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Sample records for salivary fluid secretion

  1. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  2. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  3. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing

  4. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.

  5. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  6. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  7. Correlation between salivary secretion and salivary AQP5 levels in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Iwata, Fusako; Muraguchi, Masahiro; Ooga, Keiko; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Takai, Masaaki; Mori, Toyoki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    Saliva samples are useful for noninvasive diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. The water channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is released into human saliva. Salivary AQP5 levels show a diurnal variation with the secretion of high levels during the waking hours. An age-related decrease in salivary AQP5 levels parallels a decrease in the volume of saliva. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, induces the release of AQP5. Changes in salivary AQP5 levels after cevimeline administration occur simultaneously with changes in saliva flow rate. AQP5 and lipid rafts are released separately from human salivary glands upon M(3) mAChR stimulation. In patients with diabetes mellitus or Sjögren's syndrome, a decrease in salivary secretion occurs concomitantly with low salivary AQP5 levels. Salivary AQP5 levels correlate with salivary secretion in both healthy and disease states, suggesting that changes in salivary AQP5 levels can be used as an indicator of salivary flow rate and the effect of M(3) mAChR agonists on human salivary glands.

  8. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  9. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However...... consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate....... Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows....

  10. Salivary Secretion and Composition in Malaria: A Case-control Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    However, presence of oral symptoms in these individuals may not be attributed to the reduced salivary ... the oral cavity and salivary composition and secretion. Assessment of ..... microbiota in children with acute otitis media. Clin. Microbiol.

  11. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mata, A D S P; da Silva Marques, D N; Silveira, J M L; Marques, J R O F; de Melo Campos Felino, E T; Guilherme, N F R P M

    2009-04-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS). Portuguese Dental Faculty Clinic. Double blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty volunteers were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample sized was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new gustatory stimulant of secretory secretion containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 5.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented a risk reduction of 80 +/- 10.6% (95% CI) when compared with the traditional one. Gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion with fluoride, xylitol and lower acid content maintain similar salivary stimulation capacity while reducing significantly the dental erosion predictive potential.

  12. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na + /H + exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na + /H + exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.

  13. The biphasic effect of extracellular glucose concentration on carbachol-induced fluid secretion from mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terachi, Momomi; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Sugita, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner. Both lowering the extracellular glucose concentration to less than 2.5 mM and elevating it to higher than 5 mM resulted in decreased CCh-induced fluid secretion. The CCh-induced salivary flow was suppressed by phlorizin, an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) located basolaterally in submandibular acinar cells, which is altered at the protein expression level in diabetic animal models. Our data suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in acinar cells is required to maintain the fluid secretion by sustaining Cl - secretion in real-time. High extracellular glucose levels may suppress the CCh-induced secretion of salivary fluid by altering the activities of ion channels and transporters downstream of [Ca 2+ ] i signals. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Altered Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

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    Zhuoni Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC frequently present with psychological disturbances as well as dysfunctions of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA secretion is predominantly controlled by sympathetic nervous activity, while salivary fluid secretion is by parasympathetic nervous activity. Thus, it is speculated that alterations of salivary secretion may be addressed in UC populations. Methods. Thirty-five UC patients as well as 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Saliva samples before and after citric acid stimulation were collected from each participant, and salivary flow rate (SFR was calculated accordingly. Western blotting and quantitative PCR were applied to measure the sAA level and sAA gene (AMY1 copy number, respectively. The psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, were evaluated by the scoring system of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS for each participant. Results. We observed robustly increased prevalence of anxiety (p<0.001 as well as depression (p<0.001 in UC patients relative to controls. Interestingly, we detected elevated basal (p=0.015 and stimulated (p=0.021 sAA levels in the UC populations compared to controls. However, no differences were found for basal (p=0.643 or stimulated (p=0.402 SFR between the two study groups. Besides, AMY1 gene copy number was comparable between UC patients and controls. Conclusions. Our results reveal an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and a normal activity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the UC population.

  15. Salivary Secretion and Composition in Malaria: A Case-control Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: No previous studies have documented changes in salivary secretion in patients with malaria. This study aimed to compare salivary secretion and composition in malaria positive and malaria negative individuals. Ninety participants composed of 40 malaria parasite positive and 50 malaria parasite negative ...

  16. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  17. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  18. Estimation of impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Kikuchi, Yuzo [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital; Morita, Kozo; Murao, Takayuki; Yokoi, Motoo

    1995-06-01

    To estimate impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy, we classified the degree of gustation and xerostomia into 4 grades in 50 patients who had received radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We found that gustation recovered in most patients regardless of radiation dose, but salivary secretion recovered only when radiation dose was less than 40 to 50 Gy on the gland of the affected side and less than 30 to 40 Gy on the opposite side. (author).

  19. Estimation of impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Kikuchi, Yuzo; Morita, Kozo; Murao, Takayuki; Yokoi, Motoo.

    1995-01-01

    To estimate impairment of gustation and salivary secretion after radiation therapy, we classified the degree of gustation and xerostomia into 4 grades in 50 patients who had received radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We found that gustation recovered in most patients regardless of radiation dose, but salivary secretion recovered only when radiation dose was less than 40 to 50 Gy on the gland of the affected side and less than 30 to 40 Gy on the opposite side. (author)

  20. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

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    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  1. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The res......The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly....... The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva......, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems...

  2. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

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    Barbara Dhooghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component. Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies.

  3. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  4. Recovery time from radiation-induced xerostomia and impairment of salivary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, Yukimi; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Murase, Kenya; Fujii, Takashi; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2000-01-01

    Between June 1995 and August 1997, we treated 23 patients with head and neck malignancies using an x-ray beam and then interviewed the patients to determine the degree of subjective salivary secretion and xerostomia after long-term radiation therapy. Interviews were continued for a maximum 179 weeks (mean, 76.3 weeks) after irradiation. We scored the results as the degree of subjective salivary secretion, then noted the recovery time for salivary secretion and xerostomia. When salivary glands had been irradiated to a total dose of 30 to 60 Gy, salivary secretion and oral dryness recovered within three years in 72% (13/18) and 67% (13/18) of the patients, respectively. However, these symptoms never recovered to their original levels when the total dose was more than 60 Gy. The acute and late effects of radiation therapy may induce a risk of dental caries, oral dryness, and osteoradionecrosis as well as taste impairment. Therefore, education as to dental and oral care is mandatory for patients who will be or who have been treated with radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

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    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  6. Pharmacological investigation of the role of ion channels in salivary secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Tina C; Poulsen, Jørgen H; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The role of K+ and Cl- channels in salivary secretion was investigated, with emphasis on the potential role of Ca2+ -activated K+ channels. Ligand saturation kinetic assays and autoradiography showed large-conductance (BK) K+ channels to be highly expressed in rat submandibular and parotid glands...

  7. Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) and the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) belong to a group of insects called gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and both are destructive pests of wheat. From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary...

  8. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  9. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Patto, José Maria Vaz; Barcelos, Filipe Alexandre Duarte; de Almeida Rato Amaral, João Pedro; de Oliveira, Miguel Constantino Mendes; Ferreira, Cristina Gutierrez Castanheira

    2011-11-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Portuguese Institute for Rheumatological Diseases. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty patients were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample size was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new GSSS containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 4.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented an absolute risk reduction of 52.78% [33.42-72.13 (95% CI)] when compared with the traditional one. In Xerostomic Primary Sjögren syndrome patients, gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion based on acid mail only with fluoride and xylitol present similar salivary stimulation capacity when compared to citric acid-based ones, besides significantly reducing the number of salivary pH drops below 4.5. This could be related to a diminished risk for dental erosion and should be confirmed with further studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Effects of oral stimulation with capsaicin on salivary secretion and neural activities in the autonomic system and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kono

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that oral stimulation with capsaicin may be effective in improving oral conditions by increasing salivary flow and SIgA secretion, and in enhancing physical and mental conditions as indicated by sympathetic nerve and EEG changes.

  11. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  12. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  13. Pregnancy related changes in human salivary secretion and composition in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, T J; Ugwuadu, P N

    2014-12-01

    A variety of physiological changes occurring during pregnancy has been shown to affect the oral health. Saliva is critical for preserving and maintaining the health of oral tissues and has been used as a source of non-invasive investigation of different conditions in human and animal studies. This study was designed to evaluate changes in secretion and composition of saliva in pregnant women in a Nigerian population. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using purposive sampling technique. Saliva samples were collected from 50 pregnant and age matched 50 non-pregnant women. Salivary flow rate, pH, total protein and concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate were determined and compared using paired independent sample t test. Salivary pH,mean concentrations of potassium and bicarbonate were significantly reduced while mean concentrations of salivary sodium and phosphate were significantly elevated in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women (P pH, bicarbonate and potassium concentrations were reduced while sodium and phosphate concentrations were elevated in pregnant women. These findings suggest that pregnant women may be predisposed to higher caries incidence.

  14. Salivary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  15. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min. The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications. Keywords: Immunosensor, Centrifugal fluid valve, Automation, Cortisol, Saliva

  16. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  17. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minkyung Kang,1 Hyounggeun Park,1 Joon-Ho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Dong-A ST Research Institute, Gyeonggi, 2Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol or gel (DM-gel. Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. Keywords: saliva substitute, carbopol gel, hypothiocyanite–hydrogen peroxide mixture, antimicrobial activity, diabetic rats

  18. Salivary Secretion and Composition in Malaria: A Case-control Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    salivary pH, total protein and electrolyte ion concentrations between the two groups. ... showed no significant relationship between the presence of oral symptom and the salivary parameters. .... epithelial cells, micro-organisms and food debris.

  19. Sedative load and salivary secretion and xerostomia in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiisanoja, Antti; Syrjälä, Anna-Maija; Komulainen, Kaija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Taipale, Heidi; Knuuttila, Matti; Ylöstalo, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to investigate how sedative load and the total number of drugs used are related to hyposalivation and xerostomia among 75-year-old or older dentate, non-smoking, community-dwelling people. The study population consisted of 152 older people from the Oral Health GeMS study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical examinations during 2004-2005. Sedative load, which measures the cumulative effect of taking multiple drugs with sedative properties, was calculated using the Sedative Load Model. The results showed that participants with a sedative load of either 1-2 or ≥3 had an increased likelihood of having low stimulated salivary flow (xerostomia (OR: 2.5, CI: 0.5-12) compared with participants without a sedative load. The results showed that the association between the total number of drugs and hyposalivation was weaker than the association between sedative load and hyposalivation. Sedative load is strongly related to hyposalivation and to a lesser extent with xerostomia. The adverse effects of drugs on saliva secretion are specifically related to drugs with sedative properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Arachnids secrete a fluid over their adhesive pads.

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    Anne M Peattie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many arachnids possess adhesive pads on their feet that help them climb smooth surfaces and capture prey. Spider and gecko adhesives have converged on a branched, hairy structure, which theoretically allows them to adhere solely by dry (solid-solid intermolecular interactions. Indeed, the consensus in the literature is that spiders and their smooth-padded relatives, the solifugids, adhere without the aid of a secretion. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the adhesive contact zone of living spiders, solifugids and mites using interference reflection microscopy, which allows the detection of thin liquid films. Like insects, all the arachnids we studied left behind hydrophobic fluid footprints on glass (mean refractive index: 1.48-1.50; contact angle: 3.7-11.2°. Fluid was not always secreted continuously, suggesting that pads can function in both wet and dry modes. We measured the attachment forces of single adhesive setae from tarantulas (Grammostola rosea by attaching them to a bending beam with a known spring constant and filming the resulting deflection. Individual spider setae showed a lower static friction at rest (26%±2.8 SE of the peak friction than single gecko setae (Thecadactylus rapicauda; 96%±1.7 SE. This may be explained by the fact that spider setae continued to release fluid after isolation from the animal, lubricating the contact zone. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding implies that tarsal secretions occur within all major groups of terrestrial arthropods with adhesive pads. The presence of liquid in an adhesive contact zone has important consequences for attachment performance, improving adhesion to rough surfaces and introducing rate-dependent effects. Our results leave geckos and anoles as the only known representatives of truly dry adhesive pads in nature. Engineers seeking biological inspiration for synthetic adhesives should consider whether model species with fluid secretions are appropriate to their

  1. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2018-04-02

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  2. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain: the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdeladhim

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi-a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions-is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains.A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species.Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

  3. Effect of soft drinks on proximal plaque pH at normal and low salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Lingström, Peter; Birkhed, Dowen

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of drinks on plaque pH during normal and drug-induced low salivary secretion rates. Three drinks were tested in 10 healthy adult subjects: 1) Coca-Cola regular, 2) Coca-Cola light, and 3) fresh orange juice. pH was measured in the maxillary incisor and premolar region with the microtouch method. The area under the pH curve (AUC) was calculated. During normal salivary condition, mouth-rinsing with Coca-Cola regular resulted in a slightly more pronounced drop in pH during the first few minutes than it did with orange juice. After this initial phase, both products showed similar and relatively slow pH recovery. Coca-Cola light also resulted in low pH values during the very first minutes, but thereafter in a rapid recovery back to baseline. During dry mouth conditions, the regular Cola drink showed a large initial drop in pH, and slightly more pronounced than for orange juice. After the initial phase, both products had a similar and slow recovery back to baseline. At most time-points, AUC was significantly greater in dry conditions compared to normal conditions for Coca-Cola regular and orange juice, but not for Coca-Cola light. Coca-Cola light generally showed a significantly smaller AUC than Coca-Cola regular and orange juice. The main conclusion from this study is that a low salivary secretion rate may accentuate the fall in pH in dental plaque after gentle mouth-rinsing with soft drinks.

  4. Amblyomma americanum salivary gland homolog of nSec1 is essential for saliva protein secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Shahid; Ramakrishnan, Vijay G.; Tucker, James S.; Essenberg, Richard C.; Sauer, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins assemble in tight core complexes which promote fusion of carrier vesicles with target compartments. Members of this class of proteins are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and distributed in distinct subcellular compartments. All vesicle transport mechanisms known to date have an essential requirement for a member of the Sec1 protein family, including the nSec1 in regulated exocytosis. A homolog of nSec1 was cloned and sequenced from the salivary glands of partially fed female ticks. Double-stranded RNA was used to specifically reduce the amount of nSec1 mRNA and protein in female adult tick salivary glands. This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in anticoagulant protein release by the glands and by abnormalities in feeding by dsRNA treated ticks. We report the efficacy of double-stranded RNA-mediated interference in 'knocking down' nSec1 both in vivo and in vitro in tick salivary glands and the applicability of this technique for studying the mechanism of exocytosis in tick salivary glands

  5. The role of buffer anions and protons in secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Favaloro, E J

    1982-01-01

    1. The role of extracellular HCO3- and H+ in the formation of primary saliva and its subsequent modification by the glandular ducts has been investigated in the isolated perfused mandibular salivary gland of the rabbit. 2. Variation of extracellular HCO3- concentration between 12.5 and 50.0 mmol...

  6. Influence of age-related changes in nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus on inhibition of salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Tamada, Yoshitaka; Suwa, Fumihiko

    2008-02-01

    Age-related inhibition of salivary secretion has been demonstrated in rats, and the nitric oxide (NO) present in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the medial septal area has been reported to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of salivary secretion. In the present study, we investigated the age-related changes occurring in the NO synthase (NOS)-expressing neurons in the SON, which is related to the production of NO, and discussed the interrelation between the age-related changes in the NOS-expressing neurons and the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion. Nissl staining and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry were performed for young adult and aged rats. Quantitative analysis was also performed using the Nissl-stained and NADPH-d-positive neurons. Although the numbers of the Nissl-stained neurons did not change, significant age-related increases were detected in cell number, cell size and reactive density of the NADPH-d-positive neurons. Therefore, the production of NO in the SON neurons increased with age. We concluded that the age-related increase in the NO in the SON might be a factor that contributes to the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion.

  7. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin in Early Life: Diverse Roles in Amniotic Fluid and in the Infant Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichhardt, M.P.; Jarva, H.; Been, de M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Quintana, E.J.; Loimaranta, V.; Vos, de W.M.; Meri, S.

    2014-01-01

    The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340 and dmbt1, is an antimicrobial and inflammation-regulating molecule located at the mucosal surfaces. The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces

  8. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion

  9. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashi Raj Bhattarai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD, a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5 and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  10. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeine Inhibits Fluid Secretion by Interlobular Ducts From Guinea Pig Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimaru, Yuka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Nakakuki, Miyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Taniguchi, Ituka; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Caffeine is contained in coffee, tea, and numerous beverages and foods. We examined the direct effects of caffeine on the physiological function of pancreatic duct cells by using interlobular duct segments isolated from guinea pig pancreas. The rate of fluid secretion was continuously measured by monitoring the luminal volume of isolated duct segments. Changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]i) were estimated by microfluorometry in ducts loaded with Fura-2. Both secretin-stimulated and acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated fluid secretions were substantially and reversibly inhibited by relatively low concentrations of caffeine as low as 0.03 mM relevant to blood levels after ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages. Caffeine inhibited ACh-induced elevation of [Ca]i and secretin-induced fluctuation of [Ca]i. Caffeine abolished thapsigargin-induced intracellular Ca release but did not affect the entry of extracellular Ca. Caffeine (0.05 mM) abolished ethanol (1 mM)-induced fluid hypersecretion in secretin-stimulated pancreatic duct. Low concentrations of caffeine directly inhibit pancreatic ductal fluid secretion stimulated by secretin or ACh and also ethanol-induced fluid hypersecretion. The inhibition by caffeine seems to be mediated by the blockade of intracellular Ca mobilization. Daily intake of caffeine may reduce the volume of pancreatic juice secretion.

  12. The mechanism of fluid secretion in the rabbit pancreas studied by means of various inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, G A; Van Nooy, I G; De Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1984-12-05

    In order to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pancreatic fluid secretion we have studied the effects of various transport inhibitors on this process in the isolated rabbit pancreas. In this preparation, a high rate of unstimulated fluid secretion occurs, which probably originates from the ductular cells. Inhibitory are ouabain, furosemide, bumetanide, piretanide, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and acetazolamide, with their half-inhibitory concentrations: 2 X 10(-6) M (ouabain), 1.3 X 10(-3) M (furosemide), 2.2 X 10(-3) M (bumetanide and piretanide) and 1.4 X 10(-4) M (SITS). With acetazolamide a maximal inhibition of only 20% is found at 10(-3) M. Amiloride (10(-3) M) has no effect on pancreatic fluid secretion. The inhibitory effects on HCO-3 output are always larger and those on Cl- output lower than those on fluid secretion. The results suggest that the ouabain-sensitive (Na+ + K+)-ATPase system provides the energy for a Na+-gradient-driven Cl--HCO-3-exchange transport system, sensitive to the loop diuretics furosemide, bumetanide and piretanide and to SITS. This system would drive the transcellular transport of HCO-3 and secondarily that of cations, Cl- and water.

  13. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  14. Evaluation of anxiety and salivary chromogranin a secretion in women receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki-Nakamura, Kaori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Nasu-Izumi, Sachiko; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the anxiety and salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a biomarker of the stress response, in outpatients receiving breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) to the whole breast. Fifty consecutive patients who received whole-breast RT were enrolled in this study. The anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of RT (baseline), 30 Gy, completion of RT, and 1 and 3 months after RT. Salivary CgA levels were also measured at the same time. The mean state anxiety score for all patients was 46.16 with a standard error (SE) of 1.57 at the beginning of RT (baseline) which continued to decline during and after RT. It reached its lowest score with 36.34±1.56 at 3 months after RT (p<0.0001). The mean trait anxiety score for all patients was 43.10±1.54 at baseline and remained constant during RT but began to decline after completion of RT and reached a low level at 3 months after RT (p=0.0021). The mean salivary CgA concentration for all patients demonstrated no consistent trends over time, but at 30 Gy the concentration showed a significant decreasing pattern (p=0.0473). Salivary CgA concentrations and state anxiety and trait anxiety scores at all time points showed no correlation. The mean anxiety scores measured by State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) showed no positive correlation with salivary CgA concentration for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery. (author)

  15. Role of the Enteric Nervous System in the Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion of Rotavirus Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ove; Peregrin, Attila Timar; Persson, Kjell; Kordasti, Shirin; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Svensson, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the intestinal fluid loss in rotavirus diarrhea, which often afflicts children in developing countries, is not known. One hypothesis is that the rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the nervous system in the intestinal wall, the enteric nervous system (ENS). Four different drugs that inhibit ENS functions were used to obtain experimental evidence for this hypothesis in mice in vitro and in vivo. The involvement of the ENS in rotavirus diarrhea indicates potential sites of action for drugs in the treatment of the disease.

  16. Ductal Mucus Obstruction and Reduced Fluid Secretion Are Early Defects in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Balázs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Defective mucus production in the pancreas may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of chronic pancreatitis (CP, therefore we aimed to (i investigate the qualitative and quantitative changes of mucus both in human CP and in an experimental pancreatitis model and (ii to correlate the mucus phenotype with epithelial ion transport function.Design: Utilizing human tissue samples and a murine model of cerulein induced CP we measured pancreatic ductal mucus content by morphometric analysis and the relative expression of different mucins in health and disease. Pancreatic fluid secretion in CP model was measured in vivo by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP and in vitro on cultured pancreatic ducts. Time-changes of ductal secretory function were correlated to those of the mucin production.Results: We demonstrate increased mucus content in the small pancreatic ducts in CP. Secretory mucins MUC6 and MUC5B were upregulated in human, Muc6 in mouse CP. In vivo and in vitro fluid secretion was decreased in cerulein-induced CP. Analysis of time-course changes showed that impaired ductal ion transport is paralleled by increased Muc6 expression.Conclusion: Mucus accumulation in the small ducts is a combined effect of mucus hypersecretion and epithelial fluid secretion defect, which may lead to ductal obstruction. These results suggest that imbalance of mucus homeostasis may have an important role in the early-phase development of CP, which may have novel diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  17. Secreted pitfall-trap fluid of carnivorous Nepenthes plants is unsuitable for microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Franziska; Rott, Matthias; Rottloff, Sandy; Paetz, Christian; Hilke, Ines; Raessler, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes possess modified leaves that form pitfall traps in order to capture prey, mainly arthropods, to make additional nutrients available for the plant. These pitchers contain a digestive fluid due to the presence of hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, the composition of the digestive fluid was further analysed with regard to mineral nutrients and low molecular-weight compounds. A potential contribution of microbes to the composition of pitcher fluid was investigated. Fluids from closed pitchers were harvested and analysed for mineral nutrients using analytical techniques based on ion-chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Secondary metabolites were identified by a combination of LC-MS and NMR. The presence of bacteria in the pitcher fluid was investigated by PCR of 16S-rRNA genes. Growth analyses of bacteria and yeast were performed in vitro with harvested pitcher fluid and in vivo within pitchers with injected microbes. The pitcher fluid from closed pitchers was found to be primarily an approx. 25-mm KCl solution, which is free of bacteria and unsuitable for microbial growth probably due to the lack of essential mineral nutrients such as phosphate and inorganic nitrogen. The fluid also contained antimicrobial naphthoquinones, plumbagin and 7-methyl-juglone, and defensive proteins such as the thaumatin-like protein. Challenging with bacteria or yeast caused bactericide as well as fungistatic properties in the fluid. Our results reveal that Nepenthes pitcher fluids represent a dynamic system that is able to react to the presence of microbes. The secreted liquid of closed and freshly opened Nepenthes pitchers is exclusively plant-derived. It is unsuitable to serve as an environment for microbial growth. Thus, Nepenthes plants can avoid and control, at least to some extent, the microbial colonization of their pitfall traps and, thereby, reduce the need to vie with microbes for the prey

  18. Relationship Between Meditation Depth and Waking Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Long-Term MBSR Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wirth, Michael D; Robb, Sara Wagner

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize sympathetic activity by using waking salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) concentrations in a group of long-term meditation instructors and to examine the association between meditation (depth, dose and duration) and the waking alpha-amylase response. Salivary alpha-amylase samples were collected (immediately upon waking and at 15-min, 30-min and 45-min intervals after waking) from mindfulness-based stress reduction instructors to determine both the area under the curve and the awakening slope (difference in alpha-amylase concentrations between waking and 30-min post-waking). It was determined through general linear models that neither years of meditation nor meditation dose were associated with the awakening sAA slope, but higher scores for meditation depth (greater depth) was associated with a more negative (or steeper) awakening slope [Quartile (Q)1: -7 versus Q4: -21 U/mL; p = 0.06], in fully adjusted models. Older age (p = 0.04) and a later time of waking (p meditate more deeply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bottom-up assembly of salivary gland microtissues for assessing myoepithelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Srinivasan, Padma Pradeepa; Zakheim, Daniel R; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Jia, Xinqiao; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati

    2017-10-01

    Myoepithelial cells are flat, stellate cells present in exocrine tissues including the salivary glands. While myoepithelial cells have been studied extensively in mammary and lacrimal gland tissues, less is known of the function of myoepithelial cells derived from human salivary glands. Several groups have isolated tumorigenic myoepithelial cells from cancer specimens, however, only one report has demonstrated isolation of normal human salivary myoepithelial cells needed for use in salivary gland tissue engineering applications. Establishing a functional organoid model consisting of myoepithelial and secretory acinar cells is therefore necessary for understanding the coordinated action of these two cell types in unidirectional fluid secretion. Here, we developed a bottom-up approach for generating salivary gland microtissues using primary human salivary myoepithelial cells (hSMECs) and stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs) isolated from normal salivary gland tissues. Phenotypic characterization of isolated hSMECs confirmed that a myoepithelial cell phenotype consistent with that from other exocrine tissues was maintained over multiple passages of culture. Additionally, hSMECs secreted basement membrane proteins, expressed adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter receptors, and released intracellular calcium [Ca 2+ i ] in response to parasympathetic agonists. In a collagen I contractility assay, activation of contractile machinery was observed in isolated hSMECs treated with parasympathetic agonists. Recombination of hSMECs with assembled hS/PC spheroids in a microwell system was used to create microtissues resembling secretory complexes of the salivary gland. We conclude that the engineered salivary gland microtissue complexes provide a physiologically relevant model for both mechanistic studies and as a building block for the successful engineering of the salivary gland for restoration of salivary function in patients suffering from hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017

  20. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed

  1. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  2. Studies on the mechanism of action of enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion in the gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirgi-Degen, A.

    1992-12-01

    The mechanism of action of Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A (CA), of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (STa) and of cholera toxin (CT), which are known to cause severe diarrhea, were studied in a preparation of ligated jejunal loops of anesthetized rats in vivo. The toxins were administered intraluminally. Pharmacological agents, which were tested for their potency to influence toxin-related effects, were administered subcutaneously. Net fluid transport was determined gravimetrically, prostaglandin (PG) E 2 -output into the lumen, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) contents in the mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay, serotonin-(5-HT)-output into the lumen was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The histopathological effects of CA and CT were examined by light- and scanning electron microscopy. All three toxins caused net fluid secretion (FS). 5-HT 2 -(ketanserin) and 5-HT 3 -receptor antagonists (tropisetron, ondansetron, granisetron) dose-dependently reduced or abolished CT- and STa-induced net FS, CA-induced net FS was not influenced. Indomethacin reduced CA-, CT- and STa-induced net FS. Elevation of PGE 2 -output occurred after exposure to CA and CT and was reduced by indomethacin. CA caused severe histopathological lesions and also CT time-dependently caused morphological changes, which may take part in the secretory response. It is concluded that 5-HT, using both 5-HT 2 - and 5-HT 3 -receptors, mediates CT- and STa, but not CA-induced FS. PGE 2 is involved in FS caused by all three toxins. CAMP and cGMP are presumedly no causative mediators of toxin-induced FS

  3. Salivary pH, calcium, phosphorus and selected enzymes in healthy dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopetti, Ilaria; Perazzi, Anna; Badon, Tamara; Bedin, Silvia; Contiero, Barbara; Ricci, Rebecca

    2017-11-10

    Saliva in dogs, as in humans, is a complex fluid secreted by different salivary glands in the oral cavity to protect the oral mucosa and teeth. The use of saliva as a substitute for blood in diagnosing and prognosticating disease in humans is widely accepted. Salivary biochemistry has also been used as a marker for periodontal disease in humans. No studies have as yet investigated the relation between salivary biochemistry and periodontal disease in dogs, however; neither has the salivary composition of healthy dogs with no oral disease been assessed. The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview on pH distribution and a set of salivary biochemical analytes (calcium, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, lysozyme and amylase) commonly related to oral health in humans in a subset population of healthy young dogs with no periodontal disease or previous oral disease. Data were analyzed to gather salivary reference ranges for pH and each parameter and to assess a possible correlation between salivary and serum analytes. Twenty-nine adult client-owned dogs were recruited for the study. Lactate dehydrogenase and lysozyme showed higher concentrations in saliva than in serum, whereas amylase showed the contrary. Salivary biochemistry values did not differ between males and females or between non-neutered and neutered individuals. No significant correlations between salivary and serum calcium, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase and lysozyme were identified in this study. Data allowed intervals for the salivary pH and other analytes investigated to be obtained from healthy dogs with healthy oral conditions. These preliminary data can contribute to enlarge our understanding of the functional role of saliva and its relation to oral health in dogs.

  4. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  5. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  6. Comparative proteome and peptidome analysis of the cephalic fluid secreted by Arapaima gigas (Teleostei: Osteoglossidae) during and outside parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torati, Lucas S; Migaud, Hervé; Doherty, Mary K; Siwy, Justyna; Mullen, Willian; Mesquita, Pedro E C; Albalat, Amaya

    2017-01-01

    Parental investment in Arapaima gigas includes nest building and guarding, followed by a care provision when a cephalic fluid is released from the parents' head to the offspring. This fluid has presumably important functions for the offspring but so far its composition has not been characterised. In this study the proteome and peptidome of the cephalic secretion was studied in parental and non-parental fish using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and GeLC-MS/MS analyses. Multiple comparisons revealed 28 peptides were significantly different between males and parental males (PC-males), 126 between females and parental females (PC-females), 51 between males and females and 9 between PC-males and PC-females. Identification revealed peptides were produced in the inner ear (pcdh15b), eyes (tetraspanin and ppp2r3a), central nervous system (otud4, ribeye a, tjp1b and syn1) among others. A total of 422 proteins were also identified and gene ontology analysis revealed 28 secreted extracellular proteins. From these, 2 hormones (prolactin and stanniocalcin) and 12 proteins associated to immunological processes (serotransferrin, α-1-antitrypsin homolog, apolipoprotein A-I, and others) were identified. This study provides novel biochemical data on the lateral line fluid which will enable future hypotheses-driven experiments to better understand the physiological roles of the lateral line in chemical communication.

  7. Comparative proteome and peptidome analysis of the cephalic fluid secreted by Arapaima gigas (Teleostei: Osteoglossidae during and outside parental care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S Torati

    Full Text Available Parental investment in Arapaima gigas includes nest building and guarding, followed by a care provision when a cephalic fluid is released from the parents' head to the offspring. This fluid has presumably important functions for the offspring but so far its composition has not been characterised. In this study the proteome and peptidome of the cephalic secretion was studied in parental and non-parental fish using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS and GeLC-MS/MS analyses. Multiple comparisons revealed 28 peptides were significantly different between males and parental males (PC-males, 126 between females and parental females (PC-females, 51 between males and females and 9 between PC-males and PC-females. Identification revealed peptides were produced in the inner ear (pcdh15b, eyes (tetraspanin and ppp2r3a, central nervous system (otud4, ribeye a, tjp1b and syn1 among others. A total of 422 proteins were also identified and gene ontology analysis revealed 28 secreted extracellular proteins. From these, 2 hormones (prolactin and stanniocalcin and 12 proteins associated to immunological processes (serotransferrin, α-1-antitrypsin homolog, apolipoprotein A-I, and others were identified. This study provides novel biochemical data on the lateral line fluid which will enable future hypotheses-driven experiments to better understand the physiological roles of the lateral line in chemical communication.

  8. YghJ, the secreted metalloprotease of pathogenic E. coli induces hemorrhagic fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapader, Rima; Bose, Dipro; Pal, Amit

    2017-04-01

    YghJ, also known as SslE (Secreted and surface associated lipoprotein) is a cell surface associated and secreted lipoprotein harbouring M60 metalloprotease domain. Though the gene is known to be conserved among both pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates, the expression and secretion of YghJ was found to be higher among diverse E. coli pathotypes. YghJ, secreted from intestinal pathogens such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) has been demonstrated to possess mucinase activity and hence facilitates colonization of these enteric pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells. Importantly, YghJ is also reported to be secreted from extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates. In our previous study we have shown that YghJ, purified from a neonatal septicemic E. coli isolate could trigger induction of various proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. This led us to investigate the role of YghJ in causing in vivo tissue hemorrhage. In the present study, we validate the earlier in vitro finding and have showed that YghJ can cause extensive tissue damage in mouse ileum and is also able to induce significant fluid accumulation in a dose dependent manner in a mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay. Hence, our present study not only confirms the pathogenic potential of YghJ in sepsis pathophysiology but also indicates the enterotoxic ability of YghJ which makes it an important virulence determinant of intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  11. Salivary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) in the form pertechnetate ion is a relatively simple procedure, which can provide a unique and sensitive means for investigating salivary gland physiologic function and its derangements. However, salivary scintigraphy is poorly suited for the detection and characterization of masses in and around the salivary glands. Computed tomography (CT) has, therefore, largely supplanted scintigraphy for the evaluation of masses and is the method of choice because it can provide exquisite anatomic detail. Consequently, CT is more sensitive for mass detection and can also provide useful information as to whether a mass has arisen from within or from outside of a salivary gland or whether a mass is circumscribed or invasive. It also can disclose the relationship of the mass to the facial nerve and occasionally can provide histologic characterization of such masses as cysts, lipomas, and masseter muscle hypertrophy

  12. Ca²⁺-dependent K⁺ channels in exocrine salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

    2014-06-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Acetazolamide lowers intracranial pressure and modulates the cerebrospinal fluid secretion pathway in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    a maximum reduction at 55min 66±4% (P... in the amount of AQP1 (p=0.0152) and Na/K ATPase (p=0.0411) protein in the membrane fraction of the CP, but not AQP4 (p=0.0649). A single dose of acetazolamide lowers ICP and modulates the CSF secretion pathway in healthy rats - Firstly, by inhibiting the Na/K ATPase to slow the CSF production, secondly...... was collected for qPCR and western blot analysis. The effect of acetazolamide on the Na/K ATPase activity was evaluated in an in vitro assay of primary CP epithelial cells isolated from rats. Acetazolamide significantly lowered ICP within 10min of injection compared to the vehicle group (P

  14. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw P Kozak

    Full Text Available The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.

  15. Facilitation of tear fluid secretion by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the increase in tear fluid volume induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, comparative study. Twenty healthy adults (17 males and 3 females; mean age, 38.8 years) underwent topical instillation of 2 ophthalmic solutions, artificial tears in 1 eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the fellow eye, in a masked manner. The radius of curvature of the central lower tear meniscus was measured at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after instillation by use of reflective meniscometry, and subjects' self-evaluated symptoms of wetness and stinging using a visual analog scale. Changes after instillation in the radius of curvature from baseline (artificial tear group vs diquafosol group; mean ± standard error of the mean) were as follows: at 5 minutes, -0.008 ± 0.012 vs 0.045 ± 0.013; at 10 minutes, 0.001 ± 0.014 vs 0.057 ± 0.016; at 15 minutes, -0.012 ± 0.014 vs 0.037 ± 0.019; at 30 minutes, -0.010 ± 0.016 vs 0.030 ± 0.025; and at 60 minutes, -0.029 ± 0.012 vs -0.020 ± 0.012. The diquafosol group showed significantly greater values from 5 to 30 minutes after instillation. Of the 40 eyes, 13 showed abnormal tear film breakup time (≤5 seconds). The diquafosol group had significantly more wetness at 15 minutes after instillation than did the artificial tear group. Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases tear fluid on the ocular surface for up to 30 minutes in normal human eyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  17. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular....../l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities...

  18. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic ODK-0901 test for detection of pneumococcal antigen in middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneki Hotomi

    Full Text Available Since the incidence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing at an astonishing rate throughout the world, the need for accurate and rapid identification of pneumococci has become increasingly important to determine the appropriate antimicrobial treatment. We have evaluated an immunochromatographic test (ODK-0901 that detects pneumococcal antigens using 264 middle ear fluids (MEFs and 268 nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs. A sample was defined to contain S. pneumoniae when optochin and bile sensitive alpha hemolytic streptococcal colonies were isolated by culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the ODK-0901 test were 81.4% and 80.5%, respectively, for MEFs from patients with acute otitis media (AOM. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 88.8%, respectively, for NPSs from patients with acute rhinosinusitis. The ODK-0901 test may provide a rapid and highly sensitive evaluation of the presence of S. pneumoniae and thus may be a promising method of identifying pneumococci in MEFs and NPSs.

  19. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  20. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  1. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was inject...

  2. Hypercapnia modulates cAMP signalling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid secretion in airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark J.; Saint‐Criq, Vinciane; Patel, Waseema; Ibrahim, Salam H.; Verdon, Bernard; Ward, Christopher; Garnett, James P.; Tarran, Robert; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Raised arterial blood CO2 (hypercapnia) is a feature of many lung diseases.CO2 has been shown to act as a cell signalling molecule in human cells, notably by influencing the levels of cell signalling second messengers: cAMP and Ca2+.Hypercapnia reduced cAMP‐stimulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator‐dependent anion and fluid transport in Calu‐3 cells and primary human airway epithelia but did not affect cAMP‐regulated HCO3 − transport via pendrin or Na+/HCO3 − cotransporters.These results further support the role of CO2 as a cell signalling molecule and suggests CO2‐induced reductions in airway anion and fluid transport may impair innate defence mechanisms of the lungs. Abstract Hypercapnia is clinically defined as an arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 of above 40 mmHg and is a feature of chronic lung disease. In previous studies we have demonstrated that hypercapnia modulates agonist‐stimulated cAMP levels through effects on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activity. In the airways, cAMP is known to regulate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)‐mediated anion and fluid secretion, which contributes to airway surface liquid homeostasis. The aim of the current work was to investigate if hypercapnia could modulate cAMP‐regulated ion and fluid transport in human airway epithelial cells. We found that acute exposure to hypercapnia significantly reduced forskolin‐stimulated elevations in intracellular cAMP as well as both adenosine‐ and forskolin‐stimulated increases in CFTR‐dependent transepithelial short‐circuit current, in polarised cultures of Calu‐3 human airway cells. This CO2‐induced reduction in anion secretion was not due to a decrease in HCO3 − transport given that neither a change in CFTR‐dependent HCO3 − efflux nor Na+/HCO3 − cotransporter‐dependent HCO3 − influx were CO2‐sensitive. Hypercapnia also reduced the volume of forskolin‐stimulated fluid

  3. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the rat prostate: Receptors, chloride channels, the effects of cAMP and calcium ions and implications on fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of adrenomedullin on chloride and fluid secretion in the rat prostate. The presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) in rat prostate was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with an enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on fluid secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole mount preparation of the prostate in an Ussing chamber. The results indicated that the ADM level was higher in the ventral than the dorso-lateral prostate and the major molecular species was the active peptide. ADM increased the short-circuit current through both the cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels in the ventral lobe, but only through the calcium-activated channels in the dorso-lateral lobe. These stimulatory effects were blocked by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. We conclude that ADM may regulate prostatic fluid secretion through the chloride channels, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the spermatozoa and hence fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Effect of long-term smoking on salivary flow rate and salivary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Mala Singh; Navin Anand Ingle; Navpreet Kaur; Pramod Yadav; Ekta Ingle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Saliva is a complex and important body fluid which is very essential for oral health and it is the first biological fluid that is exposed to cigarette smoke, which contains numerous toxic compositions responsible for structural and functional changes in saliva. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of smoking on salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were divided into smokers and nonsmokers. Each group comprised of 35 male adul...

  5. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references

  6. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  7. Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability of Contact Lens Associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms but Induces Expression of the Virulence Associated Type III Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T.; Tam, Connie; Zhu, Lucia S.; Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. Methods P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h. Biofilms were imaged using confocal microscopy. Bacterial culturability was quantified by viable counts, and T3SS gene expression measured by RT-qPCR. Controls included trypticase soy broth, PBS and planktonic bacteria. Results With or without tear fluid, biofilms grew to ~108 cfu viable bacteria by 24 h. Exposing biofilms to tear fluid after they had formed without it on lenses reduced bacterial culturability ~180-fold (pbacteria [5.46 ± 0.24-fold for T3SS transcriptional activitor exsA (p=.02), and 3.76 ± 0.36-fold for T3SS effector toxin exoS (p=.01)]. Tear fluid further enhanced exsA and exoS expression in CL-grown biofilms, but not planktonic bacteria, by 2.09 ± 0.38-fold (p = 0.04) and 1.89 ± 0.26-fold (p<.001), respectively. Conclusions Considering the pivitol role of the T3SS in P. aeruginosa infections, its induction in CL-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms by tear fluid might contribute to the pathogenesis of CL-related P. aeruginosa keratitis. PMID:27670247

  8. Salivary factors in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, K M; Knuuttila, M L; Käär, M L

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemia in IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) could interfere with salivary secretion rates, salivary glucose levels, and salivary microbial counts, we studied salivary factors in two groups of children and adolescents with IDDM. One study group included 14 children with newly diagnosed IDDM )mean age 11 years, SD +/- 2.4 years). Samples of saliva were collected on admission to hospital and after 2 weeks on insulin treatment. The other study group were 50 IDDM children (mean age 14.4 years, SD +/- 1.7 years, mean duration of diabetes 6.2 years, SD +/- 1.4 years) visiting the outpatient diabetic clinic. Samples of saliva were collected during two visits, approximately 3 months apart. In the newly diagnosed IDDM cases, mean salivary glucose level decreased from 54.1 +/- 31.7 mg/l to 35.2 +/- 29.5 mg/l (P = 0.096) after beginning insulin treatment. During hyperglycemia, salivary glucose levels correlated with mean blood glucose levels for the day concerned (r = 0.65, P salivary glucose levels. Stimulated saliva secretion increased significantly from 5.4 +/- 3.3 ml/5 min to 7.3 +/- 2.6 ml/5 min (P salivary flow rates and salivary glucose levels were not significantly related to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) values. Salivary glucose levels and salivary secretion rates were inversely correlated (P salivary secretion and high salivary glucose levels. As a consequence, salivary lactobacilli and yeast counts tended to increase.

  9. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  10. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of

  11. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1 st , 20 th and 40 th min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation

  12. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  13. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  14. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  15. New saliva secretion model based on the expression of Na+-K+ pump and K+ channels in the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almássy, János; Siguenza, Elias; Skaliczki, Marianna; Matesz, Klara; Sneyd, James; Yule, David I; Nánási, Péter P

    2018-04-01

    The plasma membrane of parotid acinar cells is functionally divided into apical and basolateral regions. According to the current model, fluid secretion is driven by transepithelial ion gradient, which facilitates water movement by osmosis into the acinar lumen from the interstitium. The osmotic gradient is created by the apical Cl - efflux and the subsequent paracellular Na + transport. In this model, the Na + -K + pump is located exclusively in the basolateral membrane and has essential role in salivary secretion, since the driving force for Cl - transport via basolateral Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is generated by the Na + -K + pump. In addition, the continuous electrochemical gradient for Cl - flow during acinar cell stimulation is maintained by the basolateral K + efflux. However, using a combination of single-cell electrophysiology and Ca 2+ -imaging, we demonstrate that photolysis of Ca 2+ close to the apical membrane of parotid acinar cells triggered significant K + current, indicating that a substantial amount of K + is secreted into the lumen during stimulation. Nevertheless, the K + content of the primary saliva is relatively low, suggesting that K + might be reabsorbed through the apical membrane. Therefore, we investigated the localization of Na + -K + pumps in acinar cells. We show that the pumps appear evenly distributed throughout the whole plasma membrane, including the apical pole of the cell. Based on these results, a new mathematical model of salivary fluid secretion is presented, where the pump reabsorbs K + from and secretes Na + to the lumen, which can partially supplement the paracellular Na + pathway.

  16. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladt, T Moritz; Nordmann, Gregory C; Emilius, Roman; Kudielka, Brigitte M; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT) concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures). Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  18. Effect of masticatory stimulation on the quantity and quality of saliva and the salivary metabolomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Okuma

    Full Text Available This study characterized the changes in quality and quantity of saliva, and changes in the salivary metabolomic profile, to understand the effects of masticatory stimulation.Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 55 subjects and salivary hydrophilic metabolites were comprehensively quantified using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.In total, 137 metabolites were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 44 metabolites in stimulated saliva were significantly higher than those in unstimulated saliva. Pathway analysis identified the upregulation of the urea cycle and synthesis and degradation pathways of glycine, serine, cysteine and threonine in stimulated saliva. A principal component analysis revealed that the effect of masticatory stimulation on salivary metabolomic profiles was less dependent on sample population sex, age, and smoking. The concentrations of only 1 metabolite in unstimulated saliva, and of 3 metabolites stimulated saliva, showed significant correlation with salivary secretion volume, indicating that the salivary metabolomic profile and salivary secretion volume were independent factors.Masticatory stimulation affected not only salivary secretion volume, but also metabolite concentration patterns. A low correlation between the secretion volume and these patterns supports the conclusion that the salivary metabolomic profile may be a new indicator to characterize masticatory stimulation.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea as a complication of ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in a patient with morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar'ya Viktorovna Petrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease (CD is a progressive neuroendocrine disease caused by a pituitary tumor producing excessive amounts of ACTH. In most cases (80-85% the cause of the disease is a pituitary corticotroph microadenomas (located within the sella, measuring 3–10 mm, rarely multiple microadenomas and only 15% of cases are presented as corticotroph hyperplasia or pituitary macroadenoma extending beyond the sella. The macroadenomas in CD usually extend suprasellar (10%, infrasellar tumor growth is relatively rare (5%. If the clinical picture is subtle, the symptoms are caused by the development "mass effect" of the tumor as it propagates to the surrounding pituitary structures. Suprasellar growth leads to compression of the optic chiasm with narrowing of visual fields, infrasellar growth destructs the bottom of the sella turcica and may cause nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak, which is dangerous due depressurization of the cranial cavity and its communication with environmental pathogens, development of life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis. Leading life-threatening complications of the CD are infectious and cardiovascular. But in the case of nasal liquorrhea with expansion of the tumor in sphenoid sinus with destruction of the bottom of the sella, there is an immediate threat to the life of the patient. This article presents an example of a patient with morbid obesity and lack of specific clinical manifestations of CD, in whom the diagnosis of disease CD was made on the results of laboratory and instrumental examination, which experienced a spontaneous nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  20. Decreased salivary sulphotransferase activity correlated with inflammation and autoimmunity parameters in Sjogren's syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Isabel; Aguilera, Sergio; Brockhausen, Inka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expression and enzymatic activities of sulphotransferases involved in mucin hyposulphation in labial salivary glands (LSGs) from SS patients and to correlate sulphotransferase activity with clinical parameters such as secretion, inflammation and serology....

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Dewi; Nasution, Abdillah Imron; Surbakti, Mutiara Rizki Wardarni; Gani, Basri A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involvin...

  3. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side

  4. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  5. Salivary enzymes are injected into xylem by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Andrews, Kim B; Shugart, Holly J; Carl Greve, L; Labavitch, John M; Alhaddad, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    A few phytophagous hemipteran species such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, (Germar), subsist entirely on xylem fluid. Although poorly understood, aspects of the insect's salivary physiology may facilitate both xylem-feeding and transmission of plant pathogens. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grape and other scorch diseases in many important crops. X. fastidiosa colonizes the anterior foregut (precibarium and cibarium) of H. vitripennis and other xylem-feeding vectors. Bacteria form a dense biofilm anchored in part by an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix that is reported to have a β-1,4-glucan backbone. Recently published evidence supports the following, salivation-egestion hypothesis for the inoculation of X. fastidiosa during vector feeding. The insect secretes saliva into the plant and then rapidly takes up a mixture of saliva and plant constituents. During turbulent fluid movements in the precibarium, the bacteria may become mechanically and enzymatically dislodged; the mixture is then egested back out through the stylets into plant cells, possibly including xylem vessels. The present study found that proteins extracted from dissected H. vitripennis salivary glands contain several enzyme activities capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides such as those found in EPS and plant cell walls, based on current information about the structures of those polysaccharides. One of these enzymes, a β-1,4-endoglucanase (EGase) was enriched in the salivary gland protein extract by subjecting the extract to a few, simple purification steps. The EGase-enriched extract was then used to generate a polyclonal antiserum that was used for immunohistochemical imaging of enzymes in sharpshooter salivary sheaths in grape. Results showed that enzyme-containing gelling saliva is injected into xylem vessels during sharpshooter feeding, in one case being carried by the transpiration stream away

  6. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  7. CCR6+ Th cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with multiple sclerosis are dominated by pathogenic non-classic Th1 cells and GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restorick, S M; Durant, L; Kalra, S; Hassan-Smith, G; Rathbone, E; Douglas, M R; Curnow, S J

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to CCR6 + IL-17-secreting CD4 + T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells. However, the relatively low frequency of Th17 cells suggests they cannot by themselves account for the high percentage of CCR6 + cells in MS CSF. Here we identify the dominant CCR6 + T cell subsets in both the blood and CSF as non-classic Th1 cells, including many that secrete GM-CSF, a key encephalitogenic cytokine. In addition, we show that Th cells secreting GM-CSF but not IFNγ or IL-17, a subset termed GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells, also accumulate in the CSF. Importantly, in MS the proportion of IFNγ- and GM-CSF-secreting T cells expressing CCR6 was significantly enriched in the CSF, and was elevated in MS, suggesting these cells play a pathogenic role in this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring salivary flow function by 99mTc-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji.

    1995-01-01

    In a series of 115 subjects with various oral symptoms, salivary flow function was evaluated quantitatively by 99m Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. For data processing, four regions of interest (ROI were drawn over the parotid and submandibular glands. A time-activity curve was plotted for each ROI. The uptake rate and the secretion rate expressed as a percentage, were obtained from data that were subtracted by an additional ROI over the front used as background. Rates were calculated from a sample of the dose solution scanned under identical conditions, with the peak of the curve at rest and the bottom of the curve at stimuli. The uptake rates in the parotid and submandibular glands were equal. The number of cases showing that the secretion rate of the parotid gland was higher than that of the submandibular gland was three times the number of cases in which the secretion rate was higher in the submandibular gland. The uptake rate and the secretion rate of the parotid gland decreased gradually with age, but in the submandibular gland, neither rate changed with age. The uptake rate and the secretion rate in Sjoegren's syndrome was significantly lower than those of other cases. In a significant number of cases, the side with a higher uptake rate in the parotid gland also showed a higher rate in the submandibular gland on the same side. This appears to suggest that a phase of salivary flow of the unilateral parotid gland synchronized with that of the ipsilateral submandibular gland. Our method of analysing salivary flow function appeared not only to show the same dynamics of salivary flow as previous reports showed, but also demonstrates the details of salivary flow dynamics. (author)

  9. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll-Palomares, C; Muñoz Montagud, J V; Sanchiz, V; Herreros, B; Hernández, V; Mínguez, M; Benages, A

    2004-11-01

    To assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). A prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. In healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  10. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  11. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in murine epididymis: secretion of splice variants in the luminal fluid and a role in sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramkrishna; Al-Dossary, Amal A; Stabley, Deborah L; Barone, Carol; Galileo, Deni S; Strehler, Emanuel E; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2013-07-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 (PMCA4) is the primary Ca(2+) efflux pump in murine sperm, where it regulates motility. In Pmca4 null sperm, motility loss results in infertility. We have shown that murine sperm PMCA4b interacts with Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent serine kinase (CASK) in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis and motility. However, recent work indicated that the bovine PMCA4a splice variant (missing in testis) is epididymally expressed, along with 4b, and may be transferred to sperm. Here we show, via conventional and in situ RT-PCR, that both the splice variants of Pmca4 mRNA are expressed in murine testis and throughout the epididymis. Immunofluorescence localized PMCA4a to the apical membrane of the epididymal epithelium, and Western analysis not only confirmed its presence but showed for the first time that PMCA4a and PMCA4b are secreted in the epididymal luminal fluid (ELF), from which epididymosomes containing PMCA4a were isolated. Flow cytometry indicated the presence of PMCA4a on mature caudal sperm where it was increased ~5-fold compared to caput sperm (detected by Western blotting) and ~2-fold after incubation in ELF, revealing in vitro uptake and implicating PMCA4a in epididymal sperm maturation. Coimmunoprecipitation using pan-PMCA4 antibodies, revealed that both variants associate with CASK, suggesting their presence in a complex. Because they have different kinetic properties for Ca(2+) transport and different abilities to bind to CASK, our study suggests a mechanism for combining the functional attributes of both PMCA4 variants, leading to heightened efficiency of the pump in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis, which is crucial for normal motility and male fertility.

  12. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  13. Effect of long-term smoking on salivary flow rate and salivary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saliva is a complex and important body fluid which is very essential for oral health and it is the first biological fluid that is exposed to cigarette smoke, which contains numerous toxic compositions responsible for structural and functional changes in saliva. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of smoking on salivary flow rate (SFR and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were divided into smokers and nonsmokers. Each group comprised of 35 male adults. The saliva of each subject was collected under resting conditions. They were asked to spit in a graduated container at an interval of 60 s for 5 min. Salivary pH was measured immediately after measuring SFR using the (Indikrom Paper pH indicator and calibrated cylinder. Based on the color change of the indicator paper strip, the pH was assessed in comparison with a color chart. Data were analyzed by Student′s t-test using SPSS 15. Results: The mean (±standard deviation SFR and pH were 0.20 (±0.05 ml/min and 6.30 (±0.36 respectively in smokers while the mean SFR and pH were 0.36 (±0.06 ml/min and 7.10 (±0.24 in nonsmokers. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00. Conclusion: Long-term smoking significantly reduces the SFR and salivary pH.

  14. Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein in salivary glands: potential involvement in the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Silva, R; Freitas, H S; Lamers, M L; Okamoto, M M; Santos, M F; Machado, U F

    2009-03-01

    Oral health complications in diabetes include decreased salivary secretion. The SLC5A1 gene encodes the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein, which not only transports glucose, but also acts as a water channel. Since SLC5A1 expression is altered in kidneys of diabetic subjects, we hypothesize that it could also be altered in salivary glands, contributing to diabetic dysfunction. The present study shows a diabetes-induced decrease (p salivary secretion, which was accompanied by enhanced (p diabetic rats revealed that SGLT1 protein expression increased in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which can stimulate water reabsorption from primary saliva. Furthermore, SGLT1 protein was reduced in myoepithelial cells of the parotid from diabetic animals, and that, by reducing cellular contractile activity, might also be related to reduced salivary flux. Six-day insulin-treated diabetic rats reversed all alterations. In conclusion, diabetes increases SLC5A1 gene expression in salivary glands, increasing the SGLT1 protein content in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which, by increasing water reabsorption, might explain the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary secretion.

  15. Duration of wound fluid secretion from chronic venous leg ulcers is critical for interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 levels and fibroblast activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillmer, Rikke; Trøstrup, Hannah; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Wound fluid collected from chronic wounds may be used as a simple gauge of the processes taking place in the tissue. There is lack of information on the optimal conditions for wound fluid procurement. We have studied possible diurnal variations and duration of wound fluid accumulation using reten...

  16. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D; Siefert, Joseph C; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Pinson, David M; Moore, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈) 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  17. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2. We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice.Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation.Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  19. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  1. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J.; Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F.; Frikha, M.

    2011-01-01

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  2. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids....

  4. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  5. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  6. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  7. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  8. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  9. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  10. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  11. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  12. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  13. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Saputri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involving 40 male smokers. Before participating, they filled a questionnaire related to the history of their smoking habit. Using a spitting method for 5 minutes their saliva was collected. Results: Result of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking intensity and salivary flow rate of those smokers (r = -0.486 and p0.512. There was no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and salivary pH of those smokers (r = -0.216, p>0.181. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary pH of those smokers (r= 0.686, p<0.00,. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the intensity of smoking with salivary flow rate and its pH. However, there is no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and both salivary flow rate as well as salivary pH.

  14. [Anatomy and histology of salivary glands of Triatominae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, D

    1999-01-01

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.

  15. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal...... person, n = 12, total number of samples, n = 60). Salivary microbiota was analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons...

  16. Salivary flow and xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Carinci, Francesco; Lucchese, Alberta; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Saliva is secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. There are a number of physiological factors that can reduce this secretion such as age, sex, body weight, number of teeth present in the mouth or time of day. This decrease may also be caused by the use of certain drugs, radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, chronic rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and other systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type 2 DM on salivary secretion and its relation to the sensation of xerostomia. Forty-seven patients with type 2 DM and 46 healthy individuals, aged 40-80, participated in the study. Samples of saliva were collected, at rest and after stimulation, at baseline and after the administration of a meal. A questionnaire of 10 items was used to define the patients' sensations of xerostomia. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the difference in salivary flow between the two groups and the relationship between the response to each of the questions and salivary flow levels. The degree of the patients' sensation of xerostomia was analysed by the Fisher test. There was a significant decrease in total saliva levels at rest in patients with type 2 DM compared to the control group. The study group also experienced higher levels of dryness at night and on waking as well as a greater sensation of lingual burning compared to the control group. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicula...

  18. Estimation of salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and urea in type II diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaiy, Masoumeh; Heidari, Fatemeh; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Dehghan, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease due to insufficiency production of insulin that is associated with altered quantity and quality in salivary secretion. Alteration in saliva can reflect the changes in patients' blood. The collection of saliva is easy therefore; the assessment of saliva is suitable for screening tests of large population. The study aimed at evaluate some elements in diabetic patients' saliva. A total of 25 diabetic patients and age-sex matched control group enrolled into the study. Absorbance spectrophotometer technique was used for assessment of some salivary elements. The assessment of saliva showed that diabetics had unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.18 ± 0.14 mL/min compared to 0.30 ± 0.12 mL/min for healthy individuals (Pdiabetics compared to healthy group (Psalivary urea, potassium and phosphorus was significantly elevated in diabetic males compared to healthy males and the level of salivary calcium in diabetic females was significantly reduced compared to healthy females (Psalivary sodium of healthy and diabetic persons according to gender (P>0.05). The finding showed that there were some alterations in salivary elements in diabetic patients even in well-controlled subjects compared to healthy group. Moreover, some salivary elements concentrations were various in diabetic and healthy subjects regarding to the sex. Assessment of salivary composition could be beneficial in oral health evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  20. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI and its relation to salivary flow rate and buffer capacity in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Jyrki; Laine, Merja; Parkkila, Seppo; Rajaniemi, Hannu

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that pregnancy may have unfavourable effects on oral health. The pH and buffer capacity (BC) of paraffin-stimulated saliva, for example, have been found to decrease towards late pregnancy. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) probably protects the teeth by accelerating the neutralization of hydrogen ions in the enamel pellicle on dental surfaces. Since estrogens and androgens are known to regulate CA expression in some tissues, we studied here whether salivary CA VI concentration shows pregnancy-related changes. Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from nine pregnant women 1 month before delivery and about 2 months afterwards and assayed for salivary CA VI concentration, BC and flow rate. The enzyme concentration was determined using a specific time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. The control group consisted of 17 healthy non-pregnant women. The results indicated that salivary CA VI levels varied markedly among individuals, but no significant differences in mean concentrations were seen between the samples collected during late pregnancy and postpartum. BC values were lower during pregnancy, however. Our findings suggest that CA VI secretion is not significantly affected by the hormonal alterations associated with pregnancy, and confirm the earlier reports that CA VI is not involved in the regulation of actual salivary BC.

  1. Some secrets of fluorescent proteins: distinct bleaching in various mounting fluids and photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at YFP-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Naila; Schmid, Johannes A

    2011-04-07

    The use of spectrally distinct variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) such as cyan or yellow mutants (CFP and YFP, respectively) is very common in all different fields of life sciences, e.g. for marking specific proteins or cells or to determine protein interactions. In the latter case, the quantum physical phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is exploited by specific microscopy techniques to visualize proximity of proteins. When we applied a commonly used FRET microscopy technique--the increase in donor (CFP)-fluorescence after bleaching of acceptor fluorophores (YFP), we obtained good signals in live cells, but very weak signals for the same samples after fixation and mounting in commercial microscopy mounting fluids. This observation could be traced back to much faster bleaching of CFP in these mounting media. Strikingly, the opposite effect of the mounting fluid was observed for YFP and also for other proteins such as Cerulean, TFP or Venus. The changes in photostability of CFP and YFP were not caused by the fixation but directly dependent on the mounting fluid. Furthermore we made the interesting observation that the CFP-fluorescence intensity increases by about 10-15% after illumination at the YFP-excitation wavelength--a phenomenon, which was also observed for Cerulean. This photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins at the YFP-excitation can cause false-positive signals in the FRET-microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of a yellow FRET acceptor. Our results show that photostability of fluorescent proteins differs significantly for various media and that CFP bleaches significantly faster in commercial mounting fluids, while the opposite is observed for YFP and some other proteins. Moreover, we show that the FRET microscopy technique that is based on bleaching of the YFP is prone to artifacts due to photoactivation of cyan fluorescent proteins under these conditions.

  2. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  3. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  4. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

    2014-12-01

    Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, M.; Cermik, T.F.; Uestuen, F.; Sen, S.; Berkarda, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99m Tc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (T max ) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (T min ), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E 5 % value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in T max , T min and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral parotid glands, and T min values for bilateral submandibular glands (p max and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in T max and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged T max and T min values, and decreased Lem E 5 % values for parotid glands and prolonged T min values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  7. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  8. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  9. Water absorption through salivary gland type I acini in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i.e., types II and III during the tick blood feeding phase. In this study, we tested the function of type I acini in unfed female Ixodes scapularis. The route of ingested water was tracked after forced feeding of water with fluorescent dye rhodamine123. We found that type-I acini of the salivary glands, but not type II and III, are responsible for water uptake. In addition, the ingestion of water through the midgut was also observed. Injection or feeding of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed water absorption in type I acini. When I. scapularis was offered a droplet of water, ticks rarely imbibed water directly (5%, while some approached the water droplet to use the high humidity formed in the vicinity of the droplet (23%. We conclude that during both on- and off-host stages, type I acini in salivary glands of female Ixodes scapularis absorb water and ions.

  10. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  11. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Arrighi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  12. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  13. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  14. Low basal salivary flow and burning mouth syndrome: new evidence in this enigmatic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Francesco; Venesia, Paolo; Azzi, Lorenzo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Costantino, Dario; Croveri, Fabio; Farronato, Davide; Tagliabue, Angelo; Tettamanti, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome remains a puzzling condition. One symptom commonly associated with the burning sensation is xerostomia. The current study measured basal and stimulated salivary flow in a group of burning mouth syndrome patients. Three groups of patients were recruited: 44 burning mouth syndrome patients, 27 oral lichen planus patients and 40 healthy patients. We chose to measure basal salivary flow and stimulated salivary flow in the three groups of patients using the 'spitting' method. Thus, the patients were asked to spit every minute for 5 min. Afterwards, they were asked to repeat the procedure a second time, but a drop of citric acid was positioned on their tongue every minute to stimulate salivary secretion. After 14 days, the same procedure was repeated for 15 min. Although there was no significant difference between the burning mouth syndrome group and the other two groups regarding the stimulated volumes, an important difference was found in the basal volumes, with the burning mouth syndrome patients showing lower values. The outcomes of our research demonstrate the presence of very low basal salivary flow in burning mouth syndrome patients compared with the other two groups, but the stimulated salivary flow was equal, if not higher, in the burning mouth syndrome patients. This study contributes new topics for further investigation of a solution to the very mysterious pathology represented by burning mouth syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dengue viruses binding proteins from Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue virus (DENV, the etiological agent of dengue fever, is transmitted to the human host during blood uptake by an infective mosquito. Infection of vector salivary glands and further injection of infectious saliva into the human host are key events of the DENV transmission cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms of DENV entry into the mosquito salivary glands have not been clearly identified. Otherwise, although it was demonstrated for other vector-transmitted pathogens that insect salivary components may interact with host immune agents and impact the establishment of infection, the role of mosquito saliva on DENV infection in human has been only poorly documented. To identify salivary gland molecules which might interact with DENV at these key steps of transmission cycle, we investigated the presence of proteins able to bind DENV in salivary gland extracts (SGE from two mosquito species. Using virus overlay protein binding assay, we detected several proteins able to bind DENV in SGE from Aedes aegypti (L. and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks. The present findings pave the way for the identification of proteins mediating DENV attachment or entry into mosquito salivary glands, and of saliva-secreted proteins those might be bound to the virus at the earliest step of human infection. The present findings might contribute to the identification of new targets for anti-dengue strategies.

  16. Bioprospection of immature salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffe, Ronaldo Roberto Tait; de Oliveira, Stefany Rodrigues; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Conte, Helio

    2018-06-08

    Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile. The salivary glands present a deferent duct, originating from the buccal cavity, which bifurcates into efferent ducts that insert through a slight dilatation to a pair of tubular-shaped tissues, united in the region of fat cells. Histologically, the secretion had protein characteristics. Cell cytoplasm presented numerous free ribosomes, autophagic vacuoles, spherical and elongated mitochondria, atypical Golgi complexes, and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the apical cytoplasm, secretory granules and microvilli secretions demonstrated intense protein synthesis, basal cytoplasm with trachea insertions, and numerous mitochondria. The present work described the ultrastructure and morphology of C. megacephala third instar salivary glands, confirming intense protein synthesis and the molecular weight of soluble proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eParnov Reichhardt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR protein SALSA, also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin (SAG and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, is a 340 kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A (SP-D and SP-A and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan binding lectin (MBL as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit C. albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement regulatory function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid-phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL.

  18. Salivary gland scintigraphy using technetium-99m-pertechnetate after autotransplantation of the submandibular salivary gland in the correction of dry eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E.; Sieg, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether salivary gland scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate is suitable for checking the vitality and function after autotransplantation of the submandibular salivary gland in patients with dry eye syndrome. To this end, 56 scintigraphic studies in 20 patients have so far been performed. In addition, these scans were evaluated by a region of interest (ROI) technique in order to examine tracer uptake in the early and late stages after surgery. We have been able to prove that in this special respect, too, the salivary gland scintigraphy is suitable for assessing reliably the vitality and function of the transplanted gland. The secretion into the eye and thus the patency of the efferent duct can also be displayed. This proved to be particularly valuable in those cases in which at first no secretion could be seen in the clinical examination. In patients with uncertain excretory function, we were able to distinguish between non-vitality and lack of patency of the secretory duct. Using ROI evaluation, no significant decrease in the salivary function has been detected in long-term follow-up, now extending to 1 year after surgery. (orig.)

  19. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  20. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  1. [Relationship between dental status and salivary microbiology in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábris, K; Nagy, G; Madléna, M; Dénes, Z; Márton, S; Keszthelyi, G; Bánóczy, J

    1998-12-01

    The authors studied caries prevalence in connection with salivary caries related findings, in 349, 14-16 years old Hungarian adolescents, living in two different cities. DMF.T, DMF-S means, stimulated salivary flow, buffer capacity, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus and Candida albicans counts in saliva were determined. The ratio of cariesfrre adolescents was 4.6% in the total population sample, DMF-T mean values were 7.24 +/- 4.86, DMF-S means 10.50 +/- 8.35. Mean secretion rate of stimulated saliva was 0.84 +/- 0.50, a low buffer capacity was found in 6.3% of the examined children. Ratio of carriers of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli and yeasts in saliva was 89.7%, 73.9% and 47.7% respectively. DMF-T and DMF-S values, as well as S. mutans counts were lower in the capital than in the other city. Statistically significant correlations were found between DMF-S, DMF mean values and salivary microbiological counts.

  2. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  3. Function of the Membrane Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in the Salivary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Susa, Taketo; Shimizu, Kinue; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Aoki, Takeo; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    The process of saliva production in the salivary glands requires transepithelial water transfer from the interstitium to the acinar lumen. There are two transepithelial pathways: the transcellular and paracellular. In the transcellular pathway, the aquaporin water channels induce passive water diffusion across the membrane lipid bilayer. It is well known that aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in the salivary glands, in which it is mainly localized at the apical membrane of the acinar cells. This suggests the physiological importance of AQP5 in transcellular water transfer. Reduced saliva secretion under pilocarpine stimulation in AQP5-null mice compared with normal mice further indicates the importance of AQP5 in this process, at least in stimulated saliva secretion. Questions remain therefore regarding the role and importance of AQP5 in basal saliva secretion. It has been speculated that there would be some short-term regulation of AQP5 such as a trafficking mechanism to regulate saliva secretion. However, no histochemical evidence of AQP5-trafficking has been found, although some of biochemical analyses suggested that it may occur. There are no reports of human disease caused by AQP5 mutations, but some studies have revealed an abnormal subcellular distribution of AQP5 in patients or animals with xerostomia caused by Sjögren’s syndrome and X-irradiation. These findings suggest the possible pathophysiological importance of AQP5 in the salivary glands

  4. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kerekes

    Full Text Available Transgenic rabbits carrying mammary gland specific gene constructs are extensively used for excreting recombinant proteins into the milk. Here, we report refined phenotyping of previously generated Venus transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by exocrine glands, such as mammary, salivary, tear and seminal glands. The Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon transgenic construct contains the Venus fluorophore cDNA, but without a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, driven by the ubiquitous CAGGS (CAG promoter. Despite the absence of a signal peptide, the fluorophore protein was readily detected in milk, tear, saliva and seminal fluids. The expression pattern was verified by Western blot analysis. Mammary gland epithelial cells of SB-CAG-Venus transgenic lactating does also showed Venus-specific expression by tissue histology and fluorescence microscopy. In summary, the SB-CAG-Venus transgenic rabbits secrete the recombinant protein by different glands. This finding has relevance not only for the understanding of the biological function of exocrine glands, but also for the design of constructs for expression of recombinant proteins in dairy animals.

  5. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Andrea; Hoffmann, Orsolya Ivett; Iski, Gergely; Lipták, Nándor; Gócza, Elen; Kues, Wilfried A; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Hiripi, László

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits carrying mammary gland specific gene constructs are extensively used for excreting recombinant proteins into the milk. Here, we report refined phenotyping of previously generated Venus transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by exocrine glands, such as mammary, salivary, tear and seminal glands. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon transgenic construct contains the Venus fluorophore cDNA, but without a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, driven by the ubiquitous CAGGS (CAG) promoter. Despite the absence of a signal peptide, the fluorophore protein was readily detected in milk, tear, saliva and seminal fluids. The expression pattern was verified by Western blot analysis. Mammary gland epithelial cells of SB-CAG-Venus transgenic lactating does also showed Venus-specific expression by tissue histology and fluorescence microscopy. In summary, the SB-CAG-Venus transgenic rabbits secrete the recombinant protein by different glands. This finding has relevance not only for the understanding of the biological function of exocrine glands, but also for the design of constructs for expression of recombinant proteins in dairy animals.

  6. SIALOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SALIVARY GLAND FUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS OUTPATIENTS OF RSUPN CIPTOMANGUNKUSUMO (A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Margaretha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between diabetic sialosis and salivary gland function has not been clearly stated. The objective of this study is to assess the association between sialosis and salivary flow rates and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty-one subjects enrolled in this cross-sectional study, consisted of 50 type 2 diabetic outpatients of RSUPN Ciptomangunkusumo (mean of age: 60,96±8,38 and 31 control subjects (mean of age: 57,03±10. Clinical examination was performed to assess sialosis. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were measured using spitting method. Saliva secretion was stimulated using 2% citric acid. Xerostomia was assessed using xerostomia questionnaire. The result showed that sialosis was found only in diabetic group, with a percentage of 28% (14 out of 50. This finding was not found in the well-controlled diabetic group The mean of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates of the diabetic patients with sialosis were lower than that of the diabetic patients without sialosis. Statistic analysis showed significant association between sialosis and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p=0,001 and between sialosis and xerostomia (p=0,005, but there was no significant association between sialosis and the decrease of unstimulated salivary flow rate, and between sialosis and xerostomia. Therefore patients with diabetic sialosis should by examined periodically to find out the possibility of salivary gland function disorder.

  7. Analysis of salivary gland transcripts of the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    The saliva of blood sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. In addition, sand fly salivary proteins affect host immunity and have the potential to be a vaccine against Leishmania infection. In the present study, the salivary gland transcripts of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes, were analyzed by sequencing randomly selected clones of the salivary gland cDNA library of this sand fly. This resulted in the identification of the most abundant transcripts coding for secreted proteins. These proteins were homologous to the salivary molecules present in other sand flies including the RGD-containing peptide, PpSP15/SL1 family protein, yellow-related protein, putative apyrase, antigen 5-related protein, D7 family protein, and 27 kDa salivary protein. Of note, homologues of maxadilan, an active vasodilator abundantly present in saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis, were not identified. This analysis is the first description of salivary proteins from a sand fly of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and from vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The present analysis will provide further insights into the evolution of salivary components in blood sucking arthropods. PMID:23000112

  8. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  9. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Jacob; Dijkstra, Rene JB; Busscher, Hendrik

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical

  10. The relationship between salivary histatin levels and oral yeast carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, A; Johnson, D A; Yeh, C K

    1998-06-01

    Candida species are common commensal inhabitants of the oral cavity. Human saliva contains antifungal proteins called histatins. We tested the hypothesis that oral yeast status is related to salivary histatin levels. Thirty subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 15) or absence (n = 15) of yeast on oral mucosa surfaces. Unstimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual and parotid saliva was collected from each subject. Salivary flow rates were measured and histatin concentrations were determined in the stimulated saliva samples. The yeast colony positive group showed lower median unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates as well as lower median concentrations of total histatins in submandibular and sublingual saliva. There was a negative correlation between yeast colony-forming units and unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and between yeast colony-forming units and submandibular and sublingual saliva histatin concentration and secretion. The results suggest that oral yeast status may be influenced by unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and by submandibular and sublingual histatin concentration and secretion.

  11. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  12. Focus on Methodology: Salivary Bioscience and Research on Adolescence: An Integrated Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A.; Fortunato, Christine K.; Beltzer, Emilie K.; Virag, Marta; Bright, Melissa A.; Out, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the salivary proteome and advances in biotechnology create an opportunity for developmental scientists to measure multi-level components of biological systems in oral fluids and identify relationships with developmental processes and behavioral and social forces. The implications for developmental science are profound…

  13. The bacteria binding glycoprotein salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp340) activates complement via the lectin pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leito, Jelani T. D.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; van Houdt, Michel; van den Berg, Timo K.; Wouters, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp-340 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1, is a glycoprotein that is present in tears, lung fluid and mucosal surfaces along the gastrointestinal tract. It is encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene, a member of the Scavenger Receptor

  14. Effects of Pilates Exercise on Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoonyoung; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

  15. Total salivary nitrates and nitrites in oral health and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Miozza, Valeria A; Delgado, Alejandra; Busch, Lucila

    2014-01-30

    It is well known that nitrites are increased in saliva from patients with periodontal disease. In the oral cavity, nitrites may derive partly from the reduction of nitrates by oral bacteria. Nitrates have been reported as a defence-related mechanism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the salivary levels of total nitrate and nitrite and their relationship, in unstimulated and stimulated saliva from periodontal healthy subjects, and from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Nitrates and nitrites were determined in saliva from thirty healthy subjects and forty-four patients with periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary nitrates and nitrites was observed. Nitrates and nitrites concentration was related to clinical attachment level (CAL). A positive and significant Pearson's correlation was found between salivary total nitrates and nitrites. Periodontal treatment induced clinical improvement and decreased nitrates and nitrites. It is concluded that salivary nitrates and nitrites increase, in patients with periodontal disease, could be related to defence mechanisms. The possibility that the salivary glands respond to oral infectious diseases by increasing nitrate secretion should be explored further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term effects of radiotherapy on taste and salivary function in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.; Shatzman, A.; Chencharick, J.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term effects of radiotherapy on taste and salivary function were studied in 13 patients treated by radiation 1-7 years previously for tumors of the head and neck. Taste function was studied quantitatively using a standard forced choice, three-stimulus-drop technique for the determination of detection and recognition thresholds and a forced-scaling technique for the determination of taste intensity reponsiveness. Parotid salivary function was quantitatively evaluated by determination of flow rate and protein secretion rate. Nine of the 13 patients studied (69%) had measurable taste loss; every patient who had radiotherapy including the parotid glands had measurable salivary dysfunction. Our results demonstrate that curative courses of radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck may result in long-term changes in taste and salivary function. From the present study, the maximum tolerance doses resulting in a 50% complication rate 5 years after treatment (TD 50/5) are estimated to be 40-65 Gy for xerostomia and 50-65 Gy for taste loss. Therefore, in a standard treatment regimen for tumors of the head and neck, with curative intent, gustatory and salivary gland tissues frequently sustain maximum tolerance injury

  17. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  18. ADVANCES IN SALIVARY GLAND GENE THERAPY – ORAL AND SYSTEMIC IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.; Alevizos, Ilias; Chiorini, John A.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Much research demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of gene transfer to salivary glands. Recently, the first clinical trial targeting a salivary gland was completed, yielding positive safety and efficacy results. Areas covered There are two major disorders affecting salivary glands; radiation damage following treatment for head and neck cancers and Sjögren’s syndrome. Salivary gland gene transfer has also been employed in preclinical studies using transgenic secretory proteins for exocrine (upper gastrointestinal tract) and endocrine (systemic) applications. Expert opinion Salivary gland gene transfer is safe and can be beneficial in humans. Applications to treat and prevent radiation damage show considerable promise. A first-in-human clinical trial for the former was recently successfully completed. Studies on Sjögren’s syndrome suffer from an inadequate understanding of its etiology. Proof of concept in animal models has been shown for exocrine and endocrine disorders. Currently, the most promising exocrine application is for the management of obesity. Endocrine applications are limited, as it is currently impossible to predict if systemically required transgenic proteins will be efficiently secreted into the bloodstream. This results from not understanding of how secretory proteins are sorted. Future studies will likely employ ultrasound assisted and pseudotyped adenoassociated viral vector-mediated gene. PMID:26149284

  19. Restoration of radiation therapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice by post therapy IGF-1 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Fillinger, Jamia L; Victory, Kerton R; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer results in severe and chronic salivary gland dysfunction in most individuals. This results in significant side effects including xerostomia, dysphagia, and malnutrition which are linked to significant reductions in patients' quality of life. Currently there are few xerostomia treatment approaches that provide long-term results without significant side effects. To address this problem we investigated the potential for post-therapeutic IGF-1 to reverse radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation and significant reductions in salivary function were confirmed 3 days after treatment. On days 4-8 after radiation, one group of mice was injected intravenously with IGF-1 while a second group served as a vehicle control. Stimulated salivary flow rates were evaluated on days 30, 60, and 90 and histological analysis was performed on days 9, 30, 60, and 90. Irradiated animals receiving vehicle injections have 40-50% reductions in stimulated salivary flow rates throughout the entire time course. Mice receiving injections of IGF-1 have improved stimulated salivary flow rates 30 days after treatment. By days 60-90, IGF-1 injected mice have restored salivary flow rates to unirradiated control mice levels. Parotid tissue sections were stained for amylase as an indicator of functioning acinar cells and significant reductions in total amylase area are detected in irradiated animals compared to unirradiated groups on all days. Post-therapeutic injections of IGF-1 results in increased amylase-positive acinar cell area and improved amylase secretion. Irradiated mice receiving IGF-1 show similar proliferation indices as untreated mice suggesting a return to tissue homeostasis. Post-therapeutic IGF-1 treatment restores salivary gland function potentially through normalization of cell proliferation and improved expression of amylase. These findings could aid in the rational design of

  20. Level of Salivary Uric Acid in Gingivitis and Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Rizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is common chronic adult condition. Antioxidants are present in the body fluid as protection against free radical. Uric acid is one of antioxidants that can be found in saliva. Moreover, the relationship among the antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe uric acid level activities in the saliva of gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Methods: Six patients with gingivitis and six patients with periodontitis in Dental Hospital Trisakti University were included in the study. Clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, and probing depth were determined. The salivary uric acid level was measured using the Folin-Wu method. Result: Salivary uric acid levels in the periodontitis patients with a mean ± SD  7.40 ± 0.31  (p = 0.004 were found to be higher compared to the gingivitis patients (mean ± SD = 6.84 ± 0.19. In addition, there were no significant differences in salivary uric acid levels between gender (p = 0.641. Conclusion: Uric acid levels in periodontitis patients were found to be higher than in gingivitis patients. Moreover, uric acid has more role on periodontitis than in gingivitis as an antioxidant agent.

  1. Effect of Capsaicin Cream on the Secretion of the Submandibular and Parotid Gland in the General Population with Different Chilli-eating Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Guang Yan; Tang, Zhan Gui; Hu, Ji An

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of capsaicin cream on the secretion of the submandibular gland (SMG) and the parotid gland (PG) in the general population, with different chilli-eating habits. In two groups with different chilli-eating habits, the salivary flow rate of the SMG and the PG was detected at statics and different times, after application of capsaicin cream. In both groups, the topical application of capsaicin cream could significantly increase the salivary secretion of SMG (P 0.05). On the other hand, although the salivary flow rate of PG also increased after stimulation, the increase had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The application of capsaicin cream can effectively promote the secretion of the SMG and the PG, and its effect is independent of chilli-eating habits, which indicates that topical application of capsaicin cream can be considered as a potential treatment for the hypofunction of the salivary gland.

  2. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  3. [Application of water jet ERBEJET 2 in salivary glands surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiński, Mateusz; Modrzejewski, Maciej; Cenda, Paweł; Nazim-Zygadło, Elzbieta; Kozok, Andrzej; Dobosz, Paweł

    2009-09-01

    Anatomical location of salivary glands requires from surgeon high precision during the operation in this site. Waterjet is one of the modern tools which allows to perform "minimal invasive" operating procedure. This tool helps to separate pathological structures from healthy tissue with a stream of high pressure saline pumped to the operating area via special designed applicators. Stream of fluid is generated by double piston pummp under 1 to 80 bar pressure that can be regulated. This allows to precise remove tumors, spare nerves and vessels in glandular tissue and minimize use of electrocoagulation. Waterjet is a modern tool that can help to improve the safety of patients and comfort of surgeon's work.

  4. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  5. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  6. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, R. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertechnetate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor.

  7. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, R.

    1983-01-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertecnate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor

  8. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  9. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  10. X-Ray-Induced Damage to the Submandibular Salivary Glands in Mice: An Analysis of Strain-Specific Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Mana; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Hayama, Kazuhide; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers often causes xerostomia (dry mouth) by acutely damaging the salivary glands through the induction of severe acute inflammation. By contrast, the mechanism underlying the X-ray-induced delayed salivary dysfunction is unknown and has attracted increasing attention. To identify and develop a mouse model that distinguishes the delayed from the acute effects, we examined three different mouse strains (C57BL/6, ICR, and ICR-nu/nu) that showed distinct T-cell activities to comparatively analyze their responses to X-ray irradiation. Three strains were irradiated with X-rays (25 Gy), and functional changes of the submandibular glands were examined by determining pilocarpine-induced saliva secretion. Structural changes were evaluated using histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of CD3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and Bcl-xL. In C57BL/6 mice, the X-ray irradiation induced acute inflammation accompanied by severe inflammatory cell infiltration at 4 days postirradiation, causing substantial destruction and significant dysfunction at 2 weeks. Fibrotic repair was observed at 16 weeks. In ICR-nu/nu mice, the inflammation and organ destruction were much milder than in the other mice strains, but increased apoptotic cells and a significant reduction in salivary secretion were observed at 4 and 8 weeks and beyond, respectively. These results suggest that in C57BL/6 mice, X-ray-induced functional and structural damage to the salivary glands is caused mainly by acute inflammation. By contrast, although neither acute inflammation nor organ destruction was observed in ICR-nu/nu mice, apoptotic cell death preceded the dysfunction in salivary secretion in the later phase. These data suggest that the X-ray-irradiated ICR-nu/nu mouse may be a useful animal model for developing more specific therapeutic methods for the delayed dysfunction of salivary glands. PMID:26309806

  11. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  12. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  13. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands in Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) according to seasonal and circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, K; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Ostróżka, A; Marchewka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M

    2016-11-01

    The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae. The salivary glands are composed of a terminal acinar component and a system of tubular ducts that are lined with a cuticle. The glandular part is composed of secretory epithelial cells that are at various stages of their secretory activity. The saliva that is produced by the secretory cells of the acini is secreted into the salivary ducts, which are lined with a simple epithelium that is based on the non-cellular basal lamina. The ultrastructural variations suggest that salivary glands function differently depending on seasonal rhythms and prepare the animal for overwintering. Therefore, the salivary glands of the centipedes that were analyzed participate in the accumulation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides during the spring, summer and autumn. Subtle differences in the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the salivary glands during the circadian cycle must be related to the physiological reactions of the organism. The salivary ducts showed no differences in the specimens that were analyzed during the day/night cycle or during the seasonal cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  15. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations

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    Kenichi Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC, and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC and mean value (MV of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day. Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p = 0.007, and 0.70, p = 0.017 than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p = 0.200, indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a

  16. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

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    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Radiotherapy Reduced Salivary Flow Rate and Might Induced C. albicans Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Surjadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy has impact in oral health especially on the secretion capacity of the salivary glands. Another impact is the increase of Candida albicans colony. Objectives: To evaluate salivary flow in relation with Candida albicans colony in head and neck cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-four head and neck cancer patients in Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta who were undergoing radiotherapy or had undergone radiotherapy and 24 match healthy volunteers were included in the study. Clinical observation carried out by collecting unstimulated salivary flow rate and followed by culture of Candida in Saboraud agar medium. Data were analyzed statistically by Chi-square. Results: Nasopharynx cancer was the most frequent type of head and neck cancers (87.5% followed by tongue cancer (12.5% and and found in 41-50 years old patients and 51-60 years old patients respectively, with male predilection compare to female (17:7. Approxiamtely 87.5% of subjects showed decreased salivary flow rate (1.01-1.50mL/10min during and after radiotherapy. However, 91.7% of cancer patients had increased C.albicans colony during and after radiotherapy compared to control (p=0.00. Conclusion: This study showed that radiotherapy induced hyposalivation and might increase the C.albicans colony.  

  18. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H. [Univ. Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peskar, B. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. Pharmakologie

    1998-03-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether {sup 131}I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received {sup 131}I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF{sub 1{alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}), PGF{sub 2{alpha}}], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF{sub 1} {sub {alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} and higher levels of TXB{sub 2} were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of {sup 131}I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  19. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Peskar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether 131 I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF 1α , bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ), PGF 2α ], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF 1 α , bicyclo-PGEm and PGF 2α and higher levels of TXB 2 were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of 131 I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  20. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  1. Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Doi, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Chizu; Sawano, Erika; Tarumi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The menopausal transition is the time from the onset of menstrual changes until one year after the final menstrual period. During this phase, perimenopausal women experience a variety of health-related symptoms, which seemingly derive from declining level of estrogen secretion. It has long been recognized that some essential oils have the efficacy of alleviating menopausal symptoms. On the basis of this, it is possible that these essential oils have the potency to facilitate estrogen secretion in women. The present study investigated this possibility by examining if the olfactory exposure to the essential oil increase salivary estrogen concentration. We tested the effect of ten essential oils; clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, jasmine absolute, neroli, rose otto, ylang ylang, orange and roman chamomile, which are thought to relieve perimenopasal symptoms. The results have shown increase of salivary estrogen concentration induced by exposure to geranium and rose otto compared to control odor. Together with the previous studies, the present study may give support to the notion that olfactory exposure to some essential oils can influence salivary concentration of estrogen.

  2. Host Immune Selection of Rumen Bacteria through Salivary Secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Fouhse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria. We hypothesized that SIgA-tagged bacteria would differ from total bacteria, thus supporting a potential host-derived mechanism in commensal bacterial selection. Whole rumen (n = 9 and oral secretion samples (n = 10 were incubated with magnetic beads conjugated with anti-secretory IgA antibodies to enrich SIgA-tagged microbiota. Microbial DNA from the oral secretion, whole rumen, SIgA-tagged oral secretion, and SIgA-tagged rumen was isolated for amplicon sequencing of V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA genes. Whole rumen and oral secretion had distinctive (P < 0.05 bacterial compositions indicated by the non-parametric multidimensional scaling plot using Euclidean distance metrics. The SIgA-tagged microbiota from rumen and oral secretion had similar abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fibrobacter, candidate phyla TM7, and Tenericutes and are clustered tightly. Composition of SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota was more similar to whole rumen microbiota than whole oral secretion due to enrichment of rumen bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and depletion of oral taxa (Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseriaceae, and Lactobacillales. In conclusion, SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota had an increased resemblance to whole rumen microbiota, suggesting salivary SIgA-coating may be one host

  3. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers; evaluation prospective de la fonction salivaire par scintigraphie parotidienne apres radiotherapie de 27 cancers du nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [Service de carcinologie medicale, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-10-15

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  4. Salivary levels of SIgA and perceived stress among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Menck Sangiorgio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic stress may impair mucosal immunity and expose dental students to an increased risk of infections. Objective: to assess stress scores in dental students and their relationship with variation in SIgA levels. Methods: All students (n = 289 were invited to take part of the study, and 207 (71.63% effectively participated, being 152 (73.4% females. At the day of data collection, the students answered The Dental Environmental Stress Questionnaire (DES and unstimulated saliva samples were collected for determination of salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration and secretion rate. Results: Mean DES scores were higher in females (78.97 ± 16.42, but no correlations between the sum of DES scores and salivary parameters were observed (P=0.08. A moderate inverse relationship was observed between SIgA secretion rates and the subscales Academic Performance (P=0.01, Interpersonal relationships (P=0.02 and Difficulties and Insecurities about Professional Future (P=0.05. A weak correlation was found between SIgA concentration and the items Amount of assigned classwork (P=0.02, Lack of confidence in self to be a successful dentist (P=0.01, Lack of time for relaxation (P=0.01, Financial responsibilities (P=0.02 and Personal physical health (P=0.005. Weak correlations between SIgA secretion rates and DES items were also found for Lack of cooperation by patient in their home care (P=0.003, Patients being late or not showing up for their appointments (P=0.02, Lack of self confidence to be a successful dentist (P=0.008, Personal physical health (P=0.019, and others. Conclusion: Different sources of stress were observed among first to fifth year students and some of these stressors may negatively impact on salivary SIgA secretion.

  5. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population and Mudgo (M population. In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Yu, Haixin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the

  8. Chronic inflammation in the pancreas and salivary glands--lessons from similarities and differences in pathophysiology and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakonczay, Zoltán; Vág, János; Földes, Anna; Nagy, Krisztina; Nagy, Ákos; Hegyi, Péter; Varga, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas and salivary glands have similar anatomical structures and physiological functions producing bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive enzymes and other components to be delivered into the gut. Despite these similarities, the two organs are also different in numerous respects, especially regarding the inflammatory diseases affecting them. This article will summarize the pathophysiology and current and potential pharmacological treatments of chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, Sjögren's syndrome and irradiation-induced salivary gland atrophy. Despite the differences, in both organs the inflammatory process is accompanied by epithelial tissue destruction and fibrosis. Both in pancreatic and in salivary research, an important task is to stop or even reverse this process. The utilization of stem/progenitor cell populations previously identified in these organs and the application of mesenchymal stem cells are very promising for such regenerative purposes. In addition, gene therapy and tissue engineering research progressively advance and have already yielded clinically beneficial preliminary results for salivary gland diseases. For the hard-to-access, hard-to-regenerate pancreas these developments may also offer new solutions, especially since salivary and pancreatic progenitors are very similar in characteristics and may be mutually useful to regenerate the respective other organ as well. These novel developments could be of great significance and may bring new hope for patients since currently used therapeutic protocols in salivary and in pancreatic chronic inflammatory diseases offer primarily symptomatic treatments and limited beneficial outcome.

  9. Anticoagulant activity in salivary glands of the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis by an inhibitor of factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, A A; Valenzuela, J G; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-02-01

    Blood feeding by the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis involves laceration of superficial host tissues, an injury that would be expected to trigger the coagulation cascade. Accordingly, the salivary glands of C.v. sonorensis were examined for the presence of an antihemostatic that prevents blood coagulation. Assays using salivary gland extracts showed a delay in the recalcification time of plasma devoid of platelets, indicating the presence of anticoagulant activity. Retardation in the formation of a fibrin clot was also observed after the addition of tissue factor to plasma that was preincubated with salivary gland extracts. Similarly, an inhibitory effect by salivary gland extracts was detected in assays that included factors of the intrinsic pathway. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of purified factor Xa toward its chromogenic substrate suggested that it was the target of the salivary anticoagulant of C.v. sonorensis. This was corroborated by the coincidence of anticoagulant and anti-FXa activities obtained by reverse-phase HPLC. The depletion of anti-FXa activity from salivary glands during blood feeding suggests that the FXa inhibitor functions as anticoagulant. Molecular sieving HPLC yielded an apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa for the salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis. Preventing the formation of thrombin through the inhibition of FXa likely facilitates blood feeding by maintaining the pool of blood fluid at the feeding site. The salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis could impair the network of host-defense mechanisms in the skin microenvironment by avoiding blood coagulation at the site of feeding.

  10. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

  11. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  12. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  13. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  14. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Abolfazli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an impor-tant role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical perio-dontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodonti-tis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL and radio-graphic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodon-tal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]. Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05. Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels.

  15. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study D...

  16. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  18. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  19. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  20. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  1. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis on the time/activity curve of salivary gland scintigraphy in salivary gland diseases; The correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve and the amount of saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazufumi; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kaneko, Masanori; Ohmori, Keiichi; Minowa, Kazuyuki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Michio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-04-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} is a simple method to evaluate salivary gland function and has been available as a technique using a time/activity curve for a number of years. But, there were few reports on the relationship between the various patterns of the time/activity curves and the salivary flow rate from the gland. This presents correlation between the time/activity curve pattern and the salivary flow rate from the parotid gland. Sixty-five patients complaining of xerostomia were examined. Sixty-two were female and 3 male (average age 45.6 years, range 17-69 years). Their diagnosis were 26 Sjoegren Syndrome, 28 suspicion of Sjoegren Syndrome and 11 parotiditis. The salivary flow rate from parotid gland was measured by stimulation with 10% citric acid using modified Carlson crittenden cup every 10 seconds for 5 min. 185 MBq {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was injected intravenously and sequential scintigraphy was performed. Time/activity curves were recorded on film. Six kinds of basic patterns were as follows: normal pattern, median pattern, flat pattern and sloped pattern (Mita et al 1981), reaccumulation flat pattern and poor secretion (Stimulant secretory ratio: less than 70%) pattern by us. The amount of saliva was as follows: normal pattern (n=31), 5.4+0.4 ml; reaccumulation flat pattern (n=3), 4.2+0.6 ml; poor secretion pattern (n=18), 4.1+0.5 ml; median pattern (n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), 2.6+0.5 ml and sloped pattern (n=1), 1.5 ml. Normal pattern versus poor secretion pattern, median pattern and flat pattern in the salivary flow rate were statistically significant as determined by Students' t-test. We assessed the correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve in the salivary gland scintigraphy and the amount of saliva. (author).

  3. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  4. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  5. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  6. Effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture on salivary immunoglobulin A and the autonomic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideaki, Waki; Tatsuya, Hisajima; Shogo, Miyazaki; Naruto, Yoshida; Hideaki, Tamai; Yoichi, Minakawa; Yoshihiro, Okuma; Kazuo, Uebaba; Hidenori, Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous study has reported that low-frequency (LF) electroacupuncture (EA) influences salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is known to control the secretion volume of sIgA; however, the effect of high-frequency (HF) EA on salivary sIgA has not been determined. We investigated whether HF EA affects salivary sIgA levels and the ANS. Method Sixteen healthy subjects were randomly classified into two groups: a control group and an EA group. After a 5 min rest, subjects in the EA group received EA at 100 Hz bilaterally at LI4 and LI11 for 15 min before resting for a further 40 min post-stimulation. Subjects in the control group rested for a total of 60 min. Measurements of the ANS and sIgA levels in both groups were made before, immediately after, 20 min after, and 40 min after rest or 15 min EA treatment. HF and LF components of heart rate variability were analysed as markers of ANS function. LF/HF ratio and HF were taken as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively. Salivary protein concentrations and sIgA levels were determined by Bradford protein assay and ELISA, respectively. Results LF/HF ratio was significantly increased immediately after EA. HF was significantly increased at 20 min after EA and sIgA level was significantly increased at 40 min after EA. In addition, HF and salivary sIgA level were positively correlated with each another. Conclusions HF EA exerted sequential positive effects on sympathetic nerve activity, parasympathetic nerve activity, and salivary sIgA level (immediately and after 20 and 40 min, respectively). HF EA may increase salivary sIgA levels by influencing parasympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26449884

  7. Effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture on salivary immunoglobulin A and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideaki, Waki; Tatsuya, Hisajima; Shogo, Miyazaki; Naruto, Yoshida; Hideaki, Tamai; Yoichi, Minakawa; Yoshihiro, Okuma; Kazuo, Uebaba; Hidenori, Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    A previous study has reported that low-frequency (LF) electroacupuncture (EA) influences salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is known to control the secretion volume of sIgA; however, the effect of high-frequency (HF) EA on salivary sIgA has not been determined. We investigated whether HF EA affects salivary sIgA levels and the ANS. Sixteen healthy subjects were randomly classified into two groups: a control group and an EA group. After a 5 min rest, subjects in the EA group received EA at 100 Hz bilaterally at LI4 and LI11 for 15 min before resting for a further 40 min post-stimulation. Subjects in the control group rested for a total of 60 min. Measurements of the ANS and sIgA levels in both groups were made before, immediately after, 20 min after, and 40 min after rest or 15 min EA treatment. HF and LF components of heart rate variability were analysed as markers of ANS function. LF/HF ratio and HF were taken as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively. Salivary protein concentrations and sIgA levels were determined by Bradford protein assay and ELISA, respectively. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased immediately after EA. HF was significantly increased at 20 min after EA and sIgA level was significantly increased at 40 min after EA. In addition, HF and salivary sIgA level were positively correlated with each another. HF EA exerted sequential positive effects on sympathetic nerve activity, parasympathetic nerve activity, and salivary sIgA level (immediately and after 20 and 40 min, respectively). HF EA may increase salivary sIgA levels by influencing parasympathetic nerve activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Salivary surrogates of plasma nitrite and catecholamines during a 21-week training season in swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mauricio Díaz Gómez

    Full Text Available The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA, chromogranin A (sCgA, and the concentration of total protein (sTP as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2 in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2, respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

  9. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Corradino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  10. Botulinum toxin A for oral cavity cancer patients: in microsurgical patients BTX injections in major salivary glands temporarily reduce salivary production and the risk of local complications related to saliva stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, Bartolo; Di Lorenzo, Sara; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-10-24

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  11. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  12. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  13. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Baliga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001 whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  14. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

    2013-07-01

    Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  15. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  16. Effect of dietary roughage level on chewing activity, ruminal pH, and saliva secretion in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F G; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Hu, Z Y; Liu, G M; Sun, Y D; Liu, X W; Wang, Z H

    2017-04-01

    Increasing dietary roughage level is a commonly used strategy to prevent subacute ruminal acidosis. We hypothesized that high-roughage diets could promote chewing activity, saliva secretion, and hence more alkaline to buffer rumen pH. To verify the hypothesis, 12 multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with one cow in each treatment surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula. Treatments were diets containing 40, 50, 60, or 70% of roughage on a DM basis. Increasing dietary roughage level decreased DM, CP, OM, starch, and NE L intake, increased ADF intake, and decreased milk yield linearly. Intake of NDF was quite stable across treatments and ranged from 7.8 to 8.1 kg/d per cow. Daily eating time increased linearly with increased roughage level. The increase in eating time was due to increased eating time per meal but not number of meals per day, which was stable and ranged from 8.3 to 8.5 meals per day across treatments. Increasing dietary roughage level had no effect on ruminating time (min/d), the number of ruminating periods (rumination periods per d), and chewing time per ruminating period (min/ruminating period). Ruminating time per kilogram of NDF intake and total chewing time per kilogram of ADF intake were similar across treatments (57.4 and 183.8 min/kg, respectively). Increasing dietary roughage level linearly increased daily total chewing time; linearly elevated the mean, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH; and linearly decreased total VFA concentration and molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid. Saliva secretion during eating was increased, the secretion during rumination was unaffected, but the secretion during resting tended to decrease with increased dietary roughage level. As a result, total saliva secretion was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, the results of the present study did not support the concept that high-roughage diets elevated ruminal p

  17. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Karibasappa, G N; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19-21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p salivary pH (p salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  19. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  20. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  1. A comparative study of long-term effect of tobacco on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarni Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The taste receptors responsible for salivary secretion are constantly being affected by the harmful by-products of tobacco, and it is believed that tobacco usage on a long-term basis can decrease the sensitivity of taste receptors leading to decreased salivary reflex. It is hypothesized that long-term tobacco usage might lead to altered taste receptors′ response, changing the salivary flow rate (SFR. Unstimulated whole mouth SFR and salivary pH play an important role in the causation of various oral changes and conditions. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of long-term use of tobacco on SFR and salivary pH and the oral and dental health among tobacco chewers, smokers, and control group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 90 patients who were grouped into smokers (group A, smokeless tobacco chewers (group B, and controls (group C. Each group consisted of 30 healthy male adults. Resting whole mouth saliva was collected from every patient; SFR was calculated and then salivary pH was assessed using the salivary pH strips, depending on the color change of the indicator paper strip when compared with a color chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Service (SPSS computer software. Student′s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Z-test were applied to assess between-group differences. Results: The mean (±SD SFR was found to be 0.77 (±0.23 ml/min for group A, 0.63 (±0.16 ml/min for group B, and 1.08 (±0.08 ml/min for group C, and on comparing the groups, the result was significant. The mean (±SD pH was found to be 6.8 (±0.20 for group A, 6.65 (±0.30 for group B, and 7.06 (±0.23 for group C and was also found to be significant on comparison. Conclusions: It is concluded from this experimental study on long-term tobacco users that smokeless and smoked forms of tobacco adversely affect

  2. Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland.

  3. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most salivary gland tumors in children are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to other tissues, but some are malignant (cancer). The prognosis for salivary gland cancer in children is usually good. Get information about of the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma: a Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. METHODS: By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... carcinoma incidence averages to two episodes per year in the entire Kingdom of Denmark. With half of patients in this study experiencing distant recurrences and only a third surviving at 5 years, prognosis is dismal. Advanced overall stage, vascular invasion and involved resection margins all seem...

  6. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh R. Khairnar; Arun S. Dodamani; G.N. Karibasappa; Rahul G. Naik; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2017-01-01

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19?21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). U...

  7. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  8. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  9. A catalogue of human secreted proteins and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Keerthikumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under both normal and pathological conditions, cells secrete variety of proteins through classical and non-classical secretory pathways into the extracellular space. Majority of these proteins represent pathophysiology of the cell from which it is secreted. Recently, though more than 92% of the protein coding genes has been mapped by human proteome map project, but number of those proteins that constitutes secretome of the cell still remains elusive. Secreted proteins or the secretome can be accessible in bodily fluids and hence are considered as potential biomarkers to discriminate between healthy and diseased individuals. In order to facilitate the biomarker discovery and to further aid clinicians and scientists working in these arenas, we have compiled and catalogued secreted proteins from the human proteome using integrated bioinformatics approach. In this study, nearly 14% of the human proteome is likely to be secreted through classical and non-classical secretory pathways. Out of which, ~38% of these secreted proteins were found in extracellular vesicles including exosomes and shedding microvesicles. Among these secreted proteins, 94% were detected in human bodily fluids including blood, plasma, serum, saliva, semen, tear and urine. We anticipate that this high confidence list of secreted proteins could serve as a compendium of candidate biomarkers. In addition, the catalogue may provide functional insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of the cell.

  10. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  11. Salivary exosomal PSMA7: a promising biomarker of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40–120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD. In this study, whole saliva was obtained from patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 37; Crohn’s disease (CD, n = 11 and apparently healthy individuals (HC, n = 10. Salivary exosomes were extracted from samples, and the proteins within the exosomes were identified by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. The results showed that more than 2000 proteins were detected in salivary exosomes from patients with IBD. Through gene ontology analysis, we found that proteasome subunit alpha type 7 (PSMA7 showed especially marked differences between patients with IBD and the healthy controls, in that its expression level was much higher in the CD and UC groups. This exosomal protein is related to proteasome activity and inflammatory responses. So we conclude that in this research, salivary exosomal PSMA7 was present at high levels in salivary exosomes from subjects with IBD. It can be a very promising biomarker to release the patients from the pain of colonoscopy.

  12. Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  13. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  14. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  15. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  16. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  17. The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-09-17

    We examined the influence of work-related effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort-reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort-reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported.

  18. The Effort-reward Imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of work-related effort–reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort–reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort–reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort–reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported. PMID:25228138

  19. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  20. Salivary pH and buffering capacity in early and late human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mithra N; Malhotra, Amit; Hegde, Nidarsh D

    2013-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes severe immunosuppression due to progressive decrease in the CD4 T lymphocyte cells during the course of the disease and this affects all the body systems including glandular secretions. A number of lesions affecting the salivary glands have been noted in HIV infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the salivary pH and the buffering capacity in HIV positive individuals and comparing it with the HIV negative healthy individuals. The study was carried out on 200 HIV positive subjects aged 20-40 years, divided into two groups on the basis of CD4 count and 100 HIV negative healthy individuals as control group. Both unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and the pH and buffering capacity ascertained using the saliva check kit. (GC Asia Dental Pvt. Ltd., Singapore, 508724). All the three groups were compared using the ANOVA and it was found there was highly significant decrease in pH and buffering capacity with increase in immunosuppression. The intergroup comparison was carried out using the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) and the Chi square test. Group 1; CD4 count 200 showed a significant decrease in unstimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary flow, and pH in comparison to HIV negative individuals; however, change in buffering capacity in Group 2 was not significant. There is a decrease in pH and buffering capacity in HIV infected patients. This decrease may be one of the factors responsible for increased caries in HIV infected population.

  1. Infection by chikungunya virus modulates the expression of several proteins in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchankouo-Nguetcheu Stephane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. Methods We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling. Conclusion Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.

  2. Pollen feeding proteomics: Salivary proteins of the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius melpomene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Desiree; Cullen, Darron A; Ott, Swidbert R; Jiggins, Chris D; Walters, James R

    2015-08-01

    While most adult Lepidoptera use flower nectar as their primary food source, butterflies in the genus Heliconius have evolved the novel ability to acquire amino acids from consuming pollen. Heliconius butterflies collect pollen on their proboscis, moisten the pollen with saliva, and use a combination of mechanical disruption and chemical degradation to release free amino acids that are subsequently re-ingested in the saliva. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this complex pollen feeding adaptation. Here we report an initial shotgun proteomic analysis of saliva from Heliconius melpomene. Results from liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry confidently identified 31 salivary proteins, most of which contained predicted signal peptides, consistent with extracellular secretion. Further bioinformatic annotation of these salivary proteins indicated the presence of four distinct functional classes: proteolysis (10 proteins), carbohydrate hydrolysis (5), immunity (6), and "housekeeping" (4). Additionally, six proteins could not be functionally annotated beyond containing a predicted signal sequence. The presence of several salivary proteases is consistent with previous demonstrations that Heliconius saliva has proteolytic capacity. It is likely that these proteins play a key role in generating free amino acids during pollen digestion. The identification of proteins functioning in carbohydrate hydrolysis is consistent with Heliconius butterflies consuming nectar, like other lepidopterans, as well as pollen. Immune-related proteins in saliva are also expected, given that ingestion of pathogens is a likely route to infection. The few "housekeeping" proteins are likely not true salivary proteins and reflect a modest level of contamination that occurred during saliva collection. Among the unannotated proteins were two sets of paralogs, each seemingly the result of a relatively recent tandem duplication. These results offer a first glimpse into the

  3. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p 0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  4. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  5. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  6. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  7. Salivary PYY: a putative bypass to satiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Acosta

    Full Text Available Peptide YY(3-36 is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY(3-36 is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY(3-36 derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebner's gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY(3-36 induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO mice, a sustained increase in PYY(3-36 was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY(3-36 resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI and body weight (BW. Thus this study provides evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY(3-36 suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity.

  8. A radiologic study of salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Suck; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    The author examined fifty cases of sialolithiasis diagnosed in the Dept. of Oral Radiology in SNUH by conventional radiography and sialography, and patient's age, sex, location, radiodensity, numbers, shapes, and relation with ducts a nd parenchymas. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The average age of patients was 38.6 years in submandibular sialolithiasis, and 39.2 years in parotid sialolithiasis. 2. There was slightly higher incidence in males (58.0%) than in females (42.0%). 3. Salivary stones were found to be much more in the submandibular gland and duct (82.0%) than in the parotid gland and duct (18.0%). 4. Of 62 submandibular salivary stones, 33 (53.2%) occurred in the main duct, 25 (40.3%) occurred in the hilum, and 4 (6.5%) occurred in the parenchyma. Of 18 parotid salivary stones, 9(50.0%) occurred in the main duct, 5(27.8%) occurred in the parenchyma, and 4 (22 .2%) occurred in the hilum. 5. Of the submandibular salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 45 (75.8%), and the number of radiolucent type was 17 (24.2%). Of the parotid salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 12 (66.7%), and the number of radiolucent type was 6 (33.3%). 6. The single type was 30 cases (73.2%) in submandibular gland, 6 cases (66.7%) in parotid gland, and the multiple type was 11 cases (26.8%) in submandibular grand, and 3 cases (33. 3%) in parotid gland. 7. Round shape was 35 cases (43.8%), ovoid shape was 22 cases (27.5%), irregular shape was 17 cases (21.3%), and cylindrical shape was 6 cases (7.5%).

  9. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A

    1986-09-01

    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  10. The hydroxyapatite-binding regions of a rat salivary glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embery, G; Green, D R

    1989-09-01

    The regions of a salivary sulphated glycoprotein which are involved in its attachment to hydroxyapatite (Biogel HTP) have been characterised. The sulphated glycoprotein, a 35S-labelled preparation from mixed palatal and buccal minor gland secretions of the rat was bound onto hydroxyapatite and the resultant glycoprotein-hydroxyapatite complex was sequentially digested with pronase E and alpha-L-fucosidase, a treatment which released 86.8% +/- 1.7% of the radioactivity of the initially bound glycoprotein. The fragments which remained attached to the hydroxyapatite after enzymic digestion were fractionated on Sephadex G-25 and analysed for carbohydrate and amino acid components. A range of amino acids were detected which could reflect both glycosylated and non-glycosylated-binding regions. Sialic acid, although considered to be involved in the attachment process was not detected in any of the fragments remaining after enzymic digestion, a finding which provides indirect evidence that the enzymically liberated products do not subsequently re-attach to the hydroxyapatite surface. The notable feature of the fractions with average Mr estimated at 1000 or less is the high proportion of N-acetylhexosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. It is apparent that the hexosamine residues, which normally bear the ester sulphate moieties of sulphated glycoproteins, play an important role in the attachment of sulphated glycoproteins to hydroxyapatite.

  11. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  12. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  13. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  14. The infleunce of X-ray on major salivary glands and their reflex on the alveolar wound healing - histologic study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Pinto, M.C. dos; Santos Pinto, R. dos; Martinelli, C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the reflex of the X-ray action on the salivary glands, on the alveolar wound healing. The irradiated glands probably undergo morphological and functional changes, starting the secretion of their actives principles deviated of 'normal' parameters. The groups I (control) and II (simulate) followed the normal wound healing pattern. The group III (irradiated) evidenced a delay on the reparation from the 6.th post-operative day with subsequent decrease of neoformed bone and osteoclastic activity on neoformed osseus trabeculae what was evident at the 9.th post-operative day. These findings were imputed to the endocrine action of the salivary glands and their relationship with the other internal secretion glands. (author) [pt

  15. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  16. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Aljerf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD on saliva flow rate (SFR, pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca2+ but higher Mg2+, caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  17. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljerf, Loai; Alhaffar, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA 1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca 2+ but higher Mg 2+ , caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  18. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  19. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  20. Assessment of Salivary Human Herpesvirus-6 and Immunoglobulin A Levels in Nurses Working Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirom Fukuda, RN, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Salivary HHV-6 level may be a more sensitive stress marker than salivary IgA or mood for assessing chronic fatigue in nurses working shifts. Improvement to shift assignments using assessment by salivary HHV-6 is required.

  1. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol.

  2. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  3. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  5. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  6. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  7. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  8. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level....

  9. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  10. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  11. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  12. Neonatal hyperthyroidism impairs epinephrine-provoked secretion of nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor in mouse saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, J; Landel, C P

    1986-07-01

    We examined long-term effects of neonatal hyperthyroidism on salivary secretions of nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor in male and female mice at the age of 31 days. Hyperthyroidism was induced by thyroxine (T4) injections (0.4 microgram/g body weight/day) during days 0-6. Littermate control mice were treated with vehicle. T4 treatment did not alter the amounts of protein secreted into saliva but hormone administration induced alteration in the types of protein secreted. T4 treatment decreased the contents of both nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor secreted into the saliva. A Sephadex G-200 column chromatographic profile revealed the presence of two distinct nerve growth factor immunoreactive peaks, while epidermal growth factor immunoreactivity predominantly eluted as a single low molecular weight form. T4 treatment did not alter the molecular nature of their secretion, but the treatment decreased their contents. These results indicate an impairment in salivary secretion of nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor long after T4 treatment has been discontinued.

  13. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  14. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  15. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  16. A nonlinear relationship of generalized and central obesity with diurnal cortisol secretion in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Meena; Chandola, Tarani; Brunner, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-09-01

    Evidence for an association of measures of generalized and central obesity with salivary cortisol secretion is equivocal. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and salivary cortisol. The design was a cross-sectional study of BMI, waist circumference, and salivary cortisol from phase 7 (2002-2004) of the Whitehall II study. The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985-1988. Participants included 2915 men and 1041 women aged 50-74 yr with complete information on height, weight and waist circumference, and cortisol secretion. Saliva samples were taken on waking, waking plus 0.5, 2.5, 8, and 12 h, and bedtime for the assessment of cortisol. The cortisol awakening response and slope in diurnal secretion were calculated. After adjustment for age, sex, social position, waking time, and time since waking of sample collection, increasing central and generalized obesity was associated with lower waking cortisol (P = 0.001). U-shaped associations were apparent between diurnal slope in salivary cortisol and both BMI and waist circumference (P cortisol were associated with highest (>31 kg/m(2)) and lowest (levels of BMI, and the steepest slopes were apparent for those with BMI of 26 kg/m(2), independently of the 12 covariates examined. No associations were apparent for the cortisol awakening response (P > 0.05). The associations of measures of generalized and central obesity with diurnal slope in salivary cortisol are not linear in older adults. These nonlinear associations may explain previously described mixed findings.

  17. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  18. Direct demonstration of macula densa-mediated renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Briggs, J P

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro method has been used to examine whether secretion of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus is affected by changes in the sodium chloride concentration of the tubular fluid at the macula densa. Single juxtaglomerular apparatuses were microdissected from rabbits and the tubule segmen...

  19. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  20. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. An antimicrobial protein of the Riptortus pedestris salivary gland was cleaved by a virulence factor of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jung; Lee, Jun Beom; Jang, Ho Am; Ferrandon, Dominique; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-02-01

    Recently, our group demonstrated that the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a good experimental symbiosis model to study the molecular cross-talk between the host insect and the gut symbiont. The Burkholderia symbiont is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment in every generation. However, it is still unclear how Riptortus specifically interacts with entomopathogens that are abundant in the environmental soil. In preliminary experiments, we observed that a potent entomopathogen, Serratia marcescens, can colonize the midgut of Riptortus insects and was recovered from the midgut when Serratia cells were orally administered, suggesting that this pathogenic bacterium can escape host immune defenses in the salivary fluid. We examined how orally fed Serratia cells can survive in the presence of antimicrobial substances of the Riptortus salivary fluid. In this study, a 15 kDa trialysin-like protein from the salivary gland of R. pedestris and a potent virulence factor of Serratia cells, a serralysin metalloprotease, from the culture medium of S. marcescens were successfully purified to homogeneity. When the purified Riptortus trialysin (rip-trialysin) was incubated with purified serralysin, rip-trialysin was specifically hydrolyzed by serralysin, leading to the loss of antimicrobial activity. These results clearly demonstrated that a potent virulent metalloprotease of S. marcescens functions as a key player in the escape from the salivary fluid-mediated host immune response, resulting in successful colonization of S. marcescens in the host midgut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  3. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  4. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  5. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  6. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  7. Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

  8. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  9. Acute effects of hemodialysis on salivary flow rate and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, C. P.; Brand, H. S.; Veerman, E. C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, M.; Henskens, Y. M. C.; Valentijn, R. M.; Vos, P. F.; Bijlsma, J. A.; ter Wee, P. M.; van Amerongen, B. M.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate acute effects of hemodialysis (HD) on the salivary flow rate, pH and biochemical composition before, during and after completion of a dialysis session. Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and chewing-stimulated whole saliva (CH-SWS) were collected in 94 HD patients. Salivary flow rate, pH,

  10. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  11. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  13. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  14. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests [fr

  16. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  17. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands .... be used in the silk-manufacture industry. This paper analyses .... (figure 3C); and are highly birefringent (figure 3D).

  18. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  19. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Inui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.

  20. Reassessment of usefulness of salivary scintigraphy in diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru (National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)); Suzuki, Kenzo; Kawakami, Ryoji; Akita, Sakiko; Mezaki, Takashi; Inokuma, Shigeko; Kubo, Atsushi

    1993-02-01

    Dynamic salivary scintigraphy using [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] was performed in 95 patients (a total of 366 glands) suspected of Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) and the results were compared with SjS diagnostic criteria by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. Time-activity curve of ROI created over each salivary gland was classified into four patterns, that is N, M[sub 1], M[sub 2] and F patterns, depending upon trapping, accumulation and secretion response to the tartaric acid. In definite SjS patients, most of the patients had different patterns in the four glands, and classical F (flat) pattern in all of the four glands was uncommon (3/38, 8%). F and/or M[sub 2] (no response to secretary stimulation) patterns were seen in 68.5% (98/143) of the all glands. Provided that F and/or M[sub 2] patterns in 2 or more glands is scintigraphic criteria for diagnosis of SjS, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 82.9%, 59.5%, 70.8%, respectively. As for salivary uptake of [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -], there was a significant difference between the patients with definite SjS and control subjects (parotis p<0.05, submandibular gland p<0.01), but there was no significant difference among the patients with definite SjS, suspected SjS and chronic sialoadenitis. In conclusion, the four patterns classification may have potential in screening patients with SjS. (author).

  1. Reassessment of usefulness of salivary scintigraphy in diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kenzo; Kawakami, Ryoji; Akita, Sakiko; Mezaki, Takashi; Inokuma, Shigeko; Kubo, Atsushi.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic salivary scintigraphy using 99m TcO 4 - was performed in 95 patients (a total of 366 glands) suspected of Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) and the results were compared with SjS diagnostic criteria by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. Time-activity curve of ROI created over each salivary gland was classified into four patterns, that is N, M 1 , M 2 and F patterns, depending upon trapping, accumulation and secretion response to the tartaric acid. In definite SjS patients, most of the patients had different patterns in the four glands, and classical F (flat) pattern in all of the four glands was uncommon (3/38, 8%). F and/or M 2 (no response to secretary stimulation) patterns were seen in 68.5% (98/143) of the all glands. Provided that F and/or M 2 patterns in 2 or more glands is scintigraphic criteria for diagnosis of SjS, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 82.9%, 59.5%, 70.8%, respectively. As for salivary uptake of 99m TcO 4 - , there was a significant difference between the patients with definite SjS and control subjects (parotis p<0.05, submandibular gland p<0.01), but there was no significant difference among the patients with definite SjS, suspected SjS and chronic sialoadenitis. In conclusion, the four patterns classification may have potential in screening patients with SjS. (author)

  2. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life. 130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  3. Comparison between Salivary Cortisol Release in Rest and Training Days in Male Fitness Trainee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim behind the current study was a comparison between salivary cortisol release in rest and training days in male fitness trainers. Methods: In such balanced crossover research, 15 healthy fitness-trained participants (with the mean age, weight and Height of 20.35 ± 1.20 years, 74.15 ± 3.20 kg and 177.30 ± 3.45 cm, respectively who had a four-year-previous experience in fitness exercise were chosen. While performing the research, the subjects were involved in a fitness training. The protocol contained three times of fitness training in a week, which would totally be alternative days of “rest” and “exercise” in the period of training. It means that they did training on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and rested on the other days. To ensure the validity of this study, the participants were selected randomly, in both control and experimental groups. In the meantime, the protocol for fitness exercise was made up of four sets of 15 repetitions utilizing 65% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM. Within each testing time, saliva samples were taken once in two hours for a maximum of 16 hours. In this study, the ANOVA was followed by a Post-hoc LSD test. Also, the significance level was deemed as (P≤0.05. Results: It was shown that there was a statistically significant addition in the salivary cortisol level right away after the fitness exercise session (P ≤ 0.05. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between exercise and control days in the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The present research demonstrated that while there was a significant influence of fitness exercise on cortisol right away after exercise, no statistically significant effect has been observed on the circadian secretion of cortisol in fitness sportsmen.

  4. Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carleton J Phillips

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event.

  5. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  6. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  7. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  8. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia. PMID:26321752

  9. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A J; Chatzeli, L; Proctor, G B; Tucker, A S

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  10. Salivary flow rate and oral findings in Prader-Willi syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeves, Ronnaug; Nordgarden, Hilde; Storhaug, Kari; Sandvik, Leiv; Espelid, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multisystemic genetic disorder. AIM. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic assessment of whole saliva secretion and oral manifestations associated with PWS. DESIGN. Fifty individuals (5-40 years) with PWS and an age- and sex-matched control group were included. Whole saliva was collected. All participants underwent an anamnestic interview. Radiological and dental clinical examinations were carried out to identify hypodontia, dental caries, enamel defects and gingival inflammation. RESULTS. Mean whole salivary flow rate was 0.12 ± 0.11 mL/min in the study group compared with 0.32 ± 0.20 mL/min in the control group (P 19 years was significantly lower in PWS (P = 0.04) compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries in the primary dentition or in the frequency of enamel defects in the permanent dentition between the two groups. Median Gingival Index was significantly higher in the Prader-Willi group compared with the controls (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS. Low salivary flow is a consistent finding in PWS. Nevertheless, despite dry mouth and dietary challenges, dental caries is not increased in Norwegian individuals with PWS. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Salivary peptide tyrosine-tyrosine 3-36 modulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Maria D; Sergeyev, Valeriy G; Acosta, Andres; Spegele, Michael; La Sala, Michael; Waler, Nickolas J; Chiriboga-Hurtado, Juan; Currlin, Seth W; Herzog, Herbert; Dotson, Cedrick D; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2013-11-20

    Hormone peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y2R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. We describe here a novel approach of elevating PYY in saliva in mice, which, although reliably inducing strong anorexic responses, does not cause aversive reactions. The augmentation of salivary PYY activated forebrain areas known to mediate feeding, hunger, and satiation while minimally affecting brainstem chemoreceptor zones triggering nausea. By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y2R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. The discovery of this alternative circuit that regulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion may open the possibility of a therapeutic application of PYY for the treatment of obesity via direct oral application.

  12. Role of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in chronic periodontitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Namita; Gupta, N D; Gupta, Akash; Khan, Saif; Bansal, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the periodontium. Any imbalance between the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by neutrophils and tissue inhibitors initiates the destruction of collagen in gum tissue, leading to chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to correlate salivary levels of MMP-8 and periodontal parameters of chronic periodontitis to establish MMP-8 as a noninvasive marker for the early diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. The study involved 40 subjects visiting the periodontic OPD of Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College and Hospital, located in Aligarh, U.P., India, from 2011 to 2012. The subjects were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 20 periodontally healthy subjects (controls) while group II consisted of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis was assessed on the basis of several periodontal parameters, including pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI). Around 3ml of unstimulated and whole expectorated saliva was collected for MMP-8 estimation by ELISA using Quantikine human total MMP-8 immunoassay kits. Data were analyzed using STATISTICA (Windows version 6) software. Salivary MMP-8 levels of groups I and II were 190.91 ± 143.89 ng/ml and 348.26 ± 202.1 ng/ml, respectively. The MMP-8 levels and periodontal status (PPD, CAL, GI, and PI) of groups I and II showed positive and significant correlations (for PPD, r = 0.63, P chronic periodontitis.

  13. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Thou...

  14. Magnetic resonance sialography for investigating major salivary gland duct system after intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Dan; He Xiayun; Zhang Yunyan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the value of magnetic resonance sialography for evaluating xerostomia induced by intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fourteen patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Salivary function was assessed by magnetic resonance sialography and subjective evaluation criteria pre-treatment, 1 week and 1 year post-radiotherapy. A magnetic resonance sialography categorical scoring system was used to compare the visibility of salivary ducts. The average mean dose was 38.93 Gy to the parotid glands and 59.34 Gy to the submandibular glands. Before radiotherapy, the visibility scores of both the parotid and submandibular ducts increased after secretion stimulation. The scores decreased and the response to stimulation was attenuated 1 week post-radiotherapy. For most of the parotid ducts, the visibility score improved at 1 year post-radiotherapy both at rest and under stimulation, but not for the submandibular ducts. With a median follow-up of 12.3 months, 8/12 patients had grade 1 xerostomia and 4/12 had grade 2 xerostomia. Magnetic resonance sialography allows non-invasive evaluation of radiation-induced ductal changes in the major salivary glands and enables reliable prediction of radiation-induced xerostomia. (author)

  15. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  16. EMMPRIN contributes to the in vitro invasion of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, XINJIE; ZHANG, PU; MA, QIN; KONG, LIANG; LI, YUAN; LIU, BAOLIN; LEI, DELIN

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor invasion by stimulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Our previous immunohistochemical study found that the expression of EMMPRIN in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) was positively correlated with tumor perineural and perivascular invasion. The present study was designed to further investigate the role of EMMPRIN in the invasion of SACC. Western blot results showed that EMMPRIN was upregulated in the highly metastatic SACC cell line SACC-LM, compared to SACC-83, a SACC cell line with low metastatic ability. Blocking of EMMPRIN by its antibody significantly decreased the adhesion, secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and invasion activity of SACC-LM cells in vitro (PEMMPRIN may play an important role in the invasion of SACC by stimulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumor and stromal cells. PMID:22200897

  17. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  18. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage may cause tracheal damage in patients with few oropharyngeal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suys, E; Nieboer, K; Stiers, W; De Regt, J; Huyghens, L; Spapen, H

    2013-12-01

    Injurious prolapse of tracheal mucosa into the suction port has been reported in up to 50% of intubated patients receiving continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. We investigated whether similar injury could be inflicted by automated intermittent aspiration. Six consecutive patients, intubated with the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard Evac™ endotracheal tube, were studied. A flow sensor was placed between the vacuum regulating system and the mucus collector. Intermittent suctioning was performed at a pressure of -125 mmHg with a 25s interval and duration of 15s. After 24h, a CT scan of the tracheal region was performed. Excessive negative suction pressure, a fast drop in aspiration flow to zero, and important "swinging" movements of secretions in the evacuation line were observed in all patients. Oral instillation of antiseptic mouthwash restored normal aspiration flow and secretion mobility. CT imaging showed marked entrapment of tracheal mucosa into the suction port in all patients. In patients with few oropharyngeal secretions, automated intermittent subglottic aspiration may result in significant and potential harmful invagination of tracheal mucosa into the suction lumen. A critical amount of fluid must be present in the oropharynx to assure adequate and safe aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship among perceived stress, xerostomia, and salivary flow rate in patients visiting a saliva clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, Marjolein S; Jan Jager, Derk H; Brand, Henk S

    2018-03-09

    This aimed to assess the potential role of chronic stress in saliva secretion, xerostomia, and oral health in a population attending a saliva clinic. Data of 114 patients who met the inclusion criteria and completed all questionnaires were analyzed in this study. Participants completed several validated questionnaires, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), Xerostomia Inventory (XI), and Bother xerostomia Index (BI). Subsequently, the unstimulated, chewing-stimulated, and citric acid-stimulated saliva secretion rates were determined gravimetrically. Data were evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U test. A significant correlation was observed between perceived stress and XI score (r = 0.312, p = 0.001), as well as between perceived stress and BI score (r = 0.334, p = 0.001). Stress levels also were significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (r = 0.420, p stress and salivary flow rate could not be established. In this population, perceived chronic stress seems to be related to several aspects of dry mouth, including the perception of dry mouth, suffering from dry mouth, and the impact on quality of life. These effects were independent of the use of psychotropic medication. No actual reduction in salivary flow was found. Further studies to explore the causal linkage of stress with xerostomia seem warranted. Perceived chronic stress seems to be related with several aspects of dry mouth. This finding might be relevant in future prevention and treatment of xerostomia.

  20. Salivary calcium concentration and periodontal health of young adults in relation to tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutej, Ivana; Peros, Kristina; Benutic, Anica; Capak, Krunoslav; Basic, Kresimir; Rosin-Grget, Kata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking and salivary calcium on the periodontal status of young adults. Plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing, supragingival calculus, DMFT index, salivary flow, pH and salivary calcium in unstimulated salivary samples were recorded in smokers and nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to salivary flow (P = 0.08) and calcium level (P = 0.09). Significant correlations (P smoking of tobacco cigarettes in young healthy subjects may not have a significant impact on salivary flow or calcium concentrations in unstimulated saliva, but an association exists between an increased level of salivary calcium and development of periodontal disease.

  1. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Shimane, Toshikazu; Uzuki, Aya; Sugimoto, Akane; Mori, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Rio; Gomibuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  2. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  3. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Salivary Glands of Two Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, That Differ in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant–herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH–rice interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH–rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to ‘metabolism,’ ‘digestion and absorption,’ and ‘salivary secretion’ might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n=35 and a control group (group B, n=36. We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P<0.05. In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  6. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  7. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  8. Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2013-09-15

    Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  10. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period.

  11. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  12. A repertoire of the dominant transcripts from the salivary glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma dimidiata, a vector of Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Sakoda, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Triatoma (T.) dimidiata is a hematophagous Hemiptera and a main vector of Chagas disease. The saliva of this and other blood-sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. To describe the repertoire of potential bioactive salivary molecules from this insect, a number of randomly selected transcripts from the salivary gland cDNA library of T. dimidiata were sequenced and analyzed. This analysis showed that 77.5% of the isolated transcripts coded for putative secreted proteins, and 89.9% of these coded for variants of the lipocalin family proteins. The most abundant transcript was a homologue of procalin, the major allergen of T. protracta saliva, and contributed more than 50% of the transcripts coding for putative secreted proteins, suggesting that it may play an important role in the blood-feeding process. Other salivary transcripts encoding lipocalin family proteins had homology to triabin (a thrombin inhibitor), triafestin (an inhibitor of kallikrein–kinin system), pallidipin (an inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation) and others with unknown function. PMID:19900580

  13. Partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts’ rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present study was aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE of H. a. anatolicum ticks with a view that this information could be utilized in raising vaccines, designing synthetic peptides or peptidomimetics which can further be developed as novel therapeutics. Materials and Methods: Salivary glands were dissected out from partially fed adult female H. a. anatolicum ticks and homogenized under the ice to prepare SGE. Gel filtration chromatography was performed using Sephadex G-50 column to fractionate the crude extract. Protein was estimated in each fraction and analyzed for identification of anti-inflammatory activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was run for further characterization of protein in desired fractions. Results: A novel 28 kDa protein was identified in H. a. anatolicum SGE with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Purification and partial characterization of H. a. anatolicum SGE by size-exclusion chromatography and SDSPAGE depicted a 28 kDa protein with prominent anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  15. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  16. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  17. Radioisotopic methods in the study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.; Focacci, C.

    1986-01-01

    The results achieved by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy in 272 patients over a ten year time (January 1976-December 1985) are reported. On the basis of a semi-quantitative assessment of time/activity curves, dynamic studies prove to be the most suitable method for studying functional disorders (phlogosis, facial paralisis, etc.). Harmlesness, easy execution and functional results are the mains advantages of radioisotope techniques. Salivary gland scintigraphy has some limits in the study of space occupying lesions (SOL): however, ultrasounds, CT and sialography represent the methods of choice in this field of salivary gland pathology

  18. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Brandao, Luis E.; Candeiro, Ricardo E.; Rebelo, Ana M.O.; Corbo, Rossana; Dutra, Janaina

    2008-01-01

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na 131 I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131 I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131 I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131 I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131 I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131 I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 1 31 I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na 131 I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  19. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    OpenAIRE

    A Kumar; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  20. Occurrence of specific influenza antibodies in saliva and nasal secretion of monkeys (Macacus rhesus) after oral administration of influenza vaccine inactivated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischner, H.; Huyuh, P.L.; Phan, P.N.; Bergmann, K.C.; Hoang, T.N.; Luther, P.; Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Waldman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies in nasal secretion and saliva were measured in 10 Macacus rhesus wich had been immunized orally with a 60 Co-gamma-inactivated influenza vaccine. Prior to immunization monkeys had no detectable antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, resp. in sera or secretions. Oral immunization using intraoesophageal tubing, induced the occurrence of both antiobodies in pilocarpine-stimulated secretions within 28 days but not in sera. 6 monkeys reacted with increasing HA antibodies in nasal secretions and 10 monkeys with increasing neuraminidase antibodies. Salivary HA antibodies occurred in 8 of 10 and neuraminidase antibodies in 9 of 10 animals. In most cases antibodies occurred in both secretions simultaneously. These results demonstrate the stimulation of antibodies specific to influenza in the respiratory tract of monkeys after oral immunization with an inactivated vaccine, for the first time. (author)

  1. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  2. Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence

  3. Impedance Biosensors and Deep Crater Salivary Gland Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Robert A.

    The salivary gland is a complex, branching organ whose primary biological function is the production of the fluid critical to alimentary function and the lubrication and maintenance of the oral cavity, saliva. The most frequent disruption of the salivary organ system is one in which the rate of supply of saliva into the oral cavity is diminished, and this may vary from a minor reduction, to near cessation. Regenerative medicine is a field which seeks to find ways to overcome the symptoms of organ malfunction or damage by inducing regrowth, repair and replacement of partial or whole organ function. Historically, the only methods available to medical experts were certain chemical drugs and transplantation, each of which suffers from significant risks and drawbacks. Tissue Engineering arose in the past few decades thanks to the seminal work of Robert Langer with the charter mission of finding new biomaterials and techniques to achieve these ends. The original concept of tissue engineering was the cell or tissue scaffold, which is supports the regrowth of cells by making intimate contact with adherent cells, and induces improved regrowth in vitro or in vivo by providing mechanical or chemical signaling cues. Epithelial cell types such as salivary glands have structural functional polarity at the cellular level, an apical side which faces a void, and a basal side which faces the support substrate. While 3D scaffolds such as hydrogels maximize interaction area between cells and substrate, they struggle to develop cohesive tissues beyond the scale of small cellular clusters . 2D scaffolds enforce a defined polarity by allowing cell interaction at only one side of the cell. Langer pioneered the use of polymer nanofibers as the premier synthetic 2D scaffold biomaterial, due to their exceptionally high nano-scale surface area, and collagen-imitating structure. Prior work has established PLGA nanofibers, which allow salivary cells to attach, proliferate, and generate a

  4. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in pat...

  5. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  6. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  7. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  8. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  9. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Rui; Lobo, Maria Joao C.; Duarte, Jose; Ferrer-Correia, Antonio J.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Dubin, Joshua R.; Domingues, Pedro M.; Amado, Francisco M.L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  10. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  11. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  12. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using electrolyte analyzer CORNLEY ACCULYTE‑3P in ion‑selective electrode method. Salivary .... Table 2: Gender wise distribution of test and control groups. Sex. Group. Total .... medications like diuretics should also focus attention on the.

  13. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during ... teins in saliva are important components and any chan- ... Sialochemical analysis .... quantities of protein utilizing the principal of protein-dye binding. Anal biochem.

  14. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  15. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  16. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  17. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  18. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  19. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raquin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.raquin@univ-lyon1.fr [Insect-Virus Interactions Group, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 3012, 75015 Paris (France); Lambrechts, Louis, E-mail: louis.lambrechts@pasteur.fr [Insect-Virus Interactions Group, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 3012, 75015 Paris (France)

    2017-07-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidence that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.

  20. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raquin, Vincent; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidence that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. - Highlights: •Strand-specific RT-qPCR allows accurate quantification of DENV (-) RNA in mosquito tissues. •Detection of DENV (-) RNA in salivary glands provides evidence of viral replication in this tissue. •Viral replication in salivary glands likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission.

  1. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  2. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  3. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A J; Shukle, R H; Chen, M-S; Srivastava, S; Subramanyam, S; Schemerhorn, B J; Weintraub, P G; Abdel Moniem, H E M; Flanders, K L; Buntin, G D; Williams, C E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions. PMID:25528896

  4. Release Pattern of Salivary Chromogranin A in Pediatric Subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Ku Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB is associated with activation of the stress response, including the autonomic nervous system. Salivary chromogranin A (sCgA is considered a valuable indicator of sympathoadrenal activity. We examined the relationship between sCgA and polysomnography (PSG parameters. Methods In this prospective study, we enrolled 103 children who underwent a physical examination and fully attended in-lab PSG. Saliva was collected at night before PSG and in the early morning after PSG. Results The subjects (n = 103 were divided into control [n = 41, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≤ 1] and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS; n = 62, AHI > 1 groups. The OSAS group was subdivided into mild (1 < AHI ≤ 5, moderate (5 < AHI ≤ 10, and severe (10 < AHI groups. There was no significant difference in the sCgA parameters between the control and OSAS groups. No significant difference was observed in sCgA parameters between the control group and OSAS subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe. No circadian rhythm was detected in sCgA secretion, and no difference in sCgA concentrations was measured at the two time points. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sCgA secretion was not influenced by OSAS severity and no definitive circadian rhythm was detected in pediatric subjects. Further study is needed to establish whether there is a circadian rhythm in pediatric subjects.

  5. Functional impairment of the salivary gland after high dose radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1986-06-01

    Radiation induced impairements of salivation, which are rather related to the more radio-sensitive parotides than to the submandibular glands according to our experience, occur in about 1/3 of the patients treated with 7,4-11,1 GBq (200-300 mCi) of I-131. Based on our results and experiences after percutaneous radiation therapy of the head and neck region, a total xerostomy (Sicca's syndrome) must already be expected at a focal dose of 40 Gy to the salivary gland parenchyma. Experience has shown that this cumulative radiation dose is reached at about 18,5 GBq (500 mCi) of I-131. The acute sialadenitis occuring a few days after therapeutic administration of radioiodine is mostly associated with minor complaints and therefore often escapes the patient's notice. During the onset of xerostomy, which is associated with a moderate reduction of salivation, the patients are surprisingly indolent. However, specific examinations including patient's history, palpation and functional scintigraphy enable early detection of radiation induced functional depression of the salivary glands, which should be accounted for in the assessment of indication for further radioiodine therapy. To prevent the severe consequences of xerostomy such as ageusia, dysphagia, epithelial lesion of the oral mucosa and loss of teeth, the patients under radioiodine therapy should be urged to see to sufficient fluid supply and to steadily stimulate salivation e.g. by sour drops, chewing gum or Emser pastilles.

  6. The Evaluation of a Low-Cost Colorimeter for Glucose Detection in Salivary Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Rocio B; Orozco, Miguel A; Chávez, Giovanny; Márquez-Lucero, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    Given the limited access to healthcare resources, low-income settings require the development of affordable technology. Here we present the design and evaluation of a low-cost colorimeter applied to the non-invasive monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus through the detection of glucose in salival fluid. Samples were processed by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic system and analyzed with the development equipment. A light emission diode of 532.5 nm was used as an excitation source and a RGB module was used as a receptor. A calibration curve to quantify the concentration of salivary glucose (0 to 18 mg/dL) was carried out by relating the RGB components registered with glucose concentrations, achieving a limit of detection of 0.17 mg/dL with a CV of 5% (n = 3). Salivary samples of diabetic and healthy volunteers were processed with the equipment showing an average concentration of 1.5519 ± 0.4511 mg/dL for the first and 4.0479 ± 1.6103 mg/dL for the last, allowing a discrimination between both groups. Results were validated against a UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer with a correspondence of R² of 0.98194 between both instruments. Results suggest the potential application of the developed device to the sensitive detection of relevant analytes with a low-cost, user-friendly, low-power and portable instrumentation.

  7. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  8. Mindfulness training attenuates the increase in salivary cortisol concentration associated with competition in highly trained wheelchair-basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Luke A; Minahan, Clare L

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the effect of 8 wk of mindfulness training (MT) on salivary cortisol (sCort) and rate of salivary Immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) secretion in wheelchair-basketball players during a competition period. The mindful group completed 8 weeks of MT in addition to training and competition. sCort and rate of sIgA secretion were measured at baseline, at 2-week intervals, the end and 2 weeks following the intervention. A significant time and group interaction was observed for sCort (F = 3.297, P = 0.040, ES = 0.191); sCort increased in the control group from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.001) and remained significantly elevated at MT-4wk (P = 0.013) and MT-6wk (P = 0.002). sCort decreased from MT-6wk to MT-8wk (P  0.05). Mindful group sCort increased from MT-BL to MT-2wk (P = 0.042) but decreased to concentrations no different to MT-BL for the rest of the intervention period (P > 0.05). There were no group differences in rate of sIgA secretion during the intervention (P = 0.810). It was concluded that 8 weeks of MT attenuated the increase in sCort associated with the competition period.

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  10. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P A; Guggenheimer, J; Etzel, K R; Weyant, R J; Orchard, T

    2001-09-01

    The Oral Health Science Institute at the University of Pittsburgh has completed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 406 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 268 control subjects without diabetes that assessed the associations between oral health and diabetes. This report describes the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia), the prevalence of hyposalivation in this population, and the possible interrelationships between salivary dysfunction and diabetic complications. The subjects with diabetes were participants in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study who were enrolled in an oral health substudy. Control subjects were spouses or best friends of participants or persons recruited from the community through advertisements in local newspapers. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia measures and quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates. Subjects with diabetes reported symptoms of dry mouth more frequently than did control subjects. Salivary flow rates were also impaired in the subjects with diabetes. Regression models of potential predictor variables were created for the 3 self-reported xerostomia measures and 4 salivary flow rate variables. Of the medical diabetic complications studied (ie, retinopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, and peripheral vascular disease), only neuropathy was found to be associated with xerostomia and decreased salivary flow measures. A report of dry-mouth symptoms was associated with current use of cigarettes, dysgeusia (report of a bad taste), and more frequent snacking behavior. Xerogenic medications and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with decreased salivary flow. Resting salivary flow rates less than 0.01 mL/min were associated with a slightly higher prevalence of dental caries. Subjects who reported higher levels of alcohol consumption were less likely to have lower rates of stimulated

  11. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  12. Adrenergic effects on exocrine secretion of rat submandibular epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1984-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat submandibular glands and to test the possibility of intestinal absorption of EGF. Alpha-adrenergic agonists increased the concentration...... of salivary EGF by approximately a hundred times, while the serum concentration of EGF was unchanged. The contents of EGF in the submandibular glands decreased upon administration of the alpha-adrenergic agonist noradrenaline, and this was confirmed on immunohistochemical investigation of the glands. Beta-adrenergic....... This study shows that alpha-adrenergic agonists stimulate exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF and that EGF in physiological amounts are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract....

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  14. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  15. pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate in cancer patients: correlation with seric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Alvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira

    2008-07-01

    To determine the correlation between pH and bicarbonate of soda in blood and saliva in child and adolescent patients during the administration of 3 g/m2 of methotrexate. A controlled clinical test was performed on 23 patients diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Ages ranged from 4 to 18. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient was used to interpret the data. No significant correlation was found between pH levels and seric and salivary sodium bicarbonate. However, there was a significant correlation between the levels of sodium bicarbonate in the body fluids evaluated (rs 0.2576, p=0.0354). Changes modifying the microenvironment of the oral cavity probably do not allow saliva to be used to determine blood pH and seric bicarbonate.

  16. Salivary diagnostics and its impact in dentistry, research, education, and the professional community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C; Fox, C H; Meyer, D M

    2011-10-01

    Oral fluid-based (salivary) tests have the potential to create practical, point-of-care clinical instruments that are convenient, practical, and comfortable to use in dentistry and medicine. Currently, there are no simple, accurate, and inexpensive sampling, screening, or detection methods to support definitive diagnostic platforms across dental and medical disciplines. Though the benefits from advancing screening and detection technologies seem eminent, analytical, chemical, molecular, genetic, and protein markers are still under development. Clinical applications in patient care must be validated independently to ensure that they are clinically accurate, reliable, precise, and uniformly consistent for screening and detecting specific diseases or conditions. As technology designed to improve patient care through risk assessment, prevention, and disease management is transferred into clinical practice, dentistry may need to reassess its role in general health care. © International & American Associations for Dental Research

  17. Mycoplasma orale infection affects K+ and Cl- currents in the HSG salivary gland cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, K T; Fatherazi, S; Belton, C M; Oda, D; Cartwright, F D; Kenny, G E

    1996-06-01

    The relations between K+ channel and Cl- channel currents and mycoplasma infection status were studied longitudinally in HSG cells, a human submandibular gland cell line. The K+ channel currents were disrupted by the occurrence of mycoplasma infection: muscarinic activation of K+ channels and K+ channel expression as estimated by ionomycin- or hypotonically induced K+ current responses were all decreased. Similar decreases in ionomycin- and hypotonically induced responses were observed for Cl- channels, but only the latter decrease was statistically significant. Also, Cl- currents could be elicited more frequently than K+ currents (63% of cases versus 0%) in infected cells when tested by exposure to hypotonic media, indicating that mycoplasma infection affects K+ channels relatively more than Cl- channels. These changes occurred in the originally infected cells, were ameliorated when the infection was cleared with sparfloxacin, and recurred when the cells were reinfected. Such changes would be expected to result in hyposecretion of salivary fluid if they occurred in vivo.

  18. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  19. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

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    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  20. Lectin histochemistry of salivary glands in the giant ant-eater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Beyer, C; Wissdorf, H

    1993-04-01

    The submandibular and buccal glands of the Giant Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) have been studied by means of a series of carbohydrate histochemical methods, including a broad spectrum of PO-lectin procedures. The seromucous cells (Gl. submandibularis) and mucous cells (Gl. buccalis) of the glandular acini, as well as the secretion in the excretory duct system exhibited very strong to strong reactions for neutral and acidic glycoconjugates. The serous cells of the buccal glands and the excretory duct cells reacted rather weakly. The different controls applied particularly emphasized that sialoglycoconjugates are the predominant ingredients of the saliva secreted. Lectin histochemical differentiation demonstrated a varying pattern of saccharide residues in these substances. In the submandibular glands the glycoconjugates (mostly proteoglycans) of the seromucous cells and the luminal secretion normally contained terminal beta-galactose and minor contents of terminal alpha-N-acetylglucosamine. After sialidase digestion this cell type exhibited distinct amounts of sialic acid-beta-galactose and sialic acid-alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine. Sialic acid was also clearly present in the tough interlobular connective tissue. The buccal glands showed a similar distribution of saccharide residues in the mucous cells. In the serous cells, however, acidic glycoproteins with sialyl residues were observed, also containing terminal alpha-D-mannosyl, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl, and beta-D-galactosyl residues. The cells of the excretory duct system of both gland types reacted weakly to moderately for terminal sugar residues (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-D-galactose). The results obtained are discussed in view of the specific feeding mode of the Giant Ant-eater, whereby high contents of sialoglycoconjugates (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) produced by the salivary glands warrant for the main function of the non-sticky saliva; i.e., to act as an effective

  1. Role of nitric oxide of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO in the alterations of salivary flow, arterial pressure and heart rate induced by injection of pilocarpine into the MnPO and intraperitoneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Saad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO-donating agent, on pilocarpine-induced alterations in salivary flow, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR in rats. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were implanted with a stainless steel cannula directly into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO. Pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO induced an increase in salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg ip also increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO or ip (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO or ip prior to pilocarpine attenuated salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (40 µg injection into the MnPO increased MAP and decreased HR (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg body weight ip produced a decrease in MAP and an increase in HR (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine potentiated the increase in MAP and reduced HR (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine attenuated (100% the effect of pilocarpine on MAP, with no effect on HR. Administration of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO potentiated the effect of pilocarpine injected ip. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO attenuated the effect of ip pilocarpine on MAP and HR. The present study suggests that in the rat MnPO 1 NO is important for the effects of pilocarpine on salivary flow, and 2 pilocarpine interferes with blood pressure and HR (side effects of pilocarpine, that is attenuated by NO.

  2. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  3. Estimation of salivary neopterin in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Little; Mahendra, Jaideep; Borra, Sai Krishna; Nagarajan, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common bacterial infection predominantly associated with Gram-negative microorganisms that exist in the subgingival biofilm. Analysis of saliva provides a noninvasive means of evaluating the role of the host response in periodontal disease. Though salivary enzymes can be used as the biomarkers, neopterin has been recently used as one of the important diagnostic tools in the field of periodontics. Hence, we aimed to identify the neopterin levels in unsimulated saliva from the chronic periodontitis patients and compare them with the periodontally healthy subjects. Twenty subjects participated in the study and were categorized as the experimental group (chronic periodontitis patients) and control groups (healthy subjects). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from both the groups for neopterin estimation. Neopterin in saliva was estimated using Shimadzu High Performance Liquid Chromatography with LC-20AD pump system, equipped with RF-10 AXL fluorescence detector. Data were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 6.0 (California, USA). Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test. The neopterin level in unstimulated saliva was found to be higher in the experimental group than the control group with P≤0.05. The chronic periodontitis patients showed higher neopterin level in unstimulated saliva as compared to control. Hence, neopterin can be used as a potential biomarker for identification of the periodontal disease in its initial stage can help in preventing the disease progression.

  4. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (St?l) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice ...

  5. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  6. Long-term repair of salivary function after radiotherapy for head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.; Shirato, H.; Nishiyama, N.; Nishioka, T.; Kitahara, T.; Oomori, K.; Arimoto, T.; Miyasaka, K.; Nakamura, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the late repair of salivary function after irradiation of whole parotid glands, long-term follow-up of salivary function has been performed by using radioisotope (RI) sialography. Methods and Material: RI sialography using 99m Tc-pertechnetate was performed more than two times in 26 patients with a nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal tumor in whom bilateral whole parotid glands were included in the irradiation field. The average dose to the parotid gland was estimated using the dose-volume-histogram reduction method. The parotid gland function was estimated using the secretion ratio (SR) of RI after acid stimulation. SR was measured before and 2 months to 5 years after the radiotherapy sequentially in the same patients. Results: In nine patients with a dose to the parotid gland between 55 and 70 Gy, or time-dose-factor (TDF), between 88 and 126, SR measured more than two months after radiotherapy was less than 10% and no recovery was seen. In 13 out of 17 patients with a dose to the parotid gland between 30 and 52 Gy, or TDF value between 46 and 80, SR was less than 10% in the first 6 months. Then it recovered to be more than 15% one to two years later. Duration between the start of radiotherapy and the SR recovery was between 7 and 18 months. Symptomatic recovery of xerostomia significantly correlated with the sialographic recovery. Conclusion: Parotid function decreased in the first 6 months after irradiation of the whole glands more than 30 Gy with no exception. However, when the total dose to the parotid glands is less than 52 Gy, or the TDF value is less than 80, partial recovery of parotid function may occur one to two years after the irradiation. This suggests that, even for the treatment where the whole parotid gland must be in the radiation field, reduction of dose to the parotid glands using 3-D treatment planning may be beneficial to reduce xerostomia

  7. Salivary estradiol and testosterone in Filipino men: Diurnal patterns and relationships with adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; McDade, Thomas W; Feranil, Alan B; Agustin, Sonny S; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    We used detailed saliva sampling procedures to test for diurnal changes in men's salivary estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and assessed whether greater adiposity predicted higher E2 and T. We drew on a subsample of young adults enrolled in a long-running birth cohort study in Metro Cebu, Philippines. Subjects provided saliva samples at four time points during the day (waking, waking +40 min, early evening, and bedtime), which were assayed for E2 and T. Using these detailed hormonal data, we calculated E2 (n = 29) and T (n = 44) area-under-the-curve values, which provide insights on hormonal production over the study period. While T declined immediately after waking and reached a nadir in the early evening, E2 did not show significant diurnal change (P ≥ 0.1) but was positively correlated to T at multiple time points (P ≤ 0.05). Subjects with higher adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, skinfolds) had elevated E2 secretion throughout the day (P ≤ 0.01), but adiposity was not related to salivary T. Consistent with past research, our results indicate that adipose tissue is a significant site of E2 production in males but differ from a limited number of prior studies of young men in that we did not find lower T with increasing adiposity. Given E2's role in male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function and complex interfaces with the immune system, these results have important implications for models of male life history as rates of overweight and obesity rise in populations around the world. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  9. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  10. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  11. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olatunde Olayanju

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  12. Functional effects of proinflammatory factors present in Sjögren's syndrome salivary microenvironment in an in vitro model of human salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Franco, Mayte; Dominguez-Luis, María; Pec, Martina K; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos; Miranda, Pablo; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Giraldez, Teresa; García-Verdugo, José María; Machado, José David; Díaz-González, Federico

    2017-09-19

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy in which the role that the immune response plays in reducing exocrine gland function, including the glandular microenvironment of cytokines, has not been fully understood. Epithelial cells from biopsies of human parotid gland (HPG) were used to establish a model of human salivary gland in vitro. In this model, the functional consequences of several proinflammatory soluble factors present in the pSS glandular microenvironment were assessed. Stimulation with isoproterenol and calcium produced a significant increase in the basal activity of amylase in the HPG cell supernatants. Under these conditions, the presence of TNF-α and CXCL12 increased amylase mRNA cellular abundance, but reduced the amylase activity in the cell-free supernatant in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β and IFN-γ, but not TGF-β, also diminished amylase secretion by HPG cells. These results suggest that the glandular microenvironment of cytokine, by acting post-transcriptionally, may be responsible, at least in part, for the reduced exocrine function observed in pSS patients. These data may help to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SS, which in turn would facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets for this disorder.

  13. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion.7. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte...... composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO(3). The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked...... unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  14. Comparison of salivary collection and processing methods for quantitative HHV-8 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, D J; Johnson, N W

    2014-10-01

    Saliva is a proved diagnostic fluid for the qualitative detection of infectious agents, but the accuracy of viral load determinations is unknown. Stabilising fluids impede nucleic acid degradation, compared with collection onto ice and then freezing, and we have shown that the DNA Genotek P-021 prototype kit (P-021) can produce high-quality DNA after 14 months of storage at room temperature. Here we evaluate the quantitative capability of 10 collection/processing methods. Unstimulated whole mouth fluid was spiked with a mixture of HHV-8 cloned constructs, 10-fold serial dilutions were produced, and samples were extracted and then examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Calibration curves were compared by linear regression and qPCR dynamics. All methods extracted with commercial spin columns produced linear calibration curves with large dynamic range and gave accurate viral loads. Ethanol precipitation of the P-021 does not produce a linear standard curve, and virus is lost in the cell pellet. DNA extractions from the P-021 using commercial spin columns produced linear standard curves with wide dynamic range and excellent limit of detection. When extracted with spin columns, the P-021 enables accurate viral loads down to 23 copies μl(-1) DNA. The quantitative and long-term storage capability of this system makes it ideal for study of salivary DNA viruses in resource-poor settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Oshiumi, Y.; Yonetsu, K.; Muranaka, T.; Sakai, K.; Kanda, S.; National Fukuoka Central Hospital

    1991-01-01

    Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome were performed in 17 patients and 6 volunteers as controls. The ability of SPECT to detect small differences in the level of uptake can be used to separate glands from background even when uptake is reduced as in the patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. In control and probable Sjoegren's syndrome groups the uptake ratio of the submandibular gland to parotid gland on salivary SPECT (S/P ratio) was less than 1.0. However, in the definite Sjoergren's syndrome group, the ratio was more than 1.0. Moreover, the ratio in all patients with sialectasia, which is characteristic of Sjoegren's syndrome, was more than 1.0. Salivary factor analysis of normal parotid glands showed slowly increasing patterns of uptake and normal submandibular glands had rapidly increasing patterns of uptake. However, in the definite Sjoegren's syndrome group, the factor analysis patterns were altered, with slowly increasing patterns dominating both in the parotid and submandibular glands. These results suggest that the S/P ratio in salivary SPECT and salivary factor analysis provide additional radiologic criteria in diagnosing Sjoegren's syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera-Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia; Morales-Bozo, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia.

  18. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  19. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  20. Salivary buffer effect in relation to late pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M; Pienihäkkinen, K

    2000-02-01

    We studied the salivary pH, buffer effect (BE), and flow rates of unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva of 8 women in their late pregnancy and postpartum. Salivary samples were collected about 1 month prior to and about 2 months after delivery. In non-pregnant control women, two paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected 1 month apart. The salivary BE increased significantly from late pregnancy to postpartum without exception. The increase was 2.04 +/- 1.17 pH units (P pH) to 6.82 +/- 1.01 (final pH). This change was not due to variation in salivary flow rates, since both unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated flow rates remained unchanged. In control women the difference between the 2 BE measurements was only 0.13 +/- 0.47 pH units on average. We concluded that women with high postpartum BE values may have moderate or even low BE values in late pregnancy. In control women, individual variation was found to be low in all variables studied.

  1. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naous, Hussein.

    1973-01-01

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands [fr

  2. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  3. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The effects of a three-week resistance exercise plus whole body vibration (WBV on the testosterone-free cortisole ratio differences and activity of the α-salivary amylase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadAli Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Researchers have already reported the hormonal responses of the effects of isolated resistance exercise or whole body vibration (WBV. However, no documents are available on the combination of the resistance exercise plus WBV on biomarkers, particularly salivary α-amylase activity as well as free testosterone to cortisol ratio (FTCR. Materials and Methods: To discover this, thirty young football players were randomly allocated into three WBV (n=10, resistance exercise (n=10, and a combination of both (n=10. The subjects took nine sessions of exercise during a three-week period. The WBV included one minute exercise followed by one minute rest for 10 minutes with 50 Hz frequency, four mm. transverse translation and in semi-squat standing condition. The resistive exercise included three-period exercises with 70% one-maximal repetition with a two-minute rest interval. The third group carried out the resistance exercise firstly and then WBV. The pre / post salivary samples were collected. Results: It showed that the concentration of the cortisol and the salivary α-amylaseactivity increased significantly. The testosterone increased among all groups following the first session, but significantly decreased at the last session. The statistical analysis showed a significant increase in cortisol concentration only in WBV group (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results confirmed that hormone secretion requires an acceptable threshold of both intensity and duration of training. In addition, secretion of the α-salivary amylase responses to various physiologic stresses immediately. In submaximal exercises, there is probably no difference among training techniques, WHB and strengthening exercises. The current study also emphasizes on salivary α-amylaseactivity immediately following physiological stresses.

  5. Salivary caries parameters: Comparative study among Yemeni khat chewers and nonchewers

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Rashad Al-Alimi; Abdul Aziz Abdul Razak; Roslan Saub

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Millions of people in Yemen and East African countries chew khat for more than 5 hours daily for its amphetamine-like effects. Previous studies have associated khat chewing with salivary glands enlargement, inflammation, and xerostomia. However, no information is available on the possible effects of this habit on salivary parameters. This comparative study aims to evaluate salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH, and viscosity among Yemeni khat chewers and nonc...

  6. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  7. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  8. Salivary melatonin levels and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with hypertensive and glucose metabolic disorders: A prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mieko; Seki, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Michikazu; Hayase, Mako; Shirai, Fumie

    2016-02-01

    In preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, the sympathetic nerves are activated, leading to disrupted sleep. Melatonin, which transmits information to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm and other such biorhythms, has been implicated in insulin resistance, antioxidant behaviors, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, its reduced secretion increases the risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the features of melatonin secretion, sleep quality, and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with complications. Fifty-eight pregnant women with pregnancy complications (hypertensive or glucose metabolic disorders) and 40 healthy pregnant women completed questionnaires, including sleep logs and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), during the second to third trimesters. Their salivary melatonin levels were also measured. Pregnant women with complications had significantly lower morning (p melatonin values than healthy pregnant women. Pregnant women with complications also had significantly smaller melatonin amplitudes than healthy pregnant women (p melatonin secretion, and their values were lower throughout the day than healthy pregnant women.

  9. Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: differences between real and sham intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Brattinga, C.R.; Kekem, van C.; Neyraud, E.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and

  10. Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: Differences between real and sham intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Brattinga, C.; Kekem, K. van; Neyraud, E.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and

  11. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact...

  12. [Xerostomia, hyposialia, sicca syndrome--quantitative disturbances of the salivary flow rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezák, R; Berglová, I; Krejsek, J

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of salivary glands may be associated with salivary flow rate disturbances. Production of the saliva is evaluated by sialometric tests. The stress is putted on salivary flow rate disturbances in Sjögren's syndrome, drug-induced and postirradiative sialopathy, and diabetes mellitus. The possibility of the stimulation and substitution of the saliva is discussed.

  13. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland tumors in children are very rare and prognosis is usually good. Salivary gland tumors may occur after radiation therapy and chemotherapy for treatment of primary leukemia or solid tumors. Get detailed information about the incidence, histology, clinical presentation and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  14. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  15. Impact of Oral Hygiene Discontinuation on Supragingival and Salivary Microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Sembler-Møller, M L; Grande, M A

    2018-01-01

    of oral hygiene. Supragingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by next-generation sequencing (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) and microbial community profiles were compared. Microbial composition of supragingival plaque samples collected after 4, 7, and 10 d......The purpose of the present study was to characterize and compare supragingival and salivary microbiotas during a 10-d period of oral hygiene discontinuation. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of the salivary microbiota will reflect local microbial changes associated with accumulated...... biofilm formation and maturation. Pooled supragingival plaque (n = 145) and stimulated saliva (n = 145) samples were collected and plaque and gingival indices were recorded from 29 orally healthy individuals at baseline, during oral hygiene discontinuation (days 4, 7, and 10), and 14 d after resumption...

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Canas, Wilmer; Benitez Narvaez, N.

    2006-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

  17. Trastuzumab for HER-2-Positive Advanced Salivary Gland Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tsung Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland adenocarcinoma is a rare type of head and neck cancer and often has aggressive behavior with propensity to recur and metastasize. Currently, there are no standard treatment guidelines. Surgery is however, the mainstay of treatment in resectable disease and radiation is also considered for most patients after surgery. Systemic chemotherapy is reserved for metastatic cases, but its results are often disappointing. Recent development of molecular biology has shown that salivary gland caner has several molecular changes which may guide potential therapeutic targets. Here, we report a 67 year-old man diagnosed to have metastasized minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma with diffuse human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2-positive, by the immunohistochemical (IHC stain. He was treated with a trastuzumab-containing chemotherapeutic regimen with encouraging results.

  18. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik

    1997-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  19. Loneliness depends on salivary estradiol levels in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Obara, Tatsuro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Loneliness is one of the psychological characteristics in adolescence, during which sex hormones are elevated. The elevation of sex steroid hormones is known to sculpture and remodel neuronal circuits, which cause behavioral characteristics in adolescence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness and sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Fifty-eight adolescents (28 boys and 30 girls) participated in this study. The salivary levels of T and E2 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Loneliness was assessed by the UCLA loneliness scale, which is widely used as a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that Salivary E2 levels had positive relevance to loneliness in females, whereas there was no relationship in males. Salivary T level was not shown to be relevant with loneliness in either sex group. These findings suggest that E2 has gender specific effects on loneliness in adolescent females.

  20. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Hirota, Makoto; Iwai, Toshinori; Aoki, Shinjiro; Chikumaru, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Ryoichi; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2007-03-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a distinctive and aggressive neoplasm. The most frequent site of origin is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. SDC originating in the minor salivary glands, particularly in the ectopic glands within the mandible, is extremely rare. We describe a 62-year-old man with SDC in the mandible, who presented with a painless lump in the right submandibular region (later identified as lymph node metastasis) and ipsilateral mental nerve palsy. Histologic examination after ablative surgery revealed SDC originating in the mandible and cervical nodal metastases spreading to levels I-III. The patient remains alive 59 months after presentation as a result of postoperative full-dose irradiation and regular intensive chemotherapy using TXT, 5-FU, and CDDP. However, the patient has local recurrence and distant metastases to the lung and brain. In this report, we also discuss the specific diagnostic criteria and developmental theories of intraosseous salivary gland tumors.

  2. Influence of periodontal treatment on subgingival and salivary microbiotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Grande, Maria Anastasia; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens...... correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study. Stimulated saliva samples and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline and 2, 6 and 12 weeks after non......-surgical periodontal therapy. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique, and characterized based on relative abundance. Spearman signed rank test was used to test correlation of periopathogens in subgingival and saliva samples...

  3. [Analysis of salivary protease spectrum in chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Xuedong, Zhou; Yaping, Fan; Tengyu, Yang; Songtao, Wu; Yu, Yu; Jiao, Chen; Ping, Zhang; Yun, Feng

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the difference in salivary protease expression in patients with chronic periodontitis and normal individuals. The stimulating saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis and normal individuals were collected. Protein chip technology was adapted to analyze salivary protease spectrum. Among the 34 proteases in the chip, disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-12, neprilysin/CD10, and uridylyl phosphate adenosine/urokinase showed a significantly increased concentration in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared with those in the saliva of normal individuals (Pchronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals significantly differed. Analysis of salivary protease spectrum is a potential clinical method to examine, diagnose, and monitor chronic periodontitis.

  4. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  5. Molecular characterization of apocrine salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Williams, Lindsay; Griffith, Christopher C; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Luvison, Alyssa; Roy, Somak; Seethala, Raja R; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary classification and treatment of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) require its thorough molecular characterization. Thirty apocrine SDCs were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations in 50 cancer-related genes. Mutational findings were corroborated by immunohistochemistry (eg, TP53, BRAF, β-catenin, estrogen, and androgen receptors) or Sanger sequencing/SNaPshot polymerase chain reaction. ERBB2 (HER2), PTEN, FGFR1, CDKN2A/P16, CMET, EGFR, MDM2, and PIK3CA copy number changes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TP53 mutations (15/27, 56%), PTEN loss (11/29, 38%, including 2 cases with PTEN mutation), PIK3CA hotspot mutations (10/30, 33%), HRAS hotspot mutations (10/29; 34%), and ERBB2 amplification (9/29, 31%, including 1 case with mutation) represented the 5 most common abnormalities. There was no correlation between genetic changes and clinicopathologic parameters. There was substantial overlap between genetic changes: 8 of 9 cases with ERBB2 amplification also harbored a PIK3CA, HRAS, and TP53 mutation and/or PTEN loss. Six of 10 cases with PIK3CA mutation also had an HRAS mutation. These findings provide a molecular rationale for dual targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways in SDC. FGFR1 amplification (3/29, 10%) represents a new potential target. On the basis of studies of breast carcinomas, the efficacy of anti-ERBB2 therapy will likely be decreased in SDC with ERBB2 amplification co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Therefore, isolated ERBB2 testing is insufficient for theranostic stratification of apocrine SDC. On the basis of the prevalence and type of genetic changes, apocrine SDC appears to resemble one subtype of breast carcinoma-"luminal androgen receptor positive/molecular apocrine."

  6. Secreted osteopontin is highly polymerized in human airways and fragmented in asthmatic airway secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arjomandi

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects. All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation.We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects.These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1 undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2 is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3 may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.

  7. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  8. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estour, A.-B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases [fr

  9. Anchoring tick salivary anti-complement proteins IRAC I and IRAC II to membrane increases their immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Laurent; Schroeder, Hélène; Mast, Jan; Thirion, Muriel; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dewals, Benjamin; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tick salivary proteins are promising targets for the development of anti-tick vaccines. Recently, we described two paralogous anti-complement proteins, called Ixodes ricinus anti-complement (IRAC) proteins I and II, that are co-expressed in tick I. ricinus salivary glands. However, our previous attempts to immunize rabbits against IRAC via infection with recombinant Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) vectors invariably failed although both recombinants expressed high levels of functional IRAC proteins in vitro. As IRAC are soluble monovalent antigens, one of the possible explanations is that monovalent ligation of the B-cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation, a phenomenon that is thought to induce a state of B-cell tolerance. In the present study, we tried to increase IRAC immunogenicity by expressing them as oligovalent antigens. To this end, IRAC were fused to membrane anchors and BoHV-4 vectors expressing these recombinant forms were produced. The immunization potentials of recombinant viruses expressing either secreted or transmembrane IRAC proteins were then compared. While the former did not induce a detectable immune response against IRAC, the latter led to high titres of anti-IRAC antibodies that only marginally affected tick blood feeding. All together, the data presented in this study demonstrate that the immunogenicity of a soluble antigen can be greatly improved by anchoring it in membrane.

  10. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function and salivary gland function in autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Egawa, Naoto; Inokuma, Shigeko; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Kamata, Noriko; Nakamura, Teruo; Matsukawa, Masakatsu

    2003-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct clinical entity in which an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in pathogenesis. To investigate salivary gland function in addition to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in patients with AIP, and to determine changes occurring after steroid therapy. Fasting serum glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests or glycosylated hemoglobin values were examined in 19 patients with AIP. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid excretion test, sialochemistry and parotid gland scintigraphy were performed in 8 patients. Eight patients had evidence of DM. Steroid therapy subsequently improved insulin secretion and glycemic control in 3 of 5 patients treated. Pancreatic exocrine function was reduced in 88% of patients. Impaired pancreatic exocrine function improved after steroid therapy in 3 of 6 patients treated. The 3 patients also showed treatment-related improvement in endocrine function. Concentration of beta2-microglobulin in saliva was significantly raised in patients with AIP compared with controls (P gland dysfunction improved after steroid therapy in all 5 patients treated. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine and salivary gland function were frequently impaired in patients with AIP, and steroid therapy was occasionally effective for these dysfunctions.

  11. Salivary Levels of IL-6 and IL-17 Could Be an Indicator of Disease Severity in Patients with Calculus Associated Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Batool

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums that causes loss of supporting structures of teeth, that is, gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Levels of various cytokines in the serum, gingival tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis have been studied, but limited data are available on the level of cytokines in saliva. Therefore, a study was designed to determine levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 in patients with calculus associated chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods. It was a comparative, cross-sectional study that is comprised of 41 healthy controls and 41 calculus associated chronic periodontitis patients (CP patients. According to the degree of attachment loss, CP patients were subcategorized as mild (CAL 1-2 mm, moderate (CAL 3-4 mm, and severe (CAL > 5 mm forms of periodontitis. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results. Between healthy controls and CP patients (moderate and severe disease, a statistically significant difference was observed in the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-17. In CP patients, the highest mean ± SD of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 was observed in severe CP, followed by moderate and mild CP. Regarding level of IL-6, a statistically significant difference was observed between mild and severe disease and between moderate and severe subcategories of CP patients. Similarly, statistically significant difference was observed in the level of IL-17 between mild and moderate, mild and severe disease, and moderate and severe disease. Conclusion. The levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 were increased significantly in calculus associated CP patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels increased with the progression of CP. Clinical Significance. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may help in the subcategorization

  12. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  13. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  14. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  15. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

  16. Does human pancreas contain salivary-type isoamylase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, J; Fridhandler, L; Berk, J E

    1975-01-01

    Amylase isoenzyme analysis was made of extracts of normal human pancreatic tissue by first conducting ion exchange chromatography of the purified material. This gave evidence of only pancreatic type (P-type) isoamylase for all purposes. However, when effluent fractions in which salivary type isoamylase would ordinarily be expected to be present were harvested, pooled, concentrated, and rechromatographed, the pancreatic extracts were found to contain some salivary type (S-type) isoamylase. The latter accounted for approximately 0-8 to 1-7% of the total recovered amylase activity. This finding of S-type isoamylase in normal human pancreas potentially has important bearing on the interpretation of isamylase analysis. PMID:1218813

  17. Growth analysis of pulmonary metastases from salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, F G; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of primary salivary gland tumors with lung metastasis are presented with extremely long survival (six, ten, and twelve years). The tumor doubling time was calculated and the growth rate of the pulmonary metastasis was found to be slow and erratic. A simplified table was devised, which permits rapid calculation of the tumor doubling time without the use of graphs. The presence of lung metastasis from some primary malignant salivary tumor is not necessarily an ominous sign: a long survival without symtoms is possible.

  18. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  19. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  1. Signaling Pathways in Exosomes Biogenesis, Secretion and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Emiliani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (30–100 nm derived from the endosomal system, which have raised considerable interest in the last decade. Several studies have shown that they mediate cell-to-cell communication in a variety of biological processes. Thus, in addition to cell-to-cell direct interaction or secretion of active molecules, they are now considered another class of signal mediators. Exosomes can be secreted by several cell types and retrieved in many body fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to proteins and lipids, they also contain nucleic acids, namely mRNA and miRNA. These features have prompted extensive research to exploit them as a source of biomarkers for several pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, exosomes also appear attractive as gene delivery vehicles. Furthermore, exosome immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are also encouraging their application for further therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be addressed: exosome biogenesis and secretion mechanisms have not been clearly understood, and physiological functions, as well as pathological roles, are far from being satisfactorily elucidated.

  2. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  3. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  4. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  5. aging affects morphology but not stimulated secretion of saliva in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    initial food digestion, taste perception, maintenance of ... salivary gland weights, salivary flow rates, pH and salivary levels of sodium, ... free flow into sterile plain tubes for a period of 10 .... composition are largely age independent in human. In.

  6. Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.

  7. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  8. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  9. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G; Cionini, L; Porciani, S; Fallai, C; Pirtoli, L [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands.

  10. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röser, Claudia; Jordan, Nadine; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina) salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))/Ca(2+) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7) that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(7) receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 24 nM). In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i) (EC(50) = 4 nM). We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α) or Cv5-HT(7) in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM) activates only the Cv5-HT(2α) receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM) activates only the Cv5-HT(7) receptor, and clozapine (1 µM) antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7) in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+)- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  11. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röser

    Full Text Available Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3/Ca(2+ and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7 that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2 and 5-HT(7 receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50 = 24 nM. In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i (EC(50 = 4 nM. We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α or Cv5-HT(7 in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(2α receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(7 receptor, and clozapine (1 µM antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7 in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  12. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  13. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  14. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence was found for caries (P < 0.01), periodontal status (P < 0.001) and mucosal lesions (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study shows that diuretic medication significantly reduces SFRs (xerostomia) and alters salivary composition which may have an impact on the incidence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and ...

  16. Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; McGaw, Timothy; Coulter, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia

  17. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail K Mithani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODOLOGY: The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77% carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6% carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9% with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  18. Effect of ciprofloxacin on single dose chloroquine salivary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ciprofloxacin on the salivary and urinary concentrations of chloroquine (CQ) were investigated in six healthy volunteers, 20 to 30 years of age. Ciprofloxacin reduced the absorption, excretion rate and t1/2 of chloroquine in urine, Cmax and AUC in saliva but increased the Tmax in saliva. Thus, concurrent ...

  19. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  20. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were...

  1. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  2. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients...

  3. Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E M; Taylor, G W; Borrell, L N; Ship, J A

    2000-03-01

    There is no consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction in older persons with diabetes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effect of diabetes and glycemic control on salivary function in an older population. Twenty nine persons with type 2 diabetes and 23 nondiabetic control subjects participated (age range, 54-90 years). Diabetic status was determined by a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test and a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) >9%. Unstimulated whole saliva, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid flow rates were measured, and subjects completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire. Persons with poorly controlled diabetes had lower (P =.01) stimulated parotid flow rates than persons with well-controlled diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences in xerostomic complaints based on diabetic or glycemic control status or salivary flow rates. These results provide some evidence that poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with salivary dysfunction in older adults who have no concomitant complaints of xerostomia.

  4. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stains. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made according to the world health organisation (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours. Case files of these patients were ...

  5. Preclinical Validation of Salivary Biomarkers for Primary Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shen; Gao, Kai; Pollard, Rodney; Arellano-Garcia, Martha; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Elashoff, David; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Vissink, Arjan; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a variety of presenting symptoms that may delay its diagnosis. We previously discovered a number of candidate salivary biomarkers for primary SS using both mass spectrometry and expression microarray analysis. In the current

  6. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  7. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  8. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M F Torres

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups.36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups. Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins.2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups.Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  9. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sheila M F; Furrow, Eva; Souza, Clarissa P; Granick, Jennifer L; de Jong, Ebbing P; Griffin, Timothy J; Wang, Xiong

    2018-01-01

    To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  10. Salivary gland masses. Dynamic MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinho; Inoue, Shingo; Ishizuka, Yasuhito; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of salivary gland masses. We retrospectively examined 19 salivary gland masses that were pathologically diagnosed by surgical operation or biopsy. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images on MRI, performed dynamic studies on each mass and examined the correlation between enhancement patterns and pathological findings. Four enhancement patterns were recognized on contrast-enhanced MRI: type 1 showed marked, homogeneous enhancement; type 2 slights, homogeneous enhancement; type 3 marginal enhancement; and type 4 poor enhancement of the mass. Most pleomorphic adenomas had a type 1 enhancement pattern, but two had a type 2 pattern. Pathologically, each mass enhancement pattern had different tumor cell and matrix components. Warthin's tumor generally showed the type 4 pattern. Primary malignant tumors of the salivary gland all showed the type 3 pattern, and pathological specimens showed many tumor cells along the marginal portion of the tumor. One inflammatory cyst and one Warthin's tumor also showed the type 3 pattern. Except for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the enhancement patterns of late phase images and dynamic study images were the same. Dynamic MRI added little diagnostic information about salivary gland masses, but the contrast-enhanced MR features correlated well with the pathological findings. (author)

  11. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-02-07

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  12. Effect of yogurt and pH equivalent lemon juice on salivary flow rate in healthy volunteers - An experimental crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesh, Jeevitha; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Alshehri, Mohammad; Kujan, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Xerostomia is a common clinical problem, and different medications have been tried in its management. In the present study, routine dietary products are used to assess their effect on salivary flow. To assess the efficacy of yogurt and lemon juice on increase in salivation and its comparison with that of unstimulated saliva. A total of 40 volunteers (aged 19-48) were selected. The pH of yogurt was calculated, and equivalent pH lemon juice was prepared. First, normal resting saliva was collected as baseline followed by every 1 min for 5 min. Patients were given lemon juice or yogurt and then crossed over to the other group to assess the impact of the stimulants on salivary flow from 1 to 5 min. The results were analyzed statistically. Comparisons between baseline saliva secretion and that by yogurt and lemon juice (using the ANOVA test) showed that there was a significant increase after treatment at the end of the experiment for both yogurt and lemon juice. However, yogurt showed a significant increase in saliva secretion compared to baseline than lemon juice. Our findings suggest that yogurt is a potential candidate for the treatment of dry mouth.

  13. Assessment of the effects of aging and medication on salivary gland function in patients with xerostomia using 99mTc-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hideaki; Hayashi, Tsunetoshi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    To examine the effect of aging and medication on xerostomia, the salivary gland function was evaluated in 20 patients with xerostomia using 99m Tc-scintigraphy and the measurement of unstimulated whole saliva (USWS). All of the patients showed USWS volume of less than 2ml/10min. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on age (under 65 and 65 and older) and medication status (patients who were on medication which reduced salivary secretion and patients who were not on such medication). The scintigraphic results, such as the maximum radioisotope (RI) count, RI secretion velocity and the volume of USWS, were compared between the subgroups. The maximum RI count and the RI secretory velocity in the submandibular gland and the volume of USWS revealed significantly different functional disturbances between relatively younger patients (under 65) and older patients (65 and older). There was no difference when the scintigraphic results and the volume of USWS measurements in medicated patients were compared with the results of similar tests performed on non-medicated patients. When the medicated and non-medicated groups were separated by age, an increase in age still diminished the volume of USWS in medicated patients. This result might be related to an organic change in the submandibular gland in older patients which was suggested by the scintigraphic results. (author)

  14. Assessment of the effects of aging and medication on salivary gland function in patients with xerostomia using {sup 99m}Tc-scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagami, Hideaki; Hayashi, Tsunetoshi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    To examine the effect of aging and medication on xerostomia, the salivary gland function was evaluated in 20 patients with xerostomia using {sup 99m}Tc-scintigraphy and the measurement of unstimulated whole saliva (USWS). All of the patients showed USWS volume of less than 2ml/10min. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on age (under 65 and 65 and older) and medication status (patients who were on medication which reduced salivary secretion and patients who were not on such medication). The scintigraphic results, such as the maximum radioisotope (RI) count, RI secretion velocity and the volume of USWS, were compared between the subgroups. The maximum RI count and the RI secretory velocity in the submandibular gland and the volume of USWS revealed significantly different functional disturbances between relatively younger patients (under 65) and older patients (65 and older). There was no difference when the scintigraphic results and the volume of USWS measurements in medicated patients were compared with the results of similar tests performed on non-medicated patients. When the medicated and non-medicated groups were separated by age, an increase in age still diminished the volume of USWS in medicated patients. This result might be related to an organic change in the submandibular gland in older patients which was suggested by the scintigraphic results. (author)

  15. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAHOUN, N.; EZZAT, N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective

  17. New insight into benign tumours of major salivary glands by proteomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Donadio

    Full Text Available Major salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms of the head and neck. The increase of precise pre-operative diagnosis is crucial for their correct management and the identification of molecular markers would surely improve the required accuracy. In this study we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of fine needle aspiration fluids of the most frequent benign neoplasms of major salivary glands, namely pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour, in order to draw their proteomic profiles and to point out their significant features. Thirty-five patients submitted to parotidectomy were included in the study, 22 were identified to have pleomorphic adenoma and 14 Warthin's tumour. Fine needle aspiration samples were processed using a two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry-based approach. A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Ingenuity software was used to search the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct potential networks. Intriguingly, all Warthin's tumour up-regulated proteins such as Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig kappa chain C region and Ig alpha-1 chain C region and S100A9 were correlated to immunological and inflammatory diseases, while pleomorphic adenomas such as annexin A1, annexin A4, macrophage-capping protein, apolipoprotein E and alpha crystalline B chain were associated with cell death, apoptosis and tumorigenesis, showing different features of two benign tumours. Overall, our results shed new light on the potential usefulness of a proteomic approach to study parotid tumours and in particular up regulated proteins are able to discriminate two types of benign parotid lesions.

  18. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  19. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  20. Effect of Sleep and Salivary Glucose on Gingivitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaderi, H; Tavares, M; Hartman, M; Goodson, J M

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that inadequate sleep has deleterious effects on health by suppressing immunity and promoting inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep and salivary glucose levels on the development of gingivitis in a prospective longitudinal study of Kuwaiti children. Data were collected from 10-y-old children ( N = 6,316) in 2012 and again in 2014. Children were approximately equally distributed from 138 elementary schools representing the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Calibrated examiners conducted oral examination, self-reported sleep evaluation interviews, anthropomorphic measurements, and unstimulated whole saliva sample collection. Salivary glucose levels were measured by a florescent glucose oxidase method; values of salivary glucose ≥1.13 mg/dL were defined as high glucose levels. A multilevel random intercept and slope analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between sleep duration and gingivitis on 3 levels: within schools, among children, and over time. The outcome was the progression of the extent of gingival inflammation in children over time. The main independent variables were the number of daily sleep hours and salivary glucose levels. Other explanatory variables and confounders assessed were governorate, dental caries and restorations, and obesity by waist circumference (adjusted for snacking and sex). Gingivitis increased over time in children who had shorter sleep duration ( P 1.13 mg/dL predicted gingivitis ( P gingivitis ( P gingivitis and obesity. The level of gingivitis was different among the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Additionally, there was a strong clustering effect of the observations within schools and among children across time. Longitudinal analysis of 6,316 Kuwaiti children revealed that shorter sleep duration and higher salivary glucose levels were both associated with increased gingival inflammation.