomorphic adenoma. A retrospective study of data including 120 cases of pleomorphic adenomas (66 female, 54 male) retrieved from the files of the Oral Pathology Departments of Aleppo University, Syria and Al-Farabi Dental and Nursing College. Immunohistochemical expression against p27 was examined in the selected cases. The percentage of p27-positive nuclei was semi-quantitatively assessed by two independent observers and scores were given. The statistical analysis included the use of descriptive statistics and proportional frequencies. The results showed that P27 nuclear staining with high staining (moderate to strong positive staining in more than 50% of nuclei, depending on the percentage of nuclei for the cells) was noted in tumour duct cells of pleomorphic adenoma in 90 (75%) cases out of 120, while 30 (25%) cases showed low staining (positive staining in less than 5% of nuclei, depending on the percentage of nuclei for the cells). Our data suggests that p27 might have a minor role in the development of pleomorphic adenoma.

  5. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR AND SERUM COMPONENTS OF MUCO-SALIVARY IMMUNE COMPARTMENT IN MATURE, AGED, AND SENESCENT PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Altman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Аbstract. The objective of present study was to determine the immunological features of immune system aging in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT in the patients at different ages (mature, aging and old observed at a dental unit. A study of cellular spectrum and humoral factors in salivary gland secretions has been performed in a group of 106 persons (35 to 90 years old. A number of age-dependent features of the immune profile were revealed for the mucous-salivary area, thus characterizing involution events within MALT structures. Among specific markers determining intensity of MALT-associated aging, a decreased percentage of viable immune cells (below 40%, along with the prevalence of the neutrophilic granulocytes in the salivary secretions (over 98% (with increased expression of β2-integrins; decreased counts of mononuclear cells, i.e., mononuclear cells with low expression of CD11β adhesion molecules, B-lymhocytes, and Th-lymphocytes have been revealed. Alterations in serum factors included a general decrease in complement system activity (СН50 and anaphylotoxines (С3а,С5а; elevated protein, mucine, and IgМ levels. The revealed specific features of cellular and humoral immunity within MALT-associated muco-salivary zone may be considered as a normal response connected with natural aging processes. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 167-174

  7. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  8. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Thou...

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: update on a new diagnosis of salivary gland malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Roshan; Kozin, Elliott; Remenschneider, Aaron; Meier, Josh; VanderLaan, Paul; Faquin, William; Deschler, Daniel; Frankenthaler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To review the known histopathologic findings and clinical behavior of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC). PubMed. Literature search using the terms "Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma," "Mammary analog secretory carcinoma," and "MASC" to identify all relevant publications. MASC is an unusual and rare malignant salivary gland tumor first described in 2010. It shares histologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features with secretory carcinoma of the breast. The clinical behavior of MASC ranges from slowly growing tumors that infrequently recur after surgical resection to aggressive tumors that cause widespread metastasis and death. Many cases of MASC were discovered in archived cases previously classified as acinic cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. MASC is a newly recognized variant of salivary gland malignancy. Further research is needed to better delineate its overall prevalence and to define an appropriate treatment algorithm for this new clinical entity. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  11. Leptin and leptin receptors in salivary glands of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbasan, Funda; Alikanoğlu, Arsenal Sezgin; Yazısız, Veli; Karasu, Uğur; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Sezer, Cem; Terzioğlu, Mustafa Ender

    2016-11-01

    The role of leptin in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) pathogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of leptin and leptin receptor (LEPR) in minor salivary glands in patients with SS. The expression of leptin and LEPR in minor salivary gland specimens obtained from patients with primary SS (n=50) and control subjects (n=50) were examined using immunohistochemical staining. Acinar cells, epithelial cells and adipocytes in salivary glands can express leptin and LEPR. It was observed that there was intense staining in the focal lymphocytic infiltration areas in SS patients. The intensity of leptin and LEPR staining under microscopy (400×) were graded semiquantitatively as negative, mild, moderate or strongly positive, and scored as 1, 2 or 3, respectively. The expression levels of leptin and LEPR in patients with primary SS were not higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in degrees of leptin and LEPR staining, staining intensity, and immunoreactive scores between groups. The expression of leptin and LEPR were not correlated with autoantibodies such as RF, ANA, anti-Ro, and/or anti-La positivity. These findings indicate that leptin and its receptors do not play an important role in primary SS pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  13. Double emulsion electrospun nanofibers as a growth factor delivery vehicle for salivary gland regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraida, Zahraa I.; Sharikova, Anna; Peerzada, Lubna N.; Khmaladze, Alexander; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors, proteins, drugs and other biologically active molecules is necessary for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers are attractive tissue engineering scaffolds as they partially mimic the topography of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they do not provide continuous nourishment to the tissue. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we previously developed a blend nanofiber scaffold composed of the protein elastin and the synthetic polymer polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The nanofiber scaffold promoted in vivo-like salivary epithelial cell tissue organization and apicobasal polarization. However, in order to enhance the salivary cell proliferation and biomimetic character of the scaffold, sustained growth factor delivery is needed. The composite nanofiber scaffold was optimized to act as a growth factor delivery system using epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a model protein. The nanofiber/EGF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by double emulsion electrospinning where EGF is emulsified within a water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsion system. Successful incorporation of EGF was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. EGF release profile was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of the EGF content. Double emulsion electrospinning resulted in slower release of EGF. We demonstrated the potential of the proposed double emulsion electrospun nanofiber scaffold for the delivery of growth factors and/or drugs for tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Does Leishmaniasis disease alter the parenchyma and protein expression in salivary glands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim Carvalho, Fernando A; de Oliveira Dantas, Weslany; Gomes, Luana CL; da Silva, Andrezza BS; de Sousa Cavalcante, Maria MA; de Oliveira, Ingrid M; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; Rizzo, Márcia dos Santos; de Carvalho Leite, Carla Maria; Moura, Selma Maria dos Santos; de Deus Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida; da Silva, Benedito B

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a serious public health problem in several regions in Brazil and worldwide. This research aimed to perform a histopathological and proteomic study of parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi using histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques. Twelve isogenic BALB/c male mice, around six- to eight-weeks old, were separated into two groups: the animals of the control group were injected with 0.15 ml of NaCl, while those in the experimental group were inoculated with 5 × 106 amastigote forms of Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi by the ip route. After 50 days, animals were euthanized and major salivary glands were collected to perform histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques using anti-Caspase-2, anti-Ki-67 and anti-β-catenin antibodies, respectively. The histological and morphometric evaluation showed clusters of mononuclear inflammatory cells and a higher area and perimeter of the parotid gland. However, none of the salivary glands had morphophysiological impairment. There was no immunoreactivity to the anti-caspase-2 antibody and Ki67 expression in acinar and ductal cells in both groups. According to the immunofluorescence staining, the β-catenin antibodies did not show nuclear expression, suggesting no uncontrolled proliferation. The data obtained in this study showed population and morphological stability of major salivary glands after 50 days post-infection by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi. PMID:26568331

  15. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  16. Extended immunologic and genetic lineage of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Lv, Jing-Huan; Wang, Xuan; Shi, Shan-Shan; Li, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands is a newly recognized tumor entity. To explore a more practical and convenient immunohistochemical approach to distinguish MASC from other tumors arising from salivary glands as well as to expand the immunologic and genetic lineage of MASC, we examined 17 MASCs using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. Eighteen cases of acinic cell carcinoma, 18 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 22 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 14 cases of basal cell adenocarcinoma were brought in for comparison. Seventeen MASCs shared similar architectures with not only intraluminal or intracellular secretion but also low-grade vesicular nuclei. In addition, they were all immunoreactive for S-100 and SOX-10, whereas only 3 of 17 demonstrated reactivity for GATA-3 and P63, and 4 of 17 were focally positive for CD117. ETV6 translocation was detected in 10 cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization, whereas intact ETV6 was noted in 2 cases. Our data proposed a combined immunohistochemical panel to distinguish MASC from other tumors arising from salivary glands and expanded the immunologic and genetic lineage of MASC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The status of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in the salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome: predictive and prognostic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu; Liu, Jun Yao; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Shi, Xingming; Yu, Jack C; Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-17, and the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) likely contributes to inflammation and salivary gland abnormalities in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein is a pivotal player in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. However, its status and role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in SS are not established. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that SS is associated with reduced GILZ expression, thereby contributing to Del-1/Il-17 imbalance and inflammation in salivary glands. We utilized the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease as well as lower-lip biopsy samples of subjects without or with a diagnosis of SS in association with immunostaining studies. These studies were complemented with in vitro and flow-cytometry studies whereby interleukin (IL)-23-treated salivary gland cells were co-cultured with GILZ-expressing cells or control cells; IL-23 is known to increase generation of IL-17. Salivary glands of NOD mice displayed marked leukocyte infiltration and reduced GILZ expression in association with increased IL-17 but decreased Del-1 expression. A similar pattern was observed for lower-lip biopsy samples of SS than non-SS subjects. Further, IL-23-treated salivary gland cells displayed marked increase in IL-17 but reduced Del-1 positive cells which were reversed with co-culturing with GILZ-expressing cells but not control cells. Collectively, the results are suggestive of dysregulation of GILZ playing a role in inflammation and associated Del-1/Il-17 imbalance in SS. Complementing our demonstration of Del-1/IL-17 imbalance in salivary glands in SS, the present study has established the relevance and significance of GILZ as a novel predictive and prognostic molecular fingerprint for SS. Thus, assessment of minor salivary gland GILZ expression, in conjunction with Del-1/IL-17

  18. Diabetic Status Influences the Storage of Melatonin in Human Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

    2017-12-13

    Recently we reported on the detailed localization of melatonin (and its receptors) in human salivary glands, revealing that serous cells are able to store and secrete melatonin into saliva. Since we found that type 2 diabetic patients display reduced melatonin content in saliva, our next step was to examine the presence of melatonin in salivary glands removed from type 2 diabetic subjects. The resulting data were compared with those previously obtained by identical procedures in non-diabetics, to establish if the diabetic status may affect melatonin distribution. Bioptic samples of diabetic parotid and submandibular glands were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in Epon Resin and processed to demonstrate melatonin reactivity by the immunogold staining method. The labeling density (expressed as the number of gold particles per μm2 /granule) and the percentage of melatonin-positive granules were assessed in diabetic samples. These values were compared with those in non-diabetic samples and differences were evaluated. In parotid and submandibular diabetic glands the reactivity for melatonin was specifically associated with secretory granules and small vesicles in serous cells. Melatonin reactivity was higher in parotid than in submandibular glands. Our data were in line with those obtained in our previous study on non-diabetic glands. Diabetic salivary glands showed a higher labeling density and a lower number of melatonin-positive granules compared to non-diabetic glands. Taken together, these data might explain the decreased salivary melatonin content and the associated oral problems observed in diabetics. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  20. Salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Ahmed; Maaroof, Abdallah; Saleh, Mai H; Abdelwahab, Amina

    To assess the applicability of salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Prospective case-control study of 70 full-term neonates, 35 with sepsis (20 with proven sepsis and 15 with clinical sepsis) and 35 healthy controls. Serum and salivary C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet lymphocyte ratio were measured by automated blood cell counter. This study showed statistically significant difference of mean salivary C-reactive protein between septic neonates and controls (12.0±4.6ng/L vs. 2.8±1.2ng/L) respectively. At a cut-off point of 3.48ng/L, salivary C-reactive protein showed 94.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Salivary C-reactive protein also showed good predictive accuracy for predicting elevated serum C-reactive protein values in septic neonates. Mean platelet volume and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio showed significant difference between septic neonates and controls (10.2±1.2fL vs.8.0±0.5fL; 2.9±1.7 vs. 1.6±0.4, respectively). At a cut-off point of 10.2fL, mean platelet volume presented 80% sensitivity and specificity. At a cut-off point of 2.7, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio presented 80% sensitivity and 57.1% specificity. This study provides support for further studies on the usefulness of salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Sialendoscopy of salivary glands affected by Sjögren syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Maarse, F.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands could alleviate the oral symptoms of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and restore salivary function. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands on salivary flow, saliva composition, and mouthfeel in

  2. Salivary trefoil factor 3 enhances migration of oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storesund, Trond; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Kolltveit, Kristin M; Bryne, Magne; Schenck, Karl

    2008-04-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the mammalian TFF family. Trefoil factors are secreted onto mucosal surfaces of the entire body and exert different effects according to tissue location. Trefoil factors may enhance mucosal healing by modulating motogenic activity, inhibiting apoptosis, and promoting angiogenesis. Trefoil factor 3 is secreted from the submandibular gland and is present in whole saliva. The aim of this study was to assess the migratory and proliferative effects of TFF3 on primary oral human keratinocytes and oral cancer cell lines. The addition of TFF3 increased the migration of both normal oral keratinocytes and the cancer cell line D12, as evaluated by a two-dimensional scratch assay. By contrast, no increase in proliferation or energy metabolism was observed after stimulation with TFF3. Trefoil factor 3-enhanced migration was found to be driven partly by the extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk1/2) pathway, as shown by addition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD 98059. Previous functional studies on trefoil peptides have all been based on cells from monolayered epithelium like the intestinal mucosa; this is the first report to show that normal and cancerous keratinocytes from stratified epithelium respond to TFF stimuli. Taken together, salivary TFF3 is likely to contribute to oral wound healing.

  3. ALX/FPR2 receptor for RvD1 is expressed and functional in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel W; Leigh, Noel J; Mellas, Rachel E; McCall, Andrew D; Aguirre, Alfredo; Baker, Olga J

    2014-01-15

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to dry mouth, dry eyes, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Despite modern advances, the current therapies for SS have no permanent benefit. A potential treatment could involve the use of resolvins, which are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Our previous studies indicate that ALX/FPR2, the receptor for RvD1, is expressed and active in the rat parotid cell line Par-C10. Specifically, activation of ALX/FPR2 with RvD1 blocked inflammatory signals caused by TNF-α and enhanced salivary epithelial integrity. The goal of this study was to investigate RvD1 receptor expression and signaling pathways in primary salivary cells. Additionally, we determined the role of the aspirin-triggered 17R analog (AT-RvD1, a more chemically stable RvD1 epimeric form) in prevention of TNF-α-mediated salivary inflammation in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG). Our results indicate that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mSMG and is able to elicit intracellular Ca2+ responses and phosphorylation of Erk1/2, as well as Akt. Given that these signaling pathways are linked to cell survival, we investigated whether AT-RvD1 was able to prevent programmed cell death in mSMG. Specifically, we determined that AT-RvD1 prevented TNF-α-mediated caspase-3 activation. Finally, we show that ALX/FPR2 is expressed in human minor salivary glands with and without SS, indicating the potential therapeutic use of AT-RvD1 for this condition.

  4. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5-10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress.

  5. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw P Kozak

    Full Text Available The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.

  6. [Salivary testosterone and cognitive ability in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnikova, D; Dohnanyiova, M; Mataseje, A; Putz, Z; Laznibatova, J; Hajek, J

    2000-01-01

    There are suggestive data with indicate the link of testosterone levels with specific cognitive abilities in humans. As soon as during intrauterine development, testosterone is supposed to influence to organization of fetal specific brain structures. This influence is permanent and it is reflected in cognitive abilities during prepubetal period. In puberty, the testosterone level rapidly increases mainly in boys and it appears to influence the definitive development of cognitive functions. In this paper, results of the first four years of our logitudinal study are presented. Salivary testosterone levels in children were determined, and their effect on spatial ability was studied. Radioimmunoanalytical method of testosterone determination in saliva was developed, since saliva reflects free fraction of testosterone directly available for uptake by receptors in the central nervous system. The sampling of saliva is non-invasive and unstressful, which is important for relevant evaluation of cognitive performance. One hundred and forty-seven children (78 boys and 69 girls) at the ae of 8 to 12 were examined. The data received from intellectually gifted children attending the School for gifted children in Bratislava (100 measurements) were compared with the data received from age-matched children attending randomly chosen elementary schools (151 measurements). Lower salivary testosterone levels were found in intellectually gifted children of both sexes, and negative relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive abilities in preadolescent children was observed.

  7. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5–10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. Materials and methods In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. Results The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusions Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress. PMID:25737890

  8. Optical and ultrastructural studies of midgut and salivary glands of first instar of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2005-05-01

    Midguts and salivary glands of newly hatched larvae (L1) of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) were studied using light and electron microscopy. The larval midgut has a tubular, sinusoidal form and consists of a monolayer of epithelial cells with an underlying basement membrane and a surrounding layer of connective tissue. The fine structure of the midgut shows digestive cells with short microvilli, large nuclei, and cytoplasm containing few visible organelles (mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes). In the basal region, the plasma membrane of the cells is folded into a labyrinth area. Hemidesmosomes link the basal surface to the basement membrane and septet junctions are present between adjacent cells. The connective tissue circling the basement membrane contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers, and tracheal tubes. Prominent nuclei with evident nucleoli occur in the digestive cells. The salivary gland is simple and tubular. It has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The fine structure of the salivary gland shows epithelial cells, microvilli, secretion into the lumen, septate junctions at the lateral face and a basal labyrinth region. The cell nucleus is large and the cytoplasm contains rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and mitochondria.

  9. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    A. D. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL (88th day to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day. The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day; however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day, both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape.

  10. Canine Salivary Glands: Analysis of Rab and SNARE Protein Expression and SNARE Complex Formation With Diverse Tissue Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Hiroshi; Osawa, Hiromi; Uno, Rie; Yasui, Tadashi; Hosaka, Masahiro; Torii, Seiji; Tsukise, Azuma

    2017-11-01

    The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands. Similarly, Rab proteins (Rab3d, Rab11a, Rab11b, Rab27a, and Rab27b) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-3, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 were expressed at various levels in individual glands. mmunohistochemistry of Rab3d, Rab11b, Rab27b, VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 revealed their predominant expression in serous acinar cells, demilunes, and ductal cells. The VAMP4/syntaxin-6 SNARE complex, which is thought to be involved in the maturation of secretory granules in the Golgi field, was found more predominantly in the monostomatic sublingual gland than in the parotid gland. These results suggest that protein expression profiles in canine salivary glands differ among individual glands and reflect the properties of their specialized functions.

  11. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction

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    Yong-Hwan Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1, which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  13. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  14. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  17. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients

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    Sreedevi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  18. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  19. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  20. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p caries free group (pcaries.

  1. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

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    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  2. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia and improved quality of life: Submandibular salivary gland transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, K

    2003-07-01

    Over 60,000 new cases of head and neck cancers, and approximately 15,000 deaths occur every year in the United States (1). Head and neck cancers affect more men then women by a factor of 2:1, although the incidence of women is increasing as a result of increased tobacco use (2). Over 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; most of the remaining cancers are adenocarcinomas. A combination of radiation therapy and surgery is used as the standard, primary treatment modality. Xerostomia occurs when the salivary glands are affected by irradiation. Patients experiencing xerostomia are at an increased risk for a wide variety of oral problems; all adversely affecting one's quality of life. Currently patients make lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and use artificial salivas, sprays, gels, and lozenges to help mask their xerostomia. However, none of these products stimulate natural salivary production and act as a replacement therapy rather then a cure for xerostomia. A new protocol, RTOG 1083 has been approved by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, which involves a surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (where it can be easily shielded) as a method of prevention of radiation induced xerostomia. (author)

  3. Characterization of Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Human Minor Salivary Glands with Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-05-01

    Angiogenesis has been proposed to play a role in the inflammation observed in Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). However, no studies have validated the degree of angiogenesis in salivary glands with SS. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the presence and localization of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in salivary glands with SS. We used frozen tissue sections from human minor salivary glands (hMSG) with and without SS in our analyses. To investigate signs of angiogenesis, hMSG tissue lysates were used to detect levels of the pro-angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by western blot analyses. Additionally, we labeled blood vessels using antibodies specific to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to determine blood vessel organization and volume fraction using fluorescence microscopy. Lymphatic vessel organization and volume fraction were determined using antibodies specific to lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1). Our results suggest that expression levels of VEGF are decreased in hMSG with SS as compared with controls. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in blood or lymphatic vessel organization or volume fraction between hMSG with and without SS, suggesting that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis have little impact on the progression of SS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The effect of cataract surgery on salivary melatonin and sleep quality in aging people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenshen, Yan; Minshu, Wang; Qing, Yuan; Yang, Liu; Suodi, Zhai; Wei, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Blue light plays an important role in circadian photoentrainment by stimulating the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Age-related cataract causes progressive loss of blue light transmission, which may lead to changes in circadian rhythm and sleep quality. In theory, increased light transmission by cataract surgery may improve circadian misalignment and sleep quality, while the effect of cataract surgery on circadian rhythm is not well understood. In this study, we assessed 30 binocular age-related nuclear cataract patients (aged 72.5 ± 7.2, 16 female) who were eligible for cataract surgery. All the patients underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction and neutral ultraviolet-only blocking intraocular lens (IOLs) implantation. Visual functions including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color perception and dark adaptation were assessed. Salivary samples were collected at 1-hour interval from 19:00 to 23:00 48 hours before and after surgery. Salivary melatonin concentration was measured and dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was calculated subsequently. Sleep quality and daytime alertness were assessed before and a month after surgery using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). All the operated eyes demonstrated significant improvements in BCVA, color perception and dark adaptation after cataract surgery. Salivary melatonin concentration at 23:00 was significantly increased after surgery (P blue-light transmission; consequently, it may lead to the increase in nighttime melatonin concentration and improvement in sleep quality as well as daytime alertness.

  5. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  6. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to salivary components bound to glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, M W; Jinks, D C; Merrick, J M

    1981-01-01

    Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to salivary components attached to siliconized glass. Calcium stimulated S. mutans adherence to saliva-free glass, but inhibited adherence to saliva-treated glass. S. sanguis adherence to either saliva-free or saliva-treated glass was inhibited slightly at high calcium ion concentrations. Adherence of streptococci to saliva-treated glass exhibited saturation kinetics, and the numbers of binding sites on the experimental salivary pellicle and the affinity constants for bacteria-saliva attachment were determined. Preincubation of the streptococci with whole saliva decreased their capacity to adhere to saliva-treated glass, but not to saliva-free glass. Bacteria adherent to saliva-treated glass surfaces were readily desorbed by washing with saliva. The addition of homologous antisera, ammonium sulfate-precipitated immunoglobulins, or Fab fragments to the bacterial suspensions inhibited cell adherence to saliva-treated glass. PMID:7251139

  7. Finding and characterizing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Bae; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2013-02-01

    A new tumor entity of the salivary glands, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, has recently been proposed. MASC was originally diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (ANOS), or acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) by the current World Health Organization classification. We aimed to identify MASC cases by molecular tests, and to characterize their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Thirty cases of MASC candidates were selected after review of 196 salivary gland tumors, and subjected to break-apart ETV6 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemical study for S100 protein, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, DOG1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Valid FISH results were obtained in 23 cases, and 13 positive cases were retrieved. MASCs were histologically varied, and the most frequent features observed in 10 cases were low-grade papillary/cystic/glandular patterns, intraluminal secretory materials, ovoid/wrinkled nuclei, and relatively abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasms, corresponding to papillary-cystic or follicular types of AciCC. All cases showed diffuse immunopositivity for S100 protein. Three cases developed recurrences, but all patients remained alive. MASC could be a molecularly well-defined salivary gland neoplasm, encompassing some portions of AciCC and ANOS, but its histological spectrum and clinical implication require further investigation.

  8. On approaches to the functional restoration of salivary glands damaged by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with a review of related aspects of salivary gland morphology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R S

    2008-06-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck can devastate the salivary glands and partially devitalize the mandible and maxilla. As a result, saliva production is drastically reduced and its quality adversely altered. Without diligent home and professional care, the teeth are subject to rapid destruction by caries, necessitating extractions with attendant high risk of necrosis of the supporting bone. Innovative techniques in delivery of radiation therapy and administration of drugs that selectively protect normal tissues can reduce significantly the radiation effects on salivary glands. Nonetheless, many patients still suffer severe oral dryness. I review here the functional morphology and development of salivary glands as these relate to approaches to preventing and restoring radiation-induced loss of salivary function. The acinar cells are responsible for most of the fluid and organic material in saliva, while the larger ducts influence the inorganic content. A central theme of this review is the extent to which the several types of epithelial cells in salivary glands may be pluripotential and the circumstances that may influence their ability to replace cells that have been lost or functionally inactivated due to the effects of radiation. The evidence suggests that the highly differentiated cells of the acini and large ducts of mature glands can replace themselves except when the respective pools of available cells are greatly diminished via apoptosis or necrosis owing to severely stressful events. Under the latter circumstances, relatively undifferentiated cells in the intercalated ducts proliferate and redifferentiate as may be required to replenish the depleted pools. It is likely that some, if not many, acinar cells may de-differentiate into intercalated duct-like cells and thus add to the pool of progenitor cells in such situations. If the stress is heavy doses of radiation, however, the result is not only the death of acinar cells, but also a marked

  9. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury induces biochemical and morphological changes in the salivary glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, W A B; da Costa, N M M; Fagundes, N C F; Silva, M C F; Alves-Junior, S M; Pinheiro, J J V; Amado, L L; Crespo-López, M E; Maia, C S F; Lima, R R

    2017-09-20

    Mercury exposure is considered to be a public health problem due to the generation of toxic effects on human health as a result of environmental and occupational conditions. The inorganic form of mercury (HgCl2) can cause several biological changes in cells and tissues through its cumulative toxic potential, but little has been experimentally proven about the effects of inorganic mercury on salivary glands, an important modulator organ of oral health. This study analyzes the effects of prolonged low dose exposure to HgCl2 on the salivary glands of rats. Adult animals received a dose of 0.375 mg kg-1 day-1 over a period of 45 days. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for analysis of the mercury levels and evaluation of oxidative stress, histological parameters and immunomodulation for metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II). In this investigation, biochemical and tissue changes in the salivary glands were verified due to the mercury levels, causing reduction in antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, with consequent cellular lipid peroxidation and an increase in nitrite levels, volumetric changes and cytoskeletal damage in the submandibular glands, with less severe damage to the parotid glands. The results also have shown the occurrence of a cytoprotection mechanism due to increased MT-I/II expression, but not enough to avoid the morphology and oxidative damage. This evidence highlights, for the first time, that inorganic mercury is able to alter the morphology and oxidative biochemistry in salivary glands when exposed for a long time in low doses.

  10. Use of fluorescent in-situ hybridisation in salivary gland cytology: A powerful diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, S M; Meilleroux, J; Daniel, G; Basset, C; Lacoste-Collin, L; Vergez, S; Uro-Coste, E; Courtade-Saidi, M

    2017-08-01

    Salivary gland cytology is challenging because it includes a diversity of lesions and a wide spectra of tumours. Recently, it has been reported that many types of salivary gland tumours have specific molecular diagnostic signatures that could be identified by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of FISH on routine cytological salivary gland smears. FISH was conducted on 37 cytological salivary gland smears from 34 patients. According to the cytological diagnosis suspected, MECT1/MAML2 gene fusion and rearrangements of PLAG1, MYB, or ETV6 were analysed. The presence and percentages of cells that had gene rearrangements were evaluated. Results were compared with the histological surgical samples, available from 26 patients. The PLAG1 rearrangement was observed in 12/20 (60%) cases of pleomorphic adenoma. MECT1/MAML2 gene fusion was observed in 1:2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas but was not observed in five other tumours (two pleomorphic adenomas, one Warthin's tumour, one mammary analogue secretory carcinoma [MASC] and one cystic tumour). MYB rearrangement was observed in 4/4 adenoid cystic carcinomas. ETV6-gene splitting identified one MASC. Overall, FISH had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 66.7%. When FISH and cytological analyses were combined, the overall sensitivity was increased to 93.3%. It can thus be concluded that when the FISH analysis is positive, the extent of surgery could be determined with confidence pre-operatively without needing a diagnosis from a frozen section. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3− Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3− secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3− secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3− secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3− secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl− and secrete HCO3−. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl− and secretes HCO3− and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3− secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl− and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl− secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl− and secretes K+ and HCO3−. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3− secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  13. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C......-section) during their first 6 months of life. METHODS: The study group consisted of 149 consecutively enrolled infants, delivered either vaginally (n = 96) or by C-section (n = 53) that volunteered after consent of their parents. Saliva samples were collected within 2 days after birth and then after 1, 3, and 6...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  14. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  15. Histamine transport and metabolism are deranged in salivary glands in Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegaev, Vasily; Nies, Anne T; Porola, Pauliina; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, Jóse L; Sillat, Tarvo; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Chazot, Paul L; Katebe, Mwape; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Nordström, Dan C E

    2013-09-01

    To study histamine transport and metabolism of salivary gland (SG) epithelial cells in healthy controls and SS patients. Enzymes and transporters involved in histamine metabolism were analysed in cultured human submandibular salivary gland (HSG) epithelial cells and tissue sections using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. HSG cells were used to study [(3)H]histamine uptake [(±1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)] and efflux by liquid scintillation counting. mRNA levels of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-N-methyltransferase (HNMT) were similar in the control and SS glands, but diamine oxidase was not expressed at all. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) in healthy SG was localized in the acinar and ductal cells, whereas OCT2 was restricted to the myoepithelial cells. Both transporters were significantly decreased in SS at mRNA and protein levels. OCT3-mRNA levels in HSG cells were significantly higher than those of the other studied transporters. Uptake of [(3)H]histamine was inhibited by MPP in a time-dependent manner, whereas [(3)H]histamine-preloaded HSG cells released it. Ductal epithelial cells are non-professional histamine-producing cells able to release histamine via OCTs at the resting state up to ∼100 nM, enough to excite H3R/H4R(+) epithelial cells, but not H1R, which requires burst release from mast cells. At the stimulated phase, 50-60 μM histamine passes from the interstitial fluid through the acinar cells to saliva, whereas uptake by ductal cells leads to intracellular degradation by HNMT. OCT3/histamine/H4R-mediated cell maintenance and down-regulation of high histamine levels fail in SS SGs.

  16. Reciprocal relation between GADD153 and Del-1 in regulation of salivary gland inflammation in Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Babak; Liu, Jun Yao; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2013-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a pivotal regulator of inflammation and cell death. An integral component of ER stress-induced apoptosis is expression of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (GADD153). Further, ER stress response is implicated in leukocyte adhesion and recent studies have discovered endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion including the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1). Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is associated with increased salivary gland expression of GADD153 and increased leukocyte infiltration in association with decreased Del-1 thereby contributing to inflammation and cell death. We utilized the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease, in association with immunostaining and flow cytometry-based studies. Salivary glands of 14-week-old NOD mice displayed a) increased GADD153 expression, b) marked reduction in Del-1, c) inflammatory cell infiltrates including CD3+ T and CD19+ B lymphocytes as well as M1 and M2 macrophages and d) increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17 but reduced anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. These changes were accompanied with disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis of salivary gland cells of NOD than control mice. Our collective observations suggested that GADD153 directly and/or indirectly through downregulation of Del-1 contributes importantly to salivary gland inflammation and cell death. To establish the relevance of GADD153 and Del-1 for the human condition, lower lip biopsy samples of non-SS subjects and those with a diagnosis of SS were subjected to immunohistochemistry. The results show intense GADD153 immunostaining but marked reduction in Del-1 expression in biopsy samples of SS compared to non-SS subjects. Collectively, the results indicate that GADD153 regulates inflammation and cell death in salivary gland in SS. Further, Del-1 expression likely

  17. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level........ Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high...

  18. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present a Danish national series of oncocytic carcinoma (OC) patients, including data on treatment, recurrence and survival. METHODS: From the national Danish database of salivary gland carcinomas, all patients diagnosed with OC from 1990 to 2005 were identified and data concerning...... demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients....... Six patients were alive at 5 years follow up and one patient was alive without recurrence at 10 years follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report a national incidence of oncocytic carcinoma in the salivary glands. The results confirm oncocytic carcinoma to be a salivary gland carcinoma...

  19. Bond strengthening in oral bacterial adhesion to salivary conditioning films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Rustema-Abbing, Mina; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik

    Transition from reversible to irreversible bacterial adhesion is a highly relevant but poorly understood step in initial biofilm formation. We hypothesize that in oral biofilm formation, irreversible adhesion is caused by bond strengthening due to specific bacterial interactions with salivary

  20. Salivary biomarkers associated with academic assessment stress among dental undergraduates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Vivian; Koh, David; Mok, Betty Y Y; Chia, Sin-Eng; Lim, Lum-Peng

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to assess the difference in self-perceived stress before and after an academic assessment and its association with the marks scored and to study the association of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A (IgA...

  1. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  2. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release......The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  3. Pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands: retrospective multicentric study of 130 cases with emphasis on histopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Barroso, Keila Martha Amorim; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Martins, Manoela Domingues; de Souza, Lélia Batista

    2017-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most frequent benign epithelial lesion of salivary gland origin, showing great histopathological diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis, with emphasis on histopathologic features of PA of salivary glands. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics of 130 cases of minor and major salivary glands PAs from three Brazilian reference centers were studied. Higher frequency of PAs was observed in female (55.4 %) subjects, with mean age of 49.7 years. The most common affected site was palate (64.5 %) for the PAs of minor salivary glands and parotid for cases affecting major glands (86.2 %). Microscopically, most cases were classified as classic PAs (50 %). Incomplete capsule was observed in 36.2 % of the cases, while 47.2 % showed capsular infiltration. Rounded (66.9 %), angular (49.2 %), oval (46.2 %) and plasmacytoid (39.2 %) cells were widely observed, as well as fibrous (73.8 %) and myxoid (69.2 %) stroma, squamous metaplasia (25.4 %) and cystic degeneration (43.1 %). Crystalloids (3.1 %), increased mitotic activity (5.4 %) and vascular invasion (2.3 %) were rarely observed. PAs arising in minor salivary glands were associated with incomplete capsules, spindle, oval, angular, plasmacytoid and pleomorphic cells, fibrous and hyaline stroma, cystic degeneration, squamous metaplasia and pleomorphism (p < 0.05). No association between capsular features and histological subtype was noted (p ≥ 0.05). These results confirm the findings of previous studies regarding major clinicopathological features of pleomorphic adenomas; and highlighted some important morphologic characteristics like the capsule, vascular invasion, pleomorphism and increased mitotic activity, which can reflect the biological behavior of these tumors.

  4. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  5. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsadik Ahmed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial and especially mucosal immunity represents the first line of defence against the plethora of potential pathogens trying to invade via the gastrointestinal tract. The salivary glands of the fruit fly are an indispensable part of the gastrointestinal tract, but their contribution to the mucosal immunity has almost completely been neglected. Our major goal was to elucidate if the fly's salivary glands are able to mount an immune response and what the major characteristics of this immune response are. Results Ectopic activation of the IMD-pathway within the salivary gland cells is able to induce an immune response, indicating that the salivary glands are indeed immune competent. This reaction is characterized by the concurrent expression of numerous antimicrobial peptide genes. In addition, ectopic activation of the salivary gland's immune response induces morphological changes such as dwarfism throughout all developmental stages and a significantly decreased length of the salivary glands themselves. DNA-microarray analyses of the reaction revealed a complex pattern of up- and downregulated genes. Gene ontology analyses of regulated genes revealed a significant increase in genes associated with ribosomal and proteasomal function. On the other hand, genes coding for peptide receptors and some potassium channels are downregulated. In addition, the comparison of the transcriptional events induced following IMD-activation in the trachea and the salivary glands shows also only a small overlap, indicating that the general IMD-activated core transcriptome is rather small and that the tissue specific component of this response is dominating. Among the regulated genes, those that code for signaling associated protease activity are significantly modulated. Conclusions The salivary glands are immune-competent and they contribute to the overall intestinal immune system. Although they produce antimicrobial peptides, their overall

  6. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  7. Intraoral lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Milano, Massimiliano; Caputo, Cristian; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and a case with involvement of minor salivary glands is very uncommon. We describe a case of LELC of the oral cavity with involvement of the upper lip and of minor salivary glands. The tumour was described at the clinical and instrumental level; moreover, its histopathological phenotype was defined. Finally, the problems of differential diagnosis and the most appropriate therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  8. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  9. Page 1 MAxillor ACI SURGERY Minor salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glands. Oral Surg 1962; 15:594 – 602. 7. Bergman F. Tumours of the minor salivary glands. A report of 46 cases. Cancer 1969; 23: 538 – 543. 8. Luna M. A., Stimson P. G., Bardwił J. M. Minor salivary gland tumours of the oral cavity. Oral Surg 1968; 25. 71 – 86. 9. Van-Der-Waal J E, Snow G B, Van-. Der-Waal I. | listological.

  10. Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, T A; Nordman, E

    1987-01-01

    A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth.

  11. Salivary glands of second and third instars of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2007-05-01

    Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin.

  12. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-06-01

    Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic lesions of the oral mucosa. MRI of the neck was performed along with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid tumors and excisional biopsy of an oral lesion. Imaging and FNA findings of the parotid glands were suggestive of bilateral Warthin tumors. Excisional biopsy of the oral lesion revealed a minor salivary gland with histopathological features of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease. Submandibular gland enlargement was also attributed to this rare entity based on the imaging characteristics. This is the first report of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease of the minor salivary glands, combined with involvement of the submandibular glands and bilateral Warthin tumors of the parotid gland. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2437-E2439, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumors in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Salivary gland tumors are rare and specific lesions. There are differences in the incidence and frequency of salivary tumors in both minor and major salivary glands in different countries. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of major and minor salivary gland tumors in Ahvaz in the south of Iran. Materials and methods. All the cases, recorded in Imam Khomeyni Hospital and Shafa Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from 1997 to 2008 were assessed. Age, gender, anatomical location, and histology of all the specimens were evaluated. Results. Of 112 cases, 84 cases were benign and 28 cases were malignant. Female predominance was observed in these cases. Most lesions appeared in the third to fifth decades of life (60.71%. The incidence of malignant salivary gland tumors increased with age and male predominance was found in malignant tumors. The majority of the tumors occurred in parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type (65.17%. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. Conclusion. It was shown that the peak incidence age of all salivary gland tumors was the third to fifth decades, and malignant tumors mostly occurred in the sixth to eighth decades. Female predominance for all the tumors and slight male predominance in malignant tumors were observed. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor. The most common malignant tumors were mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  14. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  15. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  16. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  17. Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow

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    Raquel Pippi ANTONIAZZI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min. A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012. No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384. A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59 had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

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    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  19. Repairability during G1 of the inductor leisure of exchanges in the sister chromatid induced by alkylating agents in DNA substituted and no substituted with BUDR, in cells of the salivary gland of mouse In vivo; Reparabilidad durante G1 de las lesiones inductoras de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas inducidos por agentes alquilantes en ADN sustituido y no sustituido con BrdU, en celulas de la glandula salival de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez B, F

    2004-07-01

    In this work you determines the repair of the lesions inductoras of Sister chromatid exchange (ICHs) generated in the cells of the salivary gland of mouse, for the treatment with the N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU), the N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU), the Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in early and slow G1 of the first one and the second cellular division, that is to say before and after the cells incorporate 5-bromine-2 -Desoxyuridine (BrdU) in the DNA. Groups witness non treaties were included with mutagen. The cells of the salivary gland repaired the generated lesions partially by the MNU, the MMS and the EMS in the 1st division, and only the lesions induced by the ENU and MMS were repaired partially in the 2nd division. The ENU generates injure that they were not repaired in the 1st division and those taken place by the EMS were little repaired in the 2nd division. The methylating agents generated but ICHs that the ethylating. One observes that the BrdU makes to the molecule of the DNA but susceptible to the damage generated by the alkylating agents that induce the formation of the ICHs. This susceptibility was incremented around 150% for the treatment with the MNU, the ENU and the MMS, on the other hand for the EMS it was 3 times minor. It is proposed that the one electronegative atom of this analog of the timine would to work as a nucleophyllic center with which the electrophyllic compounds react. (Author)

  20. Salivary mucin 19 glycoproteins: innate immune functions in Streptococcus mutans-induced caries in mice and evidence for expression in human saliva.

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    Culp, David J; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-30

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19(-/-) mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19(-/-) mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19(-/-) mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19(-/-) mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. More Accurate Oral Cancer Screening with Fewer Salivary Biomarkers

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    James Michael Menke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Signal detection and Bayesian inferential tools were applied to salivary biomarkers to improve screening accuracy and efficiency in detecting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Potential cancer biomarkers are identified by significant differences in assay concentrations, receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve (AUCs, sensitivity, and specificity. However, the end goal is to report to individual patients their risk of having disease given positive or negative test results. Likelihood ratios (LRs and Bayes factors (BFs estimate evidential support and compile biomarker information to optimize screening accuracy. In total, 26 of 77 biomarkers were mentioned as having been tested at least twice in 137 studies and published in 16 summary papers through 2014. Studies represented 10 212 OSCC and 25 645 healthy patients. The measure of biomarker and panel information value was number of biomarkers needed to approximate 100% positive predictive value (PPV. As few as 5 biomarkers could achieve nearly 100% PPV for a disease prevalence of 0.2% when biomarkers were ordered from highest to lowest LR. When sequentially interpreting biomarker tests, high specificity was more important than test sensitivity in achieving rapid convergence toward a high PPV. Biomarkers ranked from highest to lowest LR were more informative and easier to interpret than AUC or Youden index. The proposed method should be applied to more recently published biomarker data to test its screening value.

  2. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

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    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  3. Clinicopathological characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

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    Chiosea, Simion I; Griffith, Christopher; Assaad, Adel; Seethala, Raja R

    2012-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumour with ETV6 translocation. We aimed to characterize the clinical significance of recognizing MASC. Thirty-six patients with MASC (27 identified retrospectively and nine prospectively) are presented. Historically, MASC mimicked other salivary tumours, as follows: 14 of 37 (37.8%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, 11 of 89 (12.4%) acinic cell carcinomas (AciCC), one of five (20%) mucin-producing signet ring adenocarcinomas, and one of 165 (0.6%) mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Demographically, MASC affected males more commonly (1.4:1). The average age at diagnosis was 45.7 years. Parotid gland was the most common site of involvement (26 of 36, 72.2%), although other head and neck sites, including the base of tongue, were affected. Of 18 patients with neck dissection, lymph node involvement was identified in four patients (four of 18, 22.2%). Survival analysis of MASC cases presented here, combined with those reported previously, revealed a mean disease-free survival for patients with MASC of 92 months [n = 29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 71-115 months], compared with a mean DFS of 121 months for patients with AciCC (n = 38; 95% CI 92-149, P = 0.43). Although perhaps slightly more aggressive, MASC clinical outcome mimics that of AciCC. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus.

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    Shahbaz, Syed; Katti, Girish; Ghali, Sreenivas Rao; Katti, Chandrika; Diwakar, Darshan D; Guduba, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine disease characterized by hyperglycemia, the pathogenic mechanisms by which hyperglycemia arises differ widely. Monitoring people with diabetes involve repeated estimations of plasma glucose either by finger pricks or by intravenous blood sampling. Hence, a noninvasive procedure for glucose measurements would be most precious under the circumstances. (1) To evaluate salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients and to compare with healthy nondiabetic control group. (2) To compare and correlate serum and salivary glucose levels in patients with T1DM. This study consisted of 30 T1DM patients and 30 controls. All subjects were subjected to the serum glucose, salivary glucose, and total protein and albumin estimations. Glucose estimations were done by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, total protein estimations were done by Biuret method, end point and albumin estimations were done by bromocresol green dye method, end point. All the estimations were performed using an autoanalyzer. Mean and standard deviation, Student's t-test and Karl Pearson correlation co-efficient were calculated. All these statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 11.5 software. The results showed elevated levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM group compared to healthy controls. Further the levels of serum and salivary glucose in T1DM patients were significantly correlated. There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  5. Stereotypic rheumatoid factors that are frequently expressed in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas are rare in the labial salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

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    Bende, Richard J; Slot, Linda M; Hoogeboom, Robbert; Wormhoudt, Thera A M; Adeoye, Akanbi O; Guikema, Jeroen E J; van Noesel, Carel J M

    2015-04-01

    Among autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is most strongly associated with the development of malignant B cell lymphoma, in particular mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. Previously, we have shown that in ∼40% of cases of salivary gland MALT lymphoma, high-affinity stereotypic rheumatoid factor (RF) B cell receptors, specific for IgG-Fc, are expressed. This study was undertaken to investigate whether in the inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS, a similar RF-biased Ig repertoire is present. Extensive analyses of the B cell Ig VH region repertoire were performed on microdissected tissue samples from the labial salivary glands of 4 patients with SS. All SS labial salivary glands harbored expanded B cell clones, of which 1 or 2 were highly expanded and detected in >50% of the microdissected samples. However, among the identified 464 distinct Ig clonotypes, only 3 stereotypic RF-expressing clones were detected. In 2 patients with SS, an RF-expressing clone was detected at low frequency in 1 of the microdissected samples, whereas 1 patient with SS harbored a highly expanded RF-expressing clone that was detected in all microdissected samples and also detected in the peripheral blood. Two years after analysis of this sample, the latter patient developed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma originating from the same RF clone. Inflamed labial salivary glands in patients with SS generally harbor 1 or 2 highly expanded B cell clones. The repertoire strongly biased toward stereotypic RFs in salivary gland MALT lymphomas is not a reflection of a similar repertoire in the inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS; rather, in the latter, the repertoire is based on a strong selection advantage of incidental stereotypic RF-expressing B cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

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    TP Backes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U • ml-1 and high intensity (284 ± 30 U • ml-1 as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U • ml-1 and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug • dL -1 as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug • dL -1 and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 . This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption.

  7. Salivary IgA antibody responses to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans in preterm and fullterm newborn children.

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    Nogueira, Ruchele Dias; Sesso, Maria Lucia Talarico; Borges, Mariana Castro Loureiro; Mattos-Graner, Renata O; Smith, Daniel James; Ferriani, Virginia Paes Leme

    2012-06-01

    The intensities and specificities of salivary IgA antibody responses to antigens of Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogen of dental caries, may influence colonization by these organisms during the first 1.5 year of life. Thus, the ontogeny of salivary IgA responses to oral colonizers continues to warrant investigation, especially with regard to the influence of birth conditions, e.g. prematurity, on the ability of children to efficiently respond to oral microorganisms. In this study, we characterised the salivary antibody responses to two bacterial species which are prototypes of pioneer and pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity (Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans, respectively) in fullterm (FT) and preterm (PT) newborn children. Salivas from 123 infants (70 FT and 53 PT) were collected during the first 10h after birth and levels of IgA and IgM antibodies and the presence of S. mutans and S. mitis were analysed respectively by ELISA and by chequerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Two subgroups of 24 FT and 24 PT children were compared with respect to patterns of antibody specificities against S. mutans and S. mitis antigens, using Western blot assays. Cross-adsorption of 10 infant's saliva was tested to S. mitis, S. mutans and Enterococcus faecalis antigens. Salivary levels of IgA at birth were 2.5-fold higher in FT than in PT children (Mann-Whitney; P<0.05). Salivary IgA antibodies reactive with several antigens of S. mitis and S. mutans were detected at birth in children with undetectable levels of those bacteria. Adsorption of infant saliva with cells of S. mutans produced a reduction of antibodies recognizing S. mitis antigens in half of the neonates. The diversity and intensity of IgA responses were lower in PT compared to FT children, although those differences were not significant. These data provide evidence that children have salivary IgA antibodies shortly after birth, which might influence the establishment of the oral microbiota, and that

  8. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

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    Kang M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minkyung Kang,1 Hyounggeun Park,1 Joon-Ho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Dong-A ST Research Institute, Gyeonggi, 2Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol or gel (DM-gel. Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. Keywords: saliva substitute, carbopol gel, hypothiocyanite–hydrogen peroxide mixture, antimicrobial activity, diabetic rats

  9. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

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    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  10. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

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    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  11. Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano M. Correia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven

  12. Interaction of plant polyphenols with salivary proteins.

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    Bennick, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Tannins are polyphenols that occur widespread in plant-based food. They are considered to be part of the plant defense system against environmental stressors. Tannins have a number of effects on animals, including growth-rate depression and inhibition of digestive enzymes. Tannins also have an effect on humans: They are, for example, the cause of byssinosis, a condition that is due to exposure to airborne tannin. Their biological effect is related to the great efficiency by which tannins precipitate proteins, an interaction that occurs by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonding. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are highly effective precipitators of tannin, and there is evidence that at least proline-rich proteins act as a first line of defense against tannins, perhaps by precipitating tannins in food and preventing their absorption from the alimentary canal. Proline plays an important role in the interaction of proline-rich proteins with tannins. In contrast, it is primarily basic residues that are responsible for the binding of histatins to tannin. The high concentration of tannin-binding proteins in human saliva may be related to the fruit and vegetable diet of human ancestors.

  13. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands

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    Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism.

  14. Ultrastructural localization of salivary mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in human labial glands.

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    Piras, Monica; Hand, Arthur R; Tore, Giorgio; Ledda, Gian Peppino; Piludu, Marco

    2010-02-01

    As a result of their presence throughout the mouth in the submucosa or between muscle fibers, minor salivary glands secrete directly and continuously into the oral cavity, providing mucosal surfaces with highly glycosylated proteins that are active in bacterial aggregation and in oral tissue lubrication. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural localization of the MUC5B and MUC7 mucins in human labial glands by means of a postembedding immunogold technique. Thin sections of normal human labial glands, obtained during surgery, were incubated with polyclonal antibodies to human salivary mucins MUC5B and MUC7, and then with gold-labeled secondary antibodies. Specific MUC5B reactivity was found in the secretory granules of mucous cells of all glands examined, and was associated with the luminal membrane of duct cells. MUC7 labeling was observed in the granules of both mucous and seromucous secretory cells of the glandular parenchyma. Quantitative analyses demonstrated that seromucous granules have higher immunogold labeling densities for MUC7 than mucous granules. Our immunohistochemical data extend the results of previous light microscopic studies of MUC5B and MUC7 localizations, pointing out the significant contribution of human labial glands in the secretion process of these two mucins.

  15. Vacuole dynamics in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster during prepupal development.

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    Farkaš, Robert; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Mentelová, Lucia; Mahmood, Silvia; Ďatková, Zuzana; Beňo, Milan; Pečeňová, Ludmila; Raška, Otakar; Šmigová, Jana; Chase, Bruce A; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M

    2015-01-01

    A central function of the Drosophila salivary glands (SGs), historically known for their polytene chromosomes, is to produce and then release during pupariation the secretory glue used to affix a newly formed puparium to a substrate. This essential event in the life history of Drosophila is regulated by the steroid hormone ecdysone in the late-larval period. Ecdysone triggers a cascade of sequential gene activation that leads to glue secretion and initiates the developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval salivary glands, which culminates 16 h after puparium formation (APF). We demonstrate here that, even after the larval salivary glands have completed what is perceived to be one of their major biological functions--glue secretion during pupariation--they remain dynamic and physiologically active up until the execution phase of PCD. We have used specific metabolic inhibitors and genetic tools, including mutations or transgenes for shi, Rab5, Rab11, vha55, vha68-2, vha36-1, syx1A, syx4, and Vps35 to characterize the dramatic series of cellular changes occurring in the SG cells between pupariation and 7-8 h APF. Early in the prepupal period, they are remarkably active in endocytosis, forming acidic vacuoles. Midway through the prepupal period, there is abundant late endosomal trafficking and vacuole growth, which is followed later by vacuole neutralization and disappearance via membrane consolidation. This work provides new insights into the function of Drosophila SGs during the early- to mid-prepupal period. © 2015 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2015 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. Salivary stimulation by prolonged release of pilocarpine using films in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The local use of prolonged drug delivery in the oral cavity provides many advantages, i.e., it increases pharmacologic actions in the desired local site, allows smaller doses and reduces adverse effects. Pilocarpine is a cholinergic drug approved by the FDA for treating glandular hypofunction; however, the adverse effects associated with it limit its use. Objective: To evaluate cytotoxicity of films in adherent fibroblasts and their ability to release pilocarpine in vivo for a prolonged time in the oral cavity of diabetic rats and its effect on salivary flow.Methods: Chitosan and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel K4MCR films were prepared in 1% acetic acid and pilocarpine was added under magnetic stirring. Cytotoxicity of films was evaluated in adherent fibroblasts HS27 and assessed by neutral red technique. The sialogogue effect of films was evaluated on the floor of the mouth of diabetic rats. Later, histopathological analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stains. Results: Films were biocompatible and had 96% cell viability. It was possible to increase stimulation of salivary flow in diabetic rats (6.36±0.987mg/hr compared to the control group (0.5±0.06mg/hr. The histopathological analysis did not show inflammatory infiltrate in the area where films were placed. Conclusion: Films were biocompatible and had high cell viability. Also, they considerably increased salivary flow in diabetic rats, without triggering an inflammatory infiltrate in the area which indicates that it is a biocompatible product for sustained release and safe for pilocarpine administration.

  17. Human salivary proteins with affinity to lipoteichoic acid of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jung Eun; Choe, Hyuk-Il; Hong, Sun Woong; Kang, Seok-Seong; Ahn, Ki Bum; Cho, Kun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells. The biological activity of Ef.LTA-biotin was determined based on the induction of nitric oxide and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in a macrophage cell-line, RAW 264.7. To identify salivary Ef.LTA-BPs, the Ef.LTA-biotin was mixed with a pool of human saliva obtained from nine healthy subjects followed by precipitation with a streptavidin-coated bead. Ef.LTA-BPs were then separated with 12% SDS-PAGE and subjected to the mass spectrometry. Six human salivary Ef.LTA-BPs including short palate lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2, zymogen granule protein 16 homolog B, hemoglobin subunit α and β, apolipoprotein A-I, and lipocalin-1 were identified with statistical significance (Pfaecalis whereas lipocalin-1 did not show such effect. Collectively, the identified Ef.LTA-BPs could provide clues for our understanding of the pathogenesis of E. faecalis and host immunity in oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: a national study of incidence, site and histology. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    years. The parotid gland was the most common site (52.5%) followed by the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity (26.3%). The most frequent histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16.9%), adenocarcinoma NOS (12.2%) and acinic cell carcinoma (10...

  19. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  20. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS): Subjective symptoms and salivary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.M.; Reibel, J.; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales......autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales...

  1. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  2. Morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, B; Jariyapan, N; Roytrakul, S; Paemanee, A; Sor-suwan, S; Intakhan, N; Chanmol, W; Siriyasatien, P; Saeung, A; Choochote, W

    2014-12-01

    Morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 were analyzed. Female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. Cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. Cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. In the distal-lateral lobes, cells had a dense secretory product with mottled pattern. Cells of the medial lobe had secretory masses which were uniformly stained and highly electron dense. Following emergence, the glands accumulated secretory material rapidly and developed completely within three days. Degenerative changes including loss of stored secretion and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation and concentric lamellar structures were observed from day 16 post emergence that correlated with total amount of the salivary gland proteins determined during development. SDS-PAGE, nanoLC-MS, and glycoprotein analysis revealed at least eleven major protein bands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Two glycoproteins, apyrase/5'-nucleotidase and D7, were identified. These results form a basis for further studies on details of cytopathological changes of malarial infected glands and roles of the proteins in disease transmission.

  3. Basal Cell Adenoma‑Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare ...

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