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Sample records for salivary flow rate

  1. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

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    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  2. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  3. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers.

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    Fenoll-Palomares, C; Muñoz Montagud, J V; Sanchiz, V; Herreros, B; Hernández, V; Mínguez, M; Benages, A

    2004-11-01

    To assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia). A prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min), pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l) were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min). Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10). Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19) and buffer capacity (OR 2.81). Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. In healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.

  4. Salivary flow rate and pH during prolonged gum chewing in humans.

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    Polland, K E; Higgins, F; Orchardson, R

    2003-09-01

    Gum chewing for 20 min causes an increase in salivary flow rate and salivary pH. Most people chew gum for longer than 20 min, and our aim was to determine how whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH might adapt during prolonged gum chewing. Resting saliva was collected over 5 min; gum-stimulated saliva was collected at intervals during 90 min, chewing a single pellet (1.5 g) of mint-flavoured, sugar-free gum (n = 19). Subjects chewed at their own preferred rate and style. Both salivary flow rate and pH were increased above resting levels for the entire 90 min. The salivary flow was significantly greater (anovaP chewing. The saliva pH remained significantly higher (P pH even after 90-min chewing. When the experiment was repeated with the gum pellets replaced at 30 and 60 min (n = 9), similar increases in salivary flow rate and pH were found. In the latter experiment, there was no evidence of any cumulative effects on flow or pH. The persistent increase in salivary pH in particular could be beneficial to oral and dental health.

  5. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

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    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  6. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute u...

  7. Salivary flow rate and biochemical composition analysis in stimulated whole saliva of children with cystic fibrosis.

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    da Silva Modesto, Karine Barros; de Godói Simões, Jéssica Bueno; de Souza, Amanda Ferreira; Damaceno, Neiva; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Leite, Mariana Ferreira; de Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    It is recognized that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present a risk for oral diseases, since it affects exocrine glands, and the treatment consists of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Recognizing the protective function of saliva on maintaining oral health, the aim of the study was to evaluate salivary parameters in stimulated whole saliva from children with CF. A case-control study was conducted comparing stimulated whole saliva of healthy (n=28; control group) and CF children (n=21; experimental group). Salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity (total and in each range of pH), total protein and sialic acid (total, free, and conjugated) concentration, α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities were evaluated. Data were compared by two-tailed Student t test (95% CI; p ≤ 0.05). CF patients presented a significant reduction in salivary parameters compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05): salivary flow rate (36%), buffer capacity (pH range from 6.9 to 6.0), sialic acid concentration (total 75%, free 61%, and conjugated 83%); α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities (55%). Additionally, a significant increase in total protein concentration (180%) of stimulated whole saliva from CF patients was verified compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). Children with CF presented significant changes in salivary composition, including salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and protective proteins of the oral cavity, compared with children without CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk Factors for Reduced Salivary Flow Rate in a Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

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    Kenji Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine distinct risk factors causing reduced salivary flow rate in a community-dwelling population using a prospective cohort study design. This was a 5-year follow-up survey of 1,377 community-dwelling Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years. The salivary flow rate was evaluated at baseline and follow-up by collecting stimulated saliva. Data on demographic characteristics, use of medication, and general and oral health status were obtained at baseline. The relationship between reduced salivary flow rate during the follow-up period and its predictors was evaluated after adjustment for confounding factors. In a multivariate logistic regression model, higher age and plaque score and lower serum albumin levels were significantly associated with greater odds of an obvious reduction in salivary flow rate (age per decade, odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.51; serum albumin levels <4 g/dL, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04–2.46; plaque score ≥1, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04–2.24. In a multivariate linear regression model, age and plaque score remained independently associated with the increased rate of reduced salivary flow. These results suggest that aging and plaque score are important predictors of reduced salivary flow rate in Japanese adults.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Salivary Flow Rates in Young and Older Adults.

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    Affoo, Rebecca H; Foley, Norine; Garrick, Rushlee; Siqueira, Walter L; Martin, Ruth E

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether salivary flow decreases as a function of aging. Meta-analysis. Literature review. Individuals aged 18 and older reported to be free of major systemic disease. Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of several databases, from their inception to June 2013. Studies were included if saliva had been collected on at least one occasion in subjects aged 18 and older and if the data were presented in a manner that enabled comparisons of younger and older participants. Differences in salivary flow rates between age groups were calculated for each salivary source and condition and reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs), standard errors (SEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results were pooled using a random effects model. A separate analysis examining medication use was also conducted. Forty-seven studies were included. Whole (SMD = 0.551, SE = 0.056, 95% CI = 0.423-0.678, P flow rates were reduced significantly in older participants and in unstimulated and stimulated conditions. In contrast, parotid and minor gland salivary flow rates were not significantly reduced with increasing age. Additionally, unstimulated and stimulated SMSL, and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates were significantly lower in older adults, regardless of medication usage. The aging process is associated with reduced salivary flow in a salivary-gland-specific manner; this reduction in salivary flow cannot be explained on the basis of medications. These findings have important clinical implications for maintaining optimal oral health in older adults. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Salivary flow rates measured during radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients: a pilot study assessing salivary sediment formation.

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    Chambers, Mark S; Tomsett, Kelley L; Artopoulou, Ioli I; Garden, Adam S; El-Naggar, Adel K; Martin, Jack W; Keene, Harris J

    2008-08-01

    Xerostomia often occurs in patients being managed for head and neck cancer who receive radiation therapy. Although accurate salivary sampling can be therapeutically important to measure during radiation, sampling errors can occur because of salivary sediments. Determining the impact that salivary sediments have on measured salivary flow rates during radiation is important for management of patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of error associated with the inclusion of nonsalivary components (sediment) in the calculation of whole stimulated saliva flow rates prior to and during radiation therapy (SS and SSR) in patients with head and neck cancer. Whole paraffin-stimulated saliva was collected in large-mouth centrifuge tubes from 20 patients with head and neck cancer prior to and during the third week of radiation therapy. Gravimetric methods were used to calculate the flow rates at g/5 min. After centrifugation, supernatant saliva was removed and the sediment was oven-dried to remove residual moisture. Sediment weight was subtracted from the original weight of saliva specimens and flow rates were recalculated. Means and standard deviations were determined and flow rate differences before (BC) and after (AC) sediment correction were evaluated statistically with the paired t test (alpha=.05). A nonparametric analysis of the flow rate data with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was also used to examine the magnitude and direction of the intrapair (BC-AC) differences (alpha=.05). On average, salivary sediment contributed less than 1% of the total uncorrected weight of saliva prior to radiation therapy. In specimens collected during radiation therapy, sediment contributed an average of 14% of the total uncorrected weight and as high as 95.4% in 1 patient. Sediment percentages were 20% and higher in 4 patients. In the Wilcoxon analysis, 19 out of 20 paired BC and AC flow rates were higher in the BC group in the SS and SSR samples. The

  11. Salivary buffer capacity, pH, and stimulated flow rate of crack cocaine users.

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    Woyceichoski, Iverson Ernani Cogo; Costa, Carlos Henrique; de Araújo, Cristiano Miranda; Brancher, João Armando; Resende, Luciane Grochocki; Vieira, Iran; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2013-08-01

    Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. The use of this drug has been considered a public health problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR), pH, and the buffer capacity of saliva in crack cocaine users. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 54 selected crack cocaine users and 40 non-users. All samples were analyzed for SSFR, pH, and buffer capacity. SSFR was analyzed by gravimetric method. The buffer capacity and pH were determined using a digital pH meter. The crack cocaine users demonstrated higher buffer capacity than the control group (P > 0.05). Salivary pH was lower in crack cocaine users (P 0.05). Crack cocaine users might exhibit a significant decrease in salivary pH, but not in salivary flow rate or buffer capacity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Salivary flow rates among women diagnosed with benign and malignant tumors.

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    Napeñas, Joel J; Miles, Leslie; Guajardo-Streckfus, Cynthia; Streckfus, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare salivary flow rates (SWS) among patients diagnosed with benign and varying malignant solid tumors with the comparison group, prior to the initiation of any treatment. An evaluation of the results found that mean baseline SWS flow rates were higher for healthy patients (1.55 ml/min) when compared to patients diagnosed with benign tumors (1.13 ml/min), breast cancer (1.09 ml/min), and reproductive carcinomas (0.94 ml/min). The overall model (F = 7.76; p flow rates. The results suggest that salivary secretion is lower among both benign and malignant tumor subjects prior to the initiation of treatment. Salivary evaluations of subjects prior to treatment may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for oral complications during chemotherapy. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Determination of salivary flow rate, pH, and dental caries during pregnancy: A study

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    Amruta A Karnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saliva is an important diagnostic biofluid and the salivary composition is affected by various systemic conditions including pregnancy. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the salivary flow rate and pH in pregnant and non-pregnant Indian women and, consequently, to compare and correlate the salivary flow rate, pH, and prevalence of dental caries in both groups. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in our institute on a sample of 30 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The clinical findings for Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT index were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine the salivary flow rate and pH. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Student′s t-test. Results: Salivary flow rate was lower in pregnant women (0.63 ml/min as compared to that in non-pregnant women (0.81 ml/min (P < 0.05 and the pH was also lesser in pregnant women (6.56 than in non-pregnant women (6.86 (P < 0.05. DMFT index showed a strong negative correlation with pH in pregnant women and non-pregnant women (P < 0.05. Conclusion: A difference was observed between the salivary parameters of pregnant and non-pregnant women in this sample. However, all the values were within the normal range. A significant inverse relation was found between salivary pH and dental caries for both the groups.

  14. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

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    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for...

  15. Co-relationships between glandular salivary flow rates and dental caries.

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    Diaz de Guillory, Carolina; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH: SALSA). Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Data from the 1147 participants in the OH: SALSA were analysed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals of European-American ancestry experience less caries. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Radiotherapy Reduced Salivary Flow Rate and Might Induced C. albicans Infection

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    Nadia Surjadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy has impact in oral health especially on the secretion capacity of the salivary glands. Another impact is the increase of Candida albicans colony. Objectives: To evaluate salivary flow in relation with Candida albicans colony in head and neck cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-four head and neck cancer patients in Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta who were undergoing radiotherapy or had undergone radiotherapy and 24 match healthy volunteers were included in the study. Clinical observation carried out by collecting unstimulated salivary flow rate and followed by culture of Candida in Saboraud agar medium. Data were analyzed statistically by Chi-square. Results: Nasopharynx cancer was the most frequent type of head and neck cancers (87.5% followed by tongue cancer (12.5% and and found in 41-50 years old patients and 51-60 years old patients respectively, with male predilection compare to female (17:7. Approxiamtely 87.5% of subjects showed decreased salivary flow rate (1.01-1.50mL/10min during and after radiotherapy. However, 91.7% of cancer patients had increased C.albicans colony during and after radiotherapy compared to control (p=0.00. Conclusion: This study showed that radiotherapy induced hyposalivation and might increase the C.albicans colony.  

  17. Characteristics of the saliva flow rates of minor salivary glands in healthy people.

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    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Si, Yan; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the normal range and characteristics of saliva secretion in the minor salivary glands (MSGs). The flow rates of MSGs were measured in 4 anatomical locations of oral mucosa, and the relationship between MSG flow rates and whole saliva flow rates were assessed in 300 healthy subjects stratified by age and sex. An additional 30 young females were further evaluated for flow symmetry, effects of stimulation, circadian effects in MSGs, and the relationship with the flow rates of major salivary glands. (1) The mean saliva flow rates were 2.10 ± 0.66 (lower labial glands), 2.14 ± 0.62 (upper labial glands), 2.88 ± 0.72 (buccal glands) and 2.15 ± 0.51 (palatal glands) μl/min/cm(2), respectively. The flow rate of buccal glands was significantly higher than the rates of SMGs in other locations (P 0.05), right vs. left (P > 0.05), and citric acid (2.5%) stimulation (P > 0.05). (4) Only labial MSG displayed a significant secretory circadian rhythm with the highest rate in the evening (P glands and that of unstimulated whole saliva (r = 0.195, P = 0.007). Our findings provide a reference for functional evaluation of MSGs and for donor site selection of MSG transplantation for treatment of severe dry eye syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dental caries experience and salivary Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli scores, salivary flow rate, and salivary buffering capacity among 6-year-old Indian school children.

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    Sakeenabi, B; Hiremath, S S

    2011-07-01

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology. A variety of potential predictors have been examined for the association with caries increments in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to assess the possible relationship among salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity, secretion rate, and caries experience among 6-year-old school-going children in Davangere city, India. A total of 196 6-year-old school children were selected by a two-stage random sampling method. Parents were interrogated regarding sociodemographic details. Clinical examination of children was conducted to assess dental caries experience, and stimulated saliva was collected to assess S. mutans levels, lactobacilli, salivary flow, and buffering capacity of saliva. The difference in proportions was tested using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Mann-Whitney U-test for intragroup comparison, and the difference in mean was tested using ANOVA and independent sample t-test as necessary. Caries experience was correlated with salivary factors using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Out of 196 children, 96 were boys and 100 were girls. Overall, 97 (49.49%) children were caries free (dmft, DMFT = 0) and 99 (50.51%) children presented with caries (dmft, DMFT>0). The mean dmft and dmfs score for the overall group was 3.20 and 5.43, respectively. The mean DMFT and DMFS score was 0.23 and 0.25, respectively. A highly significant correlation was seen between mean the caries score and salivary variables. High levels of salivary microbiological counts in correlation with the caries data stress the importance of these factors and urge the necessity of elective preventive programs in this region.

  19. Salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and urea concentration in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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    Saes Busato, Ivana Maria; Antoni, Carlos Cesar De; Calcagnotto, Thiago; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze salivary flow rate, urea concentration, and buffer capacity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in two different stages. This study was performed on adolescents (14-19 years), allocated between two groups: type 1 DM group comprised 32 adolescents with type 1 DM, and non-type 1 DM group comprised 32 nondiabetics. The adolescents in type 1 DM group were evaluated at a baseline (T0) and after 15 months (T1), and those in non-type 1 DM group were only evaluated at T0. Diabetic status was determined by glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and capillary glucose tests. Measurement of salivary flow was performed by means of stimulated saliva (SSFR) collection. The buffer capacity (BC) was determined, and analysis of urea salivary concentration was performed using the colorimetric method. At T0, there were significant differences between diabetics and nondiabetics for SSFR and BC (p0.05). BC at T0 was 4.8, and at T1, it was 3.9 (p=0.000). Urea concentration mean value had a significant decrease at T1 (28.13) compared with T0 (34.88) (p=0.013). There was a negative correlation between SSFR and urea salivary concentration at both T0 (r=-0.426, p≤0.05) and T1 (r=-0.601, p≤0.01). In adolescents with type 1 DM, hyposalivation at T0 was associated with an increase in urea salivary concentration. At T1, hyposalivation was associated with a reduction in BC, and an increase in salivary urea.

  20. Oral health status, salivary flow rate and salivary quality in children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD.

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    Hidas, Ariela; Noy, Avia Fux; Birman, Noam; Shapira, Joseph; Matot, Israel; Steinberg, Doron; Moskovitz, Moti

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood neurological disorder that presents in 3-7% of school-age children. Studies have shown that children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD are more prone to caries than those without. The study investigated a possible relationship between the oral health status of children, adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ADHD, both with and without pharmacological intervention, and the following: salivary flow rate, oral mucosal pH, plaque index (PI), oral hygiene and dietary behaviour. DMFT/dmft index (D;d-Decay, M;m-Missing; F;f-Filled,T;t-teeth), plaque index, oral mucosal pH and unstimulated whole salivary flow (USF) were examined in three groups of children, adolescents and young adults: those diagnosed with ADHD with no pharmacological intervention (N=31), those treated with medications for ADHD (N=30), and a healthy control group (N=30). Diet and oral health habits were assessed by means of questionnaires completed by parents. Mean USF values were 0.72, 0.85 and 1.13 ml/min for participants with ADHD and without medication, with ADHD and with medication, and without ADHD, respectively (p=0.016). There were no differences in the DMFT/dmft index and in parent reported diet and oral health behaviour between the three groups. Children with ADHD demonstrated a statistically significant higher plaque index (pdiet or oral health behaviour as assessed by parent reports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia.

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    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. This study was a descriptive study. The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24-48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia.

  2. Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rates in HIV-infected individuals.

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    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and salivary flow rates among HIV-infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed on 173 individuals (81 HIV-infected individuals, mean age: 32 years, and 92 non-HIV controls, mean age: 30 years). Subjective complaints of dry mouth, based on a self-report of xerostomia questions, and dry mouth, based on a visual analogue scale (VAS), were recorded along with measurements of salivary flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva. The relationship between subjective responses to the xerostomia questions, the VAS of dry mouth, and objective measurements of salivary flow rates were analyzed. Responses to the questions--Do you carry water or a saliva substitute? and Have you had taste disturbance?--were significantly different between HIV-infected and non-HIV individuals (P hyposalivation, especially at a resting stage. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

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    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Pvalue, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (P0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  4. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  5. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Aims: This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. Settings and Design: This study was a descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24–48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. Conclusions: There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia. PMID:28932047

  6. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bakianian Vaziri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  7. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

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    Rinki Hans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey’s test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  8. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

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    Flávia Lopes Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the patients who related having systemic ailments, cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent, followed by depression and nervousness. Conclusion: It was concluded that xerostomia and quantitative alteration in salivary flow are common among post-menopausal women, and that ailments of a psychological nature were shown to be related to the manifestation of xerostomia.

  9. Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects' whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis.

  10. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  11. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G. Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted. PMID:23633771

  12. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulki Shaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student′s t-test, Fisher′s test (ANOVA and Tukey HSD (ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: S ignificant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  13. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  14. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI and its relation to salivary flow rate and buffer capacity in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Jyrki; Laine, Merja; Parkkila, Seppo; Rajaniemi, Hannu

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that pregnancy may have unfavourable effects on oral health. The pH and buffer capacity (BC) of paraffin-stimulated saliva, for example, have been found to decrease towards late pregnancy. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) probably protects the teeth by accelerating the neutralization of hydrogen ions in the enamel pellicle on dental surfaces. Since estrogens and androgens are known to regulate CA expression in some tissues, we studied here whether salivary CA VI concentration shows pregnancy-related changes. Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from nine pregnant women 1 month before delivery and about 2 months afterwards and assayed for salivary CA VI concentration, BC and flow rate. The enzyme concentration was determined using a specific time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. The control group consisted of 17 healthy non-pregnant women. The results indicated that salivary CA VI levels varied markedly among individuals, but no significant differences in mean concentrations were seen between the samples collected during late pregnancy and postpartum. BC values were lower during pregnancy, however. Our findings suggest that CA VI secretion is not significantly affected by the hormonal alterations associated with pregnancy, and confirm the earlier reports that CA VI is not involved in the regulation of actual salivary BC.

  15. A clinical study to compare between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH before and after complete denture placement in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Muddugangadhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Stimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH were significantly higher than resting (unstimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No age related variations in whole salivary flow rate and pH were observed in healthy, non-medicated individuals. Clinical Implications: The assessment of salivary flow rate, pH in different age groups is of prognostic value, which is an important aspect to be considered in the practice of removable prosthodontics.

  16. A comparative study of salivary buffering capacity, flow rate, resting pH, and salivary Immunoglobulin A in children with rampant caries and caries-resistant children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kuriakose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was conducted to identify various factors in the development of rampant type of dental caries in South Kerala children, other than high sucrose intake and poor oral hygiene. This was done by comparing the salivary buffering capacity(BC, flow-rate(FR, resting pH and salivary immunoglobulin-A(s-IgA levels in children who are caries resistant(CR and who have rampant dental caries. Materials and Methods :Two study groups, a rampant caries group(RC with more than five active caries lesions in the early stages and a CR with no caries lesions were selected based on a specific criteria. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected directly from the floor of the mouth for a period of 10 min and the FR was calculated. Resting pH of saliva was measured using color coded pH paper. BC was measured by calculating the amount of citric acid of pH2.5, required to lower the initial pH of saliva down to 3. s-IgA levels were also estimated by immunoturbidometric method after forming a precipitate of s-IgA with specific anti-IgA antibodies. Result: The salivary BC, FRs, pH and s-IgA levels were significantly lower in the RC group when compared to the CR group. Conclusion : This study showed that salivary BC, flow-rate, resting pH and levels of s-IgA in saliva are risk factors in the development of RC in children.

  17. History of frequent gum chewing is associated with higher unstimulated salivary flow rate and lower caries severity in healthy Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X P; Zhong, B; Chen, Z K; Stewart, M E; Zhang, C; Zhang, K; Ni, J; Dodds, M W J; Hanley, A B; Miller, L E

    2012-01-01

    This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study stratified by age and gender with the objective of determining the relationship between gum chewing history, salivary flow, and dental caries severity in adults. We enrolled 191 subjects aged 18-65 years who underwent assessments for gum chewing history, unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and caries severity. Unstimulated salivary flow rate tended to decline with increasing age (p = 0.04), and significant differences in unstimulated salivary flow rate were also found for males (0.58 ± 0.32 ml/min) versus females (0.48 ± 0.30 ml/min) (p = 0.02). Weekly gum chewing frequency was greater in younger subjects (p = 0.001) while no age group differences were noted in pieces per day or chewing duration. Gum chewing habits were similar in males and females. A multivariate model demonstrated that only days per week chewing gum (p chewing gum was negatively associated with ICDAS (p = 0.004), indicating that caries severity increased with age, and that days of chewing provided an inverse effect, with increased days of chewing being associated with decreased severity of caries. Overall, a history of frequent gum chewing is associated with higher unstimulated salivary flow rate and lower caries severity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Heegaard, Karen Margrethe; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications and labial and whole salivary flow rates in older people. Unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 389 randomly selected community-dwelling Danish women and 279 men aged 65-97 years. Systemic diseases, medications (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered. The number of diseases and medications was higher and UWS lower in the older age groups. On average, women were slightly older, had more diseases, higher medication intake and lower UWS, SWS and LS than men. High number of diseases and medications was associated with low UWS, SWS and LS. In the healthy (14%) and nonmedicated (19%) participants, flow rates were not associated with age and gender, apart from SWS being lower in nonmedicated women. Low UWS were associated with psychiatric and respiratory disorders, type 2 diabetes and intake of psycholeptics, psychoanaleptics (especially SRRIs), respiratory agents, oral antidiabetics (particularly sulfonylureas), magnesium-hydroxide, cardiac agents, quinine, thiazides, calcium channel blockers, statins, urinary antispasmodics, glucosamine, NSAIDs, opioids and ophthalmologicals. SWS were lower in participants with ophthalmological disorders using ophthalmologicals (especially antiglaucoma agents and miotics), but also in those taking antidepressants, cardiac agents (mostly digitalis glycosides) and calcium channel blockers. Cardiovascular diseases and intake of anti-thrombotics (mainly low dose aspirins), calcium channel blockers and oral antidiabetics were associated with low LS. In older people, low salivary flow rates are associated with specific and high number of diseases and medications, but neither with age and gender per se nor with tobacco and alcohol consumption. Low UWS are associated with more diseases and

  19. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were ...

  20. A clinical study to compare between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH before and after complete denture placement in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddugangadhar, B C; Sangur, Rajashekar; Rudraprasad, I V; Nandeeshwar, D B; Kumar, B H Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the flow rate and pH of resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva before and after complete denture placement in different age groups. Fifty healthy, non-medicated edentulous individuals of different age groups requiring complete denture prostheses were selected from the outpatient department. The resting (unstimulated) and stimulated whole saliva and pH were measured at three stages i.e., i)Before complete denture placement;ii)Immediately after complete denture placement; andiii)After 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. Saliva production was stimulated by chewing paraffin wax. pH was determined by using a digital pH meter. Statistically significant differences were seen in resting(unstimulated) and stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No statistically significant differences were found between the different age groups in resting (unstimulated) as well as stimulated whole salivary flow rate and pH. Stimulated whole salivary flow rates and pH were significantly higher than resting (unstimulated) whole salivary flow rates and pH obtained before, immediately after, and after 2 to 3 months of complete denture placement. No age related variations in whole salivary flow rate and pH were observed in healthy, non-medicated individuals. The assessment of salivary flow rate, pH in different age groups is of prognostic value, which is an important aspect to be considered in the practice of removable prosthodontics.

  1. A novel method to evaluate salivary flow rates of head and neck cancer patients after radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Luiz Felipe; Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Marcucci, Marcelo; Giordani, Adelmo José; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2017-03-25

    The procedure used to evaluate salivary flow rate is called sialometry. It can be performed through several techniques, but none appears to be really efficient for post-radiotherapy patients. To adequate sialometry tests for head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. 22 xerostomic patients post-radiotherapy (total radiation dose ranging from 60 to 70Gy) were included in this study. Ten patients were evaluated using sialometries originally proposed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and twelve were assessed by our modified methods. Unstimulated and stimulated sialometries were performed and the results were classified according a grading scale and compared between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the salivary evaluations of both groups (p=0.4487 and p=0.5615). Also, most of these rates were classified as very low and low. This novel method seems to be suitable for patients submitted to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Lone; Hyldegaard, Ole; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack; Specht, Lena; Andersen, Elo; Jansen, Erik C; Hillerup, Søren; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2011-06-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate hyposalivation achieved an increased UWS flow rate after HBO. In 12 of these, the flow rates increased to levels not associated with hyposalivation. Patient-assessed improvement of xerostomia and slightly increased UWS and SWS secretion after HBO treatment suggest that HBO may have a beneficial effect on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  4. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M; Larson, Charles; Mittal, Bharat B; Pierce, Marge; Zecker, Steven; Kennelty, Korey; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-10-01

    Patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness along with decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Twenty-one patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation were assessed before and after treatment and matched with 21 healthy control participants who did not receive chemoradiation. Each participant was given a questionnaire to rate dysphagia symptoms. Videofluoroscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (VFES) was used to determine swallowing efficiency; the Saxon test measured salivary flow rate; and the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used for oral tongue maximum and endurance measures. Results revealed significantly lower tongue endurance measures for patients post-treatment as compared to controls (p = .012). Salivary flow rates also were lower compared to pre-treatment (p = .000) and controls (p = .000). Simple linear regression analyses showed that change in salivary flow rate was predictive of change in swallow efficiency measures from pre- to post-treatment for 1 mL thin liquid (p = .017), 3 mL nectar-thick liquid (p = .026), and 3 mL standard barium pudding (p = .011) boluses. Based on these findings, it appears that chemoradiation treatment affects tongue endurance and salivary flow rate, and these changes may impact swallow efficiency. These factors should be considered when planning treatment for dysphagia.

  5. A comparative study of long-term effect of tobacco on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarni Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The taste receptors responsible for salivary secretion are constantly being affected by the harmful by-products of tobacco, and it is believed that tobacco usage on a long-term basis can decrease the sensitivity of taste receptors leading to decreased salivary reflex. It is hypothesized that long-term tobacco usage might lead to altered taste receptors′ response, changing the salivary flow rate (SFR. Unstimulated whole mouth SFR and salivary pH play an important role in the causation of various oral changes and conditions. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of long-term use of tobacco on SFR and salivary pH and the oral and dental health among tobacco chewers, smokers, and control group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 90 patients who were grouped into smokers (group A, smokeless tobacco chewers (group B, and controls (group C. Each group consisted of 30 healthy male adults. Resting whole mouth saliva was collected from every patient; SFR was calculated and then salivary pH was assessed using the salivary pH strips, depending on the color change of the indicator paper strip when compared with a color chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Service (SPSS computer software. Student′s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Z-test were applied to assess between-group differences. Results: The mean (±SD SFR was found to be 0.77 (±0.23 ml/min for group A, 0.63 (±0.16 ml/min for group B, and 1.08 (±0.08 ml/min for group C, and on comparing the groups, the result was significant. The mean (±SD pH was found to be 6.8 (±0.20 for group A, 6.65 (±0.30 for group B, and 7.06 (±0.23 for group C and was also found to be significant on comparison. Conclusions: It is concluded from this experimental study on long-term tobacco users that smokeless and smoked forms of tobacco adversely affect

  6. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  7. Effects of xylitol chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelles Llop, M; Guinot Jimeno, F; Mayné Acién, R; Bellet Dalmau, L J

    2010-03-01

    The first studies on the use of chewing gum in dentistry were done in the 1970s. The Turku Sugar Studies, carried out between 1970 and 1973, showed the excellent anticaries properties of xylitol chewing gums. Since then, many dentists, particularly in Scandinavian countries, have studied the role of chewing xylitol-sweetened chewing gums as another preventive strategy in the control of dental caries. To compare variations in salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and levels of Streptococcus mutans in baseline conditions and after chewing paraffin pellets or xylitol chewing gum in children between the ages of 6 and 12 years who eat lunch in a school canteen. The study sample consisted of 90 children divided into 2 study groups, and a control group. The children ate lunch at the canteen of the Escultor Ortells state school in the town of Vila-real (Castellón, Spain). The baseline data recorded in the first phase of the study were compared with the data recorded in the second phase, after 15 minutes of chewing xylitol- sweetened chewing gums or paraffin pellets, depending on the study group. Salivary flow rate was measured by collecting the stimulated saliva in a graduated beaker. Levels of pH were measured using a Cyberscan pH 110 pH meter (Eutech Instruments). CRT buffer strips and the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were used to measure buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans, respectively. The data obtained after sample collection were compared by means of a 1-way analysis of variance using the StatGraphics Plus statistical software package, version 5.0. Statistically significant differences were found (ppH, buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans were compared between the 3 groups. Comparison of salivary flow rates revealed no statistically significant differences (p>.05), though salivary flow rates were higher in the groups where gum was chewed. The effect of chewing is essential to the stimulation of salivary flow and the resulting recovery of

  8. Oral manifestations and salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, H S; Lee, S W; Chung, S C; Kim, Y K

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral manifestations and salivary changes in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. Eighty-two patients undergoing hemodialysis for renal insufficiency were examined; 22 of these patients were randomly selected for salivary tests. Unstimulated whole saliva and stimulated parotid saliva were collected, and flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity were examined. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were included as controls. Uremic odor, dry mouth, and taste change were common symptoms. Petechia and/or ecchymosis and increase of tongue coating were major signs. The flow rates of unstimulated whole and stimulated parotid saliva were decreased in the patient group. The pH and buffer capacity of unstimulated whole saliva were increased in the patient group, but stimulated parotid saliva did not show any significant differences. Patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis showed apparent oral and salivary changes. The results help us understand the relationship between oral changes and renal insufficiency.

  9. Effect of three commercially available chewing gums on salivary flow rate and pH in caries-active and caries-free children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Kiran Vantipalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Adequate salivary flow is an important requisite in the maintenance of oral health. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste and mechanical (chewing stimuli. Hence, the aim of the present study was to know the efficacy of commercially available chewing gums (sugar free and sugared on salivary flow rate (SFR and pH in caries-active and caries-free children. Materials and Methods: One hundred school children aged between 10 and 12 years were divided into two groups on the basis of their caries status into caries free and caries active. Unstimulated saliva was collected before start of the study. Both groups were subjected to three commercially available chewing gums (2 sugar free, 1 sugared on consecutive days, and saliva was collected at intervals of 2 min (T2, 10 min (T10, and 30 min (T30. The pH and flow rate of saliva samples were measured before and specified time intervals after gum chewing. Results: In both the groups, gum chewing increased the SFR, significantly at T2, and gradually declined at T30 which was significantly higher than baseline values. The pH raised significantly at T2 and gradually declined at T30 which was significantly higher than baseline values with sugar-free gums, but with sugared gums, the pH raised slightly at T2 and dropped significantly at T30. However, no statistically significant differences in pH and flow rate were noticed in both the groups. Conclusion: Chewing of sugar-free gums in both caries-active and caries-free children may aid in reducing the incidence of dental caries.

  10. Low-level laser therapy for the prevention of low salivary flow rate after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Palma, Luiz Felipe; Giordani, Adelmo José; Deboni, Aline Lima Silva; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether low-level laser therapy can prevent salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. We evaluated 23 head and neck cancer patients, of whom 13 received laser therapy and 10 received clinical care only. An InGaAlP laser was used intra-orally (at 660 nm and 40 mW) at a mean dose of 10.0 J/cm(2) and extra-orally (at 780 nm and 15 mW) at a mean dose of 3.7 J/cm(2), three times per week, on alternate days. Stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests were performed before the first radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions (N0) and at 30 days after the end of treatment (N30). At N30, the mean salivary flow rates were significantly higher among the laser therapy patients than among the patients who received clinical care only, in the stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests (p = 0.0131 and p = 0.0143, respectively). Low-level laser therapy, administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, appears to mitigate treatment-induced salivary hypofunction in patients with head and neck cancer.

  11. Low-level laser therapy for the prevention of low salivary flow rate after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Palma, Luiz Felipe; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Deboni, Aline Lima Silva

    2016-03-15

    Objective: to determine whether low-level laser therapy can prevent salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: ee evaluated 23 head and neck cancer patients, of whom 13 received laser therapy and 10 received clinical care only. An InGaAlP laser was used intra-orally (at 660 nm and 40 mW) at a mean dose of 10.0 J/cm{sup 2} and extra-orally (at 780 nm and 15 mW) at a mean dose of 3.7 J/cm{sup 2} , three times per week, on alternate days. Stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests were performed before the first radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions (NO) and at 30 days after the end of treatment (N30). Results: At N30, the mean salivary flow rates were significantly higher among the laser therapy patients than among the patients who received clinical care only, in the stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests (p = 0.0131 and p = 0.0143, respectively). Conclusion: low-level laser therapy, administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, appears to mitigate treatment induced salivary hypofunction in patients with head and neck cancer. (author)

  12. Low-level laser therapy for the prevention of low salivary flow rate after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Palma, Luiz Felipe; Giordani, Adelmo José; Deboni, Aline Lima Silva; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether low-level laser therapy can prevent salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods We evaluated 23 head and neck cancer patients, of whom 13 received laser therapy and 10 received clinical care only. An InGaAlP laser was used intra-orally (at 660 nm and 40 mW) at a mean dose of 10.0 J/cm2 and extra-orally (at 780 nm and 15 mW) at a mean dose of 3.7 J/cm2, three times per week, on alternate days. Stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests were performed before the first radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions (N0) and at 30 days after the end of treatment (N30). Results At N30, the mean salivary flow rates were significantly higher among the laser therapy patients than among the patients who received clinical care only, in the stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests (p = 0.0131 and p = 0.0143, respectively). Conclusion Low-level laser therapy, administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, appears to mitigate treatment-induced salivary hypofunction in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:27141130

  13. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Yamamoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05, which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12, but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48. These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: Anin vivostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rahul J; Thakkar, Janhavi B

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum) and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum) comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Results: Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Conclusion: Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  16. Associations between oral and ocular dryness, labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, D; Torpet, L A; Nauntofte, B; Heegaard, K M; Pedersen, A M L

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications, labial and whole salivary flow rates and oral and ocular dryness in older people. Symptoms of oral and ocular dryness, systemic diseases, medications (coded according to the Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered, and unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 668 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly aged 65-95. Presence of oral (12%) and ocular (11%) dryness was positively correlated. Oral dryness was associated with low UWS, SWS and LS, and ocular dryness with low UWS and SWS. Oral and ocular dryness was related to female gender, but not to age. Only four persons in the healthy and nonmedicated subgroups reported oral and ocular dryness. The numbers of diseases and medications were higher in the older age groups and associated with oral and ocular dryness, low UWS, SWS and LS. On average, women were slightly older, reported more oral and ocular dryness and had lower UWS, SWS, LS and higher numbers of diseases and medications. High prevalence and odds ratios for oral dryness were associated with metabolic, respiratory and neurological diseases and intake of thyroid hormones, respiratory agents (primarily glucocorticoids), psycholeptics and/or psychoanaleptics, antineoplastics, proton pump inhibitors, antidiabetics, loop diuretics, antispasmodics, quinine and bisphosphonates. Ocular dryness was especially associated with neurological diseases and intake of psycholeptics and/or psychoanaleptics. Intake of magnesium hydroxide, antithrombotics, cardiac agents, thiazides, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II antagonists, statins, glucosamine, paracetamol/opioids, ophthalmologicals and certain combination therapies was related to oral and ocular dryness. In older people, oral and ocular dryness are

  17. Environmental illness: evaluation of salivary flow, symptoms, diseases, medications, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, J; Bergdahl, M

    2001-04-01

    Patients with symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to dental fillings and/or to electromagnetic fields and other environmental factors frequently report oral complaints. Forty-four consecutive patients with these symptoms were studied. The aim was to investigate whether unstimulated salivary flow rate was associated with Candida, symptoms, disease, medication, age, sex, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, the aim was to compare the level of anxiety, depression, and stress in these patients with an age- and sex-matched control group. Fifty percent had no or low flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Candida pseudohyphae were found in 50% of the patients. Hypothyroidism and/or intake of thyroid hormones, headache, fatigue, and age were negatively associated with unstimulated salivary flow rate, and dizziness was positively associated. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was positively associated with stimulated salivary flow rate and flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Burning mouth and subjective oral dryness were reported by 48%, and 46%, respectively. The patients were more anxious, stressed, and especially more depressed than the control group. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was negatively associated with state anxiety. Measurement of salivary flow rate is important in patients with environmental illness and can be used in combination with other measurements as a diagnostic tool.

  18. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fenoll-Palomares

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia. Methods: a prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min, pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min. Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10. Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19 and buffer capacity (OR 2.81. Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar. Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min, pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han

  19. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Pintor, Rosa Mar?a; Casa?as, Elisabeth; Gonz?lez-Serrano, Jos?; Serrano, Julia; Ram?rez, Luc?a; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hern?ndez, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guideline...

  20. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  1. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary flow during high dose radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, FR; Coppes, RP; Meertens, H; Stokman, MA; Vissink, A

    2001-01-01

    It was studied whether differences in acute radiosensitivity exist between parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. The results revealed that salivary flow rates decreased dramatically during the first 2 weeks of radiotherapy. Neither recovery nor significant differences were observed between

  2. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María López-Pintor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1 to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2 to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3 to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%–53.5% versus 0–30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%. In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection.

  3. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pintor, Rosa María; Casañas, Elisabeth; González-Serrano, José; Serrano, Julia; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%-53.5% versus 0-30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection.

  4. 5-Fluorouracil induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the major salivary glands affecting salivary flow and saliva composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfin, Luana E; Braga, Cíntia M; Oliveira, Thais A; Martins, Conceição S; Foschetti, Danielle A; Santos, Ana A Q A; Costa, Deiziane V S; Leitão, Renata F C; Brito, Gerly A C

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation. Oxidative stress and oxidative defense system were also investigated in the salivary gland tissues using MDA (malondialdehyde), nitrite, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase). In addition, the CAT and lysozyme activities and the IgA and SOD levels were evaluated in the saliva samples. 5-FU significantly reduced the pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow rate on the 4th experimental day, associated with an increase in the SOD levels in saliva. Recovery of the salivary flow and SOD were observed on day 10, when an increase in the saliva lysozyme levels was detected. In addition, 5-FU promoted vacuolization in parotid (P) and periductal edema in submandibular (SM) gland, combined with an increase in the inflammatory cells influx, mostly observed on the 4th day in SM gland and on 4th and 10th days in P. Oxidative stress was found mostly on day 10 in SM, SL and P glands, associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, observed in SM and SL glands, but not in P. 5-FU induces an inflammatory response in the major salivary glands, most observed ten days after its first injection, which may contribute to the major salivary glands hypofunction, leading to alterations in the salivary flow rate and composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  5. Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Polliane M; Castelo, Paula M; Carpenter, Guy H; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the drop test with four different flavors in three different concentrations, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flows were measured. The anthropometric variables measured included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The independent variables studied could not predict masticatory performance. The independent variables, BMI, WC, and gender, predicted 14% of perceived masticatory ability, and BMI predicted 5% of taste. Masticatory performance was not related to salivary flow or anthropometric parameters in young healthy adults. Perceived masticatory ability was related to BMI, WC, and gender, whereas taste was only weakly related to BMI. The flow rate did not exhibit a statistically significant difference between males and females for the anthropometric groups. (J Oral Sci 58, 391-399, 2016).

  6. Role of nitric oxide of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO in the alterations of salivary flow, arterial pressure and heart rate induced by injection of pilocarpine into the MnPO and intraperitoneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Saad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO-donating agent, on pilocarpine-induced alterations in salivary flow, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR in rats. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were implanted with a stainless steel cannula directly into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO. Pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO induced an increase in salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg ip also increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO or ip (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO or ip prior to pilocarpine attenuated salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (40 µg injection into the MnPO increased MAP and decreased HR (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg body weight ip produced a decrease in MAP and an increase in HR (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine potentiated the increase in MAP and reduced HR (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine attenuated (100% the effect of pilocarpine on MAP, with no effect on HR. Administration of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO potentiated the effect of pilocarpine injected ip. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO attenuated the effect of ip pilocarpine on MAP and HR. The present study suggests that in the rat MnPO 1 NO is important for the effects of pilocarpine on salivary flow, and 2 pilocarpine interferes with blood pressure and HR (side effects of pilocarpine, that is attenuated by NO.

  7. Relationship between salivary immunoglobulin a, lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates and lifestyle factors in Japanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Momo; Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Fuchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Mina; Kimoto, Shigenari; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-10-01

    The antimicrobial substances in saliva contribute to the maintenance of both oral health and overall health of the body. Therefore, the associations among immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates in the saliva of children, and their relationships with the physical attributes and lifestyle factors of children, were examined. Saliva was collected from 90 children who visited the Kanagawa Dental University Hospital Pediatric Dentistry, and questionnaires were completed by guardians. IgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations were measured in the saliva samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The IgA flow rate in saliva increased as age, height and weight increased. A correlation was found between lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. When the antimicrobial substance flow rates in the saliva were divided into two groups of 22 children each based on the highest and lowest quartiles, children with either a low or high IgA flow rate also had a high or low lactoferrin flow rate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. There is a high probability that the IgA flow rate in the saliva of children reflects and corresponds to the developmental status of immune function as the child ages and increases in height and weight. The flow rates of lactoferrin and lysozyme were correlated in children. In addition, regarding lifestyle factors, the duration of sleep and lactoferrin flow rate were also related.

  8. Comparison of the effects of pilocarpine and cevimeline on salivary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M A; Tarzia, O; Bergamaschi, C C; Santos, F A; Andrade, E D; Groppo, F C

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of low-dose pilocarpine and cevimeline as stimulants for salivary flow in healthy subjects. In this cross-over clinical trial with a 1-week washout period, 40 male volunteers were submitted to an oral dose of pilocarpine 1% (Salagen) -60 microg kg(-1) body-weight (Group 1) or Cevimeline (Evoxac) -30 mg (Group 2). Saliva samples were collected and the salivary flow rate was measured (ml min(-1)) at baseline and 20, 40, 60, 80, 140 and 200 min after administration of drugs. In addition, salivary secretion was also measured under mechanical stimulation to observe salivary gland function. The data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (significance level = 5%). Pilocarpine and cevimeline significantly increased salivary flow 140 min after intake. There was a significant higher secretion with cevimeline 140 and 200 min after administration. There were no differences seen among subjects in the salivary glands function by mechanical stimulation. Both drugs showed efficacy in increasing the salivary flow in healthy volunteers, but cevimeline was more effective than pilocarpine.

  9. Association between genetic taste sensitivity, 2D:4D ratio, dental caries prevalence, and salivary flow rate in 6-14-year-old children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamaneni Raja Lakshmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D, non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000. Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48 than non-tasters (0.29, which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index.

  10. Association between genetic taste sensitivity, 2D:4D ratio, dental caries prevalence, and salivary flow rate in 6-14-year-old children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Chintamaneni Raja; Radhika, Doppalapudi; Prabhat, Mpv; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sai Madhavi, Nallamilli

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul J Hegde; Janhavi B Thakkar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum) and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum) comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and...

  12. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  13. Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pippi ANTONIAZZI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min. A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012. No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384. A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59 had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

  14. Differences in salivary flow rate and pH between chewing gum of xylitol and sucrose at 4, 5, and 6 grade of Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Eva Chalid; Sherly Horax

    2016-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum has been shown to be effective to produce of saliva between chewing sucrose gum. Other than, pH of saliva after  chewing xylitol gum is base and chewing sucrose gum is acid. Caries can be caused by various factors such as the large number of salivary flow, salivary acidity, etc. Then it needs to be known by chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose are most excellent to preventing caries in children. The aim of this research study was to determine the difference of salivary flo...

  15. Effect of sensory stimulation on salivary IgA secretion rate in karate players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Baralic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secretory IgA is predominant immunoglobulin in secretions of the mucosal immune system. Low concentration of salivary IgA is associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract infections episodes in athletes during the training season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether orange-flavored whey based drink has beneficial effect on level of IgA in saliva after the training. Methods: Twenty healthy, young karate players participated in this study. They were divided into two groups. One group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of liquid whey, two times in 30-min period: 15 and 30 min after training. Second group rinsed a mouth with 20 ml of whey based orange flavored soft drink, at the same time. Saliva was collected before the training, just after the training and after application of fluids. Results: We observed decrease in salivary flow after physical activity. The salivary flow was higher after the application of flavored drink compared to salivary flow after the application of whey. The absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate decreased just after exercise compared to pre exercise values. Application of whey elevated sIgA levels on day 1, while application of flavored drink caused increasing in sIgA levels on day 3. In all other cases sIgA level was decreasing even after applied stimuli. Conclusions: The exercise induces decreasing in salivary flow, sIgA absolute concentration and sIgA secretion rate. Application of fluid whey and flavored whey-based drink elevated salivary flow, but had little effect on absolute concentration of sIgA and sIgA secretion rate in young karate players.

  16. Saliva composition in three selected groups with normal stimulated salivary flow rates, but yet major differences in caries experience and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, Allan; Lykkeaa, Joan; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante; Fiehn, Niels-Erik

    2014-08-01

    It was hypothesized that, by comparing matched subjects with major differences in these dental diseases, but yet normal saliva flow rates, it would be possible to obtain data on the effect of saliva composition on dental disease isolated from the effect of the flow rate. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare the major physicochemical characteristics of stimulated whole saliva in three groups of 85 subjects, each with normal saliva flow rates and at least 24 remaining teeth. A group with very little dental disease (healthy), a group with dental erosion (erosion) and a group with very high caries experience (caries) were chosen. Furthermore, the aim was to determine whether differences among groups could also be found on an individual level. Although it was not possible to retrieve three groups whose members were completely identical, the present study points in the direction that, on a group level, subjects with very little dental disease seemed to have a more favorable physicochemical saliva composition with respect to higher calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, pH, degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a lower critical pH (p < 0.05 or less). However, on an individual level the explanatory power for the saliva composition was only 10% for caries experience and only 11% for dental erosion (p < 0.001). The compositional analyses performed in this study on stimulated whole saliva, including major physicochemical characteristics of saliva, will most likely have little predictive value for future dental caries and erosion in single individuals.

  17. Assessing caries, dental plaque and salivary flow in asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N C; Jamelli, S; Costa, L; Baracho Filho, C; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Sarinho, E

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a greater incidence of caries, reduced salivary flow, changes in saliva composition and an increased frequency of dental plaque, probably through alterations in the oral microbiota. The objective was to compare the frequency of caries, dental plaque and non-stimulated salivary flow rate among asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids and non-asthmatic adolescents, as well as the salivary biochemical parameters (pH and leucocytes) in both groups. This research has a descriptive cross-sectional design to compare dental health of 40 asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids and 40 non-asthmatic adolescents (median age 13 years). The findings were a higher number of tooth surfaces affected by dental caries (median 4 versus 1.5), and more dental plaques (median 70.5 versus 60.7) among asthmatic adolescents. They also had a significantly higher frequency of salivary leucocytes. The non-stimulated salivary flow was similar in both groups. The results suggest an association between the use of inhaled corticosteroids and an increased risk of dental caries and bacterial plaque, which calls for special attention of these patients by doctors and dental health professionals. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in salivary flow rate and pH between chewing gum of xylitol and sucrose at 4, 5, and 6 grade of Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eva Chalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chewing xylitol gum has been shown to be effective to produce of saliva between chewing sucrose gum. Other than, pH of saliva after  chewing xylitol gum is base and chewing sucrose gum is acid. Caries can be caused by various factors such as the large number of salivary flow, salivary acidity, etc. Then it needs to be known by chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose are most excellent to preventing caries in children. The aim of this research study was to determine the difference of salivary flow while chewing xylitol gum and bubble gum sucrose on Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar. The research is a qualitative research with quase experimental studies method, this type of design is pre- and post-test design with control group. Sample determined in accordance with the criteria of the sample is children aged 9-12 years old, has a superficial dental caries and caries media at least three teeth, another chewing gum does not consume about 60 minutes before the investigation, and ready to be research samples and ready to follow the instructions of researchers. After determining the sample then obtained 30 samples respectively at grades 4, 5, and 6. On first day, samples requested to chewing gum with xylitol and on the second day, chewing gum with sucrose each for 5 minutes after that saliva from samples collected on a centrifuge tube, then observed number of saliva and saliva acidity. The results obtained, showed that there are differences in the amount of salivary flow and acidity between  chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose, there is difference in amount of salivary flow (0.002 and for salivary pH value (0.000 which means the value of difference is significant. The research found that children who chewed xylitol gum can produce more saliva than chewed sucrose gum and sucrose gum had higher acidity than xylitol gum.

  19. Quantitative Lateral Flow Assays for Salivary Biomarker Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miočević, Olga; Cole, Craig R.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Buck, Robert L.; Slowey, Paul D.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is an emerging biofluid with a significant number of applications in use across research and clinical settings. The present paper explores the reasons why saliva has grown in popularity in recent years, balancing both the potential strengths and weaknesses of this biofluid. Focusing on reasons why saliva is different from other common biological fluids such as blood, urine, or tears, we review how saliva is easily obtained, with minimal risk to the donor, and reduced costs for collection, transportation, and analysis. We then move on to a brief review of the history and progress in rapid salivary testing, again reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of rapid immunoassays (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay) compared to more traditional immunoassays. We consider the potential for saliva as an alternative biofluid in a setting where rapid results are important. We focus the review on salivary tests for small molecule biomarkers using cortisol as an example. Such salivary tests can be applied readily in a variety of settings and for specific measurement purposes, providing researchers and clinicians with opportunities to assess biomarkers in real time with lower transportation, collection, and analysis costs, faster turnaround time, and minimal training requirements. We conclude with a note of cautious optimism that the field will soon gain the ability to collect and analyze salivary specimens at any location and return viable results within minutes. PMID:28660183

  20. Quantitative Lateral Flow Assays for Salivary Biomarker Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Miočević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an emerging biofluid with a significant number of applications in use across research and clinical settings. The present paper explores the reasons why saliva has grown in popularity in recent years, balancing both the potential strengths and weaknesses of this biofluid. Focusing on reasons why saliva is different from other common biological fluids such as blood, urine, or tears, we review how saliva is easily obtained, with minimal risk to the donor, and reduced costs for collection, transportation, and analysis. We then move on to a brief review of the history and progress in rapid salivary testing, again reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of rapid immunoassays (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay compared to more traditional immunoassays. We consider the potential for saliva as an alternative biofluid in a setting where rapid results are important. We focus the review on salivary tests for small molecule biomarkers using cortisol as an example. Such salivary tests can be applied readily in a variety of settings and for specific measurement purposes, providing researchers and clinicians with opportunities to assess biomarkers in real time with lower transportation, collection, and analysis costs, faster turnaround time, and minimal training requirements. We conclude with a note of cautious optimism that the field will soon gain the ability to collect and analyze salivary specimens at any location and return viable results within minutes.

  1. Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Polliane M.; Castelo, Paula M.; Carpenter, Guy; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the ...

  2. Impact of salivary flow and lysozyme content and output on the oral health of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of the study was to examine salivary flow rate, DMF index, lysozyme concentration and its output in two groups of rheumatoid patients and to compare the results with those of healthy controls.Material/Methods:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients were divided into two study groups: with reduced salivary flow rate ≤0.15 ml/min (RA HS, hyposalivation and with normal salivary secretion rate >0.2 ml/min (RA NS, normal salivation. The healthy control group (C was recruited from the Department of Conservative Dentistry. Salivary lysozyme concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion. ANOVA followed by LSD test were used for the statistical analysis.Results:We found that lysozyme concentration was higher and lysozyme output and salivary flow rate were statistically lower in the RA HS group in comparison to the RA NS and C groups. The DMF index was statistically higher in both RA groups in comparison to the control group.Conclusions:RA disease impacts negatively on oral health and salivary parameters. Hyposalivation of RA patients increases the negative influence of RA on oral health. RA patients should receive more stomatological attention.

  3. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

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    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  4. Salivary Parameters (Salivary Flow, pH and Buffering Capacity) in Stimulated Saliva of Mexican Elders 60 Years Old and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Granillo, H; Borges-Yañez, S A; Medina-Solís, C E; Galan-Vidal, C A; Navarrete-Hernández, J J; Escoffié-Ramirez, M; Maupomé, G

    2014-12-01

    To compare a limited array of chewing-stimulated saliva features (salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity) in a sample of elderly Mexicans with clinical, sociodemographic and socio-economic variables. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 139 adults, 60 years old and older, from two retirement homes and a senior day care centre in the city of Pachuca, Mexico. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were collected through a questionnaire. A trained and standardized examiner obtained the oral clinical variables. Chewing-stimulated saliva (paraffin method) was collected and the salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were measured. The analysis was performed using non-parametric tests in Stata 9.0. Mean age was 79.1 ± 9.8 years. Most of the subjects included were women (69.1%). Mean chewing-stimulated salivary flow was 0.75 ± 0.80 mL/minute, and the pH and buffer capacity were 7.88 ± 0.83 and 4.20 ± 1.24, respectively. Mean chewing-stimulated salivary flow varied (p buffer capacity (p buffer capacity) and outline the variability of those features across selected sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables in a group of Mexican elders.

  5. Salivary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  6. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS): Subjective symptoms and salivary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.M.; Reibel, J.; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales......autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales...

  7. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra López-Verdín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow.

  8. Assessing caries, dental plaque and salivary flow in asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, N C; Jamelli, S; Costa, L; Baracho Filho, C; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Sarinho, E

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a greater incidence of caries, reduced salivary flow, changes in saliva composition and an increased frequency of dental plaque...

  9. The effect of orthodontic treatment on salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity, and levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H S; Walsh, L J; Freer, T J

    1999-04-01

    Fixed orthodontic treatment has been shown to cause an increased incidence of enamel demineralisation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in stimulated salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, and the levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli in patients undergoing therapy with fixed orthodontic appliances. Saliva samples, plaque index scores and dietary histories were taken from 21 sequential patients before the start of treatment, and one month and three months after placement of brackets and bands. There was a statistically significant increase in stimulated salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, plaque index scores, and in the levels of MS and lactobacilli after three months of active treatment. It is postulated that the balance between the cariogenic challenge posed by high levels of MS and lactobacilli, and the reparative effects of concurrent increases in salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity, determines the likelihood of mineral loss or gain over time. A failure to follow basic preventive measures may increase the risk for some patients of enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

  10. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence was found for caries (P < 0.01), periodontal status (P < 0.001) and mucosal lesions (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study shows that diuretic medication significantly reduces SFRs (xerostomia) and alters salivary composition which may have an impact on the incidence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and ...

  11. Caries experience in relation to oral hygiene, salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity and secretion rate in 6-year olds and 12 year olds in Riga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to assess possible relationship between oral hygiene, salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity, secretion rate and caries experience in 6 year olds and 12 year olds in Riga, and to evaluate these variables in relation to caries risk. 50 children aged 6 and 71 children aged 12 were examined clinically and by bitewing X-ray for caries diagnosis. Green-Vermillion oral hygiene index, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffer capacity were estimated (CRT-buffer; Ivoclar, Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) (CRT-bacteria; Vivadent) were determined only for children with dmft/DMFT>4: 60% at age of 6, 54,9% at age of 12. All data were statistically analyzed using frequency tables, Pearson chi2test and ANOVA analysis. Mean DMFT was 0.12 in 6 year olds, and 4.6 in 12 year olds. Mean Green-Vermillion index was 0.75 in 6 year olds and 0.99 in 12 year olds. Caries experience and Green-Vermillion index were associated only in 6 year olds (p=0.024). Salivary MS was associated with Green-Vermillion index only in 12 year olds (p=0.086). Salivary MS and caries experience were associated only in 12 year olds (p=0.010). Salivary LB was associated with stimulated saliva's secretion rate only in 12 year olds (p=0.027). Salivary cariogenic microflora level and buffer capacity were associated in 6 year olds (p for MS=0.010; p for LB=0.052). Same association was observed only between salivary MS and buffer capacity in 12 year olds (p=0.081). Stimulated saliva's secretion rate and buffer capacity were associated only in 12 year olds (p=0.004). Information of caries risk factors should be used to work effectively on caries reduction in 6 year olds and 12 year olds in Riga.

  12. Effectiveness of Electrostimulation on Whole Salivary Flow Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyasnoor, Sujatha; Kamath, Shwetha; Khader, Nishat Fatima Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Context Xerostomia and hyposalivation are associated with diabetes. Research is sparse regarding electrostimulation as a mainstream therapy for salivary gland hypofunction. Objective To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy in stimulating whole salivary flow among patients with xerostomia and hyposalivation caused by diabetes mellitus. Design Forty patients between age 30 to 75 years with diabetes mellitus categorized as controlled or uncontrolled who had subjective symptoms of xerostomia and an objective sign of hyposalivation were included in a prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Unstimulated saliva through the “low forced spitting” method and stimulated saliva collection using TENS were assessed and compared. Longer-term effects of TENS application were evaluated by recalling the patient 24 hours later. Results A statistically significant increase in stimulated whole saliva after TENS application in continuous mode (p hyposalivation, TENS was highly effective in stimulating whole salivary flow. PMID:28488983

  13. Inadequate salivary flow and poor oral mucosal status in intubated intensive care unit patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennesen, P.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Vlasveld, M.; Lokker, L.; Ramsay, G.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Keijbus, P. van den; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van; Veerman, E.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate salivary flow and frequency of oral mucositis in intensive care unit patients compared with patients admitted because of elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In addition, the pattern of oropharyngeal colonization was investigated in these patients. DESIGN:

  14. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  15. Variability in Measures of Exhaled Breath Na, Influence of pulmonary Blood Flow and salivary Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Wheatley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of inflammatory markers and ions in exhaled breath condensate (EBC is being utilized more frequently in diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis with marked variability in EBC measures, including those of exhaled Na + . We sought to determine if variability in exhaled Na + was due to differences in pulmonary blood flow (PBF or Na + in the mouth (salivary Na + . We measured exhaled Na + three times with coinciding sampling of salivary Na + and assessment of PBF (using acetylene rebreathing in 13 healthy subjects (54% female, age = 27 ± 7 yrs., ht. = 172 ± 10 cm, wt. = 70 ± 21 kg, BMI = 22 ± 7 kg/m 2 mean ± SD. Exhaled Na + averaged 2.7 ± 1.2 mmol/l, and salivary Na + averaged 5.51 ± 4.58 mmol/l. The coefficients of variation across all three measures in all 13 subjects averaged 30% for exhaled Na + and 83% for salivary Na + , within subjects the variability across the three measures averaged 30% for exhaled Na + and 38% for salivary Na + . Across all three measures in all 13 subjects the relationship between PBF and exhaled Na + averaged 0.027 ( P = 0.87, and the relationship between salivary Na + and exhaled Na + concentrations averaged 0.59 ( P = 0.001. Also, we sought to determine the relationship between exhaled Na + and serum Na + in an addition 20 subjects. There was a moderate and significant relationship between serum Na + and exhaled Na + (r = 0.37, P = 0.04. These findings suggest there that the variability in exhaled Na + is caused, at least in part, by droplet formation from within the mouth as turbulent air passes through and that there is a flux of ions from the pulmonary blood into the airways.

  16. The effects of combination treatment with a long-acting beta2-agonist and a corticosteroid on salivary flow rate, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oral health in children and adolescents with moderate asthma: a 1-month, single-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Cigdem; Ozden, Feyza Otan; Acikgoz, Gokhan; Anlar, Fehim Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disorder of childhood, and it is frequently accompanied by dental and other oral abnormalities. As such, oral and dental effects of asthma medications have been investigated in several studies. However, the effect of combination therapy with a long-acting beta(2)-agonist and a corticosteroid on oral health in children and adolescents has not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine whether combination treatment with a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (salmeterol) and a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate) administered by dry powder inhaler (DPI) affects oral health in children and adolescents with moderate asthma. This 1-month, single-blind clinical study was conducted at the Department of Periodontology, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Dentistry, Samsun, Turkey. Male and female children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years with moderate persistent asthma, as classified by the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, were studied before and after 1 month of treatment with combination salmeterol 50 microg and fluticasone propionate 100 mug administered by DPI BID. Salivary flow rate and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) level were measured, and periodontal health was assessed by gingival and dental plaque indices for buccal surfaces and periodontal pocket depth. The study enrolled 15 children and adolescents (8 girls, 7 boys; mean [SD] age, 11 years [45 months]; median age, 13 years; [range, 7-17 years]). At 1 month, mean sIgA, gingival index, buccal surface index, gingival index, dental plaque index, and periodontal pocket depth were not changed significantly from baseline, whereas mean (SD) salivary flow rate was significantly decreased (from 153.21 [39.29] to 113.16 [46.99] microL/5 s; P = 0.015) and dental plaque index on the buccal surface was significantly increased (from 1.43 [0.63] to 1.61 [0.67]; P = 0.01). In this small study, combination treatment with salmeterol 50 microg and fluticasone propionate

  17. Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, T A; Nordman, E

    1987-01-01

    A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth.

  18. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by oral contraceptives so women taking birth control pills can still participate in the study. Summary Salivary cortisol is an effective...in cortisol binding globulin (found in oral contraceptives ). Salivary cortisol is not influenced by saliva flow rate and there are obvious

  19. Normative references of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiromitsu; Park, Bum-Jin; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-04-20

    This study aimed to present normative reference values of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population with a particular focus on their distribution and reproducibility. The short-term heart rate variability of 417 young healthy Japanese men was studied. Furthermore, salivary alpha-amylase was measured in 430 men. The average age of the subjects were 21.9 years with standard deviation of 1.6 years. Interindividual variations in heart rate variability indices and salivary alpha-amylase levels were plotted as histograms. Data are presented as the mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, and fifth and 95th percentiles of each physiological index. Mean recorded values were heart period 945.85 ms, log-transformed high frequency component 9.84 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency component 10.42 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency to high frequency ratio 0.58 ln-ratio, standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval 27.17 ms and root mean square of successive difference 37.49 ms. The mean value of raw salivary alpha-amylase was 17.48 U/mL, square root salivary alpha-amylase 3.96 sqrt[U/mL] and log-transformed salivary alpha-amylase 2.65 ln[U/mL]. Log-transformed heart rate variability indices exhibited almost symmetrical distributions; however, time-domain indices of heart rate variability (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive difference) exhibited right-skewed (positive skewness) distributions. A considerable right-skewed distribution was observed for raw salivary alpha-amylase. Logarithmic transformation improved the distribution of salivary alpha-amylase, although square root transformation was insufficient. The day-to-day reproducibility of these indices was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients of most heart rate variability and salivary indices were approximately 0.5 to 0.6. Intraclass correlation

  20. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  1. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  2. Effect of Salivary Reaction Time on Flow Properties of Commercial Food Thickeners Used for Dysphagic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yoon, Seung-Ro; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of human saliva on the flow properties of pudding-like thickened water prepared with commercial food thickeners was investigated, and their viscosity differences were also compared as a function of salivary reaction time (0-60 min after the addition of saliva). Food thickeners used in this study were starch-based (SB), gum-containing starch-based (GSB), and gumbased (GB) commercial thickeners marketed in Korea. GB showed no significant reduction in viscosity upon contact with human saliva during the salivary reaction. In contrast, SB almost completely lost its viscosity shortly after the addition of saliva, and GSB significantly reduced its viscosity after 20 min of reaction time but retained its viscosity. The results of this study indicate that GB can enhance the swallowing safety of dysphagic patients by retaining a stable viscosity level without the reduction of viscosity during consumption of thickened fluids, whereas SB may increase the possibility of aspiration owing to a rapid decrease of viscosity upon contact with human saliva.

  3. Salivary profile and its relationship to the degree of immunosuppression in patients with hiv infection with and without highly active antiretroviral treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Cruz, Moisés; Cornejo Salaza, José; Dpto. de Cirugía Bucomaxilofacial de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM, Lima-Perú.; Chiyong, Teresa Evaristo; Dpto Académico Estomatología Biosocial de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM, Lima-Perú.; Arevalo Abanto, Jorge A.; Coordinador de la Estrategia Sanitaria de Prevención y Control de ITS, VIH y SIDA, del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima-Perú.; Villanueva Vílchez, Hugo G.; Profesor responsable de la Cátedra de Fisicoquímica de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de UNMSM, Lima-Perú.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary profile of HIV-infected patients with and without Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART), evaluating the Symptoms of salivary hypofunction (Xerostomia, Dysgeusia, Dysphagia, and Susceptibility to develop ulcers oral), the Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate, Salivary pH and Salivary Viscosity, establishing their relationship with the degree of immunosuppression as assessed by the Counting of lymphocyte CD4/μl. We evaluated 126 patients wi...

  4. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  5. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood lactate responses during elite downhill mountain bike racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Achtzehn, Silvia; Buhr, Mirijam; Zinner, Christoph; Zelle, Stefan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to quantify the intensity profile of elite downhill mountain bike races during competitions. Seventeen male downhill racers (22 ± 5 y; 185.1 ± 5.3 cm; 68.0 ± 3.9 kg; VO2peak: 59.4 ± 4.1 mL·min·kg-1) participated in the International German Downhill Championships in 2010. The racers' peak oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR) at 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 blood lactate (HR2 and HR4), were assessed during an incremental laboratory step test (100 W, increase 40 W every 5 min). During the races, the HR was recorded and pre- and postrace blood lactate concentrations as well as salivary cortisol levels were obtained. During the race, the absolute time spent in the "easy" intensity zone was 23.3 ± 6.8 s, 24.2 ± 12.8 s (HR2-HR4) in the "moderate" zone, and 151.6 ± 18.3 s (>HR4) in the "hard" zone. Eighty percent of the entire race was accomplished at intensities >90% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations postrace were higher than those obtained after the qualification heat (8.0 ± 2.5 mmol·L-1 vs 6.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L-1, P bike downhill races are conducted at high heart rates and levels of blood lactate as well as increased concentration of salivary cortisol as marker for psycho-physiological stress.

  6. Flow rate, pH and calcium concentration of saliva of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in salivary parameters may increase the caries risk in diabetic children, but, contradictory data on this issue have been reported. The aims of this study were to compare salivary parameters (flow rate, pH and calcium concentration between healthy and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM individuals. The sample consisted of 7- to 18-year-old individuals divided into two groups: 30 subjects with T1DM (group A and 30 healthy control subjects (group B. Fasting glucose levels were determined. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva was collected. The pH of unstimulated saliva was measured with paper strips and an electrode. Calcium concentrations in stimulated saliva were determined with a selective electrode. Group A individuals had inadequate blood glucose control (HbA1C >9%, with means ± SD unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.15 ± 0.1 mL/min compared to 0.36 ± 0.2 mL/min for group B (P < 0.01. Stimulated salivary flow rate was similar by both groups and above 2.0 mL/min. Saliva pH was 6.0 ± 0.8 for group A and significantly different from 7.0 ± 0.6 for group B (P < 0.01. Salivary calcium was 14.7 ± 8.1 mg/L for group A and significantly higher than 9.9 ± 6.4 mg/L for group B (P < 0.01. Except for elevated calcium concentrations in saliva, salivary parameters favoring caries such as low saliva pH and unstimulated salivary flow rate were observed in T1DM individuals.

  7. Academic stress, power motivation, and decrease in secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, J B; Borysenko, J Z; Borysenko, M; McClelland, D C; Chapman, R; Meyer, D; Benson, H

    1983-06-25

    The effect of academic stress on immune function, as measured by the rate of secretion of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), was studied prospectively in 64 first-year dental school students. Perceived stress and s-IgA secretion rate were measured five times--during an initial low-stress period, three high-stress periods coinciding with major examinations, and a final low-stress period. The s-IgA secretion rate was significantly lower in high-stress than low-stress periods for the whole group. In addition, personality characteristics differentiated patterns of s-IgA secretion rates. Students characterised by a great need to establish and maintain warm personal relationships secreted more s-IgA at each point than did all other subjects. The s-IgA secretion rates of those with a high inhibited need for power continued to decline through the final low-stress period rather than recovering as in all other subjects.

  8. Association of Xerostomia and Assessment of Salivary Flow Using Modified Schirmer Test among Smokers and Healthy Individuals: A Preliminutesary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Saddu, Shweta Channavir

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Several oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis and oral infections can be a major concern in patients suffering from mouth dryness. Whole mouth salivary flow is affected by many factors which may include habits like smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of xerostomia and hyposalivation among smokers. Materials and Methods: The study groups included 60 smokers and 60 healthy non-tobacco users as case and control groups respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the smoking habits and symptoms associated with xerostomia. Measurement of unstimulated whole mouth salivary flow for 3 minutesutes was performed using modified Schirmer test. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of xerostomia symptom was 37% in smokers and it was 13% in non-smokers, with a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.003). The prevalence of hyposalivation was 43% in smokers, whereas it was only 8% in the control group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Xerostomia symptoms with significant reduction in unstimulated whole mouth salivary flow were associated with long term smoking. PMID:24596777

  9. Flow rate, pH and calcium concentration of saliva of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A R; Passos, I A; Sampaio, F C; Soares, M S M; Oliveira, R J

    2009-08-01

    Alterations in salivary parameters may increase the caries risk in diabetic children, but, contradictory data on this issue have been reported. The aims of this study were to compare salivary parameters (flow rate, pH and calcium concentration) between healthy and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) individuals. The sample consisted of 7- to 18-year-old individuals divided into two groups: 30 subjects with T1DM (group A) and 30 healthy control subjects (group B). Fasting glucose levels were determined. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva was collected. The pH of unstimulated saliva was measured with paper strips and an electrode. Calcium concentrations in stimulated saliva were determined with a selective electrode. Group A individuals had inadequate blood glucose control (HbA(1C) >9%), with means +/- SD unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.15 +/- 0.1 mL/min compared to 0.36 +/- 0.2 mL/min for group B (P Saliva pH was 6.0 +/- 0.8 for group A and significantly different from 7.0 +/- 0.6 for group B (P saliva, salivary parameters favoring caries such as low saliva pH and unstimulated salivary flow rate were observed in T1DM individuals.

  10. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  11. Correlation of Dental Caries Experience with pH, Buffering Capacity and Flow Rate of Saliva among 15-year-old School Children in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay S Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: To correlate dental caries experience with pH, buffering capacity and flow rate of saliva among 15-year-old-children Materials & Method : Fifteen year old school children from adopted schools of a dental college in Mangalore were considered as study subjects. The study was carried out using a standardized proforma that consisted of questionnaire for recording demographic data. The caries experience was assessed by DMFT Index. Salivary pH was measured by using a pH meter and salivary buffering capacity was measured by using titration method. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects by direct expectoration to calculate the flow rate. Results: The mean DMFT of the study population was 2.85 ± 2.5. The mean salivary pH was found to be 6.88 ± 0.69.About 74.1% were having medium salivary buffering capacities. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate and mean total antioxidant capacity of the study population was 0.41 ± 0.14 ml/min and 94.15 ± 60.72 g/dL respectively. Conclusions: A marked association between the pH, buffering capacity and unstimulated flow rate with dental caries experience suggest that assessment of these salivary parameters can be used as predictors for future dental caries susceptibility in an individual.

  12. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  13. Heart rate variability and salivary cortisol in very preterm children during school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Ludyga, Sebastian; Stalder, Tobias; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (position at rest (wake) and during different sleep stages (stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep, rapid-eye-movement sleep). Autonomic function was assessed by use of heart rate variability, specifically low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), total spectral power (Tot Pow), and the LF/HF ratio. HPA axis activity was measured using salivary cortisol the next morning at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Children born very preterm had lower LF/HF ratio during wake and stage 2 sleep compared to full-term children. Moreover, higher LF, Tot Pow, and LF/HF ratio during wake, stage 2 sleep, and REM sleep were related to more post-awakening cortisol secretion. The present study provides evidence on long-term ANS alterations after very preterm birth. Moreover, findings suggest a relation between the ANS and the HPA axis and therefore support the notion of mutual feedback between the two human stress systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coriolis mass flow rate meters for low flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate and quick measurement of small mass flow rates (~10 mg/s) of fluids is considered an “enabling technology��? in semiconductor, fine-chemical, and food & drugs industries. Flowmeters based on the Coriolis effect offer the most direct sensing of the mass flow rate, and for this reason do

  15. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  17. Oral glucose retention, saliva viscosity and flow rate in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, M; Nakagaki, H; Tsuboi, S; Adachi, K; Hanaki, M; Tanaka, D; Takami, Y; Nakano, T; Kuwahara, M; Thuy, T T

    2000-11-01

    There are significant differences of glucose retention in site-specificity and individuals. Sixty-two 5-year-old nursery schoolchildren participated in this study on the relation between the viscosity of saliva and flow rate and glucose retention. Each child was instructed to rinse his/her mouth with a glucose solution (0.5 M, 5 ml) and then to spit out. Three minutes after rinsing, glucose retention was determined. Resting saliva was collected by a natural outflow method, then the flow rate was determined. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity. Glucose retention and flow rate were correlated at the left maxillary primary molars, and glucose retention and viscosity were correlated at the maxillary central primary incisors. It was concluded that glucose retention after glucose mouth rinsing was site-specific, and that glucose retention and the index of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) were slightly correlated with the salivary viscosity and flow rate.

  18. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analysis of age-related changes in the functional morphologies of salivary glands in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Park, In Suh; Kim, Seok-ki; Lim, Jae-Yol; Kim, Young-Mo

    2013-11-01

    Salivary glands in the elderly commonly exhibit salivary dysfunction resulting dry mouth, poor oral hygiene, and dental caries. However, in vivo changes of salivary glands during aging have not been well documented in the literature. This study was undertaken to determine age-related morphometric and functional changes of salivary glands using an aging mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups, group A (10 weeks old; n=10), group B (30 weeks old; n=10), and group C (90 weeks old; n=10). Body weights, salivary gland weights, salivary flow rates, and salivary lag times were measured and compared. Histomorphometric examinations and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. In addition, changes in salivary uptake and excretion were observed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Body and gland weights increased with age. Gland weight was significantly higher in group B than in groups A and C. Salivary lag time was significantly greater in group C than in groups A and B, and salivary flow rate was significantly greater in group B than in groups A and C. Histologic evaluations exhibited acinar cell atrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lymphocyte infiltration, small mucin component and more periductal fibrosis in salivary glands of group C. TUNEL assays revealed that apoptotic salivary epithelial cells were significantly more numerous in group C than in groups A and B. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate excretion rate was significantly lower in group C than in groups A and B in SPECT. Various morphometric and histopathological changes were observed in the salivary glands of aging mouse as well as relevant functional alterations, such as, decreased saliva production and excretion. Increased number of apoptotic salivary epithelial cells may contribute to the observed functional deterioration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexible Membrane Micro Flow-rate Threshold Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee C. LIM

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A piezoresistive flow sensor that functions as a threshold flow switch, independent of input supply voltage, is designed, fabricated, and tested. The test flow rate is in the 10s ml/hr range. The sensor is fabricated using doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with MEMs on flexible polyimide substrate. The flow sensor is highly sensitive and able to distinguish between distilled water and 0.1 % NaCl saline solution in terms of threshold switch-on flow rate. The switch-on threshold of the flow sensor is observed to be independent of the applied input voltage. These turn-on threshold levels are adaptable to user’s application.

  1. A screening test for capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper: a study for diagnosis of hyposalivation with a complaint of dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomotaka; Asano, Kozo; Morita, Manabu; Maeshima, Etsuko; Matsuda, Akemi; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple screening technique for diagnosis of hyposalivation with dry mouth by estimation of capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper. An assay system comprising 5 spots containing starch and potassium iodide on filter paper incorporating or without capsaicin and a coloring reagent was designed. We investigated whether the number of colored spots using the filter paper incorporating capsaicin could distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with hyposalivation and dry mouth. In the healthy group (>200 μL/min; n = 33), the capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow significantly increased as compared with the resting salivary flow, from 1.2 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.3 colored spots (P hyposalivation group with dry mouth (hyposalivation with dry mouth. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  3. Stability of flow focusing: The minimum attainable flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanero, J. M.; Rebollo, N.; Acero, A.; Ferrera, C.; Herrada, M. A.; Ganan-Calvo, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    We analyze both theoretically and experimentally the stability of the steady jetting regime reached when liquid jets are focused by coaxial gas streams. In the low-viscosity case, viscous dissipation in the feeding capillary and liquid meniscus seem to be the origin of the instability. For high-viscosity liquids, the breakdown of the jetting regime takes place when the pressure drop cannot overcome the resistance force offered by surface tension. The characteristic flow rates for which the tapering menisci become unstable do not depend on the pressure drop applied to the system to produce the micro-jet. They increase (decrease) with viscosity for very low (high) viscosity liquids. Experiments confirmed the validity of the above conclusions. For each applied pressure drop, there is a minimum liquid flow rate below which the liquid meniscus drips. The minimum flow rates become practically independent of the applied pressure drop for sufficiently large values of this quantity. There exists an optimum value of the capillary-to-orifice distance for which the minimum flow rate attains a limiting value, which constitutes the lowest flow rate attainable with a given configuration in the steady jetting regime. A two-dimensional stability map with a high degree of validity is plotted on the plane defined by the Reynolds and capillary numbers based on the limiting flow rate.

  4. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Flow rate measurements by means of tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosetti, F. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The application of some sources of diffusion for the flow rate measurement of water or other fluids is here presented. The laminar instantaneous source, obtained in practice with easy devices, is very useful in river or channel measurements. The analysis of the measurements could supply the flow rate and the presence of water losses or recharges. The section of the channel can also be determined by such a method.

  6. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0.......2 to 0.3 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for combi tank systems and in the interval from 0.3 to 0.4 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for preheating systems. Further, calculations showed that by means of an advanced control strategy for the flow rate - for instance if the flow rate is directly proportional...

  7. Ultrasonic rate measurement of multiphase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannert, David A.; Horne, Roland N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important tools in production logging and well testing is the downhole flowmeter. Unfortunately, existing tools are inaccurate outside of an idealized single phase flow regime. Spinner tools are inaccurate at extremely high or low flow rates and when the flow rate is variable. Radioactive tracer tools have similar inaccuracies and are extremely sensitive to the flow regime. Both tools completely fail in the presence of multiphase flow, whether for gas/oil, gas/water, or fluid/solid. Downhole flowmetering is important for locating producing zones and thief zones and monitoring production and injection rates. The effects of stimulation can also be determined. The goal of this project is the investigation of accurate downhole flowmetering techniques for all single phase flow regimes and multiphase flows. The measurement method investigated in this report is the use of ultrasound. There are two ways to use ultrasound for fluid velocity measurement. The first method, examined in Chapter 2, is the contrapropagation, or transit-time, method which compares travel times with and against fluid flow. Chapter 3 details the second method which measures the Doppler frequency shift of a reflected sound wave in the moving fluid. Both of these technologies need to be incorporated in order to build a true multiphase flowmeter. Chapter 4 describes the proposed downhole multiphase flowmeter.

  8. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  9. Effects of acute exercise on salivary free insulin-like growth factor 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Saliva analysis is rapidly developing as a tool for the assessment of biomarkers of sports training. It remains poorly understood whether a short bout of sport training can alter some salivary immune biomarkers. Aim: To investigate the effect of acute exercise using football training session on salivary flow rate, ...

  10. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microflora in oral ecosystems and salivary secretion rates--A 3-year follow-up after radiation therapy to the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Wikström, Maude; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil

    2015-09-01

    Results indicate that late improvements of radiation therapy (RT) in the head and neck region may diminish the long-term effects on salivary glands and oral microflora. The aim was therefore to analyze salivary secretion rates and oral microflora over time in RT subjects. Twelve dentate subjects (28±2 teeth) and 12 controls were included. A clinical examination was performed and the salivary secretion rates were determined. Microbial samples, analyzed using cultivation technique, were collected from the soft tissues, supragingival plaque and gingival crevice region. Compared with the controls, the RT group (n=11) had 3 years post RT higher numbers and proportions of lactobacilli (psalivary secretion rates were increased over time, the proportion of microorganisms associated with oral health decreased, and microorganisms associated with oral disorders increased. Despite a comparable oral hygiene, it was only the 27% who had a stimulated salivary secretion rate ≥1.0ml/min and a buffering capacity ≥6.0, where a recovery of the flora could be seen. The results indicate that regaining a normal, stimulated salivary secretion rate and buffering capacity are prerequisites to regaining an oral flora associated with good oral health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  13. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p caries free group (pcaries.

  14. Flow rates for sharp-edged orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, W. A.; Manning, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    Two charts are proposed for calculating the flow coefficient and the area correction factor used in the equation for the flow rate through a sharp-edged orifice. The proposed charts account for variations in the discharge coefficient of sharp-edged orifices and can be used with any pressure ratio for both subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. They can also be used for any gas by using the appropriate gas constant and ratio of specific heats. The application of the charts is illustrated by examples.

  15. Detection of HCV RNA in saliva does not correlate with salivary flow or xerostomia in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Camargo Grossmann, Soraya; Teixeira, Rosângela; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; do Carmo, Maria Auxiliadora Vieira

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in saliva and its possible association with xerostomia and hyposalivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with confirmed diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C were prospectively analyzed before HCV treatment. The prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation was clinically evaluated. HCV RNA was investigated in saliva samples by qualitative PCR test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to verify associations. Xerostomia was reported by 48 (35.3%) patients, whereas hyposalivation was observed in 26 (19.1%). HCV RNA was positive in the saliva of 53 (39.0%) patients. An association among HCV RNA-positive saliva with xerostomia or hyposalivation was not observed. Our results demonstrate that the detection of HCV in saliva does not correlate with salivary flow or xerostomia in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  19. Controlling a wide range of flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  20. Dental caries, cariogenic microorganisms and salivary properties of allergic rhinitis children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkamhaeng, Kan; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Koontongkaew, Sittichai

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the caries activities of allergic rhinitis patients in relation to salivary properties, salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacillus (LB), oral hygiene and dietary habits. The study groups composed of 40 allergic rhinitis children and 40 healthy controls aged between 6 and 13 years old. Demographic data, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were recorded by questionnaire. For permanent teeth, caries experience was expressed as DMFT (D=decayed; M=missing; F=filled; T=teeth) index. The dmft (d=decayed; m=missing; f=filling; t=teeth) index was used for caries prevalence in primary teeth. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, and salivary MS and LB were also determined in children with allergic rhinitis and controls. There were no significant differences in combined DMFT/dmft, salivary flow rate, buffer capacity of saliva, salivary LB levels, and sugary food consumption between cases and controls (p>0.05). However, higher salivary MS levels were observed in allergic rhinitis patients, compared to controls (Pallergic rhinitis had an increase in the level of salivary MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  2. New findings on the minimum flow rate in Flow Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Benjamin; Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M.

    2006-11-01

    Recently published works on spatial-temporal instability analyses have dealt with flow-focused micro-jets. Those works have revealed that the minimum rate of fluid that can be focused is, in many cases, linked to an absolute/convective instability transition of the focused fluid micro-jet. Further to this, a series of very recent experiments indicate that the minimum flow rate may result very plausibly from the breakdown of a stability ``chain'', a link of it --and possibly not the weakest one- being the micro jet. The dripping-jetting transition curves in the Reynolds-Weber parametrical space show a conspicuous, consistent and interesting turning point. Whether this behaviour reflects a possible cross-over between the instability of the jet and that of the cusp-like meniscus is here discussed. Indeed, these new results are now set in perspective along with those recently published ones.

  3. Does radiation dose to the salivary glands and oral cavity predict patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva in head and neck cancer patients treated with curative radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornaert, P; Slotman, BJ; Leemans, CR; Langendijk, JA

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To investigate the association between the mean salivary gland and oral cavity dose, with patient-rated moderate and severe xerostomia and sticky saliva. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-seven patients treated with bilateral irradiation for head and neck cancer

  4. Electromechanically Actuated Valve for Controlling Flow Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A proposed valve for controlling the rate of flow of a fluid would include an electric-motor-driven ball-screw mechanism for adjusting the seating element of the valve to any position between fully closed and fully open. The motor would be of a type that can be electronically controlled to rotate to a specified angular position and to rotate at a specified rate, and the ball screw would enable accurate linear positioning of the seating element as a function of angular position of the motor. Hence, the proposed valve would enable fine electronic control of the rate of flow and the rate of change of flow. The uniqueness of this valve lies in a high degree of integration of the actuation mechanism with the flow-control components into a single, relatively compact unit. A notable feature of this integration is that in addition to being a major part of the actuation mechanism, the ball screw would also be a flow-control component: the ball screw would be hollow so as to contain part of the main flow passage, and one end of the ball screw would be the main seating valve element. The relationships among the components of the valve are best understood by reference to the figure, which presents meridional cross sections of the valve in the fully closed and fully open positions. The motor would be supported by a bracket bolted to the valve body. By means of gears or pulleys and a timing belt, motor drive would be transmitted to a sleeve that would rotate on bearings in the valve body. A ball nut inside the sleeve would be made to rotate with the sleeve by use of a key. The ball screw would pass through and engage the ball nut. A key would prevent rotation of the ball screw in the valve body while allowing the ball screw to translate axially when driven by the ball nut. The outer surface of the ball screw would be threaded only in a mid-length region: the end regions of the outer surface of the ball screw would be polished so that they could act as dynamic sealing surfaces

  5. Stimulated Hyposalivary Flow Rates in Healthcare Students in an Interprofessional Awareness Educational Program Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hyposalivation influences quality of life and medication compliance. However, oral health knowledge (in general and knowledge about hyposalivation (in particular are often lacking in nondental healthcare professional’s curricula. Additionally, hyposalivation has not been adequately studied in young adults. The purpose for this study is twofold: to use an interprofessional educational curriculum to increase nondental healthcare students’ knowledge about oral health and salivary testing and determine whether hyposalivation is different between sexes in young adults. Method. First-year medical and pharmacy students (N=178 learned the process of saliva collection and provided samples in an interprofessional program. Results. There were 14.4% of participants with hyposalivation; 72.0% were female. Males had higher flow rates (P=0.005. There failed to be a significant difference between the sexes with frank hyposalivation. There failed to be a significant difference in hyposalivation and medication use/nonuse. Conclusions. Hyposalivation is a biomedical, public health concern. However, in this young population, there was no significant difference between sexes or in medication use/nonuse. Through participation in the program, the students learned about salivary flow rates and the need for collaboration among professionals to prevent negative impacts of hyposalivation and oral health.

  6. SIALOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SALIVARY GLAND FUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS OUTPATIENTS OF RSUPN CIPTOMANGUNKUSUMO (A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Margaretha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between diabetic sialosis and salivary gland function has not been clearly stated. The objective of this study is to assess the association between sialosis and salivary flow rates and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty-one subjects enrolled in this cross-sectional study, consisted of 50 type 2 diabetic outpatients of RSUPN Ciptomangunkusumo (mean of age: 60,96±8,38 and 31 control subjects (mean of age: 57,03±10. Clinical examination was performed to assess sialosis. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were measured using spitting method. Saliva secretion was stimulated using 2% citric acid. Xerostomia was assessed using xerostomia questionnaire. The result showed that sialosis was found only in diabetic group, with a percentage of 28% (14 out of 50. This finding was not found in the well-controlled diabetic group The mean of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates of the diabetic patients with sialosis were lower than that of the diabetic patients without sialosis. Statistic analysis showed significant association between sialosis and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p=0,001 and between sialosis and xerostomia (p=0,005, but there was no significant association between sialosis and the decrease of unstimulated salivary flow rate, and between sialosis and xerostomia. Therefore patients with diabetic sialosis should by examined periodically to find out the possibility of salivary gland function disorder.

  7. Peak expiratory flow rate and Pulse Pressure values during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure during the luteal and menstruation phases of the menstrual cycle. The peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure were measured using the Wright's Peak Flow Meter and Mercury Sphygmomanometer respectively. The peak expiratory flow rate and ...

  8. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  9. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  10. Effects of salivary protein flow and indigenous microorganisms on initial colonization of Candida albicans in an in vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaguchi Norihiko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is part of the commensal microbial flora of the oral cavity. When the host immune defenses are impaired or when the normal microbial flora is disturbed, C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oral mucosa and tongue. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice that show hyposalivation, decrease of salivary protein flow, lack IgA and IgG in saliva, and have decreased NK cells. Our objective was to characterize C. albicans infection and biofilm formation in mice. Methods NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice were used as an animal model for C. albicans infection. C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms solutions were introduced in the oral cavity after disinfection by Chlorhexidine. Results The numbers of C. albicans colonized and decreased in a time-dependent manner in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ after inoculation. However, the colonization levels were higher in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ than NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. In the mice fed 1% sucrose water before inoculation, C. albicans sample was highly contaminated by indigenous microorganisms in the oral cavity; and was not in the mice fed no sucrose water. The colonization of C. albicans was not influenced by the contamination of indigenous microorganisms. The hyphal form of C. albicans restricted the restoration of indigenous microorganisms. The decreased saliva in NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- did not increase the colonization of C. albicans in comparison to NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ mice. We suggest that the receptor in saliva to C. albicans may not be sufficiently provided in the oral cavity of NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. Conclusion The saliva protein flow may be very important for C. albicans initial colonization, where the indigenous microorganisms do not affect colonization in the oral cavity.

  11. Levels of salivary IgA in patients with minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Rashad; Halboub, Esam; Mashlah, Ammar; Abou-Hamed, Hussein

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral mucosal disease. Despite plenty of studies on aetiopathogenesis of RAS, a definite cause is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the potential changes of salivary IgA and salivary flow rate in patients affected with minor form of RAS. Levels of salivary IgA in 33 patients with acute RAS (minor form) and 33 matched healthy controls were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Resting salivary flow rates were determined too. Both measurements, levels of salivary IgA and resting salivary flow rate, were performed again for each RAS patient in remission phase. Levels of salivary IgA were significantly increased in acute phase of RAS [median (interquartile range)-124.94 μg/mL (106.22-136.31)] in comparison with the levels in healthy controls [88.92 μg/mL (76.85-93.91; P minor RAS may suggest a potential role for this immunoglobulin in pathogenesis of the disease. Salivary IgA may be an important aetiological agent in the pathogenesis of RAS, and hence, its immunomodulation may help prevent the disease.

  12. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  13. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  14. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Mehdi; Arman, Soroor; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been used as an alternative and complementary treatment in medicine. Citrus fragrance has been used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy with essential oil of orange on child anxiety during dental treatment. Thirty children (10 boys, 20 girls) aged 6-9 years participated in a crossover intervention study, according to the inclusion criteria, among patients who attended the pediatric department of Isfahan Dental School in 2011. Every child underwent two dental treatment appointments including dental prophylaxis and fissure-sealant therapy under orange aroma in one session (intervention) and without any aroma (control) in another one. Child anxiety level was measured using salivary cortisol and pulse rate before and after treatment in each visit. The data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software version 18. The mean ± SD and mean difference of salivary cortisol levels and pulse rate were calculated in each group before and completion of treatment in each visit. The difference in means of salivary cortisol and pulse rate between treatment under orange odor and treatment without aroma was 1.047 ± 2.198 nmol/l and 6.73 ± 12.3 (in minutes), which was statistically significant using paired t-test (P = 0.014, P = 0.005, respectively). It seems that the use of aromatherapy with natural essential oil of orange could reduce salivary cortisol and pulse rate due to child anxiety state.

  15. Hypersonic Air Flow with Finite Rate Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Ian

    1997-01-01

    ... describe the effects of non-equilibrium flow chemistry, shock interaction, and turbulent mixing and combustion on the performance of vehicles and air breathing engines designed to fly in the hypersonic flow...

  16. Efecto de las cargas articulares sobre el flujo y pH salival Effect of TMJ loading on salivary flow and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Una alteración del flujo salival es clave en el desarrollo de caries, enfermedad periodontal e infecciones oportunistas. El flujo salival está determinado por diversos estímulos que actúan sobre receptores de distinta naturaleza, entre ellos mecanoreceptores articulares. Algunos estudios demuestran que las cargas articulares actúan sobre estos receptores, modificando cualitativa y cuantitativamente la secreción salival. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe una relación entre la aplicación controlada de cargas articulares y cambios en el flujo y pH salival. 30 voluntarios fueron seleccionados según criterios de inclusión establecidos. Se elaboró un dispositivo interoclusal que en relación a piezas 1.5 y 2.5, tenía botones acrílicos de 1 mm de espesor, los que al ejercer fuerzas sobre ellos provocan cargas reversibles sobre la ATM. Antes de usar el dispositivo, en cada individuo se midió flujo salival no estimulado (FSNE el flujo salival estimulado (FSE y el pH de ambos. Tras un periodo de adaptación diaria por una semana, cada participante usó el dispositivo durante 1 hora, ejerciendo fuerza masticatoria sostenida. Luego se midieron ambos flujos y el pH correspondiente. El procedimiento fue repetido por 7 días, bajo supervisión. No se observó una relación aparente entre la aplicación controlada de cargas articulares y cambios volumétricos de flujo salival. Las mujeres tuvieron un FSE y FSNE menor al de los hombres. La aplicación de sobrecargas articulares por un breve período de tiempo provoca una caída del pH del FSE luego de 3 días de aplicación.Altered salivary flow is key for the onset of dental caries, periodontal disease and opportunistic infections. Salivary flow is determined by various stimuli on several receptors, including joint mechanoreceptors. Some studies show that loads on the TMJ affect these receptors causing changes on the quality and quantity of saliva secretion. The aim of this

  17. The relationship between the levels of salivary cortisol and the presence of xerostomia in menopausal women. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Gómez, Begoña; Hernández Vallejo, Gonzalo; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; López Cantor, Margarita; Díaz, Milagros; López Pintor, Rosa Maria

    2006-08-01

    Xerostomia is a particularly frequent occurrence among menopausal women, and is often associated with depression. To evaluate the relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and the presence of xerostomia, and to determine the levels of salivary cortisol and its relationship with xerostomia. Thirty women were selected from patients attending the Department of Medicine and Buccofacial surgery, and formed into two groups, study and control. Samples of unstimulated salivary flow were collected, and the amounts of salivary cortisol determined using the ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The mean unstimulated salivary flow rates for the control and study group were 0.37 +/- 0.28 ml/min and 0.24 +/- 0.18 ml/min, respectively. The concentration of salivary cortisol was 3.47 +/- 1.64 ng/ml for the control group and 2.29 +/- 2.60 ng/ml for the study group. The statistical tests applied showed no significant differences for either variable between the two groups in the study. The results of the present study indicate that there is no relationship between variations in the rates of unstimulated salivary flow and the corresponding concentration of cortisol.

  18. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  19. Transient activation of Hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine effects and mechanisms of transient activation of Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in head and neck cancer survivors. Experimental Design Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by single 15Gy dose. Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands by shortly over-expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating Smoothened Agonist and in human salivary epithelial cells by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. Activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by expression of Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. Salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), parasympathetic innervation and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, IHC, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. Results Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh over-expression activated Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and that after irradiation rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by rescue of signaling activities of Bmi1 and Chrm1/HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was related with rescue of expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. Conclusions These findings suggest that transient activation of Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore irradiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:24150232

  20. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  1. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Higher flow rates improve heating during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Matthew J; Picotte, Robert J; Wante, Mark J; Rajeshkumar, Barur R; Whalen, Giles F; Lambert, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) kills cancer cells via thermal injury and improved chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. We hypothesize that higher HIPEC flow rates improve peritoneal heating and HIPEC efficacy. (1) A HIPEC-model (30.8 L cooler with attached extracorporeal pump) was filled with 37°C water containing a suspended 1 L saline bag (SB) wrapped in a cooling sleeve, creating a constant heat sink. (2) HIPECs were performed in a swine model. Inflow, outflow, and peritoneal temperatures were monitored as flow rates varied. (3) Flow rates and temperatures during 20 HIPECs were reviewed. Higher flow rates decreased time required to increase water bath (WB) and SB temperature to 43°C. With a constant heat sink, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C in the WB was 1.75 L/min. Higher flow rates lead to greater temperature gradients between the WB and SB. In the swine model, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C outflow was 2.5-3.0 L/min. Higher flows led to more rapid heating of the peritoneum and greater peritoneal/outflow temperature gradients. Increased flow during clinical HIPEC suggested improved peritoneal heating with lower average visceral temperatures. There is a minimum flow rate required to reach goal temperature during HIPEC. Flow rate is an important variable in achieving and maintaining goal temperatures during HIPEC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  5. Dental caries status and salivary properties of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Mônica; Dezan, Cássia Cilene; Bichaco, Thiago Rodrigo; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Neto, Alcindo Cerci; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the dental caries status and salivary properties in 3- to 15-year-old children/adolescents. The sample was split in two groups: asthma group (AG), composed of 65 patients who attended Public Health Service; asthma-free group (AFG), composed of 65 nonasthmatic children/adolescents recruited in two public schools. Stimulated salivary samples were collected for 3 min. Buffering capacity and pH were ascertained in each salivary sample. A single trained and calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.98) performed the dental caries examination according to WHO criteria. The AFG showed salivary flow rate (1.10 ± 0.63 mL/min) higher (P = 0.002) than AG (0.80 ± 0.50 mL/min). An inverse relationship was observed between asthma severity and salivary flow rate (Phi coefficient, rφ: 0.79, P = 0.0001). Children with moderate or severe asthma showed an increased risk for reduced salivary flow rate (OR: 17.15, P  0.05) and drug type (P > 0.05) with salivary flow rate. Buffering capacity was similar in both groups. No significant differences were encountered in dental caries experience between AFG and AG groups. Although asthma can cause reduction in flow rate, the illness did not seem to influence dental caries experience in children with access to proper dental care. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W. Brant

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Study Design and Methods Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R’ Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n=260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in one minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Results Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown’s Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. Clinical Implications The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision-making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice. PMID:27008466

  7. Transient activation of hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Qin, Lizheng; Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects and mechanisms of transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in survivors of head and neck cancer. Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by a single 15-Gy dose. The Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands, by briefly overexpressing the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating smoothened agonist, and in human salivary epithelial cells, by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. The activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by the expression of the Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. The salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPC), parasympathetic innervation, and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh overexpression activated the Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and, after irradiation, rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by the rescue of signaling activities of the Bmi1 and Chrm1-HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was associated with the rescue of the expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. These findings suggest that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore salivary gland function after irradiation-induced dysfunction.

  8. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  9. Gustatory impairment and salivary gland pathophysiology in relation to oral cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukinobu; Osaki, Tokio (Department of Oral Surgery, Kochi Medical School (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Gustation and salivation were evaluated in 41 patients with oral carcinoma who were treated preoperatively with Peplomycin (PLM) or PLM+5-FU+{sup 60}CO- radiation. Thresholds for sweet, salt, sour and bitter were originally elevated in many patients. Gustatory impairment increased especially with chemo-and radiotherapy. Recovery, however, took place within a year to almost original levels. Salivation was originally not impaired. Resting salivary flow rate (SFR) of the combined therapy group was decreased to half the initial rate, and a 20% decrease of SFR was seen in the PLM group. Corresponding to SFR, {sup 99m}Tc uptake of the submandibular glands had declined, and salivary viscosity had increased. Salivary gland damage persisted during the study, and appeared irreversible. It was concluded from these results that taste impairment by oral cancer treatment is temporary, while damage to the salivary glands is permanent. (author).

  10. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  11. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  12. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Responses of prawn to water flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.; Nilas, P.U.

    1987-05-28

    An aquarium study to determine the responses of postlarval macrobrachium rosenbergii to varying water changes was carried out. Six week old postlarvae were raised in glass aquaria receiving 0, 1.15, 7.2 and 14.4 water changes per day over a 12 week period. The treatments had significant influences on survival, biomass, and average size of the animals. Maximum survival and highest biomass were found in the 1.15 water turnover treatment; however, this treatment also produced the smallest average size animals. Early high mortalities were attributed to poor growing conditions in the high and low flow treatments, while later mortality appeared to be biomass dependent.

  14. Performance of high flow rate samplers for respirable particle collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Slaven, James; Harper, Martin

    2010-08-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial hygienists (ACGIH) lowered the threshold limit value (TLV) for respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposure from 0.05 to 0.025 mg m(-3) in 2006. For a working environment with an airborne dust concentration near this lowered TLV, the sample collected with current standard respirable aerosol samplers might not provide enough RCS for quantitative analysis. Adopting high flow rate sampling devices for respirable dust containing silica may provide a sufficient amount of RCS to be above the limit of quantification even for samples collected for less than full shift. The performances of three high flow rate respirable samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10) have been evaluated in this study. Eleven different sizes of monodisperse aerosols of ammonium fluorescein were generated with a vibrating orifice aerosol generator in a calm air chamber in order to determine the sampling efficiency of each sampler. Aluminum oxide particles generated by a fluidized bed aerosol generator were used to test (i) the uniformity of a modified calm air chamber, (ii) the effect of loading on the sampling efficiency, and (iii) the performance of dust collection compared to lower flow rate cyclones in common use in the USA (10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell cyclones). The coefficient of variation for eight simultaneous samples in the modified calm air chamber ranged from 1.9 to 6.1% for triplicate measures of three different aerosols. The 50% cutoff size ((50)d(ae)) of the high flow rate samplers operated at the flow rates recommended by manufacturers were determined as 4.7, 4.1, and 4.8 microm for CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10, respectively. The mass concentration ratio of the high flow rate samplers to the low flow rate cyclones decreased with decreasing mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and high flow rate samplers collected more dust than low flow rate samplers by a range of 2-11 times based on gravimetric analysis. Dust loading inside the

  15. Salivary parameters and oral health in the Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Mussi, Maria Carolina; Moffa, Eduardo; Castro, Talita; Lira Ortega, Adriana; Freitas, Gabrielle; Braga, Mariana; Siqueira, Walter L; Cury Gallottini, Marina Helena

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate salivary characteristics, such as flow rate, buffering capacity and amylase activity, and associate these parameters with oral health in individuals with Moebius syndrome (MS) and controls. The researchers assessed caries (ICDAS), periodontal disease (PSR), and plaque (Silness Löe) indexes in both groups. Unstimulated, stimulated, and bilateral parotid saliva were also collected. The salivary flow (milliliters/minute) and α-amylase activity were measured in all samples. The α-amylase activity was determined by maltose production. The buffering capacity was measured in stimulated saliva by titration of 0.01N HCl. The occurrence of carious lesions, related to cut-off 2, as well as the occurrence of periodontal disease, was significantly higher (p > 0.05) in participants with MS when compared to the control group. Also, MS individuals presented decreased salivary flow, decreased buffering capacity, and amylase activity. MS individuals present salivary alterations, which can be related to higher risk for caries. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effects of asthma and asthma medication on dental caries and salivary characteristics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer Madani; Ashiry, Eman Anwar; Bakry, Niveen Samir; Baghlaf, Khlood Khaled; Bagher, Sarah Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with a history of asthma in addition to their salivary characteristics, flow rate and buffering capacity, as well as the salivary level of Mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli present. The study sample was composed of 30 cases and 30 controls with an age range from 5 to 13 years. The cases involved children with a past history of asthma, while the controls were medically fit children. The study was conducted from 2010 to 2011 and patients were randomly selected through the electronic filing system at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (R4 system), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Interviews and questionnaires were completed by the parents of the children involved and dental examinations were performed. Stimulated salivary samples were collected to determine the salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and salivary levels of MS and lactobacilli. No significant differences were found in the DMFT, dmft scores or community periodontal index (CPI) scores between the cases and controls. However, there was a positive correlation between DMFT and dmft scores (r = 0.83, P corticosteroids had higher levels of lactobacilli compared with patients using other medications (P = 0.02). The frequency of taking asthma medication, the severity of asthma and the use of combination therapy can significantly alter the salivary characteristics in asthmatic children.

  17. Increased flow resistance and decreased flow rate in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: The role of autonomic nervous modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The flow rate is decreased and the flow resistance increased in patients with ARDS. PEEP is one of the causes of increased flow resistance and decreased flow rate in patients with ARDS. Another cause of decreased flow rate and increased flow resistance in ARDS patients is the increased vagal activity and decreased sympathetic activity. The monitoring of flow rate and flow resistance during mechanical ventilation might be useful for the proper management of ARDS patients.

  18. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  19. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulon, Dina Joy K

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. The CONSTELLATION(®) Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT(®) vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+(®), 25, 23, and 20 gauge) operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm) up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration.

  20. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  1. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  2. Exchange Flow Rate Measurement Technique in Density Different Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Fumizawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven exchange flows of helium-air through inclined a narrow tube was investigated. Exchange flows may occur following the opening of a window for ventilation, as well as when a pipe ruptures in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The experiment in this paper was carried out in a test chamber filled with helium and the flow was visualized using the smoke wire method. A high-speed camera recorded the flow behavior. The image of the flow was transferred to digital data, and the slow flow velocity, i.e. micro flow rate was measured by PIV software. Numerical simulation was carried out by the code of moving particle method with Lagrange method.

  3. Estimation of blood flow rates in large microvascular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brendan C; Lee, Jack; Smith, Nicolas P; Secomb, Timothy W

    2012-08-01

    Recent methods for imaging microvascular structures provide geometrical data on networks containing thousands of segments. Prediction of functional properties, such as solute transport, requires information on blood flow rates also, but experimental measurement of many individual flows is difficult. Here, a method is presented for estimating flow rates in a microvascular network based on incomplete information on the flows in the boundary segments that feed and drain the network. With incomplete boundary data, the equations governing blood flow form an underdetermined linear system. An algorithm was developed that uses independent information about the distribution of wall shear stresses and pressures in microvessels to resolve this indeterminacy, by minimizing the deviation of pressures and wall shear stresses from target values. The algorithm was tested using previously obtained experimental flow data from four microvascular networks in the rat mesentery. With two or three prescribed boundary conditions, predicted flows showed relatively small errors in most segments and fewer than 10% incorrect flow directions on average. The proposed method can be used to estimate flow rates in microvascular networks, based on incomplete boundary data, and provides a basis for deducing functional properties of microvessel networks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  5. Fluid/Vapor Separator for Variable Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Chuang, C.; Frederking, T. H.; Brown, G. S.; Kamioka, Y.; Vorreiter, J.

    1984-01-01

    Shutter varies gas throughput of porous plug. Variable area exposed on porous plug allows to pass varying rates of vapor flow while blocking flow of liquid helium II from cryogenic bath. Applications in refining operations, industrial chemistry, and steam-powered equipment.

  6. eaf tissue flows in ryegrass managed under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônique Foggiato da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic, structural variables and leaf biomass flows of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. were evaluated under two stocking rates: ‘Low’ and ‘High’. These rates were determined by heifers exclusively on pasture or on pasture and supplemented with corn grain. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, two stocking rates, two and four replications of area for the stocking rates ‘low’ and ‘high’, respectively. The morphogenetic variables, the number of green leaves and tiller density were similar in both stocking rates. Leaf senescence rate was higher with low stocking rate. Heifers grazed with similar intensity and frequency in both stocking rates. The increase by 33.6% in the stocking rate caused by the use of supplement does not change the leaf biomass flow of Italian ryegrass, but alters its potential efficiency of use near the reproductive stage of the plant.

  7. variant formula for predicting peak expiratory flow rate in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Accepted: November, 2009. VARIANT FORMULA FOR PREDICTING PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN. PREGNANT WOMEN IN KURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE,. NIGERIA. A. I. Salisu. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano salisahmedibrahim@yahoo.co.uk;.

  8. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  9. Flow rates through intravenous access devices: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoyratty, Saleem I; Gajendragadkar, Pushpaj R; Polisetty, Kiran; Ward, Sue; Skinner, Tim; Gajendragadkar, Parag R

    2016-06-01

    Fluid administration using intravenous (IV) access devices is required in many settings. There are a lack of quantitative data comparing traditional cannulas and modern access devices. We aimed to investigate flow rates through modern intravenous access devices using an in vitro system. This is an experimental study. Rates of flow of intravenous fluids (crystalloid and colloid) were measured through various access devices using a uroflowmeter. Standardized conditions and repeat measurements ensured validity. Fluid was administered with or without the addition of a pressure bag and needle-free valve. Increasing the size of cannulas improved flow. Fourteen-gauge cannulas had significantly higher mean flow rates compared to 14G central venous lines in all conditions (136% higher with no pressure bag/valve; 95% CI, +130% to +152%; P Flow rates in IV devices can be maximized by pressure bag use and removal of needle-free valves. The rapid infusion catheter and emergency infusion catheter allow some increase in flow over a 14G cannula. Familiarity with varying flow rates across IV access devices could better inform clinical decisions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of IOM personal sampler at different flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2010-02-01

    The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal sampler is usually operated at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min, the rate at which it was designed and calibrated, for sampling the inhalable mass fraction of airborne particles in occupational environments. In an environment of low aerosol concentrations only small amounts of material are collected, and that may not be sufficient for analysis. Recently, a new sampling pump with a flow rate up to 15 L/min became available for personal samplers, with the potential of operating at higher flow rates. The flow rate of a Leland Legacy sampling pump, which operates at high flow rates, was evaluated and calibrated, and its maximum flow was found to be 10.6 L/min. IOM samplers were placed on a mannequin, and sampling was conducted in a large aerosol wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0.56 and 2.22 m/s. Monodisperse aerosols of oleic acid tagged with sodium fluorescein in the size range of 2 to 100 microm were used in the test. The IOM samplers were operated at flow rates of 2.0 and 10.6 L/min. Results showed that the IOM samplers mounted in the front of the mannequin had a higher sampling efficiency than those mounted at the side and back, regardless of the wind speed and flow rate. For the wind speed of 0.56 m/s, the direction-averaged (the average value of all orientations facing the wind direction) sampling efficiency of the samplers operated at 2.0 L/min was slightly higher than that of 10.6 L/min. For the wind speed of 2.22 m/s, the sampling efficiencies at both flow rates were similar for particles flow rates follows the inhalable mass curve for particles in the size range of 2 to 20 microm. The test results indicate that the IOM sampler can be used at higher flow rates.

  11. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  12. Evaluation of salivary flow in patients during head and neck radiotherapy Análise do fluxo salivar em pacientes durante a radioterapia em cabeça e pescoço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Ferreti Bonan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is frequently employed for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Among the side effects, xerostomia is one of the most important. With the objective of evaluating the role of radiotherapy in salivary flow, we performed three salivary sample collections: at the beginning of, during, and immediately after radiotherapy. The results showed that the salivary flow values of the first collection were very similar to those of the control group. However, during treatment, there was a significant decrease of the salivary flow (p = 0.0008, which continued low immediately after radiotherapy (p = 0.0009. Our study showed that radiotherapy leads to an important reduction of salivary flow during and after radiotherapy.A radioterapia é um tratamento comumente empregado em pacientes portadores de carcinomas espinocelulares em cabeça e pescoço. Entre os efeitos colaterais locais, a xerostomia é um dos mais importantes. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da radioterapia sobre o fluxo salivar, foram feitas 3 coletas salivares: no início, em um período intermediário e posteriormente ao tratamento radioterápico. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram médias de fluxo salivar semelhantes entre a coleta inicial e o grupo controle. Com o decorrer da radioterapia, houve diminuição significativa do fluxo salivar na coleta intermediária (p = 0,0008, que se manteve após o término da radioterapia (p = 0,0009. Nosso estudo enfatiza que há redução significativa do fluxo salivar durante e após a radioterapia.

  13. Sialendoscopy of salivary glands affected by Sjögren syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Maarse, F.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands could alleviate the oral symptoms of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and restore salivary function. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands on salivary flow, saliva composition, and mouthfeel in

  14. Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Velocity, Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in Radial and Ulnar Arteries Using Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xia, Chunming; Stephen, Gandy; Khan, Faisel; Corner, George A; Hoskins, Peter R; Huang, Zhihong

    2017-05-01

    Parameters of blood flow measured by ultrasound in radial and ulnar arteries, such as flow velocity, flow rate and wall shear rate, are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research. Investigation of these measurements is useful for evaluating accuracy and providing knowledge of error sources. A method for simulating the spectral Doppler ultrasound measurement process was developed with computational fluid dynamics providing flow-field data. Specific scanning factors were adjusted to investigate their influence on estimation of the maximum velocity waveform, and flow rate and wall shear rate were derived using the Womersley equation. The overestimation in maximum velocity increases greatly (peak systolic from about 10% to 30%, time-averaged from about 30% to 50%) when the beam-vessel angle is changed from 30° to 70°. The Womersley equation was able to estimate flow rate in both arteries with less than 3% error, but performed better in the radial artery (2.3% overestimation) than the ulnar artery (15.4% underestimation) in estimating wall shear rate. It is concluded that measurements of flow parameters in the radial and ulnar arteries with clinical ultrasound scanners are prone to clinically significant errors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-03-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.

  16. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  17. Pricing and Unresponsive Flows Purging for Global Rate Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pricing-based Active Queue Management (AQM, such as Random Exponential Marking (REM, outperforms other probabilistic counterpart techniques, like Random Early Detection (RED, in terms of both high utilization and negligible loss and delay. However, the pricing-based protocols do not take account of unresponsive flows that can significantly alter the subsequent rate allocation. This letter presents Purge (Pricing and Un-Responsive flows purging for Global rate Enhancement that extends the REM framework to regulate unresponsive flows. We show that Purge is effective at providing fairness and requires small memory and low-complexity operations.

  18. Variability of cutaneous lymphatic flow rates in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, R F; Howman-Giles, R B; Thompson, J F; Roberts, J; Bernard, E

    1998-06-01

    Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 198 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma prior to their definitive surgical treatment. After intradermal injection of antimony sulphide colloid labelled with technetium-99m, lymphatic flow rates were measured in each patient and found to vary according to the location of the primary tumour. The fastest flow rates occurred from melanoma sites on the distal limbs, particularly the lower limbs. The slowest flow rates were from the head and neck region and the proximal limbs, especially the upper arms and shoulders. Lack of flow in the early dynamic images occurred most commonly for tumours on the upper arms and shoulders. These results can be used to optimize the timing of blue dye injection prior to surgery and may influence the sentinel node biopsy method to be used in individuals who show no early drainage.

  19. Salivary enzyme activity in anorexic persons—a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszynska, Elżbieta; Schlueter, Nadine; Slopien, Agnieszka; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Dyszkiewicz-Konwinska, Marta; Hannig, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa are at high risk for general and oral diseases. However, not all anorexic patients suffer from them, irrespective of the severity of their eating disorder. It is often speculated that differences in the saliva are important; however, little is known about salivary parameters in anorexic patients. The aim of the clinical trial was to evaluate stimulated and resting salivary flow rate and the activity of the following enzymes in both types of saliva: amylase, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), collagenase, lysozyme, peroxidase, serine and acidic proteases, and trypsin in persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to compare them with those of healthy controls. Sixty-six subjects participated (28 patients with anorexia nervosa, 38 matched healthy controls). Regarding flow rate, stimulated and unstimulated levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the controls. Activities of collagenase and AST in stimulated saliva were significantly higher in anorexic participants. In the AN group, changes due to salivary stimulation were found for the activity of acidic proteases, AST, and lysozyme. Reduced salivary flow might be one indicator of anorexia. Despite starvation and anorexia development, salivary key enzymes show physiological activity. This indicates a partial adaptation of the organism to severe condition during malnutrition. Further research is needed into possible role of reduced collagenase and transaminase activities in maintaining protection against external noxae and bacteria which might have impact on general oral health among patients with anorexia nervosa.

  20. Does Ramadan fasting affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Mirza M F; Siddiqui, Qamar A; Khan, Mohammed N; Sabir, Salman

    2006-11-01

    To assess whether Ramadan fasting affects the expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects, and to know if these effects correlate to a change in other variables. This unmatched case-control longitudinal study includes 46 non-smoking healthy subjects who undertook lung function testing at the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Expiratory flow rates and body mass were measured in 3 Islamic months, corresponding to November 2001 to January 2002. There was a significant reduction in body mass in Ramadan compared to pre and post Ramadan. No significant changes in expiratory flows were seen during Ramadan as compared to the pre Ramadan period. However, forced expiratory flow rates at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)) and between 75% and 85% of vital capacity (FEF(75-85)) showed a significant increase in the post Ramadan period compared to Ramadan. Changes in FEF(75) were negatively correlated to changes in body mass between Ramadan and post Ramadan. This study shows that Ramadan fasting will not affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects. Post Ramadan values did show an increase in FEF(75) and FEF(75-85), possibly due to changes in body water and fat content. The reductions in body mass were most probably due to lack of nutrition and not dehydration as the fasts were performed in winter. Collection of reference values or early phase clinical trials measuring expiratory flow rates should not be affected by Ramadan fasting.

  1. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  2. Penetrometry and estimation of the flow rate of powder excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z; Sklubalová, Z

    2007-03-01

    In this work, penetrometry with a sphere was employed to study the flow properties of non-consolidated pharmaceutical powder excipients: sodium chloride, sodium citrate, boric acid, and sorbitol. In order to estimate flow rate, the pressure of penetration in Pascals was used. Penetrometry measurement with a sphere requires modification of the measurement container, in particular by decreasing the diameter of the container, to prevent undesirable movement of material in a direction opposite to that in which the sphere penetrates. Thus penetrometry by a sphere seems to be similar to indentation by the Brinell hardness tester. The pressure of penetration was determined from the depth of penetration by analogy with the Brinell hardness number and an equation for the inter conversion of the two variables is presented. The penetration pressure allowed direct estimation of the flow rate only for those powder excipients with a size fraction in the range of 0.250-0.630 mm. Using the ratio of penetration pressure to bulk density, a polynomial quadratic equation was generated from which the flow rates for the group of all tested powders could be estimated. Finally, if the inverse ratio of bulk density and penetration pressure was used as an independent variable, the flow rate could be estimated by linear regression with the coefficient of determination r2 = 0.9941. In conclusion, using sphere penetrometry, the flow properties of non-consolidated powder samples could be investigated by indentation. As a result, a linear regression in which the flow rate was directly proportional to the powder bulk density and inversely proportional to the penetration pressure could be best recommended for the estimation of the flow rate of powder excipients.

  3. Changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Following Ingestion of Increased Coffee Concentrations in Healthy Male Adults. ... It further indicates that, mild doses of coffee confer benefits on airflow in the lungs. While higher doses are also beneficial in improving airflow in the airway, such doses ...

  4. Changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effect of different concentrations of coffee on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), blood pressure and pulse rate in an attempt to determine some physiological effects of coffee intake. 18 apparently healthy adult males, age range 20 to 30 years, were recruited for the study over a three day period. Varying ...

  5. Melt volume flow rate and melt flow rate of kenaf fibre reinforced Floreon/magnesium hydroxide biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Sapuan, S M; Lee, J H; Hassan, M R

    2016-01-01

    A study of the melt volume flow rate (MVR) and the melt flow rate (MFR) of kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced Floreon (FLO) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) biocomposites under different temperatures (160-180 °C) and weight loadings (2.16, 5, 10 kg) is presented in this paper. FLO has the lowest values of MFR and MVR. The increment of the melt flow properties (MVR and MFR) has been found for KF or MH insertion due to the hydrolytic degradation of the polylactic acid in FLO. Deterioration of the entanglement density at high temperature, shear thinning and wall slip velocity were the possible causes for the higher melt flow properties. Increasing the KF loadings caused the higher melt flow properties while the higher MH contents created stronger bonding for higher macromolecular chain flow resistance, hence lower melt flow properties were recorded. However, the complicated melt flow behaviour of the KF reinforced FLO/MH biocomposites was found in this study. The high probability of KF-KF and KF-MH collisions was expected and there were more collisions for higher fibre and filler loading causing lower melt flow properties.

  6. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rates at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity and time the traffic signals. However, it is revealed that traditional methods which are mainly developed using the average value of observed queue discharge headways to estimate the saturation headway might lead to underestimate saturation flow rate. The goal of this paper is to study the stochastic nature of queue discharge headways and to develop a more accurate estimate method for saturation headway and saturation flow rate. Based on the surveyed data, the characteristics of queue discharge headways and the estimation method of saturated flow rate are studied. It is found that the average value of queue discharge headways is greater than the median value and that the skewness of the headways is positive. Normal distribution tests were conducted before and after a log transformation of the headways. The goodness-of-fit test showed that for some surveyed sites, the queue discharge headways can be fitted by the normal distribution and for other surveyed sites, the headways can be fitted by lognormal distribution. According to the queue discharge headway characteristics, the median value of queue discharge headways is suggested to estimate the saturation headway and a new method of estimation saturation flow rates is developed.

  7. A MEMS-Based Flow Rate and Flow Direction Sensing Platform with Integrated Temperature Compensation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD. In the proposed device, the flow rate is inversely derived from the change in the resistance signal of the flow meter when exposed to the sensed air stream. To compensate for the effects of the ambient temperature on the accuracy of the flow rate measurements, the output signal from the flow meter is compensated using the resistance signal generated by the RTD. As air travels over the surface of the cross-form cantilever structure, the upstream cantilevers are deflected in the downward direction, while the downstream cantilevers are deflected in the upward direction. The deflection of the cantilever beams causes a corresponding change in the resistive signals of the piezoresistors patterned on their upper surfaces. The amount by which each beam deflects depends on both the flow rate and the orientation of the beam relative to the direction of the gas flow. Thus, following an appropriate compensation by the temperature-corrected flow rate, the gas flow direction can be determined through a suitable manipulation of the output signals of the four piezoresistors. The experimental results have confirmed that the resulting variation in the output signals of the integrated sensors can be used to determine not only the ambient temperature and the velocity of the air flow, but also its direction relative to the sensor with an accuracy of ± 7.5o error.

  8. Doppler-Based Flow Rate Sensing in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Stern

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a novel generic method to detect flow rates and precise changes of flow velocity in microfluidic devices. Using our method we can measure flow rates of ~2 mm/s with a resolution of 0.08 mm/s. The operation principle is based on the Doppler shifting of light diffracted from a self-generated periodic array of bubbles within the channel and using self-heterodyne detection to analyze the diffracted light. As such, the device is appealing for variety of “lab on chip” bio-applications where a simple and accurate speed measurement is needed, e.g., for flow-cytometry and cell sorting.

  9. Effect of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Allisson Benatti; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Jaramillo, Olga Lucia Bocanegra; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection methods, as well as tooth brushing, on the secretion rate of salivary total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase. Saliva of 14 healthy individuals were collected with stimulation using Salivette®, Parafilm® and chewing gum and without stimulation from spit with and without fluid accumulation, before and after oral hygiene. Total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase concentration (sAA) were evaluated. The collection of saliva stimulated with Parafilm® and chewing gum increased the salivary flow (1.5 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.7 mL/min, respectively) and the secretion rate of salivary total protein (1.0 ± 0.2 and 2.3 ± 0.5 mg/min, respectively). Also, chewing gum increases the salivary nitrite secretion (213 ± 58 nmol/min) and total antioxidant capacity (410 ± 47 nmol trolox eq/min). Interestingly, the unstimulated method without saliva accumulation prior to collection resulted in low sAA levels (23,531 ± 7979 pixel density). Furthermore, oral hygiene decreased salivary flow (1.3 ± 0.5 to 1.0 ± 0.4 mL/min), reduced the secretion rate of total protein (1.0 ± 0.5 to 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/min, p saliva. Therefore, the evaluation of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers is important for understanding and standardizing variations in salivary composition to strengthen the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

  10. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha A Puttaswamy; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30?60 year...

  11. A novel concept of measuring mass flow rates using flow induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1555–1566. c Indian Academy of Sciences. A novel concept of measuring mass flow rates using flow induced stresses. P I JAGAD1,∗, B P PURANIK2 and A W DATE2. 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sinhgad College of Engineering,. Vadgaon (Bk), Pune 411 041, India. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, ...

  12. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  13. Taylor dispersion analysis in coiled capillaries at high flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowska, Anna; Majcher, Aldona; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Tabaka, Marcin; Hołyst, Robert

    2013-04-16

    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) has been performed for analytes moving at high flow rates in long, coiled capillaries. A thin injection zone of the analyte is stretched by the flow and final distribution of concentration of the analyte at the end of the capillary has the gaussian shape. The high flow rates in coiled capillary generate vortices. They convectively mix the analyte across the capillary. This mixing reduces the width of the gaussian distribution several times in comparison to the width obtained in a straight capillary in standard TDA. We have determined an empirical, scaling equation for the width as a function of the flow rate, molecular diffusion coefficient of the analyte, viscosity of the carrier phase, internal radius of the cylindrical capillary, and external radius of the coiled capillary. This equation can be used for different sizes of capillaries in a wide range of parameters without an additional calibration procedure. Our experimental results of flow in the coiled capillary could not be explained by current models based on approximate solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. We applied the technique to determine the diffusion coefficients of the following analytes: salts, drugs, single amino acids, peptides (from dipeptides to hexapeptides), and proteins.

  14. Ultrasonic Enrichment of Flowing Blood Cells in Capillars: Influence of the Flow Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Pilar; Gonzalez, Itziar; Ahumada, Oscar

    Red blood cells subjected to standing waves collect at the pressure nodes during their flow motion. Blood is a non-newtonian fluid whose density and other properties are defined by its flow velocity. Their drift motion is governed by the radiation force together with hydrodynamic conditions. This work presents a study of the blood cell enrichment performed in a rectangular capillar at f=1 MHz as a function of their flow motion. The cells collect along the central axis of the capillary in very few seconds, with a clearance in other lateral areas. Optimal flow rates below 100uL/min were found in the experiments.

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  16. Flow rate and flow equation of pharmaceutical free-flowable powder excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklubalová, Zdenka; Zatloukal, Zdenek

    2013-02-01

    Basic aspect of powder handling is powder flow which depends on mechanical properties of the solid material. This experimental work presents the results of flowability testing of the free-flowable particle size fraction of 0.0250-0.0315 cm of five powder excipients. The single-point determination of the mass flow rate from a cylindrical, flat-bottomed hopper was primarily influenced by the diameter of a circular orifice. The significant effect of the orifice height was also noted. Increasing the orifice height, the flow under gravity is directed resulting in the sudden acceleration of the flow rate. The critical zone relates to the orifice diameter. The multi-point determination of flowability employed the actual parameters of the flow equation which allows the prediction of the mass flow rate. The precision of the prediction was the basic criterion in optimization of the orifice geometry. Based on the results, the orifice height of 1.6 cm can be recommended for the correction of faster powder flow. For the slower powder flow, an orifice height of 0.2 cm can be used alternatively. In conclusion, the information about the orifice height used should be referred to whenever test the powder flowability and compare the results.

  17. A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.

  18. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Petroleum Depot Workers and Petrol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) values in litres per minute were determined in petrol depot loaders, petrol station attendants and in control subjects. The PEFR values were 315 ± 94, 386 + 91 and 529 + 94 litres/min. in depot workers, petrol attendants and control subjects respectively. The value in the control subjects ...

  19. High flow rate microsieve for bio medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1995-01-01

    A new composite filtration membrane having a thin filtration or sieving layer has been developed. This filtration membrane with a high pore density and a narrow pore size distribution on a macro porous support shows good separation behaviour and a high flow rate. Because of the construction method,

  20. Peak expiratory flow rate and respiratory symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 350 rural women aged (20-70 years) in Edo State, Nigeria who actively used wood as a source of fuel for cooking was measured. The height, chest circumference, weight and blood pressure of the women were also measured. Respiratory symptoms of cough with sputum production, ...

  1. variations of peak expiratory flow rate with anthropometric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Summary: PEFR was measured in 300 healthy adult male and female staff and students of the. University of Benin, Benin City, and the College of Education, Ekiadolor, near Benin. The variations of. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) with respect to height (ht), weight (wt) and chest circumference (cc) were determined in ...

  2. Variability of flow rate when collecting stimulated human parotid saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, FR; Pijpe, J; Coppes, RP; Hemels, MEW; Meertens, H; Canrinus, A; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and reproducibility of citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva sampling. In healthy volunteers a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.79) between flow rates from the left and right parotid gland was observed. In patients with Sjogren's syndrome this

  3. 3D modeling and characterization of a calorimetric flow rate sensor for sweat rate sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2017-03-01

    Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.

  4. Effect of gas flow rate on titanium sponge reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Feng, Gaoping; Wang, Mingdong; Hong, Yanji

    2017-08-01

    This paper expounds the important application of titanium sponge adsorption in inert gas purification, the reaction mechanism of titanium with nitrogen and oxygen was introduced. Explored the relationship between the absorption capacity of sponge titanium on the active gas in air samples and the gas flow rate. The model of sponge titanium for flowing air absorption was established by data analysis. The designed experiment verified the relationship between the titanium processing capacity and the gas collecting device. Finally, the influence of the mass of the sponge titanium on the degassing capacity was studied through experiments.

  5. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  6. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  7. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  8. Salivary SIgA responses to acute moderate-vigorous exercise in monophasic oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Harumi; Dolan, Nicola J; Hounsome, Charlotte; Alajmi, Nawal; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels at rest and in response to an acute bout of moderate-vigorous exercise during 2 phases of the 4-week OC cycle corresponding to different phases of the synthetic menstrual cycle. Ten healthy active females completed a cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake for 45 min at 2 time points of an OC cycle: during the equivalent in time to the mid-follicular phase (day 8 ± 2) and the mid-luteal phase (day 20 ± 2). Timed unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before, immediately postexercise, and 1 h postexercise and analyzed for salivary SIgA. Salivary SIgA secretion rate was 26% (95% confidence limits (CI) 6-46) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise during the synthetic follicular phase (p = 0.019) but no differences were observed during the synthetic luteal trial. Saliva flow rate was 11% (95% CI, 8-30) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise (main effect for time; p = 0.025). In conclusion, the pattern of salivary SIgA secretion rate response to moderate-vigorous exercise varies across the early and late phases of a monophasic OC cycle, with a transient reduction in salivary SIgA responses during the synthetic follicular phase. These findings indicate that monophasic OC use should be considered when assessing mucosal immune responses to acute exercise.

  9. Sports dentistry: buccal and salivary profile of a female soccer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti; Suzuki, Maria Elena Stama

    2004-09-01

    Sports dentistry has been considered a prominent area of dentistry because dental health can limit the abilities of athletes, both professional and nonprofessional, in their training and competition. Dental decay is associated with the frequent use of carbohydrates, recommended as an energy source for exercise. Strong indications exist regarding the possibility to use saliva as a performance determinant and for evaluation and prescription of physical activity. This study evaluated the salivary profiles (pH, flow rate, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus counts) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth of 18 female soccer players (13 to 19 years old) of the Olympic Training and Research Center of São Paulo, before and after a training session. The salivary flow rate presented a significant reduction after training; however, there was no significant alteration in pH. Fifty percent of the players presented 10(5) to 10(6) mutans streptococci, and 66% presented 10(3) Lactobacillus. Several salivary components protect against microorganisms that cause superior respiratory tract infections (common in athletes), as well as participating in the remineralization mechanism during cariogenic challenges. Thus, due to the salivary flow rate reduction in this population with a high number of cariogenic microorganisms, noncariogenic drink ingestion at regular intervals and maintenance of hydration levels during training, are suggested.

  10. Good production rate forecast based on flow, reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Feky, S.A.

    1987-03-16

    Well bore flow efficiencies under expected modes of production operations, coupled with a detailed reservoir description, are necessary for an accurate evaluation of production rate forecast. A production rate forecast for an offshore water-drive oil reservoir in the Gulf of Suez has been prepared. The best overall completion that exhibits both the highest initial producing rates and the long term producing efficiencies was determined for different wells. Three different flow configurations were examined. The wells were classified according to their productivity indices into Group I, Group II, and Group III, having average productivity indices of 53, 18 and 6 b/d/psi, respectively. The study was based on the performance of the three well groups. The Orkiszewski correlation for vertical multiphase pressure gradient calculation program available from Garrett Computing Systems was used to calculate bottom hole flowing pressures at a wide range of oil and water production rates with and without gas lift. Analysis of the expected reservoir performance was essential in evaluating the production forecast. Based on the results of the evaluation, reservoir operations, including well completions, control of water production, and gas lift requirements, have been recommended.

  11. Exchange Rate Regime, Real Exchange Rate, Trade Flows and Foreign Direct Investments: The case of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Rey, Serge

    2005-01-01

    We study the behavior of the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) of the dirham against the European currencies (Europe of the 15), over the period 1960-2000 (annual data). We measure the volatility using standard deviation, and the misalignments as the difference between the actual REER and the equilibrium REER (NATREX model). We show that a rise of the volatility of the dirham reduces the trade flows (exports and imports). The misalignments affect also the trade flows: an overvaluation leads...

  12. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  13. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  14. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  15. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  16. THE OPTIMIZATION OF FLOW RATES OF AN EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The article addresses how the flow rates of an extruder can be optimized. It mentions the plastic recycling industry as an example, which is only one of many solid waste recycling industries. The literature on flow rates is reviewed to demonstrate a gap that the current study aims to fills, in the hope that it will stimulate further research in a fertile area.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel adresseer die vraagstuk van vloeitempo van ‘n ekstrusieproses. Dit handel met ‘n voorbeeld van ‘n plastiekherwinningsproses wat spruit uit soliede afvalverwerking. ‘n Literatuurstudie toon hoedat die navorsing verdere areas wat braak lê, aanspreek in die hoop dat verdere studie gestimuleer sal word.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  18. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  19. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  20. Preliminary findings on the correlation of saliva pH, buffering capacity, flow rate and consistency in relation to waterpipe tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Ben Khelifa, Mohamed; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present comparative study was to compare some salivary characteristics between exclusive waterpipe smokers (EWPS) and non-smokers. 72 males (36 EWPS) were recruited. The volume of stimulated saliva was determined and divided by the duration of saliva collection. The pH was measured directly using a pH meter. The buffering capacity was determined using a quantitative method which involved the addition of 10 µl HCl. Up to a total of 160 µL was titrated up to obtain a pH titration curve. At 50 µL of titrated HCl, buffering capacity was ranked into three categories: high, medium and low. EWPS and non-smoker groups had similar flow rates (1.81 ± 0.79 and 1.78 ± 1.14 mL min-1) and similar baseline pH (6.60 ± 0.37 and 6.76 ± 0.39). Statistically significant differences in the two groups' pH were observed from 30 to 160 µL of titrated up HCl. At 50 µL of titrated up HCl, the EWPS group compared to the non-smoker group had a significantly higher pH (4.79 ± 0.72 vs. 5.32 ± 0.79). To conclude, waterpipe tobacco smoking alters the buffering capacity but does not alter either salivary flow rates or the baseline pH and consistency.

  1. Brief training of psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) reduces stress symptom ratings and improves control on salivary cortisol secretion under basal and stimulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottaccioli, Francesco; Carosella, Antonia; Cardone, Raffaella; Mambelli, Monica; Cemin, Marisa; D'Errico, Marcello M; Ponzio, Elisa; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Minelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Meditation is proposed as an anti-stress practice lowering allostatic load and promoting well-being, with brief formats providing some of the benefits of longer interventions. PsychoNeuroEndocrinoImmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) combines the teaching of philosophy and practice of Buddhist meditation with a grounding in human physiology from a systemic and integrative perspective. We evaluated the effects of four-day PNEIMED training (30 h) on subjective and objective indices of stress in healthy adults. A non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after study was conducted. Participants (n = 125, mostly health practitioners) answered a questionnaire rating stress symptom before (T0) and after (Tf) a PNEIMED course. In an additional sample (n = 40; smokers, overweight persons, women taking contraceptives, and subjects with oral pathologies were excluded), divided into PNEIMED-attending (intervention, n = 21) and non-meditating (control, n = 19) groups, salivary cortisol was measured upon awakening and during a challenging mental task. Self-rated distress scores were highly reduced after the PNEIMED course. In the intervention group, improvement of psychological well-being was accompanied by decrease in cortisol levels at awakening. No T0-vs-Tf changes in distress scores and morning cortisol were found in controls. Based on baseline-to-peak increment of cortisol response at T0, 26 subjects (n = 13 for each group) were classified as task-responders. The amplitude and duration of the cortisol response decreased after PNEIMED, whereas no effects were found in controls. Brief PNEIMED training yields immediate benefits, reducing distress symptoms and adrenocortical activity under basal and stimulated conditions. PNEIMED may represent an effective practice to manage stress and anxiety, particularly among subjects facing a multitude of job-related stressors, such as healthcare workers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  3. Oxidative Modification in the Salivary Glands of High Fat-Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Urszula; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Miąsko, Agnieszka; Matczuk, Jan; Knaś, Małgorzata; Żukowski, Piotr; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Borys, Jan; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats. We have shown a significant decrease (45%) of the stimulated salivary flow rate, and in the total protein concentration in the parotid (35%) and submandibular (10%) glands of HFD IR as compared to the control rats. The level of 4-HNE protein adduct (15%) and 8-isoP (20%) in the submandibular glands of IR rats as well as total level of 4-HNE protein adduct (39%), 8-isoP (27%), AOPP (25%), PC (32%), and 8-OHdG (18%) in the parotid glands of IR rats were significantly higher as compared to the control group. We showed no correlation between the assessed OS parameters in the plasma and salivary glands. However, the redox balance in both glands shifted toward the oxidative status, parotid glands of IR rats are exposed to greater intensity OS. Stimulated secretory ability and mechanisms involved in the synthesis/secretion of proteins in the salivary glands are depressed in the course of IR. Oxidative damage in the salivary glands arises independently from the general OS in the course of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.

  4. Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Keith E.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer, measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to use in pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications in which particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

  5. Remote Quantification of Smokestack Total Effluent Mass Flow Rates Using Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    total effluent mass flow rates by combining spectrally-determined species concentrations with flow rates estimated via analysis of sequential images...of the flow velocity. Final effluent mass flow rates for CO2 and SO2 of 13.5 +- 3.78 kg/s and 71.3 +- 19.3 g/s were in good agreement with in situ

  6. The relation between saliva flow after different stimulations and the perception of flavor and texture attributes in custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    Salivary flow rates were measured at rest and after three types of stimulation; odor, Parafilm chewing, and citric acid. The highest flow rate was elicited by citric acid followed by Parafilm and odor, while the lowest flow rate was unstimulated. In order to investigate whether and how the amount of

  7. Anomalous accumulation rates resulting from ice flow over Lake Vostok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, K. C.; Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; Tremblay, B.

    2004-12-01

    The accumulation rate of snow is crucial to the development of accurate age-depth models for ice-cores. The dating of the Vostok ice-core generally assumes that accumulation rates vary linearly between the core site and the ice divide 250 km to the west [Jouzel et al., 1996; Lorius et al., 1985; Petit et al., 1999], an assumption which impacts the timing of prominent climatic transitions. We present evidence for a local accumulation rate anomaly at the ice surface above the western shoreline of Lake Vostok. A significant thickening between isochronous layers results from this geographically fixed high accumulation zone which can be stratigraphically traced to a depth of 820-1100 m in the Vostok ice-core, a portion known for its high accumulation rates and paleoclimate records that deviate from other Antarctic ice-core records. This non-climatic accumulation anomaly in the Vostok ice-core impacts the flow dependent age models and subsequent interpretations of sequencing of global climate shifts during the last glacial. These previously unreported geographically fixed accumulation rate anomalies are introduced into ice-cores drilled away from ice domes (i.e., Byrd and Vostok) and should be considered in age depth models.

  8. Adiabatic flow curves of metallic materials at high strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Magd, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Scholles, H. [Rheinmetall Industrie GmbH, Unterluess (Germany); Weisshaupt, H. [Rheinmetall Industrie GmbH, Unterluess (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Dynamic compression tests are carried out on Armco iron, Cr-V-steel, Ni-Cr-Mo-V-steel, an austenitic Ni-Cr-Mo-steel, tantalum, nickel and Ni{sub 3}Al and magnesium. The flow curves are analysed to determine the influence of the deformation energy which is transformed into heat on the flow behaviour and mechanical stability. Not only the material properties but also the conditions of friction between the specimen and the compresion tool are found to have a greate influence on the flow stress reduction and stability. High frictional forces promote mechanical instability of materials with low strain hardening and low strain rate sensitivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Schlagdruckversuche werden an Armcoeisen, CrV-Stahl, NiCr-MoV-Stahl, austenitischen NiCrMo-Stahl, Tantal, Nickel, Ni{sub 3}Al und Magnesium durchgefuehrt. Die ermittelten Fliesskurven werden analysiert, um den Einfluss der in Waerme umgewandelte Verformungsarbeit auf das Fliessverhalten und die mechanische Stabilitaet zu erfassen. Nicht nur die Werkstoffeigenschaften sondern auch die Reibungsbedingungen erweisen sich als massgebliche Einflussgroessen fuer Fliessspannungsabnahme und die Stabilitaet. Hohe Reibungskraefte foerdern die Verformungslokalisierung und die mechanische Instabilitaet von Werkstoffen mit niedriger Verfestigung und niedriger Geschwindigkeitsempfindlichkeit. (orig.)

  9. Change of salivary IgA secretion and caries development in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T; Aono, W; Nagashima, S; Yoshida, T; Hashida, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    1994-09-01

    Xerostomia is a serious side-effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and often enhances caries activity. However, the relationship between caries induction and the IgA level in saliva in rats subjected to irradiation of the salivary glands is unclear. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats infected with or without Streptococcus mutans MT8148R (serotype c). The flow rate of saliva and the protein concentration in saliva were significantly reduced in irradiated rats, regardless of infection of S. mutans. The caries activity was enhanced in these rats, and and irradiation level of 50 Gy significantly increased the caries score. However, longitudinal study indicated that the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans whole cells maintained similar or significantly higher levels in irradiated rats, when compared with those of nonirradiated rats. In addition, there was no negative correlation between the caries score and the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans. These findings suggest that the secreted IgA against S. mutans may not play a significant role in the caries induction of hyposalivated rats.

  10. Unsteady Flows Control Hydrologic Turnover Rates in Antarctic Hyporheic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Saelens, E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic turnover of the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the process of HZ flowpaths receiving water and solutes from the stream channel while simultaneously contributing water and solutes from the HZ back to the stream channel. The influence of hydrologic turnover on HZ solute storage depends on the relative magnitude of hyporheic exchange rates (i.e. physical transport) and biogeochemical reaction rates. Because both exchange rates and reaction rates are unsteady in natural systems, the availability of solutes in the HZ is controlled by the legacy of hydraulic and biological conditions. In this study, we quantify the influence of unsteady flows on hydrologic turnover of the HZ. We study a glacial melt stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDVs). The MDVs provide an ideal setting for investigating hydrologic and chemical storage characteristics of HZs, because nearly all streamflow is generated from glacier melt and the HZ is vertically bounded by continuous permafrost. A dense network of shallow groundwater wells and piezometers was installed along a 60-meter reach of Von Guerard Stream. 12 days of continuous water level data in each well was used to compute the magnitude and direction of 2D hydraulic gradients between the stream channel and lateral hyporheic aquifer. Piezometers were sampled daily for stable isotope abundances. The direction and magnitude of the cross-valley (CV), perpendicular to the thalweg, component of hydraulic gradients is sensitive to daily flood events and exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity. CV gradients are consistently oriented from the hyporheic aquifer towards the stream channel on 2 sections of the study reach, whereas CV gradients are consistently oriented from the stream channel towards the hyporheic aquifer on 1 section. Three sections show diel changes in orientation of CV gradients, coincident with the passage of daily flood events. During a 4-day period of low flows, the HZ is isotopically distinct from the stream

  11. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  12. High flow rates during modified ultrafiltration decrease cerebral blood flow velocity and venous oxygen saturation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Ruel, Marc; Broecker, Lothar; Cornel, Garry

    2005-07-01

    The intracranial hemodynamic effects of modified ultrafiltration in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of different blood flow rates during modified ultrafiltration on the cerebral hemodynamics of children with weights above and below 10 kg. Thirty-one children (weights: 10 kg, n = 10) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Middle-cerebral artery blood flow velocities and cerebral mixed venous oxygen saturations were measured before, five minutes from the beginning, and at the end of ultrafiltration. Patients were classified according to their blood flow rates during ultrafiltration in three groups: high (> or = 20 mL/kg/min), moderate (10-19 mL/kg/min), and low flow rates (flow rates of ultrafiltration and the decline in mean cerebral blood flow velocity (r = - 0.48; p = 0.005) and cerebral oxygen saturation (r = - 0.49; p = 0.005) or hematocrit increase (r = 0.59; p = 0.001). Infants exposed to high flow rates had greater reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity and regional mixed venous saturation and higher hematocrit at the end of ultrafiltration compared with those subjected to moderate and low flow rates (p flow rates through the ultrafilter during modified ultrafiltration transiently decrease the cerebral circulation in young infants compared with lower blood flow rates. These effects may be related to an increased diastolic runoff from the aorta into the ultrafiltration circuit that leads to a "stealing" effect from the intracranial circulation, which may be important in infants with dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation.

  13. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  14. The Piece Wise Linear Reactive Flow Rate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Peter; Souers, P. Clark

    2006-07-01

    For non-ideal explosives a wide range of behavior is observed in experiments dealing with differing sizes and geometries. A predictive detonation model must be able to reproduce many phenomena including such effects as: variations in the detonation velocity with the radial diameter of rate sticks; slowing of the detonation velocity around gentle corners; production of dead zones for abrupt corner turning; failure of small diameter rate sticks; and failure for rate sticks with sufficiently wide cracks. Most models have been developed to explain one effect at a time. Often, changes are made in the input parameters used to fit each succeeding case with the implication that this is sufficient for the model to be valid over differing regimes. We feel that it is important to develop a model that is able to fit experiments with one set of parameters. To address this we are creating a new generation of models that are able to produce better fitting to individual data sets than prior models and to simultaneous fit distinctly different regimes of experiments. Presented here are details of our new Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model applied to LX-17.

  15. Effect of Flow Characteristics in the Downstream of Butterfly Valve on the Flow Rate Measurement using Venturi Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jungho; Yu, Cheong Hwan; Park, San-Jin; Chung, Chang-Hwan

    2010-06-01

    For testing large-capacity pump, the accurate flow rate measurement is needed in the test loop. As a measuring method of flow rate, venturi tube is recommended due to its low pressure loss. However, upstream disturbance of loop component such as valve has an effect upon the accuracy of flow rate measurement. For controlling flow rate in case of high flow rate and large-scale piping system, butterfly-type valve is generally used due to its compactness. However, butterfly valve disturbs downstream flow by generating turbulence, cavities, or abrupt pressure change. In this study, the effect of downstream disturbance of butterfly valve on the flow rate measurement using venturi tube is investigated. Test loop consists of circulation pump, reservoir, butterfly valve, venturi tube, and reference flow meter. The test is conducted with regard to a different valve opening angle of butterfly valve. PIV system is used to visualize and analyze flow in the downstream region of butterfly valve. According to valve opening angle, the flow characteristics and the accuracy of flow rate measurement are investigated.

  16. Copepod feeding currents : flow patterns, filtration rates and energetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, L.A; Stamhuis, E.J; Videler, J.J

    Particle image velocimetry was used to construct a quasi 3-dimensional image of the flow generated by the feeding appendages of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. By scanning layers of flow, detailed information was obtained on flow velocity and velocity gradients. The flow around feeding T.

  17. Design and construction of a novel Coriolis mass flow rate meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Zwikker, Rini; Jouwsma, Wybren

    2009-01-01

    The Coriolis principle for measuring flow rates has great advantages compared to other flow measurement principles, the most important being that mass flow is measured directly. Up to now the measurement of low flow rates posed a great challenge. In a joint research project, the University of Twente

  18. Solid Hydrogen Particles and Flow Rates Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were conducted at Glenn's Small Multipurpose Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 5). The experimental setup was placed in the facility's vacuum tank to prevent heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium. Supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. Solid hydrogen particle formation was tested from February 23 to April 2, 2001. Millimeter-sized solid-hydrogen particles were formed in a Dewar of liquid helium as a prelude to creating atomic fuels and propellants for aerospace vehicles. Atomic fuels or propellants are created when atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen is stored in solid hydrogen particles. The current testing characterized the solid hydrogen particles without the atomic species, as a first step to creating a feed system for the atomic fuels and propellants. This testing did not create atomic species, but only sought to understand the solid hydrogen particle formation and behavior in the liquid helium. In these tests, video images of the solid particle formation were recorded, and the total mass flow rate of the hydrogen was measured. The mass of hydrogen that went into the gaseous phase was also recorded using a commercially available residual gas analyzer. The temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of the liquids and gases in the test apparatus were recorded as well. Testing conducted in 1999 recorded particles as small as 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The current testing extended the testing conditions to a very cold Dewar ullage gas of about 20 to 90 K above the 4 K liquid helium. With the very cold Dewar gas, the hydrogen freezing process took on new dimensions, in some cases creating particles so small that they seemed to be microscopic, appearing as infinitesimally small scintillations on the videotaped images.

  19. Drugs or disease: evaluating salivary function in RA patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina TORRES

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral complications of RA may include temporomandibular joint disorders, mucosa alterations and symptoms of dry mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary gland function of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA comparing it to healthy controls. Subjects with other systemic conditions known to affect salivary functions were excluded. A questionnaire was applied for the evaluation of xerostomia. Resting and chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates (SFR were obtained under standard conditions. There were 145 subjects included of the study (104 RA and 38 controls. About 66.7% of the RA subjects and 2.4% in control group presented xerostomia. The median resting SFR were 0.24 ml/min for RA subjects and 0.40 mL/min for controls (p = 0.04. The median stimulated SFR were 1.31 mL/min for RA subjects and 1.52 ml/min for controls (p = 0.33. No significant differences were found between resting and stimulated SFR of RA subjects not using xerogenic medications and controls. There was significantly higher number of subjects presenting hyposalivation in the RA group than among controls, even when subjects using xerogenic medications were eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, hyposalivation and xerostomia were more frequent among RA subjects not using xerogenic medication than among controls, although there were no significant differences in the median SFR between groups.

  20. Salivary bacteria and oral health status in medicated and non-medicated children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Ariela; Birman, Noam; Noy, Avia Fux; Shapira, Joseph; Matot, Israel; Steinberg, Doron; Moskovitz, Moti

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood neurological disorder. Studies have shown that children with ADHD are more prone to caries than those without. The study investigated children diagnosed with ADHD, both with and without pharmacological intervention, and the following: DMFT\\dmft, plaque index (PI), mutans streptococci (MS) levels, lactobacilli (LB) levels, salivary flow, salivary buffer capacity, oral hygiene, and diet. DMFT/dmft index, PI, MS and LB levels, salivary flow, and salivary buffer capacity were examined in three groups of children: ADHD1-diagnosed with ADHD with no pharmacological intervention (N = 31), ADHD2-treated with medications for ADHD (N = 30), and a healthy control group (N = 30). Diet and oral health habits were assessed through questionnaires completed by parents. There were no differences in the DMFT/dmft index, MS and LB counts, salivary buffer capacity, and parent reported diet and oral health behavior between the three groups. Children with ADHD demonstrated a higher plaque index. Although children with ADHD did not report different diet and oral health behavior from children without ADHD, this group had significantly higher levels of plaque than the control group, which combined with hyposalivation may be a risk factor for caries at an older age. Medicated and non-medicated ADHD children were similar to control children in their caries rate, MS and LB counts, salivary buffer capacity, and diet and oral health behavior. They differed in the amount of plaque found on their teeth. As a group, ADHD children demonstrated hyposalivation compared with the control.

  1. The influence of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Barregård, Lars; McKinlay, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    There is limited literature concerning the effect of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion at low-level exposure. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of urinary flow rate on mercury excretion in children. Also of interest is the influence of flow rate on creatinine excretion and creatinine-corrected mercury, which arisearises with spot urine samples. A substudy of the New England Children's Amalgam Trial collected pairs of urine samples from children aged 10-16 years: a timed overnight collection and a spot daytime sample collected the following day. These samples were analyzed for mercury and creatinine concentration. Regression analysis was used to model the effect of urinary flow rate in the timed overnight samples. A paired t-test compared concentrations and creatinine-corrected mercury between overnight and daytime samples. Creatinine excretion rate (mg/h) increased significantly with urinary flow rate (mL/h), whereas creatinine concentration (g/L) decreased with flow rate. We found a non-significant increase in mercury excretion rate (ng/h) with flow rate, and mercury concentration decreased with flow rate. Mercury and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in the overnight compared to daytime samples. For creatinine-corrected mercury, no significant impact of urinary flow rate was found. Although the creatinine excretion rate, and probably the mercury excretion rate, increased with urinary flow rate, the mercury/creatinine ratio seemed relatively unaffected by urinary flow rate. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  3. Analysis of flow decay potential on Galileo. [oxidizer flow rate reduction by iron nitrate precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T. W.; Frisbee, R. H.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The risks posed to the NASA's Galileo spacecraft by the oxidizer flow decay during its extended mission to Jupiter is discussed. The Galileo spacecraft will use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system with one large engine thrust-rated at a nominal 400 N, and 12 smaller engines each thrust-rated at a nominal 10 N. These smaller thrusters, because of their small valve inlet filters and small injector ports, are especially vulnerable to clogging by iron nitrate precipitates formed by NTO-wetted stainless steel components. To quantify the corrosion rates and solubility levels which will be seen during the Galileo mission, corrosion and solubility testing experiments were performed with simulated Galileo materials, propellants, and environments. The results show the potential benefits of propellant sieving in terms of iron and water impurity reduction.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Inlet Gas-Mixture Flow Rate Effects on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate

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    B. Zahed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate and uniformity of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD technique is investigated by using a numerical model. In this reactor, inlet gas mixture, including xylene as carbon source and mixture of argon and hydrogen as  carrier gas enters into a horizontal CVD reactor at atmospheric pressure. Based on the gas phase and surface reactions, released carbon atoms are grown as CNTs on the iron catalysts at the reactor hot walls. The effect of inlet gas-mixture flow rate, on CNTs growth rate and its uniformity is discussed. In addition the velocity and temperature profile and also species concentrations throughout the reactor are presented.

  5. GROWTH RATE DISPERSION (GRD OF THE (010 FACE OF BORAX CRYSTALS IN FLOWING SOLUTION

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    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax crystals from aqueous solutions in the (010 direction at various flow rates were measured. The observed variations of the growth rate can be represented by a normal distribution.  It was found that there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and solution flow under these experimental conditions.   Keywords: Growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  7. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

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    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  8. Dependence of Selected Water Quality Parameters on Flow Rates in River Profiles in the Czech Republic

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    Eduard Hanslík

    2016-06-01

    The results show that in the monitored profiles, there is a direct relationship with flow rate in case of N-NO3-, suspended solids and O2. Temperature shows an inverse relationship with the flow rate. Other parameters show different relationship with the flow rate in individual monitored profiles or do not show statistically significant relation.

  9. Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study

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    Tremblay Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva collection was performed on 198 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin of which 55 were premenopausal women (PMW and 143 menopausal women (MW. Student’s t test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between salivary pH and MetS components. Results The salivary pH level was significantly correlated with several MetS covariates, namely triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein B (apo B and plasma glucose concentrations as well as waist circumference and the number of MetS components present in the whole sample and PMW only. Mean pH levels decreased as the number of MetS components increased (p = 0.004. The correlations between salivary pH and variables associated with MetS components tended to be stronger in PMW. The proportion of the variance (R2 of salivary pH explained by MetS-related variables in PMW, MW and the whole sample was 23.6% (p = 0.041, 18.1% and 17.0% (p  Conclusions The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for the development of new technologies to more easily monitor health status without increasing the burden of healthcare costs. As such, the salivary pH could be an inexpensive screening tool. These exploratory data suggest that salivary pH may be a significant correlate of the expression of MetS components. However, other studies with different populations are needed to confirm these findings before our observations lead to practical use in clinical settings.

  10. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect......L/min diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, PR and CO remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Our study does not show any consistent trend in BP changes by a reduction in EBFR. Reduction in EBFR if BP falls during IDH is thus not supported. However, none of the patients experienced IDH. Further studies are required...... to evaluate the impact of changes in EBFR on BP during IDH....

  11. Medication intake and its influence on salivary profile of geriatric outpatients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

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    Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been well documented that several diseases or conditions and their related medications could be the risk factors for several ailments found in the oral cavity. Increased usage of medication in elderly could have impact on quality of saliva that affects oral health, eventually cause deterioration in quality of life. Purpose: examine the salivary pH, buffering capacity, stimulated- and unstimulated salivary flow rate profile in elderly using medications. Methods: Seventy-six elderly were consented and agreed to participate in this study. Interview and medical record analysis were performed to get data about their health status, chronic use of medications and complaints related to xerostomia. Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were completed in parallel with measurement of salivary pH and buffering capacity. Results: The mean salivary pH was moderately acidic while having low salivary buffering capacity. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate (USSFR was 0.24 ± 1.8ml/min and 41of subjects (53% were classified hyposalivation, while the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR was 0.86 ± 0.49ml/min and 31 (40% classified hyposalivation. Number of drugs-induced xerostomia intake significantly correlated with the reduction in the USSFR of subjects (p<0.0001, however it was not the case with salivary pH and buffering capacity (p>0.05. It also showed correlation with complaints related to xerostomia. The mean USSFR did not correlate with xerostomia complaints. Conclusion: Medications intake influenced salivary profile and had more effect in changes in xerostomia complaints and salivary quantity than to salivary pH and buffering capacity in Indonesian elderly population.Latar belakang: Telah lama diketahui bahwa beberapa penyakit atau kondisi sistemik dan medikasinya dapat menjadi faktor resiko terjadinya beberapa kelainan dalam rongga mulut. Meningkatnya penggunaan medikasi sistemik pada lansia dapat mempengaruhi

  12. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    from SWS being lower in nonmedicated women. Low UWS were associated with psychiatric and respiratory disorders, type 2 diabetes and intake of psycholeptics, psychoanaleptics (especially SRRIs), respiratory agents, oral antidiabetics (particularly sulfonylureas), magnesium-hydroxide, cardiac agents...

  13. Preliminary results of a pilot study using WR-2721 before fractionated irradiation of the head and neck to reduce salivary gland dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Meyerowitz, C.; Smudzin, T.; Rubin, P. [Univ. of Rochester Medical and Dental Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Based on in vivo evidence of radioprotection of the salivary glands using WR-2721, a pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and salivary function of patients receiving WR-2721, while undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck were eligible if the major salivary glands received more than 45 Gy. WR-2721 was administered over 6 min IV< 10-15 min prior to each dose of radiation five times per week. Saliva was collected and measured prior to radiation therapy, weekly during radiation therapy, 1 month postradiation therapy, and every 3 months thereafter. Flow rates of unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated whole saliva, and stimulated parotid saliva were measured using standard techniques. {sup 99m}Tc salivary scintiscans were performed prior to radiation therapy, 1 month postradiation therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Nine patients are presently enrolled on the first dose level (100 mg/m2) of this study. Eight completed per protocol, two with minor decreases of total WR-2721 doses. Two patients progressed with distant metastases soon after completion of therapy. All available data are included in the analysis. Median follow-up for all patients is 18 months. Flow rates of unstimulated whole saliva decreased significantly during radiation therapy reaching 5.6% of baseline at 9 months postradiation therapy, subsequently recovering to 20% of baseline, then remaining stable over time. Stimulated whole salivary flow rate similarly decreased during radiation therapy and reached its nadir 11% flow rate decreased during radiation therapy to 1.4% of pretreatment levels. Significant recovery took place 6 months postradiation therapy and by 18 months values had recovered to 54% of baseline. {sup 99m}Tc salivary scintiscans confirmed this rebound of parotid function postradiation therapy. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Correlation of volumetric flow rate and skin blood flow with cold intolerance in digital replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Mi, Jingyi; Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qun; Qiu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Cold intolerance is a common complication of digital replantation. The exact etiology is unclear, but it is considered to be multifactorial, including nonsurgical characteristics, vascular, and neurologic conditions. Blood flow may play a significant role in cold intolerance. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of digital blood flow, including volumetric flow rate (VFR) and skin blood flow (SkBF), with cold intolerance in replanted fingers.A retrospective study was conducted among patients who underwent digital replantation between 2010 and 2013. Patients were selected into study cohort based on the inclusion criteria. Surgical data was collected on each patient, including age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, ischemia time, number of arteries repaired, and whether or not vascular crisis occurred. Patients were included as study cohort with both nerves repaired and without chronic disease. Cold intolerance was defined as a Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) score over 30. The arterial flow velocity and caliber were measured by Color Doppler Ultrasound and the digital VFR was calculated. The SkBF was measured by Laser Speckle Imager. Both VFR and SkBF were calculated as a percentage of the contralateral fingers. Comparative study of surgical data and blood flow was performed between the patient with and without cold intolerance. Correlation between VFR and SkBF was also analyzed.A total of 93 patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Approximately, 42 patients were identified as having cold intolerance. Fingers that survived vascular crisis had a higher incidence of cold intolerance with a lower VFR and SkBF. The VFR was higher in 2-artery replantation, but the SkBF and incidence of cold intolerance did not differ significantly. No differences were found in age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, or ischemia time. Furthermore, no correlation was found between VFR and SkBF.Cold intolerance of digital replantation is associated

  15. Energy transfer model and its applications of ultrasonic gas flow-meter under static and dynamic flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Xu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Wen-Jiao; Shen, Zi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ultrasonic gas flow-meters measure the gas flow rate by calculating the ultrasonic transmission time difference between the downstream and upstream. Ultrasonic energy attenuation occurs in the processes of the ultrasonic generation, conversion, transmission, and reception. Additionally, at the same time, the gas flow will also affect the ultrasonic propagation during the measurement, which results in the ultrasonic energy attenuation and the offset of ultrasonic propagation path. Thus, the ultrasonic energy received by the transducer is weaker. When the gas flow rate increases, this effect becomes more apparent. It leads to the measurement accuracy reduced, and the measurement range narrowed. An energy transfer model, where the ultrasonic gas flow-meter under without/with the gas flow, is established by adopting the statistical analysis and curve fitting based on a large amount of experimental data. The static sub model without the gas flow expresses the energy conversion efficiency of ultrasonic gas transducers, and the dynamic sub model with the gas flow reflects the energy attenuation pattern following the flow rate variations. The mathematical model can be used to determine the minimum energy of the excitation signal for meeting the requirement of specific measurement range, and predict the maximum measurable flow rate in the case of fixed energy of excitation signal. Based on the above studies, a method to enhance the excitation signal energy is proposed under the output power of the transmitting circuit being a finite value so as to extend the measurement rage of ultrasonic gas flow-meter.

  16. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: a systematic review of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Wolff, A; Narayana, N; Dawes, C; Aframian, D J; Lynge Pedersen, A M; Vissink, A; Aliko, A; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; McGowan, R; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Ekström, J; Proctor, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine IV and the PRISMA statement. Eligible papers were assessed for both the degree and strength of relevance to the pathogenesis of MISGD as well as on the appropriateness of the study design and sample size. A total of 99 papers were retained for the final analysis. MISGD in human studies was generally reported as xerostomia (the sensation of oral dryness) without measurements of salivary secretion rate. Medications may act on the central nervous system (CNS) and/or at the neuroglandular junction on muscarinic, α-and β-adrenergic receptors and certain peptidergic receptors. The types of medications that were most commonly implicated for inducing salivary gland dysfunction were those acting on the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and alimentary systems. Although many medications may affect the salivary flow rate and composition, most of the studies considered only xerostomia. Thus, further human studies are necessary to improve our understanding of the association between MISGD and the underlying pathophysiology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on whole saliva flow: A clinical study

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    Saraf Kedar Vilas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with advancing age, autoimmune diseases such as Sjφgren′s syndrome, head and neck radiation, smoking and recreational drug usage. Palliative management of xerostomia includes topical agents such as ice chips, saliva substitutes, increasing water intake, paraffin and citric acid containing lozenges. Systemic agents have been used, but some drugs have been found to have unfavorable side effects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on whole salivary flow rate in healthy adult subjects. Study Design : One hundred healthy adult subjects (50 males and 50 females, with no history of salivary gland disorder, were enrolled in this study. TENS electrode pads were placed externally on the skin overlying the parotid glands. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected for five minutes in a graduated tube, using a standardized collection technique. The TENS unit was then activated and stimulated saliva was collected for an additional five minutes. Results : Eighty five of the 100 subjects demonstrated increased whole salivary flow when stimulated via the TENS unit. Eleven experienced no change and four experienced a decrease in the salivary flow. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.36 ml/min (SD 0.16 and there was a 21% increase in the salivary flow following TENS application. Statistical analysis of flow rates utilizing the paired ′t′ test showed the difference to be statistically significant (P< 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion : The TENS unit was effective in increasing whole salivary flow in 85% of the healthy adult subjects. A further study in patients with xerostomia, secondary to various local and systemic causes, is required.

  19. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET

  20. Characteristics of salivary secretion in normal-weight, overweight and obese children: a preliminary study: salivary composition and excessive fat tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Milene Mazuchi; Kobayashi, Fernanda Yukie; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Costa, Simone da Silva; Lucas, Bárbara de Lima; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2014-07-01

    Information on salivary characteristics of young subjects with different body composition is scarce. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess salivary characteristics of normal-weight, overweight and obese children. This is a basic research design in which 68 children (5-12 years) were recruited and anthropometric measurements consisted of body mass index (BMI = Kg/m(2)), body perimeters (waist/arm circumferences) and subcutaneous fat tissue (triceps/subscapular thicknesses). Stimulated (SS) and unstimulated morning saliva (US) were collected to determine flow rate, pH and triglycerides, urea, alpha-amylase, total protein, phosphate and calcium concentrations. Data were analyzed using normality tests, t test/Wilcoxon, one-way ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's/Spearman's correlation tests, where appropriate. Age, household income, parents' education, saliva flow and pH did not differ among groups. Waist circumference and subscapular skinfold differed significantly between normal-weight and obese groups; only waist circumference showed significant correlation with BMI in all groups. pH increased significantly from US to SS in all groups; but flow rate increased from US to SS only in normal-weight and overweight groups. Total protein, amylase, urea, phosphate, triglyceride and calcium concentrations did not differ among groups. However, urea, phosphate and calcium concentrations differed significantly between US and SS in the normal-weight and overweight groups, with the lowest values for SS. In the overweight group, total protein also differed between saliva samples and obese group showed no difference in biochemical parameters between US and SS. Finally, some salivary characteristics may vary among normal-weight, overweight and obese children; thus, future studies in a larger sample are needed to fully understand salivary secretion and composition of these subjects.

  1. Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano M. Correia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Avaliar quantitativamente o índice de fluxo salivar total não estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, após tratamento radioterápico, exclusivo, tratados com a associação de lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio e hidróxido de cálcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico não randomizado. Método: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em três fases: 1ª. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos à telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utilização de medicamento para estimular a salivação; 2ª. em seguida, durante oito semanas após o tratamento radioterápico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associação medicamentosa como estimulante da salivação; 3ª. finalmente, durante oito semanas após ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associação de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avaliação da eficácia da medicação utilizada para evitar a hipofunção salivar no período pós-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos índices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associação de drogas, em relação aos valores do período final do tratamento radioterápico, e mantiveram esses índices mesmo com a suspensão do medicamento. Conclusões: a associação de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofunção salivar, e proporcionou aumento do índice salivar total não estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses após a interrupção do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven

  2. Ventilator gas flow rates affect inspiratory time and ventilator efficiency index in term lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Katinka P; Kuschel, Carl A; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing survival in the smallest preterm infants, the incidence of chronic lung disease has not decreased. Research into ventilatory strategies has concentrated on minimising barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectotrauma, but little attention has been paid to the role of bias gas flow rates and the potential for rheotrauma or shear stress injury. Ventilated preterm infants frequently receive relatively high gas flow rates. We hypothesised that altering bias gas flow rates would change the efficiency of ventilation and thereby affect ventilatory parameters. We tested this hypothesis using an artificial lung followed by ventilation of 8 term lambs. Between flows of 2 and 15 l/min, inflation time (Ti) in the artificial lung was inversely related to the bias gas flow rate. In the ventilated lambs, Ti was inversely related to flow rates up to 10 l/min, with no statistically significant effect at flow rates >10 l/min. There were no adverse effects on gas exchange or cardiovascular parameters until a flow rate of 3 l/min was used, when inadequate gas exchange occurred. Ti is inversely associated with the bias gas flow rate. Flow rates much lower than those used in many neonatal units seem to provide adequate ventilation. We suggest that the role of ventilator gas flow rates, which may potentially influence shear stress in ventilator-induced lung injury, merits further investigation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  4. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    , administration of SITS (4-acetamido-4'- isothio cyano-2,2'-disulphonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of Cl-/HCO3- antiports , did not cause any change in salivary HCO3- concentration. Unexpectedly, it induced a significant increase in salivary secretory rate. The results show that salivary secretion depends...

  5. Minor salivary glands function is decreased in hyposalivation-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Wei; Hong, Xia; Su, Jia-Zeng; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin; Lv, Lan; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between minor salivary gland (MSG) flow rates and oral dryness degrees in patients with xerostomia induced by primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS), radiation therapy-induced dry mouth (RTDM), or Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS). 160 patients with pSS, IgG4-RS, RTDM, or SJS and their age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. The whole saliva flow rates and MSG flow rates were measured in four locations, including the upper labial, lower labial, buccal, and palatal mucosae. The degree of oral dryness was assessed in patient groups using the summated xerostomia inventory (SXI). The flow rates of whole saliva and most MSGs in patient groups were significantly lower than the flow rates in healthy control groups (P0.05). MSG function is significantly reduced in pSS, RTDM, IgG4-RS, and SJS patients, but this reduction is more pronounced in the major salivary glands. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Late effects of multiagent chemotherapy on salivary secretion in children cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Orsolya; Kivovics, Marton; Pinke, Ildiko; Marton, Krisztina; Kivovics, Peter; Garami, Miklos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the later oral consequences of chemotherapy on the oral health of children with emphasis on the cariological status and the major and minor salivary gland function. Thirty-eight 12-year-old children (mean age 12.3 ± 0.58 years) who underwent chemotherapy were evaluated after 5 years of treatment. Forty age- and sex-matched healthy children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds served as controls. Subjects' cariological status was explained by the number of decayed, filled, missing permanent teeth (DMF-T), and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured by the spitting method. Palatal saliva flow rate using a Periotron meter (Oraflow Inc., Plainview, NY) and salivary buffer capacity using CRT buffer (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were also investigated. Children who underwent chemotherapy had significantly more decayed teeth than healthy controls (3.97 ± 3.58 vs 0.84 ± 1.75, respectively, p chemotherapy had significantly lower stimulated whole saliva flow rate (0.84 ± 0.35 vs 1.13 ± 0.46 ml/min, p chemotherapy in children might result in a decreased stimulated whole saliva flow rate, hyposalivation, and, consequently, increased caries risk. Although these processes might be compensated to a limited extend by the increased minor saliva flow rate, resulting in a higher buffer capacity, nutrition and oral hygiene control of children obtaining cancer therapy is essential in the preservation of the oral tissues.

  7. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  8. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  9. In vitro validation of endovascular Doppler-derived flow rates in models of the cerebral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, P M; Nerva, J D; Morton, R P; Barbour, M C; Levitt, M R; Mourad, P D; Kim, L J; Aliseda, A

    2015-11-01

    This study presents validation of endovascular Doppler velocimetry-based volumetric flow rate measurements conducted in a pulsatile flow loop simulating conditions in both the internal carotid and basilar artery. In vitro models of cerebral vessels, each containing an aneurysm, were fabricated from patient anatomies extracted from 3D rotational angiography. Flow velocity measurements were collected with three different experimental techniques: an endovascular Doppler wire, Particle Image Velocimetry, and a time-resolved ultrasonic flow meter. Womersley's theory of pulsatile flow in a cylindrical vessel was used to compute time-resolved volumetric flow rates from the endovascular Doppler velocity. The volumetric flow rates computed from the Doppler measurements were compared to those from the Particle Image Velocimetry profile measurements, and the direct measurements from the ultrasonic flow meter. The study establishes confidence intervals for any systematic or random errors associated with the wire-derived flow rates as benchmarked to the other two modalities. There is an approximately 10% random error in the Doppler-derived peak and time-averaged flow rates. There is a measurable uniform bias, about 15% too low, in the time-averaged Doppler-derived flow rates. There is also a small proportional bias in the peak systolic Doppler-derived flow rates. Potential sources of error are also discussed.

  10. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  12. Measurement of retinal blood flow rate in diabetic rats: disparity between techniques due to redistribution of flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskova, Wendy; Watts, Megan N; Carter, Patsy R; Eshaq, Randa S; Harris, Norman R

    2013-04-26

    Reports of altered retinal blood flow in experimental models of type I diabetes have provided contrasting results, which leads to some confusion as to whether flow is increased or decreased. The purpose of our study was to evaluate early diabetes-induced changes in retinal blood flow in diabetic rats, using two distinctly different methods. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and retinal blood flow rate was measured under anesthesia by a microsphere infusion technique, or by an index of flow based on the mean circulation time between arterioles and venules. Measurements in STZ rats were compared to age-matched nondiabetic controls. In addition, the retinal distribution of fluorescently-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) was viewed by confocal microscopy in excised flat mounts. Retinal blood flow rate was found to decrease by approximately 33% in the STZ rats compared to controls (P contrast, the mean circulation time through the retina was found to be almost 3× faster in the STZ rats (P < 0.01). This contradiction could be explained by flow redistribution through the superficial vessels of the diabetic retina, with this possibility supported by our observation of significantly fewer RBCs flowing through the deeper capillaries. We conclude that retinal blood flow rate is reduced significantly in the diabetic rat, with a substantial decrease of flow through the capillaries due to shunting of blood through the superficial layer, allowing rapid transit from arterioles to venules.

  13. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Park, Hyounggeun; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction.

  14. Periodontal Status and Whole Salivary Cytokine Profile Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Alshehri, Mohammed; Vohra, Fahim; Al-Askar, Mansour; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    Whole salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess the periodontal status and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes (controls). Ninety-five males (45 with prediabetes and 50 systemically healthy controls) were included. Twenty-seven controls and 29 patients with prediabetes were smokers. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and marginal bone loss) were measured, and the number of missing teeth were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) was determined, and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. P values never-smokers with prediabetes. Among controls, periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher among smokers than never-smokers (P never-smokers. Among patients with prediabetes, periodontal inflammation and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable between smokers and never-smokers.

  15. A randomized field trial to determine the effect of a mouthrinse formulated from ethanol extract of terminaliachebula fruit on salivary parameters among 12-15 year old school children of Belgaum City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma S Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease involving interplay of numerous factors such as salivary Streptococcus mutans, flow rate, buffer capacity, pH etc. Hence any therapeutic agent influencing these parameters can be effectively used to interrupt the dental caries process. Thus the present study was conducted to determine the effect of mouthrinse formulated from ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit on salivary parameters. Materials & Method: Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit was used to formulate the mouthrinse. Sixty randomly selected children participated in the study. Salivary parameters were assessed at baseline, and at various intervals post rinsing. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA and Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: No significant variation was observed in the salivary parameters between the two groups at baseline and 5 minutes postrinsing. There was an increase of 5.7%, 4.69%, 3.39% in salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity respectively in the study group at 60 minutes as compared to baseline values. Conclusions: Mouthrinse of Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula has a significant effect on salivary parameters which can help counter the demineralization process.

  16. Study on solid-liquid two-phase unsteady flow characteristics with different flow rates in screw centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. N.; Y Wang, H.; Han, W.; Ma, W.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    The screw centrifugal pump is used as an object, and the unsteady numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase flow is carried out under different flow rate conditions in one circle by choosing the two-phase flow of sand and water as medium, using the software FLUENT based on the URANS equations, combining with sliding mesh method, and choosing the Mixture multiphase flow model and the SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that, with the flow rate increasing, the change trends for the pressure on volute outlet are almost constant, the fluctuation trends of the impeller axial force have a little change, the pressure and the axial force turn to decrease on the whole, the radial force gradually increases when the impeller maximum radius passes by half a cycle near the volute outlet, and the radial force gradually decreases when the maximum radius passes by the other half a cycle in a rotation cycle. The distributions of the solid particles are very uneven under a small flow rate condition on the face. The solid particles under a big flow rate condition are distributed more evenly than the ones under a small flow rate condition on the back. The theoretical basis and reference are provided for improving its working performance.

  17. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  18. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

  19. Optimum support by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: effects of increasing flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Tommaso; Alban, Laura; Turrini, Cecilia; Cambiaghi, Barbara; Carlesso, Eleonora; Taccone, Paolo; Bottino, Nicola; Lissoni, Alfredo; Spadaro, Savino; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Gattinoni, Luciano; Pesenti, Antonio; Grasselli, Giacomo

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the correlation between higher flow rates of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its physiologic effects in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). We assessed the effects of HFNC delivered at increasing flow rate on inspiratory effort, work of breathing, minute ventilation, lung volumes, dynamic compliance and oxygenation in AHRF patients. A prospective randomized cross-over study was performed in non-intubated patients with patients AHRF and a PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio of ≤300 mmHg. A standard non-occlusive facial mask and HFNC at different flow rates (30, 45 and 60 l/min) were randomly applied, while maintaining constant FiO2 (20 min/step). At the end of each phase, we measured arterial blood gases, inspiratory effort, based on swings in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) and on the esophageal pressure-time product (PTPPes), and lung volume, by electrical impedance tomography. Seventeen patients with AHRF were enrolled in the study. At increasing flow rate, HFNC reduced ΔPes (p flow rate also progressively reduced minute ventilation (p flow rates was better described by exponential fitting, while ΔEELV, V T/ΔPes and oxygenation improved linearly. In this cohort of patients with AHRF, an increasing HFNC flow rate progressively decreased inspiratory effort and improved lung aeration, dynamic compliance and oxygenation. Most of the effect on inspiratory workload and CO2 clearance was already obtained at the lowest flow rate.

  20. Oral Digestion and Perception of Starch: Effects of Cooking, Tasting Time, and Salivary α-Amylase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Balto, Amy S; Lim, Juyun

    2017-10-01

    Since starch is a significant part of human diet, its oral detection would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to determine whether starch or its degradation products can be tasted and what factors influence its perception. Subjects were asked 1) to taste 8% raw and cooked starch samples for 5, 15, and 35 s and rate perceived intensities of sweetness and "other" taste (i.e., other than sweet), 2) to donate saliva to obtain salivary flow rate (mg/s) and salivary α-amylase activity (per mg saliva), and 3) to fill out a carbohydrate consumption survey. Subsequently, in vitro hydrolysis of starch was performed; saliva was collected from 5 subjects with low and high amylase activities and reacted with 8% raw and cooked starch at 2, 15, and 30 s. Hydrolysis products were then quantified using a High performance liquid chromatography. The results showed cooking increased the digestibility of starch such that the amount of hydrolysis products increased with reaction time. However, cooking did not influence taste ratings, nor were they influenced by tasting time. Subjects' salivary amylase activities were associated with the efficacy of their saliva to degrade starch, in particular cooked starch, and thus the amount of maltooligosaccharide products generated. Effective α-amylase activity [i.e. α-amylase activity (per mg saliva) × salivary flow rate (mg/s)] and carbohydrate consumption score (i.e. consumption frequency × number of servings) were also independently associated with sensory taste ratings. Human perception of starch is undoubtedly complex as shown in this study; the data herein point to the potential roles of salivary α-amylase activity and carbohydrate consumption in the perception of cooked starch. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Xerostomia and Salivary Gland Hypofunction in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus Before and After Treatment with Topical Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janaby, Hala; El-Sakka, Haytham; Masood, Manal; Ashani W Mendis, Walimuni; M Slack-Smith, Linda; Parsons, Richard; M Frydrych, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and mouth dryness are common pathoses, yet not entirely understood. These two conditions may be associated, with a few studies investigating the relationship between mouth dryness and oral lichen planus providing conflicting results. None of the studies have explored the specific impact of disease treatment on mouth dryness. The purpose of this observational before and after comparison study was to examine the effect of treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids on mouth dryness. Nineteen subjects with oral lichen planus were evaluated for the severity of xerostomia using a xerostomia inventory and a visual analogue scale. Stimulated and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH and buffering capacity were also measured. All subjects were evaluated before and after treatment with topical corticosteroids. All subjects reported xerostomia before treatment with topical corticosteroids, with 79% reporting a significant improvement (P = 0.03) after treatment. Topical corticosteroid treatment was not associated with statistically significant differences in stimulated or unstimulated salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH or buffering capacity. The results of this study suggest that treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids may decrease the severity of dry mouth symptoms.

  2. Measuring Flow Rate in Crystalline Bedrock Wells Using the Dissolved Oxygen Alteration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Sarah A; Robbins, Gary A

    2017-07-01

    Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time. Measurements were taken for upward and downward flows, and under ambient and pumping conditions. Vertical flow rates from 0.06 to 2.30 Lpm were measured. To validate the method, flow rates determined with the DOAM were compared to pump discharge rates and found to be in agreement within 2.5%. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  3. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate.

  4. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Dingqu; Liu, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS) with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT) strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt) HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate. PMID:22399913

  5. Heating capabilities of the Hotline and Autoline at low flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Joerg; Weber, Ingo; Macko, Stephan; Heussen, Nicole; Rossaint, Rolf

    2006-04-01

    At low flow rates, fluid warmers using coaxial warming tubes are superior in preventing heat loss. This laboratory investigation was performed in order to compare the heating capabilities of two coaxial fluid warmers. The Hotline and the Autoline were investigated by using normal saline at various flow rates (10-99 ml x h(-1)). Final infusion temperatures were measured six times in a row at the end of the tubing by using a rapid-response thermometer. Final temperatures were compared with those of infusions, which passed through disposable i.v. tubing covered and warmed using an 'off label' convective air warming system (WarmTouch). Measurements were performed at two different room temperatures (20 and 24 degrees C). Each group was analyzed with respect to differences between various flow rates as well as differences between the groups at comparable flow rates by using a three-way anova with multiple comparisons according to Tukey's procedure. Significance was defined at P flow rates efficiently above 34 degrees C, with the Hotline being more effective than the Autoline (P flow rates (10-60 and 80 ml x h(-1)), the Autoline demonstrated lower infusion temperatures throughout elevated room temperature at flow rates between 20 and 90 ml x h(-1). Both devices heated infusions more efficiently compared with 'off label used' convective air warmer (each with P flow rates. However, the heating capability of the Hotline was superior and can further be increased at low flow rates by increasing the room temperature.

  6. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  7. Facial Vibrotactile Stimulation Activates the Parasympathetic Nervous System: Study of Salivary Secretion, Heart Rate, Pupillary Reflex, and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Hiraba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz frequency with 1.9 μm amplitude (89 Hz-S, as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008. We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS in the frontal cortex and autonomic parameters. We used the heart rate (HRV: heart rate variability analysis in RR intervals, pupil reflex, and salivation as parameters, but the interrelation between each parameter and fNIRS measures remains unknown. We were to investigate the relationship in response to established paradigms using simultaneously each parameter-fNIRS recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of fNIRS was examined by a comparison of various values between before and after various stimuli (89 Hz-S, 114 Hz-S, listen to classic music, and “Ahh” vocalization. We confirmed that vibrotactile stimulation (89 Hz of the parotid glands led to the greatest salivation, greatest increase in heart rate variability, and the most constricted pupils. Furthermore, there were almost no detectable differences between fNIRS during 89 Hz-S and fNIRS during listening to classical music of fans. Thus, vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz seems to evoke parasympathetic activity.

  8. [The Effect of Dialysate Flow Rate on Dialysis Adequacy and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sun Mi; Min, Hye Sook

    2016-10-01

    In this single repeated measures study, an examination was done on the effects of dialysate flow rate on dialysis adequacy and fatigue in patients receiving hemodialysis. This study was a prospective single center study in which repeated measures analysis of variance were used to compare Kt/V urea (Kt/V) and urea reduction ratio (URR) as dialysis adequacy measures and level of fatigue at different dialysate flow rates: twice as fast as the participant's own blood flow, 500 mL/min, and 700 mL/min. Thirty-seven hemodialysis patients received all three dialysate flow rates using counterbalancing. The Kt/V (M±SD) was 1.40±0.25 at twice the blood flow rate, 1.41±0.23 at 500 mL/min, and 1.46±0.24 at 700 mL/min. The URR (M±SD) was 68.20±5.90 at twice the blood flow rate, 68.67±5.22 at 500 mL/min, and 70.11±5.13 at 700 mL/min. When dialysate flow rate was increased from twice the blood flow rate to 700 mL/min and from 500 mL/min to 700 mL/min, Kt/V and URR showed relative gains. There was no difference in fatigue according to dialysate flow rate. Increasing the dialysate flow rate to 700 mL/min is associated with a significant nicrease in dialysis adequacy. Hemodialysis with a dialysate flow rate of 700 mL/min should be considered in selected patients not achieving adequacy despite extended treatment times and optimized blood flow rate.

  9. Litter ammonia losses amplified by higher air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Broiler litter utilization has largely been associated with land application as fertilizer. Reducing ammonia (NH3) released from litter enhances its fertilizer value and negates detrimental impacts to the environment. A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effect of air flow var...

  10. Behavior of free surface vortices in cylindrical vessel under fluctuating flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideaki Monji; Toshinori Akimoto; Daisuke Miwa [Graduate School of System and Information Engineering University of Tsukuba Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Hideaki Kamide [New Thechnology Development Group, Advanced Technology Division O-arai Engineering Center, Japan Nucler Cycle Development Institute O-arai 311-1393 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with characteristics of free surface vortices at an upper plenum in a Fast Breeder Reactor. The free surface vortex is one of the most important mechanisms causing gas entrainment. Because the gas entrainment affects on reactivity of the reactor, the estimation of the onset condition of gas entrainment is an important factor for design of the reactor. The gas entrainment due to the free surface vortex is a time series phenomena; (i) formation of a vortex dimple on the free surface, (ii) development of the gas core of the vortex by a downward flow, and (iii) gas entrainment by the separation of bubbles at a tip of the gas core. In this study, the gas entrainment by the bubble separation is focused on and the unsteady behavior of the gas core by the fluctuations of the flow conditions is investigated experimentally. In the experiment, the free surface vortex was generated in a cylindrical vessel with a tangential slit injection and the downward flow was by a suction pipe at the bottom. The working fluid was water and the vessel is under the atmospheric air. The gas core developed due to the circulating and downward flow. In order to know the unsteady behavior of the gas core, the injection flow rate into the vessel was changed as a sine wave, and the time series of the gas core geometry was measured by a stereo image processing. The results of the study are mainly as follows; (i) The gas core length changed with the water flow rate but the shape of the fluctuation of gas core length was not a sine wave. The core length decreased suddenly when the water flow rate decreased. This corresponds that the characteristic time of the flow for the increasing flow rate is longer than that for the decreasing flow rate. (ii) The gas core length under the fluctuating flow rate was shorter than that under the condition of the fixed water flow rate which is the same as the maximum water flow rate of the fluctuating flow. This fact

  11. Measurement of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated space is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes three different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale outdoor test facility with a nat...

  12. Economic method for measuring ultra-low flow rates of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, J. A.; Keller, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Capillary tube flowmeter measures ultra-low flows of very corrosive fluids /such as chlorine trifluoride and liquid fluorine/ and other liquids with reasonable accuracy. Flowmeter utilizes differential pressure transducer and operates on the principle that for laminar flow in the tube, pressure drop is proportional to flow rate.

  13. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Rastogi; Sumeet Bhargava; Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna; Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain ra...

  14. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  15. A high rate flow-focusing foam generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenceau, Elise; Sang, Yann Yip Cheung; Hohler, Reinhard; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    We use a rigid axisymetric microfluidic flow focusing device to produce monodisperse bubbles, dispersed in a surfactant solution. The gas volume fraction of the dispersion collected out of this device can be as large as 90%, demonstrating that foam with solid-like viscoelastic properties can be produced in this way. The polydispersity of the bubbles is so low that we observe crystallization of our foam. We measure the diameter of the bubbles and compare these data to recent theoretical predic...

  16. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, Katarina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Twetman, Svante

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary buffer capacity and menarche, and to explore any association with levels of the sex hormone progesterone in stimulated whole saliva in adolescent girls. The material comprised 162 girls, 12 years of age at baseline in the 6th grade, who were followed for 3 years. Every 4th month, a stimulated whole saliva sample was collected, secretion rate and buffer capacity were determined, and information was gathered on menarche, ongoing menses, and caries increment. Once yearly, the salivary concentration of progesterone was determined with an enzyme immunoassay kit. The results showed a significantly impaired salivary buffer capacity over the years (P buffer capacity was significantly correlated with low secretion rate (r = 0.42; Pbuffer capacity did not differ from the postmenarche scores. The concentration of progesterone in saliva increased with age but displayed no significant relationship to buffer capacity, flow rate, or caries increment. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that the salivary buffer capacity may be impaired over the adolescent years in females, but the reason remains unclear.

  17. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  18. Normalizing parameters for the critical flow rate of simple fluids through nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that two-phase critical nozzle flow of simple fluids almost obeys the principle of corresponding states. Quantum fluid departures from the principle are resolved as a function of temperature for para-hydrogen and helium. The critical flow rates are normalized, using a normalizing parameter for which the critical flow rates of all simple fluids reduce to a single isothermal curve. The expression obtained for the normalizing parameter is shown to provide good agreement with the experiment for the critical flow rates of nitrogen, oxygen, and para-hydrogen.

  19. Flow Rates in Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: A Tool for Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Meurs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to develop a standalone application for optimizing flow rates in liquid chromatography (LC, gas chromatography (GC and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC. To do so, Van Deemter’s equation, Knox’ equation and Golay’s equation were implemented in a MATLAB script and subsequently a graphical user interface (GUI was created. The application will show the optimal flow rate or linear velocity and the corresponding plate height for the set input parameters. Furthermore, a plot will be shown in which the plate height is plotted against the linear flow velocity. Hence, this application will give optimized flow rates for any set conditions with minimal effort.

  20. Rate of coronary flow adaptation in response to changes in heart rate before and during anesthesia for coronary artery surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, H. B.; Kal, J. E.; Vergroesen, I.; Vroom, M. B.; de Graaf, R.; Dankelman, J.; Porsius, M.; Spaan, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate of adaptation of coronary blood flow in response to stepwise changes in heart rate (HR) has been extensively studied in dogs and goats to improve our understanding of the dynamics of coronary regulation processes and their pathophysiology and to obtain time constants for

  1. Linear genetic programming for time-series modelling of daily flow rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study linear genetic programming (LGP), which is a variant of Genetic Programming, and two versions of Neural Networks (NNs) are used in predicting time-series of daily flow rates at a station on Schuylkill River at Berne, PA, USA. Daily flow rate at present is being predicted based on different time-series scenarios.

  2. Effect of Retarding Force on Mass Flow Rates of Fluid at Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mathematical model and software visualization to view the effect of retarding forces on the mass flow rate in term of visualization. C-sharp (C#) is the chosen program and this enable compares and us to determine the mass flow rates patterns in relation to retarding force in form of graphical tables at different temperature.

  3. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  4. Drop-box Weir for Measuring Flow Rates Under Extreme Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment and large rocks often are transported in runoff during extreme events. The sediment can deposit in a runoff-measuring structure and give erroneous readings. The drop-box weir (DBW) is one of only a few flow-measuring devices capable of measuring sediment-laden flows. Recent studies have ...

  5. Influence of transient strain rates on material flow stress and microstructure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorf, Jens; Lohmar, Johannes; Hirt, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the material flow stress is a key parameter for a reliable design of hot forming processes using Finite Element (FE) software codes. Due to the microstructure evolution caused by the interaction of hardening and softening phenomena that take place during hot forming operations, the material flow stress is influenced by strain rate and temperature. While transient strain rates and temperatures typically characterize the industrial forming processes, the flow curves used in FE simulations are normally determined at arbitrary constant temperatures and strain rates. To calculate the flow stress evolution in between the measured strain rates, FE programs use linear interpolation. Hence, the material relaxation behavior caused by the microstructure evolution during transient strain rates is not considered. Previous investigations by various authors have shown that for a rapid strain rate change by one order of magnitude significant deviations between measured flow stress and linear interpolation appear before the flow stress approximates the flow curve obtained at the new constant strain rate again. However as mentioned before, industrial forming processes are characterized by more or less smooth than instantaneous changes in strain rate. Therefore, in this study, changing strain rates with different linear slopes are investigated. For this purpose, isothermal cylinder compression tests of an industrial case hardening steel are conducted at elevated temperatures. The resulting flow stress is compared with the linear interpolation of the flow curves determined at constant strain rates. Additionally, the grain size evolution during the strain rate change is analyzed to better understand the microstructural changes. The current investigation shows that the slope of the strain rate increase significantly influences the deviation from the linear interpolation. This observation can be explained by the time dependent microstructure evolution

  6. Cold flow mixing rate data for pulverized coal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmott, V.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1978-05-01

    To elucidate the mixing characteristics of particle-laden, confined jets in entrained-bed coal gasifiers, Brigham Young University examined the effects of velocity, density, injection angle, particle loading level, and particle size on the rate of particle and gas mixing. Researchers measured the gas velocity, particle mass flux, and gas composition at various radial and axial locations downstream of the primary jet exit plane. Increases in injection angle and secondary velocity significantly raised gas and particle mixing rates, while the effects of other variables were much less significant. Dispersion of particles lagged that of the gas in all cases investigated. Controlling the mixing processes may lead to increases in combustion efficiency or to a reduction in the rate of pollutant formation.

  7. The effect of temperature fluctuations of reaction rate constants in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Antaki, P. J.; Kassar, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Current models of turbulent reacting flows frequently use Arrhenius reaction rate constants obtained from static or laminar flow theory and/or experiments, or from best fits of static, laminar, and turbulent data. By treating the reaction rate constant as a continuous random variable which is temperature-dependent, the present study assesses the effect of turbulent temperature fluctuations on the reaction rate constant. This model requires that a probability density function (PDF) describing the nature of the fluctuations be specified. Three PDFs are examined: the clipped Gaussian, the beta PDF, and the ramp model. All the models indicate that the reaction rate constant is greater in a turbulent flow field than in an equivalent laminar flow. In addition, an amplification ratio, which is the ratio of the turbulent rate constant to the laminar rate constant, is defined and its behavior as a function of the mean temperature fluctuations is described

  8. Computed Tomography Angiography With High Flow Rates: An In Vitro and In Vivo Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E; Turek, Jakub; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Das, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to test high-flow application of contrast media (CM) using novel high-flow needles and to assess injection- and flow-related parameters in a circulation phantom and in an in vivo population. A circulation phantom simulating physiological parameters was used. Preheated CM (300 mg/mL) was injected at flow rates varying between 5 and 15 mL/s through a novel 18-gauge high-flow intravenous injection needle. In addition, feasibility of these high-flow needles was tested with administration of flow rates of 9 mL/s in 20 patients referred for pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation assessment. Injection parameters (eg, peak pressures, peak flow rates) in both phantom and in vivo setup were continuously monitored by a data acquisition program. Attenuation at predefined levels of the aorta (eg, aortic root to common femoral arteries) was measured in all patients to determine clinical applicability. In the phantom setup, injection rates up to 15 mL/s were feasible. An enhancement plateau was reached at 11 mL/s (464 [20] HU). In patients, no pressure- or flow-related complications (eg, extravasation) were recorded (mean [SD] peak pressure, 154 [8] psi; mean [SD] peak flow rate, 9.2 [0.1 mL/s; range, 9.1-9.6]). Diagnostic attenuation values were reached at all predefined levels of the aorta (330.8 [113.1] HU to 622.9 [81.5] HU). These results indicate that injections with 9 mL/s using high-flow injection needles are safe. The pressure limit of 325 psi was not reached, and the injections resulted in diagnostic attenuation values. Using this dedicated needle, high flow rates should not be considered a drawback for CM application in routine CT angiography examinations.

  9. A generalized Forchheimer radial flow model for constant-rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhan, Hongbin; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2017-09-01

    Models used for data interpretation of constant-rate tests (CRTs) are commonly derived with the assumption of Darcian flow in an idealized integer flow dimension, where the non-Darcian nature of fluid flow and the complexity of flow geometry are disregarded. In this study, a Forchheimer's law-based analytical model is proposed with the assumption of buildup (or drawdown) decomposition for characterizing the non-Darcian flow in a generalized radial formation where the flow dimension n may become non-integer. The proposed model immediately reduces to Barker's (1988) model for Darcian flow in the generalized radial formation and to Mathias et al.'s (2008) model for non-Darcian flow in a two-dimensional confined aquifer. A comparison with numerical simulations shows that the proposed model behaves well at late times for flow dimension n > 1.5. The proposed model is finally applied for data interpretation of the constant-rate pumping tests performed at Ploemeur (Le Borgne et al., 2004), showing that the intrinsic hydraulic conductivity of formations will be underestimated and the specific storage will be overestimated if the non-Darcian effect is ignored. The proposed model is an extension of the generalized radial flow (GRF) model based on Forchheimer's law, which would be of significance for data interpretation of CRTs in aquifers of complex flow geometry in which non-Darcian flow occurs.

  10. Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children ...

  11. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  12. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Jasvir S.; Pilgrim, Mark J.; Grewal, Suman; Kasman, Laura; Werner, Phillip; Bruorton, Mary E.; London, Steven D.; London, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that salivary gland inoculation stimulates formation of ectopic germinal centers (GCs), transforming the gland into a mucosal inductive site. Intraglandular infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV; control: UV-inactivated MCMV) induces salivary gland ectopic follicles comprising cognate interactions between CD4+ and B220+ lymphocytes, IgM+ and isotype-switched IgG+ and IgA+ B cells, antigen presenting cells, and follicular dendritic cells. B cells coexpressed the GC markers GCT (57%) and GL7 (52%), and bound the lectin peanut agglutinin. Lymphoid follicles were characterized by a 2- to 3-fold increase in mRNA for CXCL13 (lymphoid neogenesis), syndecan-1 (plasma cells), Blimp-1 (plasma cell development/differentiation), and a 2- to 6-fold increase for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, PAX5, and the nonexcised rearranged DNA of an IgA class-switch event, supporting somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination within the salivary follicles. Intraglandular inoculation also provided protection against a systemic MCMV challenge, as evidenced by decreased viral titers (105 plaque-forming units to undetectable), and restoration of normal salivary flow rates from a 6-fold decrease. Therefore, these features suggest that the salivary gland participates in oral mucosal immunity via generation of ectopic GCs, which function as ectopic mucosal inductive sites.—Grewal, J. S., Pilgrim, M. J., Grewal, S., Kasman, L., Werner, P., Bruorton, M. E., London, S. D., London, L. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection. PMID:21307334

  13. Local and Nonlocal Strain Rate Fields and Vorticity Alignment in Turbulent Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlington, Peter E.; Schumacher, Jörg; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Local and nonlocal contributions to the total strain rate tensor at any point in a flow are formulated from an expansion of the vorticity field in a local spherical neighborhood of radius R centered on x. The resulting exact expression allows the nonlocal (background) strain rate tensor to be obtained from the total strain rate tensor. In turbulent flows, where the vorticity naturally concentrates into relatively compact structures, this allows the local alignment of vorticity with the most e...

  14. Flow rates of large animal fluid delivery systems used for high-volume crystalloid resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Walston, Rose D

    2012-12-01

    Large animal species in states of shock can require particularly high flow rates for volume resuscitation and the ability to deliver adequate volumes rapidly may be a rate-limiting step. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum flow rates of common combinations of IV catheter, extension set, and fluid administration sets. University veterinary teaching hospital. In vitro experimental study. Maximum flow rates were measured using combinations of 4 IV catheters (3 14-Ga and a single 10-Ga), 2 IV catheter extension sets (small bore and large bore), and 2 types of fluid administration sets (standard 2-lead large animal coiled IV set and nonpressurized 4-lead arthroscopic irrigation set). The catheter, extension sets, and administration sets were arranged in 16 configurations, and flow rates measured in triplicate using tap water flowing into an open receptacle. Flow rates ranged from 7.4 L/h with an over-the-wire 14-Ga catheter, small-bore extension, and coil set, to 51.2 L/h using a 10-Ga catheter, no extension, and arthroscopic irrigation set. There was an increase of 1.3-8.9% in flow rates between the large- versus small-bore extension sets. Crystalloid delivery in vivo to an adult horse was 21% slower (9.1 L/h versus 11.5 L/h) than the corresponding in vitro measurement. Extremely high flow rates can be achieved in vitro using large-bore catheters and delivery systems, although the clinical necessity for rates >50 L/h has not been determined. The use of large-bore extension sets resulted in only a minimal increase in flow rate. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  15. In vitro simulation of in vivo pharmacokinetic model with intravenous administration via flow rate modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Cheng; Liang, Wang; Hu, Jia-Li; He, Gao-Li; Wu, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Xue-Qian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose a method of flow rate modulation for simulation of in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) model with intravenous injection based on a basic in vitro PK model. According to the rule of same relative change rate of concentration per unit time in vivo and in vitro, the equations for flow rate modulation were derived using equation method. Four examples from literature were given to show the application of flow rate modulation in the simulation of PK model of antimicrobial agents in vitro. Then an experiment was performed to confirm the feasibility of flow rate modulation method using levo-ornidazole as an example. The accuracy and precision of PK simulations were evaluated using average relative deviation (ARD), mean error and root mean squared error. In vitro model with constant flow rate could mimic one-compartment model, while the in vitro model with decreasing flow rate could simulate the linear mammillary model with multiple compartments. Zero-order model could be simulated using the in vitro model with elevating flow rate. In vitro PK model with gradually decreasing flow rate reproduced the two-compartment kinetics of levo-ornidazole quite well. The ARD was 0.925 % between in vitro PK parameters and in vivo values. Results suggest that various types of PK model could be simulated using flow rate modulation method without modifying the structure. The method provides uniform settings for the simulation of linear mammillary model and zero-order model based on in vitro one-compartment model, and brings convenience to the pharmacodynamic study.

  16. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: flow rate effects on chemical uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Hawker, Darryl W; Kennedy, Karen; Bentley, Christie; Thompson, Jack; Booij, Kees; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-06-01

    A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In this work, uptake kinetics of selected PFCs, over 15 days, were investigated. A flow-through channel system was employed with spiked river water at flow rates between 0.02 and 0.34 m s(-1). PFC sampling rates (Rs) (0.09-0.29 L d(-1) depending on analyte and flow rate) increased from the lowest to highest flow rate employed for some PFCs (MW ≤ 464) but not for others (MW ≥ 500). Rs's for some of these smaller PFCs were increasingly less sensitive to flow rate as this increased within the range investigated. This device shows promise as a sampling tool to support monitoring efforts for PFCs in a range of flow rate conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements at various flow rates in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroeks, Charlotte M H H T; van Vliet, Dillys; Hendriks, Han J E; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2010-02-01

    Measurement of bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels could be of clinical importance for the treatment of asthma. To discriminate between alveolar and bronchial NO, measurements need to be assessed at various flow rates. To study the feasibility, linearity, and long-term repeatability of NO measurements at four different exhalation flow rates in children with asthma. Twenty-one children with moderate persistent asthma, aged 6-12 yrs, were included in the study. NO was measured according to the ATS/ERS guidelines, using the NIOX analyzer with flow restrictors of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ml/s. Duration of the measurements ranged from 6-10 s, depending on the flow rate. The tests were repeated 3 and 6 months after the first NO measurement. Feasibility of NO measurements at these four flow rates increased from 67% to 91% and 95% at the first, second and third visit, respectively. A significant learning effect was present. Age and lung function indices did not influence success or failure of the tests. At the first measurements occasions, no problems occurred during the NO analysis at a 100 ml/s flow rate. There was a 75-90% success rate when performing the test using flow rates of 30, 50, and 200 ml/s. However, repeating the tests resulted in a 100% success rate. Measurements were not successful if: (i) children ran out of air; (ii) NO concentration exceeded 200 ppb; (iii) the measured NO flow was unstable; and (iv) the NO plateau was not formed. This study showed good feasibility and linearity of NO measurements in asthmatic children of 6 yrs and over at flow rates between 50-200 ml/s. A significant learning effect was present. The long-term reproducibility of alveolar and bronchial NO values during 6 months was moderate. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  18. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  19. Adverse affects of drugs on saliva and salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is the most valuable oral fluid is critical to the preservation and management of oral health. Saliva containing various organic and inorganic substances provides primary natural protection for teeth and soft tissues in the oral cavity assists in mastication, deglutition and digestion of food. The secretion of saliva can be affected due to various local and systemic causes. However if a patient is taking medication and has altered salivary secretion the differential diagnosis should include the possibility of an adverse drug reaction. The drugs may lead to alteration in the flow rate of saliva, which can be either increased or reduced, however certain drugs have been reported to cause change in the color of the saliva. Several drugs may lead to sialadenitis associated with altered salivary secretion. These symptoms may simulate systemic diseases, Hence oral physicians need to be vigilant in recognizing these adverse drug reactions in the patients and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to try to stay abreast of this ever evolving field especially as it relates to dental therapeutics.

  20. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  1. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  2. Analysis of Winter Low-Flow Rates in New Hampshire Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    AD-A229 512 TI1P FILE COPY * Analysis of Winter Low- Flow Rates in New Hampshire Streams Rae Ann Melloh August 1990 a DTIC fpIm ELECTE iN O V21WOl D i...Winter Low- Flow Rates in New Hampshire Streams Rae Ann Melloh August 1990 Prepared for OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS Approved for public release...Analysis of Winter Low- Flow Rates in New Hampshire Streams RAE ANN MELLOH INTRODUCTION watercourse from the drainage area divide and water- course storage

  3. Quartz measurement in coal dust with high-flow rate samplers: laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Kashon, Michael; Harper, Martin

    2012-05-01

    A laboratory study was performed to measure quartz in coal dust using high-flow rate samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69 cyclone, and FSP10 cyclone) and low-flow rate samplers [10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell type (BGI4L) cyclones] and to determine whether an increased mass collection from high-flow rate samplers would affect the subsequent quartz measurement by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analytical procedures. Two different sizes of coal dusts, mass median aerodynamic diameter 4.48 μm (Coal Dust A) and 2.33 μm (Coal Dust B), were aerosolized in a calm air chamber. The mass of coal dust collected by the samplers was measured gravimetrically, while the mass of quartz collected by the samplers was determined by FTIR (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7603) and XRD (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7500) after one of two different indirect preparations. Comparisons between high-flow rate samplers and low-flow rate samplers were made by calculating mass concentration ratios of coal dusts, net mass ratios of coal dusts, and quartz net mass. Mass concentrations of coal dust from the FSP10 cyclone were significantly higher than those from other samplers and mass concentrations of coal dust from 10-mm nylon cyclone were significantly lower than those from other samplers, while the CIP10-R, GK2.69, and BGI4L samplers did not show significant difference in the comparison of mass concentration of coal dusts. The BGI4L cyclone showed larger mass concentration of ∼9% compared to the 10-mm nylon cyclone. All cyclones provided dust mass concentrations that can be used in complying with the International Standard Organization standard for the determination of respirable dust concentration. The amount of coal dust collected from the high-flow rate samplers was found to be higher with a factor of 2-8 compared to the low-flow rate samplers but not in direct proportion of increased flow rates. The high-flow rate samplers collected more quartz compared to

  4. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  5. Measurement and Modelling of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2008-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated double skin façade (DSF) is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes the results of two different methods to measure the air flow in a full......-scale outdoor test facility with a naturally ventilated double skin façade. Although both methods are difficult to use under such dynamic air flow conditions, they show reasonable agreement and can be used for experimental validation of numerical models of natural ventilation air flow in DSF. Simulations...... by the thermal simulation program, BSim, based on measured weather boundary conditions are compared to the measured air temperature, temperature gradient and mass flow rate in the DSF cavity. The results show that it is possible to predict the temperature distribution and airflow in the DSF although some...

  6. Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

    2014-04-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (θ - θr)/(θs - θr)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  7. Indicators of Student Flow Rates in Honduras: An Assessment of an Alternative Methodology, with Two Methodologies for Estimating Student Flow Rates. BRIDGES Research Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Ernesto; Crouch, Luis

    Student promotion, repetition, and dropout rates constitute the basic data needed to forecast future enrollment and new resources. Information on student flow is significantly related to policy formulation aimed at improving internal efficiency, because dropping out and grade repetition increase per pupil cost, block access to eligible school-age…

  8. Effects of neuropeptide Y on regulation of blood flow rate in canine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Sheikh, S P; Jørgensen, J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY......+. In contrast, intracoronary NPY (0.01-10 micrograms) induced a considerable degree of vasoconstriction; the reduction of blood flow rate was dose related, with a maximum reduction to 52% of control values. The effect of intracoronary NPY (1 microgram) on maximally relaxed arterioles elicited by 30 s...... of ischemia was studied in separate experiments during reactive hyperemia. NPY induced a decrease in maximum blood flow during reactive hyperemia (166.6 vs. 214.6% of preocclusive blood flow rate, mean values; P = 0.05), an increase in the cumulative excess blood flow (61.0 vs. 35.3 ml/100 g; P = 0...

  9. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  10. Inspiratory flow rates during hard work when breathing through different respirator inhalation and exhalation resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karen; Caretti, David; Scott, William; Johnson, Arthur; Koh, Frank

    2006-09-01

    There has been a long-standing debate regarding the adequacy of airflow rates used in respirator certification testing and whether these test flow rates underestimate actual values. This study investigated breath by breath inspiratory peak flow rate, minute ventilation, and instantaneous flow rates of eight young, healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic capacity until exhaustion while wearing an air-purifying respirator with one of eight combinations of inhalation and exhalation resistance. An analysis of variance was performed to identify differences among the eight conditions. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated which means differed. The group of conditions with the highest average value for each parameter was identified and considered to represent a worst-case scenario. Data was reported for these conditions. A Gaussian distribution was fit to the data and the 99.9% probability levels determined. The 99.9% probability level for the peak and instantaneous flow rates were 374 L/min and 336 L/min, respectively. The minute ventilation distribution was not Gaussian. Less than 1% of the recorded minute ventilations exceeded 135 L/min. Instantaneous flow rates exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's respirator test standards of 64, 85, and 100 L/min constant flow 91%, 87%, and 82% of the time, respectively. The recorded minute ventilations exceeded the 40 L/min minute ventilation test standard (for tests with a sinusoidal flow pattern) 100% of the time. This study showed that young, healthy respirator wearers generated peak flow rates, minute ventilations, and instantaneous flow rates that consistently exceeded current test standards. Their flow rates should be higher than those of a respirator wearer performing occupational work and could be considered upper limits. Testing respirators and respirator cartridges using a sinusoidal breathing pattern with a minute ventilation of 135 L/min (peak flow rate

  11. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F J; Nam, Ahhyun S; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E; Padera, Timothy P; Vakoc, Benjamin J

    2016-07-05

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels.

  12. Erythrocyte filtrability measurement by the initial flow rate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, M

    1983-01-01

    A new filtration technique, based on the initial filtration rate of a diluted RBC suspension through 5 mu Nucleopore filter is described. As only a few hundreds RBCs traverse each pore and as the measurement are made in a few seconds, the method is by large insensitive to filter plugging and to sedimentation effects. The results are given as a filtration index IF which is, as a first order approximation, independent of the filter conductance and of the suspending medium viscosity. The filtration times are measured electronically. The filters are re-used many times. The influence on the results reproducibility of RBC washing, of the anticoagulant, of the blood sample and the suspension storage times are considered. With our technical procedure, the relative incertitude on the measurement of I.F. is about +/- 10%. The filtration index is shown to be an intrinsic RBC filterability property.

  13. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented....

  14. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersi...

  15. Synthesis of Core@Shell Nanostructures in a Continuous Flow Droplet Reactor: Controlling Structure through Relative Flow Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Joshua S; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2017-06-20

    Bimetallic nanostructures are primarily synthesized in small volume batches. However, droplet-based reactors are receiving attention due to their ability to maintain thermal and compositional equilibrium within and between droplets, enabling flow operations for inline analyses and the scale-up of nanomaterial syntheses. Here, the syntheses of shape-controlled core@shell Au@Pd nanostructures with variable shell thicknesses are reported through control of the relative flow rates of reagents within the microreactor. Specifically, Pd shells were grown on cubic or octahedral Au seeds, selected as a model system. In batch reactions, shell thickness is determined by precursor concentration; however, as shown here, precursor feedstock concentration can be held constant, with the precursor concentration within the droplets being controlled through relative flow rates. This approach allows process conditions to be modified inline rather than from batch to batch to achieve particles with different shell thicknesses, and this procedure should be applicable to other multicomponent systems.

  16. Standard blood flow rates of cardiopulmonary bypass are adequate in awake on-pump cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porizka, Michal; Stritesky, Martin; Semrad, Michal; Dobias, Milos; Dohnalova, Alena; Korinek, Josef

    2011-04-01

    Standard blood flow rates for cardiopulmonary bypass have been assumed to be the same for awake cardiac surgery with thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) as for general anesthesia. However, compared with general anesthesia, awake cardiac surgery with epidural anesthesia may be associated with higher oxygen consumption and may result in lactic acidosis when standard blood flow rates were used. The aim of our study was to investigate if standard blood flow rates are adequate in awake cardiac surgery. Forty-five patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery were assigned to receive either epidural (Group TEA, n=15), combined (Group TEA-GA, n=15) or general (Group GA, n=15) anesthesia. To monitor the adequacy of standard blood flow rates, arterial lactate, acid base parameters, and central venous and jugular bulb saturation were measured at six time points (before, during, and after the surgery) in all groups. Blood flow rates were adjusted when needed. No lactic acidosis has developed in any group (p=NS). TEA as compared with TEA-GA and GA groups had lower central venous (67±4%, 75±11%, and 72±13%, respectively, pflow rates adjustments in any study group and no ventilatory support in TEA group were required. Under careful monitoring, the use of standard blood flow rates is adequate for patients undergoing awake on-pump normothermic cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Electric Current and Strain Rate on Serrated Flow of Sheet Aluminum Alloy 5754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kunmin; Fan, Rong; Wang, Limin

    2016-03-01

    Electrically assisted tensile tests are carried out on sheet aluminum alloy AA5754 at electric current densities ranging from 0 to 30.4 A/mm2 and strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 10-1 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity and the serrated flow behavior are investigated in accordance with dynamic strain aging mechanism. The strain rate sensitivity changes from negative to positive and keeps increasing with current density. The tendency toward serrated flow is characterized by the onset of Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) instabilities, which are influenced by strain rate, temperature, and electric current. The evolutions of three types of serrated flow are observed and analyzed with respect to strain rate and current density. The magnitude of serration varies with strain rate and current density. The serrated flow can be suppressed by a high strain rate, a high temperature, or a strong electric current. The threshold values of these parameters are determined and discussed. Conventional oven-heated tensile tests are conducted to distinguish the electroplasticity. The flow stress reduces more in electrically assisted tension compared to oven-heated tension at the same temperature level. The electric current helps suppress the serrated flow at the similar temperature level of oven-heating.

  18. Customer Order Flow, Intermediaries, and Discovery of the Equilibrium Risk-Free Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, A.J.; Sarkar, A.; van der Wel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Macro announcements change the equilibrium risk-free rate. We find that Treasury prices reflect part of the impact instantaneously, but intermediaries rely on their customer order flow after the announcement to discover the full impact. This customer flow informativeness is strongest when analyst

  19. Characterisation of medical microfluidic systems regarding fast changing flow rates using optical front tracking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Joerg; Del Bianco, Lino; Damiani, Christian; Klein, Stephan; Nestler, Bodo

    2017-10-01

    The presented optical flow metering methods are appropriate to characterise the dynamic properties of microfluidic systems. The dynamic behaviour of clinical or medical devices, micro pumps and flow sensors based on thermal methods were investigated. The Camera-System covers a flow range from 50nl/min to 500µl/min. The uncertainty is less than 4%, sample rates up to 5kS/s. The Displacement-Sensor-System covers a flow range between 100µl/min and 50ml/min. The uncertainty is less than 3% at sample rates up to 49kS/s. It was shown that measuring pulsating flow rates with thermal flow sensors is possible, but the signal is low pass filtered. The low pass behaviour is determined by the thermal properties, thermal resistance and heat capacity, of the flow channel. But the mean flow rate was always measured properly. The fluidic properties of two different types of micro pumps were examined and characterised exemplary. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: Flow rate effects on chemical uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaserzon, S.L.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M.; Hawker, D.W.; Kennedy, K.; Bentley, C.; Thompson, J.; Booij, K.; Mueller, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In

  1. The relationship between sap-flow rate and sap volume in dormant sugar maples

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Gabriel; Russell S. Walters; Donald W. Seegrist

    1972-01-01

    Sap-flow rate is closely correlated with the sap volume produced by dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and could be used in making phenotypic selections of trees for superior sap production.

  2. Regional variations in nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    hyperaemic response was demonstrated at both the medial and lateral aspect of the leg. As for the degree of hyperaemia and the absolute blood flow rates in the different phases, there were some deviations between the medial and the lateral locations. However, a highly significant positive correlation......The purpose of the study was to investigate possible regional variations in recently discovered nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rates. Approximately 90 min after going to sleep, a 100% blood flow rate increment, lasting about 100 min, has been demonstrated in the distal and medial...... aspect of the right lower leg of normal human subjects. In the present study subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rates were measured simultaneously in the right and left lower legs of 16 normal human subjects over 12-20 h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe wash-out technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors...

  3. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on expiratory flow rates at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Leonie M; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Downey, Amy E; Harms, Craig A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that pulmonary function is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption and plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. Also, expiratory flow limitation (EFL) has been reported to limit ventilation during exercise in healthy individuals. We hypothesized antioxidant vitamin supplementation (AVS) would increase resting expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects and reduce EFL during exercise. Ten healthy, nonsmoking subjects (5 M/5 W), consuming flow rates (FEF25-75, FEF50) by ~9%. Following AVS, %EFL was significantly reduced by ~15% at minute 15, 20, and end-exercise with no change (p > 0.05) in end-expiratory lung volumes. Breathing frequency and ratings of perceived exertion and dyspnea were also lower (p 0.05) were evident at rest or during exercise with PLA. These results suggest that AVS can increase TAS, improve resting expiratory flow rates and reduce EFL during exercise in healthy subjects who are not meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations.

  4. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate on the euthanasia of laboratory mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, CM; Chua, B; Weary, DM

    2014-01-01

    .... Sensations of dyspnea may explain why rodents find CO2 concentrations >3% aversive. This study aimed to assess the effect of CO2 flow rates on time between the onset of dyspnea and various measures of insensibility...

  5. Measuring and modelling air mass flow rate in the injection stretch blow moulding process

    OpenAIRE

    Salomeia, Y.; Menary, G. H.; Armstrong, C G; Nixon, J; S. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The injection stretch blow moulding process involves the inflation and stretching of a hot preform into a mould to form bottles. A critical process variable and an essential input for process simulations is the rate of pressure increase within the preform during forming, which is regulated by an air flow restrictor valve. The paper describes a set of experiments for measuring the air flow rate within an industrial ISBM machine and the subsequent modelling of it with the FEA package ABAQUS. Tw...

  6. Long-Run Determinants of the Real Exchange Rate; A Stock-Flow Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Faruqee

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run determinants of the real exchange rate from a stock-flow perspective. The empirical analysis estimates a long-run relationship between the real exchange rate, net foreign assets, and other factors affecting trade flows. Using postwar data for the United States and Japan, cointegration analysis supports the finding that the structural factors underlying each country's net trade and net foreign asset positions determine the long-run path for the real value of th...

  7. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate on the euthanasia of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, C M; Chua, B; Weary, D M

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory rodents are commonly euthanized by exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). Current recommended flow rates range between 10 and 30% chamber vol/min and result in insensibility before exposure to painful concentrations (humans dyspnea is associated with a negative affective experience. Sensations of dyspnea may explain why rodents find CO2 concentrations >3% aversive. This study aimed to assess the effect of CO2 flow rates on time between the onset of dyspnea and various measures of insensibility (recumbency, loss of the righting reflex and loss of the pedal withdrawal reflex) to identify flow rates that minimize the potential experience of dyspnea. The results of this study indicate that a flow rate of 50% chamber vol/min, while holding the CO2 cage concentration just below 40%, minimizes the interval between the onset of labored breathing and recumbency. Using a 50% flow rate this interval averaged (± SE) 30.3 ± 2.9 s versus 49.7 ± 2.9 s at 20% chamber vol/min (F3,22 = 7.83, P = 0.0013). Similarly, the interval between the onset of labored breathing and loss of the righting reflex averaged 38.2 ± 2.4 s at a flow rate of 50% versus 59.2 ± 2.4 s at 20% chamber vol/min of CO2 (F3,22 = 13.62, P < 0.0001). We conclude that higher flow rates reduce the duration of dyspnea, but even at the highest flow rate mice experience more than 30 s between the onset of dyspnea and the most conservative estimate of insensibility. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects on Mass Flow Rates in Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    in Solid Rocket Motors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William Harrigan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Determination of mass flow rate in a solid rocket motor is critical in the design of a new motor due to its effect on the thrust produced. Fluid...mass flow rates. The FSI analyses with two‐way coupling provided a more accurate assessment of solid rocket motor internal ballistics. 15. SUBJECT

  9. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  10. Factors influencing the flow rate through a surgical defect in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, R; Gratacos, E; Ardon, H; Vanstraelen, S; Deprest, J

    2002-03-01

    In order to determine factors influencing the flow rate trough a created defect in human fetal membranes, an ex vivo set-up was used with fetal membranes collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section at term. The membranes were secured at the bottom of a plastic tube and traumatised with needles ranging from 14-26 Gauges (Ga), under a hydrostatic pressure of 10 to 20 cm H(2)O and an angle of 45 degrees or 90 degrees. The column was filled with amniotic fluid or Hartmann's solution. The duration of the puncture was 1 s or the time it takes to aspirate 10 ml through the needle. The flow rate through the defect in the fetal membranes and size of the defect were measured. The flow rate and defect size increased with increasing diameter of the needle. Increasing the pressure in the column resulted in a significant linear increase in the flow rate. Replacing the saline solution with amniotic fluid did not result in significant changes in the measured flow rates, except for the small needle size (24 Ga). Increasing the duration of the puncture did not result in increased flow rates, except for small needle size (24 Ga). These experiments suggest that needle diameter, angle of needle insertion, duration of the procedure, amniotic fluid pressure and composition could influence the incidence of amniotic fluid leakage following amniocentesis. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  12. Impact of low-level laser therapy on hyposalivation, salivary pH, and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients post-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Luiz Felipe; Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Marcucci, Marcelo; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2017-05-01

    Late effects of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment have been increasingly investigated due to its impact on patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on hyposalivation, low salivary pH, and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients post-radiotherapy. Twenty-nine patients with radiation-induced xerostomia received laser sessions twice a week, during 3 months (24 sessions). For this, a continuous wave Indium-Gallium-Aluminium-Phosphorus diode laser device was used punctually on the major salivary glands (808 nm, 0.75 W/cm 2 , 30 mW, illuminated area 0.04 cm 2 , 7.5 J/cm 2 , 10 s, 0.3 J). Six extraoral points were illuminated on each parotid gland and three on each submandibular gland, as well as two intraoral points on each sublingual gland. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH (two scales with different gradations), and quality of life (University Of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatment. There were significant increases in both mean salivary flow rates (unstimulated: p = 0.0012; stimulated: p cancer, thereby leading to an improvement in quality of life.

  13. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  14. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  15. Direct Assessment of Vorticity Alignment with Local and Nonlocal Strain Rates in Turbulent Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlington, Peter E.; Schumacher, Jörg; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2008-01-01

    A direct Biot-Savart integration is used to decompose the strain rate into its local and nonlocal constituents, allowing the vorticity alignment with the local and nonlocal strain rate eigenvectors to be investigated. These strain rate tensor constituents are evaluated in a turbulent flow using data from highly-resolved direct numerical simulations. While the vorticity aligns preferentially with the intermediate eigenvector of the \\textit{combined} strain rate, as has been observed previously...

  16. Clock genes show circadian rhythms in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Seon, Y J; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, S; Papagerakis, P

    2012-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by "clock" transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow.

  17. Impact of flow rate on lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis in glucagon-stimulated perfused livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Ken D; Urdiales, Jerry H; Donovan, Casey M

    2006-01-01

    The impact of reduced hepatic flow on lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis was examined in isolated glucagon-stimulated perfused livers from 24-h-fasted rats. After surgical isolation, livers were perfused (single pass) for 30 min with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) bicarbonate buffer, fresh bovine erythrocytes (hematocrit approximately 20%), and no added substrate. After this "washout" period, steady-state perfusions were initiated with a second reservoir containing the KH buffer, bovine erythrocytes, [U-(14)C]lactate (10,000 dpm/ml), lactate (2.5 mM), and glucagon (250 microg/ml). Perfusion flow rate was adjusted to one of five rates (i.e., 1.8, 2.7, 3.9, 7.4, and 11.0 ml.min(-1).100 g body wt(-1)). After the perfusion, the liver was dissected out and weighed so as to establish the actual flow rate per gram of liver. The resulting flow rates ranged from 0.52 to 4.03 ml.min(-1).g liver(-1). As a function of flow rate, lactate uptake rose in a hyperbolic fashion to an apparent plateau of 2.34 micromol.min(-1).g liver(-1). Fractional extraction (FX) of lactate from the perfusate demonstrated an exponential decline with increased flow rates (r=0.97). At flow rates above 1.0 ml.min(-1).g liver(-1), adjustments in FX compensated for changes in lactate delivery, resulting in steady rates of lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis. Below 1.0.min(-1).g liver(-1) the increased FX was unable to compensate for the decline in lactate delivery and lactate uptake declined rapidly. Gluconeogenesis demonstrated similar kinetics to lactate uptake, reflecting its dominant role among pathways for lactate removal under the current conditions.

  18. Modeling Flow Rate to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in a Parabolic Ceramic Water Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Wald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project we model volumetric flow rate through a parabolic ceramic water filter (CWF to determine how quickly it can process water while still improving its quality. The volumetric flow rate is dependent upon the pore size of the filter, the surface area, and the height of water in the filter (hydraulic head. We derive differential equations governing this flow from the conservation of mass principle and Darcy's Law and find the flow rate with respect to time. We then use methods of calculus to find optimal specifications for the filter. This work is related to the research conducted in Dr. James R. Mihelcic's Civil and Environmental Engineering Lab at USF.

  19. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    the alimentary, cardiovascular, genitourinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. Management strategies include substitution or discontinuation of medications whenever possible, oral or systemic therapy with sialogogues, administration of saliva substitutes, and use of electro-stimulating devices. LIMITATIONS......: While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when...... practitioners in assessing patients who complain of dry mouth while taking medications. The list may also prove useful in helping practitioners anticipate adverse effects and consider alternative medications....

  20. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Beh?et's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Loai Aljerf; Iyad Alhaffar

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) co...

  1. The role of unsteady effusion rates on inflation in long-lived lava flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, E.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A.

    2017-11-01

    The emission of volcanic gases and particles can have global and lasting environmental effects, but their timing, tempo, and duration can be problematic to quantify for ancient eruptions where real-time measurements are absent. Lava flows, for example, may be long-lasting, and their impact is controlled by the rate, tempo, and vigor of effusion. These factors are currently difficult to derive from the geologic record but can have large implications for the atmospheric impact of an eruption. We conducted a set of analogue experiments on lava flow inflation aiming at connecting lava morphologies preserved in the rock record to eruption tempo and dynamics through pulsating effusion rates. Inflation, a process where molten material is injected beneath the crust of an active lava flow and lifts it upwards, is a common phenomenon in basaltic volcanic systems. This mechanism requires three components: a) a coherent, insulating crust; b) a wide-spread molten core; and c) pressure built up beneath the crust from a sustained supply of molten material. Inflation can result in a lava flow growing tens of meters thick, even in flow fields that expand hundreds of square kilometers. It has been documented that rapid effusion rates tend to create channels and tubes, isolating the active part of the flow from the stagnant part, while slow effusion rates may cause crust to form quickly and seize up, forcing lava to overtop the crust. However, the conditions that allow for inflation of large flow fields have not previously been evaluated in terms of effusion rate. By using PEG 600 wax and a programmable pump, we observe how, by pulsating effusion rate, inflation occurs even in very low viscosity basaltic eruptions. We show that observations from inflating Hawaiian lava flows correlate well with experimental data and indicate that instantaneous effusion rates may have been 3 times higher than average effusion rates during the emplacement of the 23 January 1988 flow at Kīlauea (Hawai

  2. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  3. Flow rate calibration to determine cell-derived microparticles and homogeneity of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Kittisares, Kulvara; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator. The concentration of MPs and their origins in whole blood (n=100), PRBCs (n=100), and PCs (n=92) were determined using a FACSCalibur. The MPs' fold-changes were calculated to assess the homogeneity of the blood components. Comparing the platelet counts conducted by automated counting and flow-rate calibration showed an r2 of 0.6 (y=0.69x+97,620). The CVs of the within-run and between-run variations of flow-rate calibration were 8.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean bias of -31,142platelets/μl. MP enumeration revealed both the difference in MP levels and their origins in whole blood, PRBCs, and PCs. Screening the blood components demonstrated high heterogeneity of the MP levels in PCs when compared to whole blood and PRBCs. The results of the present study suggest the accuracy and precision of flow-rate calibration for enumerating MPs. This flow-rate approach is affordable for assessing the homogeneity of MPs in blood components in routine laboratory practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio 3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2015.

  5. Contraction rate, flow modification and bed layering impact on scour at the elliptical guide banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjunsburgs, B.; Jaudzems, G.; Bizane, M.; Bulankina, V.

    2017-10-01

    Flow contraction by the bridge crossing structures, intakes, embankments, piers, abutments and guide banks leads to general scour and the local scour in the vicinity of the structures. Local scour is depending on flow, river bed and structures parameters and correct understanding of the impact of each parameter can reduce failure possibility of the structures. The paper explores hydraulic contraction, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain during the flood, local flow modification and river bed layering on depth, width and volume of scour hole near the elliptical guide banks on low-land rivers. Experiments in a flume, our method for scour calculation and computer modelling results confirm a considerable impact of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater and river bed layering on the depth, width, and volume of scour hole in steady and unsteady flow, under clear water condition. With increase of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater values, the scour depth increases. At the same contraction rate, but at a different Fr number, the scour depth is different: with increase in the Fr number, the local velocity, backwater, scour depth, width, and volume is increasing. Acceptance of the geometrical contraction of the flow, approach velocity and top sand layer of the river bed for scour depth calculation as accepted now, may be the reason of the structures failure and human life losses.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  7. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Aljerf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD on saliva flow rate (SFR, pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca2+ but higher Mg2+, caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  8. Changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following cochlear implantation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jonas; Holst, René; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-06-01

    A set of methods for evaluating changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following cochlear implantation (CI) was applied and tested. No association between implantation and objectively assessed sense of taste was found. However, a statistically significant decrease in non-stimulated salivary flow on the day after surgery was found. To develop and test a research method describing the course of changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following CI. This was a longitudinal study examining 13 patients undergoing CI at Odense University Hospital in 2012. Questionnaires, sialometry and gustatory testing were applied. A general postoperative decrease in salivary secretion could not be found. However, a 29.9% mean reduction in non-stimulated salivary flow was observed when looking specifically at the visit the day after surgery (p = 0.001). When adjusting for perioperative administration of glycopyrrolate (p sense of taste following implantation.

  9. Changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following cochlear implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jonas; Holst, René; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: A set of methods for evaluating changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following cochlear implantation (CI) was applied and tested. No association between implantation and objectively assessed sense of taste was found. However, a statistically significant decrease in non......-stimulated salivary flow on the day after surgery was found. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a research method describing the course of changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following CI. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study examining 13 patients undergoing CI at Odense University Hospital in 2012....... Questionnaires, sialometry and gustatory testing were applied. RESULTS: A general postoperative decrease in salivary secretion could not be found. However, a 29.9% mean reduction in non-stimulated salivary flow was observed when looking specifically at the visit the day after surgery (p = 0.001). When adjusting...

  10. Milk Flow Rates From Bottle Nipples Used for Feeding Infants Who Are Hospitalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W. Brant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the milk flow rates and variability in flow of currently available nipples used for bottle-feeding infants who are hospitalized. Method Clinicians in 3 countries were surveyed regarding nipples available to them for feeding infants who are hospitalized. Twenty-nine nipple types were identified, and 10 nipples of each type were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 min using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation were used to compare nipples within brand and within category (i.e., Slow, Standard, Premature). Results Flow rates varied widely between nipples, ranging from 2.10 mL/min for the Enfamil Cross-Cut to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Y-Cut Standard Neck. Variability of flow rates among nipples of the same type ranged from a coefficient of variation of 0.05 for Dr. Brown's Level 1 Standard- and Wide-Neck to 0.42 for the Enfamil Cross-Cut. Mean coefficient of variation by brand ranged from 0.08 for Dr. Brown's to 0.36 for Bionix. Conclusions Milk flow is an easily manipulated variable that may contribute to the degree of physiologic instability experienced by infants who are medically fragile during oral feeding. This study provides clinicians with information to guide appropriate selection of bottle nipples for feeding infants who are hospitalized. PMID:26172340

  11. Milk Flow Rates From Bottle Nipples Used for Feeding Infants Who Are Hospitalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt F; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    2015-11-01

    This study tested the milk flow rates and variability in flow of currently available nipples used for bottle-feeding infants who are hospitalized. Clinicians in 3 countries were surveyed regarding nipples available to them for feeding infants who are hospitalized. Twenty-nine nipple types were identified, and 10 nipples of each type were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 min using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation were used to compare nipples within brand and within category (i.e., Slow, Standard, Premature). Flow rates varied widely between nipples, ranging from 2.10 mL/min for the Enfamil Cross-Cut to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Y-Cut Standard Neck. Variability of flow rates among nipples of the same type ranged from a coefficient of variation of 0.05 for Dr. Brown's Level 1 Standard- and Wide-Neck to 0.42 for the Enfamil Cross-Cut. Mean coefficient of variation by brand ranged from 0.08 for Dr. Brown's to 0.36 for Bionix. Milk flow is an easily manipulated variable that may contribute to the degree of physiologic instability experienced by infants who are medically fragile during oral feeding. This study provides clinicians with information to guide appropriate selection of bottle nipples for feeding infants who are hospitalized.

  12. On rating curve variability in presence of movable bed and unsteady flow. Applications to Tuscan rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatti, Lorenzo; Nicoletta De Cicco, Pina; Paris, Enio

    2014-05-01

    In common engineering practice, rating curves are obtained from direct stage-discharge measurements or, more often, from stage measurements coupled with flow simulations. The present work mainly focuses on the latter technique, where stage-measuring gauges are usually installed on bridges with flow conditions likely to be influenced by local geometry constraints. In such cases, backwater flow and flow transition to supercritical state may occur, influencing sediment transport capacity and triggering more intense changes in river morphology. The unsteadiness of the flow hydrograph may play an important role too, according to the velocity of its rising and falling limbs. Nevertheless, the simulations conducted to build a rating curve are often carried out with steady flow and fixed bed conditions where the afore-mentioned effects are not taken into account at all. Numerical simulations with mobile bed and different unsteady flow conditions have been conducted on some real case studies in the rivers of Tuscany (Italy), in order to assess how rating curves change with respect to the "standard" one (that is, the classical steady flow rating curve). A 1D finite volume numerical model (REMo, River Evolution Modeler) has been employed for the simulations. The model solves the 1D Shallow Water equations coupled with the sediments continuity equation in composite channels, where the overbanks are treated with fixed bed conditions while the main channel can either aggrade or be scoured. The model employs an explicit scheme with 2nd order accuracy in both space and time: this allows the correct handling of moderately stiff source terms via a local corrector step. Such capability is very important for the applications of the present work as it allows the modelling of abrupt contractions and jumps in bed bottom elevations which often occur near bridges. The outcomes of the simulations are critically analyzed in order to provide a first insight on the conditions inducing

  13. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  14. On the use of in vivo measured flow rates as boundary conditions for image-based hemodynamic models of the human aorta: implications for indicators of abnormal flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, D; De Santis, G; Negri, F; Tresoldi, D; Ponzini, R; Massai, D; Deriu, M A; Segers, P; Verhegghe, B; Rizzo, G; Morbiducci, U

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the imposition of personalized, non-invasively measured blood flow rates as boundary conditions (BCs) influences image-based computational hemodynamic studies in the human aorta. We extracted from 4D phase-contrast MRI acquisitions of a healthy human (1) the geometry of the thoracic aorta with supra-aortic arteries and (2) flow rate waveforms at all boundaries. Flow simulations were carried out, and the implications that the imposition of different BC schemes based on the measured flow rates have on wall shear stress (WSS)-based indicators of abnormal flow were analyzed. Our results show that both the flow rate repartition among the multiple outlets of the aorta and the distribution and magnitude of the WSS-based indicators are strongly influenced by the adopted BC strategy. Keeping as reference hemodynamic model the one where the applied BC scheme allowed to obtain a satisfactory agreement between the computed and the measured flow rate waveforms, differences in WSS-based indicators up to 49% were observed when the other BC strategies were applied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in subject-specific computational hemodynamics models of the human aorta the imposition of BC settings based on non-invasively measured flow rate waveforms influences indicators of abnormal flow to a large extent. Hence, a BCs set-up assuring realistic, subject-specific instantaneous flow rate distribution must be applied when BCs such as flow rates are prescribed.

  15. Can hydraulic-modelled rating curves reduce uncertainty in high flow data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida; Lam, Norris; Lyon, Steve W.

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk assessments rely on accurate discharge data records. Establishing a reliable rating curve for calculating discharge from stage at a gauging station normally takes years of data collection efforts. Estimation of high flows is particularly difficult as high flows occur rarely and are often practically difficult to gauge. Hydraulically-modelled rating curves can be derived based on as few as two concurrent stage-discharge and water-surface slope measurements at different flow conditions. This means that a reliable rating curve can, potentially, be derived much faster than a traditional rating curve based on numerous stage-discharge gaugings. In this study we compared the uncertainty in discharge data that resulted from these two rating curve modelling approaches. We applied both methods to a Swedish catchment, accounting for uncertainties in the stage-discharge gauging and water-surface slope data for the hydraulic model and in the stage-discharge gauging data and rating-curve parameters for the traditional method. We focused our analyses on high-flow uncertainty and the factors that could reduce this uncertainty. In particular, we investigated which data uncertainties were most important, and at what flow conditions the gaugings should preferably be taken. First results show that the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were more sensitive to uncertainties in the calibration measurements of discharge than water surface slope. The uncertainty of the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were lowest within the range of the three calibration stage-discharge gaugings (i.e. between median and two-times median flow) whereas uncertainties were higher outside of this range. For instance, at the highest observed stage of the 24-year stage record, the 90% uncertainty band was -15% to +40% of the official rating curve. Additional gaugings at high flows (i.e. four to five times median flow) would likely substantially reduce those uncertainties. These first results show

  16. Salivary gland diseases in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  17. Dynamics of Salivary Gland Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harunaga, J.; Hsu, J. C.; Yamada, K M

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands form during embryonic development by a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The architecture of these glands is generated by branching morphogenesis, revealed by recent research to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, ...

  18. Alterations of total non stimulated salivary flow in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx submitted to hyperfractionated radiation therapy; Alteracoes do fluxo salivar total nao estimulado em pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe submetidos a radioterapia por hiperfracionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebur, Maria Isabela [Faculdades Integradas Espirita, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: isabelaguebur@aol.com; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Buco-Maxico-Facial; Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir de; Ramos, Gyl Henrique Albrecht [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco; Pereira, Jose Carlos Gasparin [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2004-07-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis are actually the most effective measures that we dispose to improve the prognostic of the malignant tumors. The mouth and oropharynx tumors are treated with success, when early diagnosed. The radiotherapy is almost always one of the selected treatments for these tumors. When cancer is diagnosed in advanced stages, many a time the treatment needs to be carried out swiftly to be efficient, and consequently the radio therapist use the hyperfractionated therapy, with the patient receiving two lower doses of radiation in two sessions daily, amounting to a higher daily dosage, of about 160 cGy/2x/day. When the major salivary glands are present in the radiated field, the xerostomia appears by the second week of treatment (1500 to 2000 cGy), changing the patient's health, and causing difficulties for him to eat, speak and sleep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative alterations of the total non stimulated salivate flow of patients who underwent hyperfractionated therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of mouth and oropharynx. Samples of twelve male patients saliva from Erasto Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were examined. Two samples of saliva were collected from each patient, the first one before the beginning of the radiotherapy, and the second at the end of the treatment. As a result, we obtained salivary loss in 91.7% of the patients, with a percentage of total salivary flow loss of 62.9%, registered in the second collection. We concluded that the hyperfractionated therapy causes a marked xerostomia when the major salivary glands are in the radiated field. (author)

  19. Measuring device for purging water flow rate in control rod drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi.

    1993-11-12

    The device of the present invention enables highly accurate measurement for an amount of purging water supplied to control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. That is, purging water is supplied from an inlet of a scram line of the control rod drives. A temperature measuring portion is disposed, for measuring temperature fluctuation of purging water, to a hydropressure control unit for providing pressure and flow rate of water required for supplying the purging water and scram operation. An instrumentation section is disposed for calculating the flow rate of purging water based on the measured data obtained in the section. An output device is disposed for outputting a flow rate value of the purging water based on the result of the calculation obtained therein. With such a constitution, flow rate of the purging water can be measured quantitatively at the hydropressure control unit. Accordingly, influences, such as fluctuation of reactor core temperature are reduced, and accuracy for the measurement of the purging water flow rate is improved. As a result, reactor safety and maintainability can be improved. (I.S.).

  20. Using acoustics to estimate inspiratory flow rate and drug removed from a dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Martin S; Seheult, Jansen; Geraghty, Colm; D'Arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are rising. There is a strong requirement for more effective management of these chronic diseases. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are one kind of devices currently employed to deliver medication aimed at controlling asthma and COPD symptoms. Despite their proven effectiveness when used correctly, some patients are unable to reach the inspiratory flow rate required to remove medication from the breath actuated devices and as a result, the medication does not reach the airways. This study employs an acoustic recording device, attached to a common DPI to record the audio signals of simulated inhalations. A rotameter was used to measure the flow rate through the inhaler while a milligram weighing scale was used to measure the amount of drug removed from each simulated inhalation. It was found that a strong correlation existed (R(2)>0.96) when average power, median amplitude, root mean square and mean absolute deviation were used to predict peak inspiratory flow rate. At a flow of 30 L/Min (mean absolute deviation=0.0049), it was found that 77% of the total emitted dose was removed from the inhaler. Results indicate that acoustic measurements may be used in the prediction of inspiratory flow rate and quantity of medication removed from an inhaler.

  1. Impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates: example of furosemide-midazolam incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in intensive care units receive many drugs simultaneously but through limited venous accesses. Several intravenous therapies have to be administered through the same catheter, thus increasing the risk of physicochemical incompatibility. The purpose of this work was to assess and to quantify the impact of physical incompatibility on the mass flow rates of drugs infused simultaneously to the patient, through an in vitro study. Methods Furosemide-midazolam incompatibility was used to assess the impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates. Furosemide, midazolam, and saline were simultaneously infused. A filter was added at the end of the infusion line to retain visible particles. Two infusion conditions were tested with and without visible particles. A partial least square method on UV spectra was used to determine simultaneously the concentrations of the two drugs at the egress of the terminal extension line. The drug mass flow rate (expressed as mg/h) was calculated as the product of drug concentration versus total flow rate. Observed/theoretical mass flow rate ratios for each drug (%) were determined per infusion condition. Results Even in the absence of visible particles, precipitation of furosemide led to a drug loss estimated at between 10% and 15%. Furosemide is more impacted by interaction because the pH of the mixture is acid and this form is poorly soluble in an aqueous solution. Conclusions Physical incompatibility between furosemide and midazolam leads to a significant reduction in drug delivered to the patient and may result in treatment failure. PMID:22794308

  2. Physiologic effects of nasopharyngeal administration of supplemental oxygen at various flow rates in healthy neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Hay-Kraus, Bonnie L; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Brockus, Charles W

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals. 9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals. In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal FIO2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial blood gas variables were measured before (baseline) and during unilateral and bilateral nasopharyngeal delivery of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mL of oxygen/kg/min. No adverse reactions were associated with administration of supplemental oxygen except at the highest flow rate, at which the foals became agitated. At individual flow rates, significant and dose-dependent increases in FIO2, PaO2, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) were detected, compared with baseline values. Comparison of unilateral and bilateral delivery of oxygen at similar cumulative flow rates revealed no differences in evaluated variables. Results indicated that administration of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulae appeared to be a highly effective means of increasing FIO2, PaO2, and SaO2 in neonatal foals. These findings may provide guidance for implementation of oxygen treatment in hypoxemic neonatal foals.

  3. Influence Of Lixiviant Flow Rate On Heap Leaching Of Low Grade Manganese Carbonate Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobi, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to ascertain the influence of lixiviant flow rate on leaching of low grade manganese carbonate ore from Nsuta, Ghana, and also the levels of impurities in the resulting leachate when the ore is heap-leached for 24 hours at two different flow rates. It was found out that the lixiviant flow rate has influence on the dissolution of manganese; about 8.42% recovery of manganese was obtained when the ore was leached at a flow rate of 5 ml/min whilst 99.28% was obtained in the case of 10 ml/min. It was also observed that some levels of impurities such as iron and magnesium were in the leachate: 4075 mg/l of iron and 2575 mg/l of magnesium were in the leachate when the ore was leached at a flow rate of 5 ml/min and 2500 mg/l of iron and 3970 mg/l of magnesium were in the leachate in the case of 10 ml/min. The results indicate that leachate should be purified before the final recovery of manganese from solution.

  4. Miniaturized microDMFC using silicon microsystems techniques: performances at low fuel flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Ai; Morishita, Satoshi; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Arscott, Steve

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of high performance miniaturized micro direct methanol fuel cells (microDMFC) functioning at room temperature under a forced low input fuel flow rate (fuel flow rate of 5.52 µL min-1 for a fuel cell surface area as small as 0.3 cm2 (corresponding to a fuel use efficiency of 14.1% at 300 K). At a lower flow rate of 1.38 µL min-1, the fuel use efficiency rises to 20.1% although the power density falls to 4.3 mW cm-2. The study revealed that improved room temperature cell performances in terms of power density can be achieved at low flow rates (fuel cell area and (ii) reducing the microchannel cross-section. The study also revealed that higher fuel use efficiencies are obtained at lower fuel flow rates. Fuel (methanol) for the anode and an oxidant (air) for the cathode are supplied via a compact serpentine network of micron-size microfluidic and gas microchannels; by using silicon microsystems techniques we also render the fuel cell compatible with other silicon technologies such as microelectronics and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  5. ChargeOut! : discounted cash flow compared with traditional machine-rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek

    2008-01-01

    ChargeOut!, a discounted cash-flow methodology in spreadsheet format for analyzing machine costs, is compared with traditional machine-rate methodologies. Four machine-rate models are compared and a common data set representative of logging skidders’ costs is used to illustrate the differences between ChargeOut! and the machine-rate methods. The study found that the...

  6. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  7. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  8. Impact of syringe size on the performance of infusion pumps at low flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nadia; Saez, Claudia; Seri, Istvan; Maturana, Andrés

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of syringe size on start-up delay and the time to reach 50% and 90% of target flow rates, using two commercially available syringe infusion pumps at infusion rates of < or =1 mL/hr. Two syringes (Terumo) of different size (10-mL and 50-mL), using two syringe infusion pumps (Pump A, Terumo Terufusion Infusion Pump TE-331; and Pump B, Braun Perfusor Compact S) were studied. Effective fluid delivery was measured at 0.4 mL/hr, 0.8 mL/hr, and 1.0 mL/hr for the initial 60 mins, using the gravimetric method. Instant flow was calculated as volume difference for every 1-min interval per minute. Start-up delay was defined as time in minutes of 0 flow from the start of infusion. Syringe placement, bubble removal, infusion line priming, and positioning were standardized for all measurements, using new syringes and infusion lines. Each experiment was repeated six times. Statistical analysis was performed, using a nonparametric test (Mann-Whitney U test). None. None. None. Using the 50-mL syringe, the start-up delay was consistently higher and the time to reach 50% and 90% of target flow were significantly longer, independent of which syringe infusion pump was used. At every flow rate studied, the pumps did not reach the target flow rate before 60 mins with the 50-mL syringe. With the 10-mL syringe, target flow rate was achieved before 20 mins for both pumps. Our findings demonstrate a clinically relevant impact of syringe size on syringe infusion pump performance at low flow rates. The time to reach 50% and 90% of target flow are significantly longer, using the 50-mL syringe compared with the 10-mL syringe, and the time to reach 50% of target flow is independent of the longer start-up delay. Based on our findings, we speculate that smaller syringe sizes and higher infusion rates are preferable for continuous drug infusions, particularly when prompt establishment of the drug effect is critical.

  9. Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong

    2017-06-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.

  10. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  11. The influence of orifice height on flow rate of powder excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z; Sklubalová, Z

    2011-12-01

    The influence of the orifice height of a cylindrical, flat-bottomed hopper on the mass flow rate of the free-flowable size fractions of sodium chloride and boric acid was investigated. It was observed that a zone of sudden acceleration of the mass flow under gravity occurred when a critical orifice height had been achieved. Based on the results, an orifice diameter equal to 12 mm with a height of between 8-16 mm is recommended for the faster flow of sodium chloride while an orifice diameter equal to 8 mm with a height of less than 8mm is appropriate for the slower flow of boric acid. In summary, the orifice height should be taken into consideration as an important parameter of a cylindrical test hopper in order to obtain a reproducible and comparable mass flow as the single-point characteristic of powder flowability.

  12. In Vivo High Frame Rate Vector Flow Imaging Using Plane Waves and Directional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    oscillation (TO) estimators and only 3 directional beamformed lines. The suggested DB vector flow estimator is employed with steered plane wave transmissions for high frame rate imaging.Two distinct plane wave sequences are used: a short sequence(3 angles) for fast flow and an interleaved long sequence (21....... The long sequence has a higher sensitivity, and when used forestimation of slow flow with a peak velocity of 0.04 m/s, the SDis 2.5 % and bias is 0.1 %. This is a factor of 4 better than ifthe short sequence is used. The carotid bifurcation was scanned on a healthy volunteer, and the short sequence...

  13. The relationship between drained angle and flow rate of size fractions of powder excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklubalová, Z; Zatloukal, Z

    2009-12-01

    The influence of powder size of chosen pharmaceutical powder excipients on drained angle as well as the correlation between drained angle and the mass flow rate of certain powder size fractions were investigated in this work. A method of the indirect estimation of the three-dimensional drained angle from the mass of the residual powder was used experimentally to study the influence of powder size fractions in range of 0.200-0.630 mm for sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and potassium citrate. Failures of flow significantly increased the drained angles for powder size fraction of 0.200-0.250 mm. For the uniformly flowable powder size fraction of 0.400-0.500 mm, the faster the flow rate, the smaller drained angles were observed for excipients investigated. To estimate parameters of the flow equation, the measurement of material flow rates from the hopper of different orifice sizes is needed, while the estimation of drained angle is much easier needing only one hopper. Finally, the increase of the hopper wall angle of the standard conical hopper to 70 degrees could be recommended to achieve uniform mass flow and to reduce the adverse effect of powder gliding along the hopper walls.

  14. Force and vortical flow development on pitching wings at high rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Yu, Huai-Te; Ol, Michael; Granlund, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Recent experimental results of pitching flat plate wings are presented. High pitch-rate perching maneuvers are frequently used by birds for feeding and landing. Insects use very fast rotation rates at the end of each flapping stroke, which results in high thrust and precise flight. These wing motions are also of interest for engineered micro air vehicles to achieve semi-autonomous landing by unskilled operators. The wing motion considered is a constant rotation rate pitch motion from 0 to 45 degrees of an aspect-ratio-4 flat-plate wing. The goal is to gain a better understanding of force generation mechanisms and their relationship to two- and three-dimensional vortical flow structures. Leading edge, trailing edge, and tip vortices form with large separated flow regions over the wing, however comparison with linear potential flow theory gives good agreement. The evolution of the leading edge vortex is delayed for pivot axes locations downstream of the leading edge. Large forces at the end of the motion slowly return to the steady state value over more than 30 convective times. The flow in the near wake shows a brief period of vortex shedding and strong three dimensional effects. Two different three-dimensional flow features are observed: A rapid development of three-dimensionality in the core of the leading and trailing edge vortices and a swirl motion in the near wake. However the impact of these three-dimensional flow features on force development is small.

  15. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  16. A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min-1, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min-1, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l-1), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l-1 up to 4 l min-1 and 98 mV min l-1 from 4 l min-1 up to 10 l min-1). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

  17. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg-1 min-1 peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇2peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2peak. Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45+), granulocytes (CD45+CD15+), monocytes (CD45+CD14+), T-cells (CD45+CD3+), and B-cells (CD45+CD20+) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  18. Experimental Studies for Determining Gas Flow Rate Accidental Release on Linear Part of Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V. G.; Nikolaev, A. K.; Lykov, Y. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method of determining the flow rate of gas in the gas-dynamic resistance of a medium gas stream with high linear speed was studied. The reduction of the density of the gas is a result of its expansion. Multiple calculations of gas losses were evaluated. Calculation is set by loss of gas depending on the area of the pipeline damage. A comparative analysis was done. In order to establish a functional empirical dependence of the flow rate on the whole on the parameters of the leakage process, a series of experiments was conducted on a test bench and their processing was carried out. In experiments conducted, the effect of pressure and temperature in the receiver was evaluated, the physical properties of the gas and the diameter of the hole were predetermined by the limits of the amount of the whole flow rate in critical conditions, as well as the critical regime of gas leakage.

  19. Effects of Salivary Oxidative Markers on Edentulous Patients' Satisfaction with Prosthetic Denture Treatments: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relationships among periodontal conditions, salivary antioxidant levels, and patients' satisfaction with their prostheses.This study was conducted at the Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital. The periodontal condition of patients was based on an assessment of the plaque index (PI and gingival index (GI. The pH value, flow rate, and buffer capacity of the saliva were estimated. The salivary total antioxidant status (TAS and superoxide dismutase (SOD level were also determined. Patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatments was evaluated using the Chinese version of the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14C. A multivariate regression model was used to determine whether patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatment was affected by their oral health status.In total, 35 edentulous patients were recruited. In the Spearman correlation analysis, salivary pH (r = -0.36, p = 0.03 and the buffer ability (r = -0.48, p<0.01 were associated with OHIP-14C scores. In the multivariate analysis, patients who had a higher GI also had a higher score of physical disabilities (β = 1.38, p = 0.04. Levels of SOD increased with the scores of psychological discomfort (β = 0.33 U/g protein, p = 0.04.This study suggested that both the GI and SOD levels were associated with patients' satisfaction with prosthetic treatments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the relationship between OHIP scores and salivary oxidative markers in edentulous patients.

  20. Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; Tinken, Toni M; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear on endothelial function in vivo. On 3 separate days, we examined bilateral brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men (24+/-3 years) before and after a 30-minute intervention consisting of cuff inflation to 25, 50, or 75 mm Hg. Cuff inflations resulted in "dose"-dependent increases in retrograde shear rate, compared with the noncuffed arm, within subjects (P<0.001). Flow-mediated dilation in the cuffed arm did not change in response to the 25-mm Hg stimulus but decreased significantly after both the 50- and 75-mm Hg interventions (P<0.05). The decrease in flow-mediated dilation after the 75-mm Hg intervention was significantly larger than that observed after a 50-mm Hg intervention (P=0.03). In the noncuffed arm, no changes in shear rate or flow-mediated dilation were observed. These results demonstrate that an increase in retrograde shear rate induces a dose-dependent attenuation of endothelial function in humans. This finding contributes to our understanding regarding the possible detrimental effects of retrograde shear rate in vivo.

  1. Estimation of Leak Flow Rate during Post-LOCA Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, important parameters such as the break position, size, and leak flow rate of loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), provide operators with essential information for recovering the cooling capability of the nuclear reactor core, for preventing the reactor core from melting down, and for managing severe accidents effectively. Leak flow rate should consist of break size, differential pressure, temperature, and so on (where differential pressure means difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure). The leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this paper, a cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model is appropriately proposed to estimate the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). The CFNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. Because few actual severe accident data exist, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. In this study, a CFNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate before proceeding to severe LOCAs. The simulations showed that the developed CFNN model accurately predicted the leak flow rate with less error than 0.5%. The CFNN model is much better than FNN model under the same conditions, such as the same fuzzy rules. At the result of comparison, the RMS errors of the CFNN model were reduced by approximately 82 ~ 97% of those of the FNN model.

  2. Comparison of Gravity Flow Rates Between ENFit and Legacy Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundi, Manpreet S; Duellman, Wanda; Epp, Lisa; Davidson, Jacob; Hurt, Ryan T

    2017-04-01

    Misconnections between enteral supplies and other access devices have led to significant morbidity and mortality. To reduce misconnections, a standard small-bore connector has been developed (International Organization for Standards 80369-8; ENFit). The full impact of transition to this connector is not known, however. Working with major manufacturers and Food and Drug Administration, we obtained ENFit and comparative legacy tubes of variable sizes (low-profile, 14F, 18F, 20F, and 24F balloon gastrostomies). Gravity enteral feeding was simulated with an empty bolus syringe attached to the feeding tube to be tested. The tube was clamped and filled to the 60-mL mark with liquid (water, Jevity 1 Cal, Isosource HN, Isosource 1.5 Cal, Two Cal HN, and Nourish). The clamp was released, and time for formula to leave the syringe was recorded. There was no difference in flow rate between the aggregate legacy and ENFit tubes for the low-profile, 18F, and 20F sizes. The ENFit 14F tubes had a lower flow rate versus the legacy tubes, largely due to the low flow rates seen with the 1 ENFit tube. Similarly, 24F ENFit tubes with some formulas yielded lower flow rates as opposed to legacy. Overall, for the low-profile, 18F, and 20F sizes, the ENFit tubes had similar flow rates when compared with the legacy tubes. For the 14F and 24F sizes, the flow rate of ENFit tubes was significantly lower, which could result in longer EN delivery for patients who are using these tubes to provide gravity feeding.

  3. Validating Whole-Airway CFD Predictions of DPI Aerosol Deposition at Multiple Flow Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Hindle, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare aerosol deposition predictions of a new whole-airway CFD model with available in vivo data for a dry powder inhaler (DPI) considered across multiple inhalation waveforms, which affect both the particle size distribution (PSD) and particle deposition. The Novolizer DPI with a budesonide formulation was selected based on the availability of 2D gamma scintigraphy data in humans for three different well-defined inhalation waveforms. Initial in vitro cascade impaction experiments were conducted at multiple constant (square-wave) particle sizing flow rates to characterize PSDs. The whole-airway CFD modeling approach implemented the experimentally determined PSDs at the point of aerosol formation in the inhaler. Complete characteristic airway geometries for an adult were evaluated through the lobar bronchi, followed by stochastic individual pathway (SIP) approximations through the tracheobronchial region and new acinar moving wall models of the alveolar region. It was determined that the PSD used for each inhalation waveform should be based on a constant particle sizing flow rate equal to the average of the inhalation waveform's peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) and mean flow rate [i.e., AVG(PIFR, Mean)]. Using this technique, agreement with the in vivo data was acceptable with <15% relative differences averaged across the three regions considered for all inhalation waveforms. Defining a peripheral to central deposition ratio (P/C) based on alveolar and tracheobronchial compartments, respectively, large flow-rate-dependent differences were observed, which were not evident in the original 2D in vivo data. The agreement between the CFD predictions and in vivo data was dependent on accurate initial estimates of the PSD, emphasizing the need for a combination in vitro-in silico approach. Furthermore, use of the AVG(PIFR, Mean) value was identified as a potentially useful method for characterizing a DPI aerosol at a constant flow rate.

  4. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minkyung Kang,1 Hyounggeun Park,1 Joon-Ho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Dong-A ST Research Institute, Gyeonggi, 2Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol or gel (DM-gel. Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. Keywords: saliva substitute, carbopol gel, hypothiocyanite–hydrogen peroxide mixture, antimicrobial activity, diabetic rats

  5. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  6. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  7. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  8. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  9. The rate dependence of the saturation flow stress of Cu and 1100 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, D.L.; Tonks, D.L.; Wallace, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The strain-rate dependence of the saturation flow stress of OFHC Cu and 1100 Al from 10{sup {minus}3}s{sup {minus}1} to nearly to 10{sup 12}s{sup {minus}1} is examined. The flow stress above 10{sup 9}s{sup {minus}1} is estimated using Wallace's theory of overdriven shocks in metals. A transition to the power-law behavior {Psi} {approximately} {tau}{sub s}{sup 5} occurs at a strain rate of order 10{sup 5}s{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Effects of neuropeptide Y on regulation of blood flow rate in canine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Sheikh, S P; Jørgensen, J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY-like immunoreac......The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY...

  11. Peak expiratory flow rates produced with the Laerdal and Mapleson-C bagging circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Hutchinson, R; Lin, E; Oh, T

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) at different inspiratory pause pressures (IPP) produced by the Mapleson-C circuit and the Laerdal self-inflating resuscitator. The difference in PEFR produced by the two circuits was significantly different at the lowest and the highest IPP studied (I3 and 38cm H20). The greatest differences in the mean expiratory flow rates produced was, however, only 0.07 litre sec(-7). The authors suggest that the choice of bagging circuit should depend on the experience and familiarity of the therapist with the circuit. Copyright © 1992 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  12. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles inside Fluidic Channels with Time-Varying Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S.M. Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr−1 and 30 ml.hr−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  13. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  14. A non-contact optical procedure for precise measurement of respiration rate and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria

    2010-04-01

    The use of standard instrumentation for the assessment of the respiration rate as of flow is an important goal in medicine. Spirometers, textile-based capacitive sensors or photopletismography are standard contact instrumentations used for such aim; the main drawback in the use of such instrumentations is the necessity to have a direct contact of the instrument with the patient. In this paper, we present an optical no-contact method for monitoring of both the respiration rate and flow. This method is based on the measurement of external chest wall movement by a laser Doppler vibrometer. The measurement procedure has already been demonstrated to be extremely well performing for what concern the monitoring of the cardiac activity. The proposed method can be operated at a distance of 1.5 m, on different point of the patient thoracic and abdominal area. We have monitored respiration rate and flow on 8 patients with a spirometer and simultaneously with the proposed noncontact measurement procedure. Bland-Altman analysis of the respiration rate measured with both instruments demonstrate a mean error on the determination of the respiration rate of < 1% and of the < 4% for the instantaneous flow. We also report a study on the optimal position on the thoracic area based on quality of the signal measured on the same population of subject.

  15. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  16. The Effect of Insulating Blood Warmer Output Tubing on the Temperature of Packed Red Blood Cells at Low Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    blood cells at the point of patient entry at low flow rates . Utilizing a surgical suite, every attempt was made to replicate a true surgical setting...Flow control pumps were used to regulate flow rates of 300, 600, and 900 milliliters per hour (ml/hr) through Fenwall Laboratories blood warming coils

  17. Expanding the range for predicting critical flow rates of gas wells producing from normally pressured waterdrive reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upchurch, E.R. (Thums Long Beach Co. (US))

    1989-08-01

    The critical flow rate of a gas well is the minimum flow rate required to prevent accumulation of liquids in the tubing. Theoretical models currently available for estimating critical flow rates are restricted to wells with water/gas ratios less than 150bbl/MMcf (0.84 X 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/). For wells producing at higher water/gas ratios from normally pressured waterdrive reservoirs, a method of estimating critical flow rates is derived through use of an empirical multiphase-flow correlation.

  18. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  19. Research on Gas-liquid Flow Rate Optimization in Foam Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. K.; Sun, D. G.; Jia, Z. G.; Huang, Z. Q.

    2010-03-01

    With the advantages of less gas consumption, higher carrying rocks ability, lower leakage and higher penetration rate, foam drilling is widely used today in petroleum industry. In the process of foam underbalanced drilling, the mixture of gas, liquid and cuttings flows upwards through the annular, so it is a typical gas-liquid-solid multi-phase flow. In order to protect the reservoir and avoid borehole wall collapsing during foam drilling, it is crucial to ensure that the bottom hole pressure is lower than the formation pressure and higher than the formation collapse pressure, and in the mean time, foam drilling fluid in the whole wellbore should be in the best foam quality stage in order to have sufficient capacity to carry cuttings. In this paper, main relations between bottom hole pressure and gas-liquid injecting rate are analyzed with the underbalanced multiphase flow models. And in order to obtain precise flow pattern and flow pressure, the whole well bore is spatial meshed and iterative method is used. So, a convenient safety window expressed by gas-liquid injecting rate is obtained instead of that by bottom hole pressure. Finally, a foam drilling example from a block in Yemen is presented; the drilling results show that this method is reliable and practical.

  20. Effects of Gas Flow Rate on the Discharge Characteristics of a DC Excited Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Jia, Pengying; Di, Cong; Bao, Wenting; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-09-01

    A direct current (DC) source excited plasma jet consisting of a hollow needle anode and a plate cathode has been developed to form a diffuse discharge plume in ambient air with flowing argon as the working gas. Using optical and electrical methods, the discharge characteristics are investigated for the diffuse plasma plume. Results indicate that the discharge has a pulse characteristic, under the excitation of a DC voltage. The discharge pulse corresponds to the propagation process of a plasma bullet travelling from the anode to the cathode. It is found that, with an increment of the gas flow rate, both the discharge plume length and the current peak value of the pulsed discharge decrease in the laminar flow mode, reach their minima at about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly increase in the turbulent mode. However, the frequency of the pulsed discharge increases in the laminar mode with increasing the argon flow rate until the argon flow rate equals to about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly decreases in the turbulent mode. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10805013, 11375051), Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists of Hebei Province, China (No. A2012201045), Department of Education for Outstanding Youth Project of China (No. Y2011120), and Youth Project of Hebei University of China (No. 2011Q14)

  1. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  2. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  3. Oral symptoms and salivary findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Roen; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher...... salivary concentration of total protein and sIgA than cases without contact allergy and healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-nine patients (42 women, aged 61.0 ± 10.3 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects underwent a standardised questionnaire on general and oral health, assessment...... in patients (46.9%) than in healthy controls, whereas the saliva flow rates did not differ. The patients had higher sIgA levels in unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva than the healthy controls. The total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the unstimulated saliva samples whereas it was higher...

  4. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  5. Syringe-pump-induced fluctuation in all-aqueous microfluidic system implications for flow rate accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Mak, Sze Yi; Sauret, Alban; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-02-21

    We report a new method to display the minute fluctuations induced by syringe pumps on microfluidic flows by using a liquid-liquid system with an ultralow interfacial tension. We demonstrate that the stepper motor inside the pump is a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows by comparing the frequencies of the ripples observed at the interface to that of the pulsation of the stepper motor. We also quantify the fluctuations induced at different flow rates, using syringes of different diameters, and using different syringe pumps with different advancing distances per step. Our work provides a way to predict the frequency of the fluctuation that the driving syringe pump induces on a microfluidic system and suggests that syringe pumps can be a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows, thus contributing to the polydispersity of the resulting droplets.

  6. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  7. Flow perfusion rate modulates cell deposition onto scaffold substrate during cell seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Marín, A; Brunelli, M; Lacroix, D

    2017-11-29

    The combination of perfusion bioreactors with porous scaffolds is beneficial for the transport of cells during cell seeding. Nonetheless, the fact that cells penetrate into the scaffold pores does not necessarily imply the interception of cells with scaffold substrate and cell attachment. An in vitro perfusion system was built to relate the selected flow rate with seeding efficiency. However, the in vitro model does not elucidate how the flow rate affects the transport and deposition of cells onto the scaffold. Thus, a computational model was developed mimicking in vitro conditions to identify the mechanisms that bring cells to the scaffold from suspension flow. Static and dynamic cell seeding configurations were investigated. In static seeding, cells sediment due to gravity until they encounter the first obstacle. In dynamic seeding, 12, 120 and 600 [Formula: see text] flow rates were explored under the presence or the absence of gravity. Gravity and secondary flow were found to be key factors for cell deposition. In vitro and in silico seeding efficiencies are in the same order of magnitude and follow the same trend with the effect of fluid flow; static seeding results in higher efficiency than dynamic perfusion although irregular spatial distribution of cells was found. In dynamic seeding, 120 [Formula: see text] provided the best seeding results. Nevertheless, the perfusion approach reports low efficiencies for the scaffold used in this study which leads to cell waste and low density of cells inside the scaffold. This study suggests gravity and secondary flow as the driving mechanisms for cell-scaffold deposition. In addition, the present in silico model can help to optimize hydrodynamic-based seeding strategies prior to experiments and enhance cell seeding efficiency.

  8. Effects of Purge-Flow Rate on Microbubble Capture in Radial Arterial-Line Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The process of microbubble filtration from blood is complex and highly dependent on the forces of flow and buoyancy. To protect the patient from air emboli, arterial-line filters commonly use a micropore screen, a large volume housing with purpose-built shape, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove circulating microbubbles. Although it has been proposed that an insufficient buoyancy force renders the purge port ineffective at removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm, this research attempts to investigate the purge flow of an arterial-line filter to better understand the microbubble removal function in a typical radial filter design. As its primary objective, the study aims to determine the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture using air bolus injections from a syringe pump with 22-gauge needle and Doppler ultrasound bubble detection. The measureable bubble size generated in the test circuit ranged between 30 and 500 μm, while purge flow was varied between .1 and .5 L/min for testing. Statistical analysis of the test data was handled using a repeated measures design with significance set at p bubble counts, but the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture decreased as bubble size increased. Results also showed that purge flow from the test filter was capable of capturing all bubble sizes being generated over the entire flow range tested, and confirms utility of the purge port in removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm. By analyzing bubble counts in the purge flow of a typical radial-filter design, this study demonstrates that currently available micropore filter technology is capable of removing the size range of bubbles that commonly pass through modern pump-oxygenator systems and should continue to be considered during extracorporeal circulation as a measure to improve patient safety. PMID:27729703

  9. Effects of Purge-Flow Rate on Microbubble Capture in Radial Arterial-Line Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    The process of microbubble filtration from blood is complex and highly dependent on the forces of flow and buoyancy. To protect the patient from air emboli, arterial-line filters commonly use a micropore screen, a large volume housing with purpose-built shape, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove circulating microbubbles. Although it has been proposed that an insufficient buoyancy force renders the purge port ineffective at removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm, this research attempts to investigate the purge flow of an arterial-line filter to better understand the microbubble removal function in a typical radial filter design. As its primary objective, the study aims to determine the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture using air bolus injections from a syringe pump with 22-gauge needle and Doppler ultrasound bubble detection. The measureable bubble size generated in the test circuit ranged between 30 and 500 μm, while purge flow was varied between .1 and .5 L/min for testing. Statistical analysis of the test data was handled using a repeated measures design with significance set at p bubble counts, but the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture decreased as bubble size increased. Results also showed that purge flow from the test filter was capable of capturing all bubble sizes being generated over the entire flow range tested, and confirms utility of the purge port in removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm. By analyzing bubble counts in the purge flow of a typical radial-filter design, this study demonstrates that currently available micropore filter technology is capable of removing the size range of bubbles that commonly pass through modern pump-oxygenator systems and should continue to be considered during extracorporeal circulation as a measure to improve patient safety.

  10. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  11. Evaluation of Peak Expiratory Flow rates (PEFR) of Workers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 105 workers of a cement company who presented for the annual fitness to work exercise were sampled and had their peak expiratory flow rates measured using a spirometer. Data were also collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and a walk ...

  12. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order...

  13. Influence of nitrogen flow rates on materials properties of CrNx films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Chromium nitride (CrN) hard thin films were deposited on different substrates by reactive direct current. (d.c.) magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen flow rates. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed mixed Cr2N and CrN phases. The variations in structural parameters are discussed. The grain size increased ...

  14. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...

  15. Fabric inlet stratifiers for solar tanks with different volume flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    in the centre of a glass tank (400 x 400 x 900 mm). The forced volume flow rate is in the range of 6 – 10 l/min, and water enters the stratification pipe from the bottom of the tank. The thermal behaviour of the stratification pipes is investigated for different realistic operation conditions...

  16. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary flow rates in female patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Chang, Tien-Chun; Guo, Ya-Jun; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Huang, Kuo-How

    2011-01-01

    To investigate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and voiding function in a cohort of hyperthyroid women. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance has been thought to cause LUTS in hyperthyroidism. Between January 2008 and December 2008, 65 newly diagnosed, untreated female hyperthyroid patients were enrolled in this study. Another 62 age-matched healthy women were enrolled as a control group. Demographics, LUTS, urinary flow rates, hyperthyroid symptoms, and serum levels of thyroid hormones were recorded before and after the medical treatment for hyperthyroidism. Compared with the control group, the hyperthyroid patients had a higher mean symptom score of frequency (1.15 ± 1.75 vs 0.31 ± 1.05, P = .01), incomplete emptying (0.91 ± 1.47 vs 0.29 ± 1.12, P = .02), straining (1.05 ± 0.85 vs 0.27 ± 0.51, P flow rates improved significantly. The severity of LUTS was associated with neither serum levels of thyroid hormone nor other hyperthyroid symptoms. Hyperthyroid women have worse LUTS and lower peak flow rates than healthy controls. However, the severity of LUTS is only mild (IPSS flow rates improve after the treatment for hyperthyroidism. The exact mechanisms of LUTS and/or lower urinary tract dysfunction in hyperthyroidism require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow rates and pressure profiles for one to four axially alined Borda inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Stetz, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    Choked flow rate and pressure profile data were taken on sequential, axially alined inlets of the Borda type. The configurations consisted of two to four inlets spaced 0.8 and 30 diameters apart. At a spacing of 30 diameters the reduced flow rate appeared to follow the simple empirical relation G sub r/G sub r,1=N(-b), where G sub r,1 is the reduced flow rate for a single inlet; N is the number of inlets; and b, which is weakly temperature dependent, is approximately 0.4. The relation is in reasonable agreement with an analysis of the N-inlet configuration. At a spacing of 30 diameters the pressure profiles dropped sharply at the entrance and partially recovered within each inlet somewhat independently of N. Jetting through the last Borda was common at low temperatures. At a spacing of 0.8 diameter fluid jetting was prevalent at low temperatures for each configuration studied and flow rates were the same as that for a single inlet.

  18. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Purpose: In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies.

  19. Influence of nitrogen flow rates on materials properties of CrNx films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromium nitride (CrN) hard thin films were deposited on different substrates by reactive direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen flow rates. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed mixed Cr2N and CrN phases. The variations in structural parameters are discussed. The grain size increased with ...

  20. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  1. Performance and radial distribution profiles of a variable flow rate sprinkler developed for precision irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson André Armindo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Variable rate sprinklers (VRS have been developed to promote localized water application of irrigated areas. In Precision Irrigation, VRS permits better control of flow adjustment and, at the same time, provides satisfactory radial distribution profiles for various pressures and flow rates are really necessary. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and radial distribution profiles of a developed VRS which varies the nozzle cross sectional area by moving a pin in or out using a stepper motor. Field tests were performed under different conditions of service pressure, rotation angles imposed on the pin and flow rate which resulted in maximal water throw radiuses ranging from 7.30 to 10.38 m. In the experiments in which the service pressure remained constant, the maximal throw radius varied from 7.96 to 8.91 m. Averages were used of repetitions performed under conditions without wind or with winds less than 1.3 m s-1. The VRS with the four stream deflector resulted in greater water application throw radius compared to the six stream deflector. However, the six stream deflector had greater precipitation intensities, as well as better distribution. Thus, selection of the deflector to be utilized should be based on project requirements, respecting the difference in the obtained results. With a small opening of the nozzle, the VRS produced small water droplets that visually presented applicability for foliar chemigation. Regarding the comparison between the estimated and observed flow rates, the stepper motor produced excellent results.

  2. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  3. The control of self-propelled microjets inside a microchannel with time-varying flow rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver S.; Misra, Sarthak

    We demonstrate the closed-loop motion control of self-propelled microjets inside a fluidic microchannel. The motion control of the microjets is achieved in hydrogen peroxide solution with time-varying flow rates, under the influence of the controlled magnetic fields and the self-propulsion force.

  4. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasetyaningrum, A., E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Ratnawati,; Jos, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50276 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  5. Sympathetic nervous system activation, arterial shear rate, and flow-mediated dilation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Atkinson, C.L.; Ono, K.; Sprung, V.S.; Spence, A.L.; Pugh, C.J.; Green, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of arterial shear to changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) during sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in healthy humans. Ten healthy men reported to our laboratory four times. Bilateral FMD, shear rate (SR), and catecholamines were

  6. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1

  7. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However ...

  8. Renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland: Report of the cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary gland is a relatively rare tumor which is well known for its high local recurrence rate and frequent distant metastasis. Metastasis of this tumor to kidney has not been reported previously to our knowledge.We report two cases of renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland.

  9. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Boerner, W.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand.

  10. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity, and pH of autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoukou, Ivy Haralambos; Nicolau, José; dos Santos, Maria Teresa

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate saliva flow rate, buffer capacity, pH levels, and dental caries experience (DCE) in autistic individuals, comparing the results with a control group (CG). The study was performed on 25 noninstitutionalized autistic boys, divided in two groups. G1 composed of ten children, ages 3-8. G2 composed of 15 adolescents ages 9-13. The CG was composed of 25 healthy boys, randomly selected and also divided in two groups: CG3 composed of 14 children ages 4-8, and CG4 composed of 11 adolescents ages 9-14. Whole saliva was collected under slight suction, and pH and buffer capacity were determined using a digital pHmeter. Buffer capacity was measured by titration using 0.01 N HCl, and the flow rate expressed in ml/min, and the DCE was expressed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth (permanent dentition [DMFT] and primary dentition [dmft]). Data were plotted and submitted to nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) and parametric (Student's t test) statistical tests with a significance level less than 0.05. When comparing G1 and CG3, groups did not differ in flow rate, pH levels, buffer capacity, or DMFT. Groups G2 and CG4 differ significantly in pH (p = 0.007) and pHi = 7.0 (p = 0.001), with lower scores for G2. In autistic individuals aged 3-8 and 9-13, medicated or not, there was no significant statistical difference in flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. The comparison of DCE among autistic children and CG children with deciduous (dmft) and mixed/permanent decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) did not show statistical difference (p = 0.743). Data suggest that autistic individuals have neither a higher flow rate nor a better buffer capacity. Similar DCE was observed in both groups studied.

  11. Prediction of Leak Flow Rate Using FNNs in Severe LOCA Circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hwoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Leak flow rate is a function of break size, differential pressure ( i.e., difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure), temperature, and so on. Specially, the leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this study, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is proposed to predict the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). Since FNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. However, because actual severe accident data do not exist to the best of our knowledge, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. These data were obtained by simulating severe accident scenarios for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR 1000) using MAAP4 code. In this study, FNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate in severe post-LOCA circumstances.. The training data were selected from among all the acquired data using an SC method to train the proposed FNN model with more informative data. The developed FNN model predicted the leak flow rate using the time elapsed after reactor shutdown and the predicted break size, and its validity was verified in the basis of the simulation data of OPR1000 using MAAP4 code.

  12. Salivary characteristics of children and its relation to oral microorganism and lip mucosa dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, Najlaa; Farsi, Najat; Faris, Jamila; Masoud, Ibrahim; Merdad, Khaled; Meisha, Dalia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present baseline data on various saliva properties among a group of Saudi children aged 5 to 11 years and to study the relationship of these properties to some oral micro-organisms as well as to lip and oral mucosa dryness. The results showed a mean of resting and stimulated flow rate of 0.54 +/- 0.40 and 1.23 +/- 0.59 respectively and mean pH value of 7.27 +/- 0.38 and 7.5 +/- .035 respectively. Fluoride concentration was estimated to be 0.151 +/- 0.07 and 0.145 +/- 0.06 in resting and stimulated saliva respectively. Children with dry lip represented 33.9% of the sample population, whereas, those with dry mucosa represented only 0.8%. No significant sex difference was evident in all parameters. 59.1% of children showed medium buffering capacity in the resting saliva, whereas, the majority of children (73.7%) showed high stimulated buffering capacity. Children showed generally high Lactobacillus counts (Lb) in the resting and stimulated saliva (57.9% and 60.5% of children). The presence of yeast also in resting and stimulated saliva seemed high in general (40% and 53% of children had high count). However, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) counts showed no discriminating trend in both types of saliva. The data showed no significant association between flow rate and Lb counts in both resting and stimulated saliva although there was a trend toward higher counts associated with low flow rate. The same trend was observed in resting saliva although not significant. Similarly, low resting buffering capacity was associated with high counts of Lb among a high proportion of children (68.6% of children) although not significant. A significant reverse relation was evident between S. mutans counts and stimulated flow rate (p=0.049). The majority of children with normal level of saliva pH showed no yeast colonization (62.1%). The association was significant (p=.024). Similarly, the same association was observed in the medium and high buffering group

  13. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  14. The association between coronary flow rate and impaired heart rate recovery in patients with metabolic syndrome: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Kilic, I Dogu; Evrengul, Harun; Yildiz, Bekir S; Alur, Ihsan; Uludag, Burcu; Kuru, Omur; Taskoylu, Ozgur; Kaftan, Havane Asuman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate heart rate recovery (HRR) and association between coronary flow rate and HRR in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) who had morphologically normal coronary angiogram. Study population included 43 patients with MS and 37 control subjects without MS. All patients were selected from individuals who had recently undergone coronary angiography in our hospital and were diagnosed as having angiographically normal coronary arteries. Exercise stress test results obtained prior to coronary angiography were evaluated for calculating HRR and other parameters. In addition, coronary flow was objectively evaluated for each major coronary artery in each subject using TIMI frame count method. All HRR values calculated were detected significantly lower in MS group compared to controls (HRR first: 32 ± 9 vs. 37 ± 10; p = 0.01, second: 46 ± 11 vs. 52 ± 11; p = 0.03, third: 51 ± 12 vs. 59 ± 12; p = 0.00, fourth: 54 ± 13 vs. 61 ± 2; p = 0.02). TIMI frame counts for each major epicardial coronary artery and mean TIMI frame count were also found to be significantly higher in MS group compared to controls (left anterior descending artery:51 ± 24 vs. 39 ± 15; p = 0.009, left circumflex artery: 32 ± 11 vs. 24 ± 7; p = 0.001, right coronary artery: 33 ± 14 vs. 24 ± 10; p = 0.003, mean TIMI frame count: 38 ± 15 vs. 29 ± 9;p = 0.002). Additionally, significant negative correlations were also detected between HRR first minute and coronary TIMI frame count values in patients with MS. None of MS parameters did not affect HRR values, however mean TIMI frame count independently associated with HRR first minute (p = 0.04) in patients with MS. Impaired coronary blood flow occurring in MS might be a clue of autonomic dysfunction in addition to previously known endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Influence of peak inspiratory flow rates and pressure drops on inhalation performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Daiki; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ichihashi, Mika; Mizutani, Ayano; Ishizeki, Kazunori; Okada, Toyoko; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between human inspiratory flow patterns and the concomitant drops in pressure in different inhalation devices, and the influence of the devices on inhalation performance. As a model formulation for inhalers, a physically mixed dry powder composed of salbutamol sulfate and coarse lactose monohydrate was selected. The drops in pressure at 28.3 L/min of three inhalation devices, Single-type, Dual-type, and Reverse-type, was 1.0, 5.1, and 8.7 kPa, respectively. Measurements of human inspiratory patterns revealed that although the least resistant device (Single) had large inter- and intra-individual variation of peak flow rate (PFR), the coefficients of variation of PFR of the three devices were almost the same. In tests with a human inspiratory flow simulator in vitro, inhalation performance was higher, but the variation in inhalation performance in the range of human flow patterns was wider, for the more resistant device. To minimize the intra- and inter-individual variation in inhalation performance for the model formulation in this study, a formulation design that allows active pharmaceutical ingredient to detach from the carrier with a lower inhalation flow rate is needed.

  16. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  17. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Bechsgaard, Thor

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view...... (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter...... vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow anglein the ROI was 86.22◦ ± 6.66◦ with a true flow angle of 90◦. A relative velocity bias of −39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found...

  18. Overview of major salivary gland cancer surgery in Ontario (2003-2010)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Freeman, Jeremy; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; Groome, Patti A; Hall, Stephen F; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe variations in incidence rates, resection rates, and types of surgical ablations performed on patients diagnosed with major salivary gland cancers in Ontario...

  19. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  20. Effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2015-04-01

    The present paper examines the effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A theoretical model is developed incorporating the charging rate of the carbon nanotube, kinetics of all the plasma species, and the growth rate of the CNTs because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. The three different carrier gases, i.e., argon (Ar), ammonia, and nitrogen, are considered in the present investigation, and flow rates of all the three carrier gases are varied individually (keeping the flow rates of hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas constant) to investigate the variations in the number densities of hydrocarbon and hydrogen ions in the plasma and their consequent effects on the height and radius of CNT. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that Ar favors the formation of CNTs with larger height and radius whereas ammonia contributes to better height of CNT but decreases the radius of CNT, and nitrogen impedes both the height and radius of CNT. The present work can serve to the better understanding of process parameters during growth of CNTs by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

  1. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All right