WorldWideScience

Sample records for salivary ducts

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'heygere, Emmanuel; Meulemans, Jeroen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2018-01-25

    The review puts new information on geno- and phenotype of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the perspective of the updated 2017 WHO classification. The proportion of SDC is increasing. This may be because of a true rise in incidence, but certainly to better diagnostic tests and changed WHO definitions. In this light, a substantial proportion of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma is now attributed to the category of SDC. 'Low-grade SDC' and 'SDC in-situ' of the former WHO classification, are now named low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma (IDC), respectively. Recent series quantify biologic aggressiveness: perineural growth, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension in lymph node metastasis are each observed in two out of three patients with SDC. Most patients die within 3 years, but once 5-year disease-free survival is reached, further disease activity is exceptional. The typical molecular biological profile with high human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and androgen receptor expression is increasingly successfully exploited in clinical trials for advanced SDC. The aggressive SDC is increasingly diagnosed. Despite intensive combined surgery and radiation therapy, many patients recur, for whom new bullets, targeting the molecular biological mechanisms, are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  2. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  3. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Misk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases, parotid duct fistula (15 cases and sialocele (3 cases. Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  4. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  6. Does salivary duct repositioning prevent complications after tumor resection or salivary gland surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-05-01

    Tissue that is resected for the treatment of oral tumors often includes salivary gland ducts. At their institution, the authors conserve and transfer as much of the salivary duct as possible during these procedures to avoid obstructive complications. Differentiating these obstructive complications from a metastatic node can be challenging and can confound subsequent oncologic management. This study compared and examined the effectiveness of salivary duct repositioning in decreasing the incidence of obstructive complications. Cases of oromandibular disease treated with salivary duct resection at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two cases (25 patients) of Wharton duct resection and 31 cases (31 patients) of Stensen duct resection were included. The incidence of complications after salivary duct repositioning, duct ligation, and retention of the sublingual gland around the Wharton duct was compared. Wharton ducts were repositioned in 30 cases and ligated in 2 cases. Complications, including oral swelling at the Wharton duct, were observed in 5 cases of repositioning and 2 cases of ligation. Stensen ducts were repositioned in 9 cases and ligated in 22 cases. The only complication reported was a single case of salivary fistula after ligation. Salivary duct repositioning is performed to prevent blockage of physiologic salivary discharge. Complications were more frequently associated with Wharton ducts than with Stensen ducts because of the unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics of the Wharton duct. Repositioning of the salivary duct is a suitable method for preventing complications associated with the Wharton duct. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes | Misk | Open Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just ...

  8. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  9. Salivary duct cyst in the upper lip: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Nobre Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct cyst (SDC in an uncommon lesion of the minor salivary glands, with etiology related to obstruction of the salivary duct. It presents with a color similar to that of the mucosa, is mobile, measures between 3 and 10 mm and affects preferentially the bottom lip, floor of the mouth and the jugal mucosa. SDC have a predilection for the male and individual in elderly groups. The pathogenesis of SDC is associated with the formation of a mucous plug that causes partial or total obstruction of the salivary gland system duct, resulting in the dilation of the duct and increase in intraluminal pressure. They present clinical-pathological characteristics similar to those of salivary gland tumors, making diagnosis difficult and subject to errors in treatment. It is important for the dentist to include SDC in the differential diagnosis of lesions that affect the upper lip, although it is relatively rarely found in this anatomic site.

  10. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  11. Pleural fluid metastases of salivary duct carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Huss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC comprises a small proportion of salivary gland tumors; however, it is known to be aggressive with a high rate of metastasis. Although frequent references are made to pulmonary dissemination, metastases in the pleural fluid have not been described. In this article, we report the cytologic features of metastatic SDC in the pleural fluid. The clinical history, cytomorphology and immunohistochemical features used for diagnosis are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural fluid involvement by salivary duct carcinoma reported in the literature.

  12. Perineural Spread of Salivary Duct Carcinoma to the Internal Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfred Kitavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs are high-grade malignant tumors exhibiting aggressive growth with early regional and distant metastasis. We report a case of SDC in a 63-year-old male with early recurrent disease in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA after total parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. The tendency of the tumor to recur or metastasize despite radical surgical measures and radiotherapy continues to pose a therapeutic challenge.

  13. Salivary Duct Carcinoma: An Update on Morphologic Mimics and Diagnostic Use of Androgen Receptor Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Chiosea, Simion I

    2017-09-01

    More than 15 years ago, seminal studies by Dr. E. Leon Barnes and colleagues transformed our understanding of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and, in doing so, paved the way for contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this aggressive salivary adenocarcinoma. In particular, attention to the apocrine phenotype of SDC and expression of androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry has improved the diagnostic accuracy and showed how SDC can be reliably distinguished from its morphologic mimics (i.e., other salivary gland carcinomas with high grade transformation, low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinomas involving parotid). Furthermore, the observation that SDC shares AR expression with prostate cancer and apocrine breast cancer foresaw the discovery of common molecular alterations between SDC and these tumor types and draw attention to androgen deprivation therapy for SDC patients.

  14. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 protein and amplification of HER2 gene in salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Tomoki; Esteban, Joaquim Carreras; Kumaki, Nobue; Ogura, Go; Inomoto, Chie; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Ryousuke; Otsuru, Mitsunobu; Okami, Kenji; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2014-09-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands, and accounts for 1-3% of all malignant salivary gland tumors, resembling morphologically invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In contrast to IDC of the breast and gastric carcinoma (GC), the study of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in SDC has not progressed. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between HER2 protein expression and amplification of the HER2 gene, and compared them in terms of intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) in 13 cases of SDC using immunohistochemistry and dual color in situ hybridization. We found seven cases with protein overexpression (53.8%) and five cases with gene amplification (38.5%) in accordance with ASCO/CAP guidelines. ITH of HER2 protein expression was seen in seven cases (53.8%). Interestingly, the ratio of the HER2 gene showed homogenous distribution with or without the presence of ITH of HER2 protein expression. SDC tends to have more ITH of HER2 protein similarly to GC, in contrast to IDC of the breast. ITH of HER2 protein in SDC has no heterogeneity of the HER2 gene amplification. The mechanism of HER2 protein expression in SDC might proceed through a more complex pathway relative to that of IDC of the breast. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Salivary Duct Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaly, Jalal B; Sanati, Souzan; Chernock, Rebecca D; Dibe, Dikson G; El-Mofty, Samir K

    2018-01-04

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a high-grade salivary gland malignancy with great morphological resemblance to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Rarely, female patients may have a past history of both SDC and IDC. When these patients present with distant metastasis, accurate identification of the primary tumor is particularly difficult. Additionally, rare metastasis of SDC to the breast and IDC to the salivary (parotid) gland can also present a diagnostic challenge. Our aim was to develop an immunohistochemical panel that reliably distinguishes SDC from IDC. We included all SDCs diagnosed from 1989 to 2016 (23 cases) and 29 treatment naïve and histologically similar IDCs. All cases were stained with androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), HER-2, CK5/6, p63, and beta-catenin. The great majority (> 90%) of both SDCs and IDCs reacted positively to AR. The main discrepancy in the immunohistochemical profiles was a distinctly different reactivity to ER-α, PR and HER-2. While 28 IDCs (96.6%) reacted positively to ER-α and/or PR, the majority expressing both (82.8%) with a moderate to strong staining intensity, only 2 SDCs expressed ER-α (8.7%) and 5 others expressed PR (21.7%) with only one case expressing both (P value SDC (34.8%) were positive for HER-2 while none of the IDCs were positive (P value SDC from IDC. Positive reactivity to ER-α, PR or both and negative HER-2 favors a diagnosis of IDC while ER-α, PR negative, HER-2 positive tumors are more likely SDC.

  17. HER2/HER3-positive metastatic salivary duct carcinoma in the pleural effusion: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Kawahara, Akihiko; Ono, Takeharu; Takase, Yorihiko; Abe, Hideyuki; Naito, Yoshiki; Akiba, Jun

    2017-12-04

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive form of salivary gland tumor, and SDC patients tend to be older men, more commonly in advanced stage with a poorer prognosis. Although the cytological characteristics of SDC on fine-needle aspiration cytology have been well-described at the primary site, they have not been explored in metastasis. Here we reported a case of HER2/HER3-positive metastatic SDC in the lung and pleural effusion. The patient was a man in his 50s who had undergone extended total parotidectomy in 2008. He was originally diagnosed as having HER2-positive left parotid SDC. Six years later a mass was discovered in the left lung by chest computed tomography (CT) and was diagnosed as metastatic SDC by both bronchial biopsy and cytology. Subsequently he had a recurrent SDC in the left pleural effusion and died of respiratory failure. Cytological findings from bronchial brushing smear showed small sheet clusters in a slightly necrotic background. In the pleural effusion cytology, tumor cells appeared as ball-like clusters of epithelioid cells with apocrine-like findings. In immunocytochemistry, HER3 of SDC cells in pleural effusion was significantly overexpressed relative to the matched primary tumor, even though HER2 amplification did not change. Cytological findings and HER family receptors differed between the primary and metastatic SDC. Therefore, molecular tests, such as protein expression and gene amplification using cytological specimens, may become important in future when determining therapy strategies in patients with distant metastasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intraoral Salivary Duct Cyst: Clinical and Histopathologic Features of 177 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Ivan J; Malik, Umer A; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2017-12-01

    The salivary duct cyst (SDC) is a reactive ductal ectasia most frequently seen in major salivary glands, and likely caused by obstruction. The aim of this study is to define the clinical and histopathologic spectrum of intraoral SDCs. Cases were retrieved from the archives of Harvard School of Dental Medicine/StrataDx, Inc. from January 2012 to August 2014. There were 177 cases of which 103 (58.2%) occurred in females, with a median age of 56 (range 2-95). Approximately half of cases (45.8%) presented in the area of the buccal mucosa, lower lip mucosa, or mandibular vestibule, and 23.2% presented in the floor of mouth. SDCs were lined at least focally by 1-2 layers of cuboidal/columnar epithelium in 85.3% of cases and showed varying degrees of metaplasia (oncocytic, mucous cell, squamous, ciliated, apocrine-like) in 68.4% of cases. Intraluminal mucous stasis was present in 41.8% of SDCs, incipient calcification was present within 4.5% of SDCs, and chronic obstructive sialadenitis was seen in 90.2% of cases. No cysts showed adenomatous ductal proliferations or true papillary structures with fibrovascular cores, although 41.2% exhibited reactive undulation of cyst lining. Thirty-nine 'papillary oncocytic cystadenoma-like' SDCs (22.0%) demonstrated complete oncocytic metaplasia and marked undulation. An additional seven such cysts (4.0%) had a 'Warthin tumor-like' lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Intraoral SDCs occur most commonly in the sixth decade of life in locations distinct from extravasation mucoceles, likely secondary to intraluminal obstruction. SDCs show diverse histopathology and certain phenotypic variants may be mistaken for papillary oncocytic cystadenoma or Warthin tumor.

  19. Oncogenic PIK3CA Mutation and Dysregulation in Human Salivary Duct Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC is an aggressive malignant tumor with a high mortality, which resembles high-grade breast ductal carcinoma in morphology. The parotid gland is the most common location. Its molecular genetic characteristics remain largely unknown. We have previously reported high incidence of PIK3CA somatic mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in pharyngeal cancers. Here we examined the PIK3CA gene expression status and hotspot mutations in six cases of SDC by immunohistochemistry and genomic DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry showed that PIK3CA expression was elevated in all six patients with SDC. By DNA sequencing, two hotspot mutations of the PIK3CA gene, E545K (exon 9 and H1047R (exon 20, were identified in two of the six cases. Our results support that oncogenic PIK3CA is upregulated and frequently mutated in human SDC, adding evidence that PIK3CA oncogenic pathway is critical in the tumorigenesis of SDC, and may be a plausible drug target for this rare disease.

  20. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; da Costa, José Ronaldo Vieira; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

  1. Increased expression of CD147 and MMP-9 is correlated with poor prognosis of salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Songlin; Zhao, Shu; Guo, Fulin; Xue, Jie; Yao, Guodong; Wei, Zhili; Huang, Qi; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bin

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate expression of CD147 and MMP-9 in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) so as to determine whether these two genes may be correlated with poor prognosis of SDC. We examined the significance of the CD147 and MMP-9 expression in SDC (n = 35), non-cancerous salivary tissue (n = 20) in previously untreated patients using immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of these two genes and various clinicopathologic factors including survival status of patients with SDC. Positive stain of CD147 and MMP-9 was seen in all 35 cases of tumor samples. A statistical correlation was observed between CD147 and MMP-9 expression in SDC tissues. The incidences of high expression were 45.71% for CD147 and 51.43% for MMP-9 in 35 SDC tissues, respectively. High expression of CD147 and MMP-9 was significantly correlated with clinical feature and shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P (CD147) = 0.031; P (MMP-9) = 0.020) and overall survival (OS) (P (CD147) = 0.044; P (MMP-9) = 0.013). CD147 and MMP-9 expression is correlated with invasion, metastasis and shorter PFS/OS of SDC. Patients with high expression of CD147 and MMP-9 had poor prognosis than SDC patients with low expression.

  2. Rat cytomegalovirus replication in the salivary glands is exclusively confined to striated duct cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloover, JS; Hillebrands, JL; de Wit, G; Grauls, G; Rozing, J; Bruggeman, CA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2000-01-01

    The salivary gland is the preferred organ for cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication and viral persistence. In order to identify the nature of infected cells and to study viral replication in more detail, several experiments were conducted. Using the rat CMV (RCMV) model, acutely infected young adult

  3. Significance of Interleukin-6/STAT Pathway for the Gene Expression of REG Iα, a New Autoantigen in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients, in Salivary Duct Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takanori; Fujimoto, Takashi; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Miyaoka, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Kiyomi; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takeda, Maiko; Tsujinaka, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takasawa, Shin

    2017-06-01

    The regenerating gene, Reg, was originally isolated from a rat regenerating islet complementary DNA (cDNA) library, and its human homologue was named REG Iα. Recently, we reported that REG Iα messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as its product, was overexpressed in ductal epithelial cells in the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. Furthermore, autoantibodies against REG Iα were found in the sera of Sjögren's syndrome patients, and the patients who were positive for the anti-REG Iα antibody showed significantly lower saliva secretion than antibody-negative patients. We found the mechanism of REG Iα induction in salivary ductal epithelial cells. Reporter plasmid containing REG Iα promoter (-1190/+26) upstream of a luciferase gene was introduced into human NS-SV-DC and rat A5 salivary ductal cells. The cells were treated with several cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, etc.), upregulated in Sjögren's syndrome salivary ducts, and the transcriptional activity was measured. IL-6 stimulation significantly enhanced the REG Iα promoter activity in both cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the -141∼-117 region of the REG Iα gene was responsible for the promoter activation by IL-6, which contains a consensus sequence for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding. The introduction of small interfering RNA for human STAT3 abolished IL-6-induced REG Iα transcription. These results indicated that IL-6 stimulation induced REG Iα transcription through STAT3 activation and binding to the REG Iα promoter in salivary ductal cells. This dependence of REG Iα induction upon IL-6/STAT in salivary duct epithelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis/progression of Sjögren's syndrome.

  4. Salivary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  5. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl- channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO3- secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complete Response to Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy in a Patient with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Positive Metastatic Salivary Duct Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Kadowaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA of the salivary glands has often a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC component, which resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast and frequently overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2. We report a case of metastatic CXPA with SDC component who was treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy and has had a durable complete response. Case Report: A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with CXPA of the right parotid gland. The resected tumor was histologically diagnosed as CXPA with a predominant SDC component that showed strong positivity for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification. Multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions were detected after surgery, and combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. A complete response was confirmed after 7 treatment cycles, and no evidence of disease progression has been observed after 13 months of initiation of therapy. Conclusions: This report suggests a potential utility of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive CXPA.

  7. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Sohsuke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2126158270695815

  8. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2126158270695815 PMID:22647549

  9. Enhanced degradation of proteins of the basal lamina and stroma by matrix metalloproteinases from the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients: correlation with reduced structural integrity of acini and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicovich, Eduardo; Molina, Claudio; Pérez, Paola; Aguilera, Sergio; Fernández, Juan; Olea, Nancy; Alliende, Cecilia; Leyton, Cecilia; Romo, Rafael; Leyton, Lisette; González, María-Julieta

    2003-09-01

    To determine the effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity from the labial salivary glands (LSGs) of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients on proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that form the basal lamina and stroma, and to compare this effect with the structural integrity of acini and ducts as well as the functionality of the LSGs. Gelatinase activity was determined by zymography. The digestion pattern of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules was detected by gel electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The structural integrity of acini and ducts was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Secretory function was evaluated by measuring unstimulated salivary flow and by scintigraphy. LSG extracts showed increased levels of proteolytic activity toward purified proteins of the basal lamina (laminin and type IV collagen) and stroma (types I and III collagen and fibronectin). Enhanced degradation was most evident for fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen. Analysis of the ultrastructure of the acinar and ductal basal lamina revealed abnormalities ranging from disorganization to disappearance of this ECM structure. These changes were paralleled by an important loss of microvilli on the apical surface, as well as decreased unstimulated salivary flow. Interestingly, the results were similar in LSGs from all SS patients, regardless of the proximity of infiltrating mononuclear cell foci. Our observation that the proteolytic action of MMPs toward ECM macromolecules is increased in SS patients provides a rationale for understanding the dramatic changes in the structural organization observed in the basal lamina and apical surface of acini in these patients. The results provide new evidence that acinar and ductal cells from the LSGs of SS patients display a molecular potential, with increased capacity to markedly disorganize their ECM environment and, thus, damage their architecture and functionality.

  10. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  11. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  12. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  13. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  14. [The determination of salivary pH by contact pH meter in individuals receiving psychotropic therapy. Study of pH on the tongue and at the orifice of Wharton's and Stenon's ducts (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C; Gachon, A M; Peri, G; Dastugue, B

    1978-01-01

    The authors studied salivary pH at different sites in 172 patients receiving psychotropic therapy in hospital. For statistical purposes, the study was limited to individuals receiving a "moderate" dose of: --a benzodiazepine derivative --a neuroleptic and benzodiazepine --antidepressant, neuroleptic and benzodiazepine. Regardless of the type of psychotropic therapy and of the site of measurement, acidification of salivary pH which was statistically significant in comparison with values found in healthy subjects was noted. This acidification was particularly marked with regard to "lingual" pH. In addition, regardless of the site of measurement, a higher degree of acidification of salivary pH was seen in individuals receiving a combination of psychotropic agents. This acidification was particularly striking with regard to salivary pH in patients given a combination of antidepressant, neuroleptic and a benzodiazepine derivative. The cause of this acidification is not definitely known. A number of hypotheses may be put forward: decrease in salivary volume (Laudenbach, 6, and Vermeil, 7), excretion of acid metabolites by the salivary glands, effect of psychotropic agents upon the action itself of the salivary glands.

  15. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  16. Summary of: Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  17. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  18. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  19. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  20. Parotid duct laceration repair in two horses : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parotid duct lacerations in 2 horses is described using intraluminal silastic tubing as a stent. The duct was lacerated traumatically at the facial vessel notch (incisura vasorum facialium in the 1st horse, and iatrogenically after removal of an intraluminal sialolith after development of infection within the duct in the 2nd horse. In both cases, a silastic tube was passed retrograde into the duct via the salivary papilla, past the wound until the end lay rostroventral to the parotid salivary gland. The severed salivary ducts and the wounds were sutured. The external portion of the silastic tube was sutured to the skin and the tube left in place. Recovery in the 1st case was uneventful. In the 2nd case a salivary duct/cutaneous fistula formed at a wound distant from the sutured wound, which healed spontaneously. This technique differs from a similar described technique in that the stent tube exits the oral cavity and is attached to the outer skin surface.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Home / Health Library / Articles / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration The CBD is a tube connecting the ... liver and gallbladder to the intestine. When is bile duct exploration performed? If something is blocking the bile ...

  3. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to choose ...

  4. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  5. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Unilateral Duplication Of Parotid Duct. A Rare Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paired parotid glands are the largest of the major salivary glands and produces mainly serous secretions. The secretion of this gland reaches the oral cavity through single parotid duct (Stensen’s duct. The parotid duct begins at the anterior border of the gland, crosses the masseter muscle, and then pierces the buccinator muscle to reach the mucosa lining the mouth at the level of the cheek. The purpose of this study is determine the morphologic features of the parotid duct and describe an anatomical variation until now unreported. Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers were used for this study in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. In a cadaver were findings: The main parotid duct originated two conducts: Left superior parotid duct and Left inferior parotid duct, is observed the criss-cross of the ducts, and then perforated the buccinator muscle and entered the oral cavity at a double parotid papilla containing a double opening, separated from each other in 0,98 mm. In the remaining  33 parotid regions (97.06% the parotid duct is conformed to the classical descriptions given in anatomical textbooks. Conclusions: The parotid duct anatomy is important for duct endoscopy, lithotripsy, sialography and trans-ductal facial nerve stimulation in the early stage of facial palsy in some cases. The anatomical variations also has clinical importance for parotid gland surgery and facial cosmetic surgery. To keep in mind the parotid duct variation will reduce iatrogenic injury risks and improve diagnosis of parotid duct injury.

  7. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated

  8. Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. ... the liver get rid of toxins and wastes. Bile duct cancer is rare. It can happen in the ...

  9. Bile Duct Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. ... toxins and wastes. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of ...

  10. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  11. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  12. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  13. Salivary gland surgery and medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Steven S; Yheulon, Christopher G; Sniezek, Joseph C

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the causes and outcomes of lawsuits involving salivary gland surgery by analyzing malpractice litigation trends to prevent future litigation and improve physician education. Analysis of a national database. All US civil trials. The WESTLAW database was reviewed from January 1987 to March 2011. Data were compiled on the demographics of the defendant, anatomic site of injury, initial pathology, nature of injury, legal allegations, verdicts, and indemnities. Twenty-six cases met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Verdicts/settlements for the plaintiffs predominated (58%), and the average sum of the plaintiff's monetary award was $933,235. Sixteen cases (62%) involved injury to the parotid gland/duct, with 10 cases involving injury to the facial nerve. No cases were filed on the grounds of failure to use facial nerve monitoring. Nine cases (35%) involved injury to the submandibular gland/duct. The most common legal allegations listed were improper performance followed by unnecessary procedures. If failure or inadequate consent was a component of the legal allegations, the verdict outcome significantly favored the defendants. Our study reveals that the plaintiffs in litigations involving salivary gland surgery have a slight advantage in outcomes with a fairly substantial award. Our litigation review reiterates the importance of detailed anatomic knowledge of the lingual and facial nerve to avoid the pitfalls of surgical error and consequent litigation. In addition, thorough preoperative evaluation of salivary gland pathology, including radiographic studies and needle biopsy, may help avoid errors in diagnosis and subsequent litigations.

  14. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  15. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  16. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  17. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  18. Congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland in Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Sun, L; Zhang, Z; Ma, X

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland, and we discuss its occurrence in Goldenhar syndrome. Two teenagers complained of a congenital cheek fistula with constant salivary discharge. Computed tomography fistulography and sialography were performed. The diagnosis of Goldenhar syndrome was established based on clinical and imaging findings. Previously reported cases are reviewed and the clinical and radiological features summarised. In these two patients, a salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland was demonstrated on computed tomography fistulography, and did not communicate with Stensen's duct. Deformity of Stensen's duct and hypoplasia of the ipsilateral mandibular ramus were present. Tragal appendices have frequently been reported in such cases. A congenital cheek salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland should be considered indicative of Goldenhar syndrome.

  19. Bile duct obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the biliary system Liver and bile duct worms (flukes) The risk factors include: History of gallstones, ... In: Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Perman ID, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 22nd ...

  20. Mammary Duct Ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lumps Mammary duct ectasia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  1. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  2. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri O Maruyama

    Full Text Available The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts.

  3. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  4. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  5. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  6. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  7. Giant sialoliths of Wharton duct: Report of two rare cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shahoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands, characterized by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of calcareous concretions. Sialoliths usually measure from 1 mm to 15 mm have been reported in the literature. The submandibular gland and its duct appear to be the most susceptible sites for this disease. In this article, we report two unique cases, including a giant bilateral case, measuring 50 mm in length and 5 mm in width on the right side and one, 30 mm in length, and 5 mm in width on the left side; and another case, measuring 83 mm in length. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches consisted of transocclusal radiography with the conservative transoral surgical technique in both cases. The follow-up showed the normal function of the relevant salivary glands. To the best of our knowledge and belief, similar cases have not been reported in the literature.

  8. Giant sialoliths of Wharton duct: Report of two rare cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoon, Hossein; Farhadi, Sareh; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands, characterized by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of calcareous concretions. Sialoliths usually measure from 1 mm to 15 mm have been reported in the literature. The submandibular gland and its duct appear to be the most susceptible sites for this disease. In this article, we report two unique cases, including a giant bilateral case, measuring 50 mm in length and 5 mm in width on the right side and one, 30 mm in length, and 5 mm in width on the left side; and another case, measuring 83 mm in length. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches consisted of transocclusal radiography with the conservative transoral surgical technique in both cases. The follow-up showed the normal function of the relevant salivary glands. To the best of our knowledge and belief, similar cases have not been reported in the literature.

  9. Giant sialoliths of submandibular gland duct: Report of two cases with unusual shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant sialoliths are classified as those exceeding 15 mm in any one dimension. Although, large sialoliths have been described in the body of salivary glands, they are rarely found in the salivary ducts, particularly when the patients have no painful symptoms. Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of the salivary glands in middle-aged patients and approximately 80% of all reported cases of sialoliths occur in the submandibular gland. Here, we report two cases of giant sialolith of submandibular gland duct. Interestingly, sialolith found in one of our cases had an unusual similarity with the canine tooth and mimicking it in both size and shape. In both cases the calculus was removed surgically via intraoral approach. No recurrence was seen in any of the cases on follow-up.

  10. Clock genes show circadian rhythms in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Seon, Y J; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, S; Papagerakis, P

    2012-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by "clock" transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow.

  11. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  12. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  13. Nasopalatine Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Dedhia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine cyst is the most common epithelial and nonodontogenic cyst of the maxilla. The cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells may be activated spontaneously during life or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.. It is different from a radicular cyst. The definite diagnosis should be based on clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. The treatment is enucleation of the cystic tissue, and only in rare cases a marsupialisation needs to be performed. A case of a nasopalatine duct cyst in a 35-year-old male is reviewed. The typical radiologic and histological findings are presented.

  14. Salivary gland of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Bates, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    The salivary glands of male and female Toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. Each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. In the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. The general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. No secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted from long microvilli and collect in a periductal space surrounding the duct. In addition, a number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a very large nucleus were observed, suggesting a high energy requirement for producing the salivary proteins involved in sugar feeding. The size of the gland is approximately 50 microm in diameter and 1.5 mm in length. These dimensions correlate with high protein content of these salivary glands (2.88+/-0.14 microg/gland pair). Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic protein profiles of the male and female salivary glands were identical. No dominant major proteins were found. Compared with Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, the protein profile of T. splendens was similar to that observed in the males of these other species but different to that shown by the females, thus making T. splendens an excellent organism for studying the biochemistry of sugar feeding in mosquitoes.

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  16. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 223.2273 Request an Appointment Contact Us Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Bile Duct Exploration Menu Print Full Article Overview Test Details Results and Follow-Up Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We ...

  17. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  18. Connecting device for air ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippenberger, G.

    1979-11-29

    The connecting device for air ducts described consists of matched coupling elements of great tensile strength in the form of eyes and cords, which are fitted on the front of the air duct sections. There is a sleeve apron on one side which projects into the other section of air duct.

  19. Cornice Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  20. The role of buffer anions and protons in secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Favaloro, E J

    1982-01-01

    1. The role of extracellular HCO3- and H+ in the formation of primary saliva and its subsequent modification by the glandular ducts has been investigated in the isolated perfused mandibular salivary gland of the rabbit. 2. Variation of extracellular HCO3- concentration between 12.5 and 50.0 mmol...

  1. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  2. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  3. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  5. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  6. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi, E-mail: bcmkxo@gwu.edu; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  7. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  8. [New techniques for the treatment of salivary lithiasis: sialoendoscopy and extracorporal lithotripsy: 1773 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ph

    2004-06-01

    Salivary lithiasis is a relatively common medical problem. Treatment by invasive endoscopy, intracorporeal lithotripsy, and extracorporeal lithotripsy has been developing worldwide as an alternative to open surgical procedures. We hypothesized that treatment of salivary gland duct stones with endoscopic ductal intervention and extracorporeal lithotripsy could eliminate ductal stones while exposing the patient to less morbidity. In the current study, we analyzed a large clinical series to determine the success of the new techniques and develop an algorithm for comprehensive treatment of salivary stones. Retrospective chart study of 1773 treated salivary ductal pathology cases. Treatment of salivary lithiasis using either duct endoscopy with instrumentation and/or intracorporeal laser lithotripsy or electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was undertaken for 1773 lithitic glands between 1988 and 2002. A total of 1105 endoscopies were performed on pathologic glands. 668 therapeutic extracorporeal lithotripsies were conducted. Stones were eliminated endoscopically in 96% of patients. Lithotripsy completely destroyed the stones in 63% of the lithotriptor cases; and an additional 35% of these procedures resulted in stone fragmentation with spontaneous expulsion or ancillary endoscopic removal. There were no major complications such as nerve or tooth damage. Early in the endoscopic series, one patient required surgical removal of a lodged wire-basket snare. TIssue effects such as edema, swelling bleeding or infection were temporary and treated as necessary. Four percent of the endoscopic cases and 2% of the lithotriptor cases ultimately required gland excision to remove the stone. The treatment algorithm for salivary stones, which once contained only conventional open surgery, may now include endoscopic instrumentation and extracorporeal lithotripsy. Both techniques are particularly valuable for stones located in the major salivary ducts. This series

  9. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  10. Benign hyperplasia of duct-associated lymphoid tissue: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal lymphoid tissue is ubiquitously present in the oral mucosa and serves as a barrier for entrapment of antigens. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is generally dispersed and sometimes associated with the ducts of the minor salivary glands. Proliferation of the duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT is rarely reported, though probably of common occurrence. We report a case of benign hyperplasia of DALT in the buccal mucosa of a 58-year-old male. The histogenesis and pathological implications of this tissue are discussed and the need for recognition of this entity is stressed.

  11. Overview of Human Salivary Glands: Highlights of Morphology and Developing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Fernanda; Teshima, Tathyane Harumi Nakajima; Hsieh, Ricardo; Souza, Milena Monteiro; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Lourenco, Silvia Vanessa

    2017-07-01

    Salivary glands are essential organs that produce and secrete saliva to the oral cavity. During gland morphogenesis, many developmental processes involve a series of coordinated movements and reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme that generate the ductal system and the secretory units. Recent studies have shown new findings about salivary gland development, particularly regarding lumen formation and expansion, with the involvement of apoptosis and cell polarization, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that human minor salivary glands start forming earlier than previously published and that distinct apoptotic mediators can trigger duct lumen opening in humans. This review summarizes updated morphological and cellular features of human salivary glands and also explores new aspects of the human developmental process. Anat Rec, 300:1180-1188, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Rastogi; Sumeet Bhargava; Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna; Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain ra...

  13. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  14. P27/SKP-2 histochemical profile is relevant to malignant salivary gland tumors (MST) histogenesis and tumor grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrish, Sharon; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Peled, Micha

    2012-06-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors (MST) represent over more than 24 distinct morphological subtypes. Most high grade tumors arise from the excretory duct portion of the salivary gland apparatus; the remainder from the intercalated duct portion. Altered p27/skp-2 expression has been associated with tumor aggressiveness and histologic differentiation. In our study, we analyzed p27/skp-2 expression proteins on series of malignant salivary gland tumors in order to assess their value as a histogenetic marker, which is relevant to tumor grade. 61 MST cases were segregated by proposed histogenesis and immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against p27 and skp-2. MST of proposed intercalated duct origin (n=27) showed strong p27 expression (n=25/27; 93%) in the vast majority of cases and all cases weakly expressed skp-2. MST of proposed excretory duct origin (n=32) showed strong p27 expression (n=18/32; 56%) and moderately strong/strong skp-2 expression (n=18/32; 56%), respectively, in over half the cases. MST of intercalated duct origin showed evident p27/skp-2 inverse correlation. Differences in p27/skp-2 expression among the MST subtypes correlated with histogenesis and tumor grade, which reinforces the notion that tumor behavior is relevant to the portion of the salivary gland unit from which they arise. MST of proposed intercalated duct origin strongly expressed p27, and not skp-2, unlike MST of proposed excretory duct origin. The immunohistochemical profile of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma was distinct from its low/intermediate grade counterparts, suggesting a separate identity. These results may influence future decision making when formulating workable MST categorization schemes. Further studies on a larger series of MST are warranted in order to support the value of our findings.

  15. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands in Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) according to seasonal and circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, K; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Ostróżka, A; Marchewka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M

    2016-11-01

    The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae. The salivary glands are composed of a terminal acinar component and a system of tubular ducts that are lined with a cuticle. The glandular part is composed of secretory epithelial cells that are at various stages of their secretory activity. The saliva that is produced by the secretory cells of the acini is secreted into the salivary ducts, which are lined with a simple epithelium that is based on the non-cellular basal lamina. The ultrastructural variations suggest that salivary glands function differently depending on seasonal rhythms and prepare the animal for overwintering. Therefore, the salivary glands of the centipedes that were analyzed participate in the accumulation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides during the spring, summer and autumn. Subtle differences in the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the salivary glands during the circadian cycle must be related to the physiological reactions of the organism. The salivary ducts showed no differences in the specimens that were analyzed during the day/night cycle or during the seasonal cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  18. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct sytem. Part 1. Dynamics and duct dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.; Verhagen, J.H.G.

    2002-01-01

    The classical representation of the semicircular duct system consists of three separate duct circuits. The ducts are, however, in reality, hydrodynamically interconnected. Muller & Verhagen (1988a,b) derived equations for the mechanical behaviour of an interconnected system with three ducts

  19. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  20. ROV inspection inside ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.E.; Street, P.F.; Cole, G.V. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    An instrumentation package for carrying out visual inspections and radiation monitoring within radioactive duct-work has been developed. This paper describes the first application of the package in the main ventilation duct of the Dounreay fuel cycle area. The package was deployed via a commerical ROV within a duct consisting of two parallel runs, over 300 metres long, between 0.9 and 1.7 metres high and 1.1 metres wide. An integrated, computer-controlled station was used for data collection, recording in digital form and on video tape. (Author).

  1. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  2. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  3. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway. PMID:23277147

  4. Common immunophenotypic features of submandibular salivary glands and thymus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dožić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Submandibular salivary gland is a part of the neuro-immune-endocrine system. It contains biological factors which regulate a number of functions in the body including the modulation of thymus function. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate immunophenotypic characteristics of submandibular salivary glands of rats during ontogenesis, using the panels of monoclonal antibodies and to compare with the phenotypic characteristics of epithelial components of the thymus. Methods. Submandibular salivary glands and thymus were obtained from 1, 30 and 60 days old male AO (Albino, Oxford rats. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method was used for staining. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat submandibular salivary glands showed phenotypic heterogeneity of particular components of this gland during the postnatal development. We demonstrated that rat submandibular salivary glands share common antigens with rat thymic epithelial cells, but the observed phenotypic similarity between the individual regions was considered much more significant. Our data showed that the phenotypic similarity between duct epithelial cells and subcapsular epithelial cells and most medullary cells, whereas cortical epithelial cells are phenotypically similar to acinar cells. Conclusion. This immunohistological study showed phenotypic complexity of the submandibular salivary gland and similarity to the thymus that opens new perspectives in studying phenotypic similarities between this gland and lymphatic organs.

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Nathaly; Martínez, Luis C; Silva, Eder H; Teodoro, Adenir V; Serrão, José Eduardo; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, which is a major component of the pentatomid pest complex on soybeans, Glycine max, in the neotropics. Our results revealed a salivary gland complex consisting of two lobes (i.e., anterior and posterior), with a constriction between them (i.e., the hilum), in which the salivary and accessory gland ducts are inserted. The principal gland epithelium has a single layer of cells lining an enlarged lumen filled with saliva, and these cells are cuboidal, rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, with well-developed nuclei, all of which are typical features of protein-secreting cells. We report, for the first time in insects, the presence of a layer of muscle cells surrounding the columnar hilum epithelium. The accessory salivary gland cells are cuboidal with nuclei containing condensed chromatin and cytoplasm rich in vacuoles and rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating the potential involvement of these glands in water transport/secretion. The lumen content of each lobe of the principal gland suggests that the lobes produce different compounds. Thus, our results suggest that the E. heros salivary complex might have unconventional mechanisms to mix/release saliva, which might help explain the polyphagous abilities of these insects.

  6. Cystinuria: One Possible Reason for Kidney and Salivary Gland Lithiasis Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Marc-Kevin; Graillon, Nicolas; Foletti, Jean-Marc; Chossegros, Cyrille

    2017-11-22

    Salivary gland lithiasis affects 1 to 2% of adults. The submandibular glands are concerned in 87% of cases. An association between kidney and salivary lithiases, although often mentioned, has rarely been observed. We relate an exceptional case of parotid and submandibular cystine sialolithiasis with kidney cystine lithiasis in a patient with cystinuria. Cystine lithiasis occurs in 1% of kidney lithiasis cases. The purpose of this article is to discuss the arguments, diagnosis, and therapeutic attitude in front of salivary cystine lithiasis. The patient was a 56-year-old woman treated for cystinuria undergoing a consultation for parotid lithiases. We obtained a panoramic view and performed a cervicofacial computed tomography scan, sialo-magnetic resonance imaging, and sialendoscopy. We found multiple lithiases in the distal portions of the Stensen duct, and 2 days after sialendoscopy, the patient expelled small sialoliths. Salivary lithiasis in patients with cystinuria has the same biochemical composition as kidney lithiasis. A computed tomography scan is efficient in most cases, but sialo-magnetic resonance imaging may be the only noninvasive method to diagnose small cystine salivary lithiases, such as those that can be seen in patients with cystinuria. Sialendoscopy is still an efficient diagnostic and therapeutic method for every type of salivary lithiasis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3− Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3− secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3− secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3− secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3− secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl− and secrete HCO3−. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl− and secretes HCO3− and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3− secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl− and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl− secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl− and secretes K+ and HCO3−. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3− secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  9. Salivary gland morphology, tissue tropism and the progression of tospovirus infection in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Ullman, Diane E; Whitfield, Anna E

    2016-06-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by thrips in a propagative manner; however, progression of virus infection in the insect is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to study the morphology and infection of thrips salivary glands. The primary salivary glands (PSG) are complex, with three distinct regions that may have unique functions. Analysis of TSWV progression in thrips revealed the presence of viral proteins in the foregut, midgut, ligaments, tubular salivary glands (TSG), and efferent duct and filament structures connecting the TSG and PSG of first and second instar larvae. The primary site of virus infection shifted from the midgut and TSG in the larvae to the PSG in adults, suggesting that tissue tropism changes with insect development. TSG infection was detected in advance of PSG infection. These findings support the hypothesis that the TSG are involved in trafficking of TSWV to the PSG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary gland diseases in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  11. Dynamics of Salivary Gland Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harunaga, J.; Hsu, J. C.; Yamada, K M

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands form during embryonic development by a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The architecture of these glands is generated by branching morphogenesis, revealed by recent research to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, ...

  12. Temporal reduction in size of salivary acinus in rats induced by theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Satoru; Takeuchi, Ayano; Nii, Aisuke; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    Repeated administration of theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, induces the enlargement of the salivary glands in rats. Time-course changes after a single administration of theophylline were examined in the salivary glands, including phosphodiesterase enzyme activity, and the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a water channel. We also examined the contribution of beta-adrenergic receptors to theophylline-induced salivary changes. Male F344 rats were given 50 mg/kg of theophylline intraperitoneally either alone or concurrently with a 10 mg/kg subcutaneous injection of propranolol. After treatment with theophylline alone, the weight and histology of the submaxillary and parotid glands were examined. Phosphodiesterase activity and AQP5 were detected by enzyme- and immuno-histochemistry, respectively. At 4 hours, 8 hours, or both, organ weights were decreased with depletion of secretory vesicles in the acinar cells. In the submaxillary glands, reduced activity of phosphodiesterase and increased expression of AQP5 in the intercalated ducts were observed at 4 hours. When co-administered, propranolol partially abolished theophylline-induced glandular reduction. These results suggest that the theophylline-induced transient reduction in size of the salivary glands is attributable not only to phosphodiesterase inhibition but also to beta-adrenergic receptor activation and that the intercalated ducts in submaxillary glands play a role in the production of saliva.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase VI: a novel marker for salivary serous acinar differentiation and its application to discriminate acinic cell carcinoma from mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lin, Chiao-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) is present in serous acinar cells of human salivary glands. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of CA6 in differentiating acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) from its morphological mimic mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland. CA6 immunostaining was performed in 28 cases of AciCC and 14 cases of MASC. All cases of AciCC showed positive CA6 staining. The staining pattern correlated with the number of serous acinar cells in tumours. All MASCs stained negatively for CA6. The results were compared with those obtained with currently used markers, including DOG1, mammaglobin, S100, and vimentin. CA6 showed sensitivity and specificity as high as those of DOG1 in diagnosing AciCC. CA6 expression was focally observed in basal cell adenoma and in one case of cystadenocarcinoma (1/3), but not in other salivary gland tumours, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma. CA6 is a specific marker for serous acinar cells of salivary glands and AciCC. CA6 has sensitivity and specificity equal to those of DOG1 in the differential diagnosis between AciCC and MASC. A combination of CA6 and DOG1 could be an ideal immunohistochemical panel for AciCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  16. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  17. Performance Study of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with the objective of determining the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The model was an annular duct with a 38-in diameter, 10-in chord, and a 5-bladed fixed-pitch fan. Model variations included duct angle of attack, exit vane flap length, flap deflection angle, and duct chord length. Duct performance data were obtained for axial and forward flight test conditions. Axial flow test data showed figure of merit decreases with increasing advance ratio. Forward flight data showed an increasing propulsive force with decreasing duct angle of attack. Exit vane flap deflection angle and flap chord length were shown to be an effective way of providing side force. Extending the duct chord did not effect the duct performance.

  18. Duct injection technology prototype development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol) and by-products of drugs from the body. The biliary tract consists of small tubes (ducts) that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac located beneath the liver. It stores bile. ...

  20. Ultrastructural Characterization of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: A Distinct Entity from Acinic Cell Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Julie; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Faquin, William C; Selig, Martin; Nosé, Vânia; Chi, Anthony W S; Sadow, Peter M

    2017-02-13

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands is a recently described neoplasm of the salivary glands with a characteristic morphology complemented by a specific cytogenetic translocation and gene rearrangements. Although immunophenotypic and cytogenetic differences allow for a more reliable distinction, ultrastructural features can also provide important information about the relationship between MASC, classic acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), and AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant. Following approval from the hospital's institutional review board, 7 cases of MASC, 8 cases of classic AciCC, and 4 cases of AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant were retrieved from the pathology files of Massachusetts General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Electron microscopy was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Ultrastructural features of all 19 neoplasms of the salivary glands were recorded. The predominant cell-types observed in MASC are those with intercalated/striated duct cell differentiation. These features include prominent invaginations of the cell surface studded with microvilli, and some intra- and intercellular lumina also with a microvillous surface. Classic AciCC dominant cell-type recapitulates acinar cell differentiation. These cells contain large intracytoplasmic zymogen-like granules. AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant showed both cell populations in various proportions with the intercalated/striated duct cell type usually being the dominant one. MASC presents with distinctive ultrastructural features that allows its proper differentiation from classic AciCC. However, significant ultrastructural features overlaps between both AciCC intercalated duct cells-predominant and classic AciCC and MASC. These findings indicate a very close proximity between these tumors.

  1. CT scan assessment in salivary gland lithiasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, M A; Foletti, J M; Avignon, S; Graillon, N; Chossegros, C

    2017-11-22

    The aim of the study was to assess computed tomography (CT) scan efficiency for the diagnosis of salivary lithiasis. Patients who were included were all the patients who consulted in our department for main salivary gland (submandibular and parotid) obstruction symptoms between June 2014 and December 2016. A CT scan without injection was prescribed for all of them. The 163 patients were divided into two groups after the CT scan: patients with and without lithiasis. During surgery, we confirmed the presence or absence of the lithiasis previously diagnosed on the CT scan. The patients were divided in two groups: case and control groups. For statistical analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the negative and positive predictive values of the preoperative CT scan were calculated. A total of 163 patients with a salivary obstructive syndrome were included. On the CT scans, we found lithiases (hyperdense images) in 157 glands ("CT scan⊕" group), and we found no lithiasis in 6 glands ("CT scan" group). In the "CT scan⊕" group, 203 lithiases were present. During surgery, we found and removed lithiases in 155 patients (case group), and 8 patients had no lithiases (control group). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the CT scan for the detection of lithiasis were 100%, 75%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. The specificity of CT scans for the lithiasis located in the anterior and middle third of the duct was 100%. According to our study, the CT scan is very efficient in diagnosing salivary main gland lithiases in patients with an obstructive syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscopic study of the submandibular salivary gland of adult African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse -1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ikpegbu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to provide the basic histology of submandubular salivary gland in the giant pouched rat, as there is dearth of information of its microscopic architecture in available literature. This becomes more important as the possible use of this species of rodent is considered as a future laboratory animal of choice over the Winster rat because of its bigger size and possibility of the giant pouched rat domestication as a ready source of animal protein. Hence the need to understand the digestive biology to help animal nutritionist in feed formulation. The histology revealed the presence of both serous and mucus secretory acini. Some mucus cell presented serous demilumes. Myoeithelial cells were seen around secretory cells and the intercalated ducts. The serous gland region with more relatively profuse intralobular ducts was larger in size than the mucus gland region. The intralobular ducts of intercalated and striated ducts were lined by simple cuboidal and simple columnar cells respectively. The excretory duct was line by stratified cuboidal cells. The large serous glandular region reflects need for more enzymic action in the oral cavity while the mucus glands will help produce mucin that will lubricate the digestive tract. This study for the first time documents the normal histology of submandibular salivary gland in this species, hence filling the knowledge gap that will help further investigative research especially the role of myoepihelial cells in secretory glands tumours.

  3. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  4. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  5. Laser lithotripsy of salivary stones: Correlation with physical and radiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötzlmair, Florian; Müller, Mona; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Johnson, Thorsten; Vogeser, Michael; von Holzschuher, Vanessa; Zengel, Pamela; Sroka, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands. Owing to the variety of conservative and minimally invasive techniques, it is now possible to treat most cases of sialolithiasis without removal of the affected salivary gland. One treatment option is the endoscopic removal of the calculi. In cases of larger concretions, intraductal disintegration using laser-induced shock waves can be appropriate to allow endoscopic removal. In the present study, we investigated whether physical and radiological parameters of salivary stones can effectively predict the applicability of laser lithotripsy. Furthermore, we determined to what extent the applied laser energy resulted in tissue damage. In addition to basic parameters like size and density, we analysed 47 salivary stones using fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and dual-energy computed tomography. Subsequent fragmentation of all stones was performed with a Ho:YAG laser in a near-contact manner. Fragmentation rates were calculated and correlated with the previously measured physical and radiological parameters. Finally, to test for tissue damage, we performed HE-histology of salivary duct mucosa treated with the same laser energy used for stone fragmentation. Blue light excitation induced either green or red fluorescence emission. Dual-energy CT resulted in evidence of calcium-containing material. Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, both identified carbonate apatite as the main component of salivary stones. Disintegration into pieces smaller than 2 mm was possible in all cases. Fragmentation rates depended on the energy per pulse applied but not on any of the analysed physical and radiological parameters. In contrast to lithotripsy with 500 mJ per pulse, which was associated with no tissue damage, lithotripsy with 1,000 mJ per pulse resulted in damage of salivary duct mucosa. This suggests that the optimal laser energy for stone fragmentation is between 500

  6. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  7. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  8. Specific transduction and labeling of pancreatic ducts by targeted recombinant viral infusion into mouse pancreatic ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Xiao, Xiangwei; El-Gohary, Yousef; Criscimanna, Angela; Prasadan, Krishna; Rymer, Christopher; Shiota, Chiyo; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iliana; Esni, Farzad; Gittes, George K

    2013-11-01

    Specific labeling of pancreatic ducts has proven to be quite difficult. Such labeling has been highly sought after because of the power it would confer to studies of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, as well as studies of the source of new insulin-producing β-cells. Cre-loxp recombination could, in theory, lineage-tag pancreatic ducts, but results have been conflicting, mainly due to low labeling efficiencies. Here, we achieved a high pancreatic duct labeling efficiency using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) with a duct-specific sox9 promoter infused into the mouse common biliary/pancreatic duct. We saw rapid, diffuse duct-specific labeling, with 50 and 89% labeling in the pancreatic tail and head region, respectively. This highly specific labeling of ducts should greatly enhance our ability to study the role of pancreatic ducts in numerous aspects of pancreatic growth, development and function.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Bile Duct Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Yiwei; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian biliary system, consisting of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, is responsible for transporting bile from the liver to the intestine. Bile duct dysfunction, as is seen in some congenital biliary diseases such as Alagille syndrome and biliary atresia, can lead to the accumulation of bile in the liver, preventing the excretion of detoxification products and ultimately leading to liver damage. Bile duct formation requires coordinated cell-cell interactions, resulting in...

  10. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  11. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  12. Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

  13. Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Mosquera-Lloreda, Nezly; Salom, Lucas; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa; Peydró, Amando

    2006-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common metabolic disorder and it causes an important morbimortality. The structural modifications in the parotid gland (sialosis) had already been described in these patients and could result in variations in the salivary composition, as well as an increase in periodontal and dental pathology. To compare the biochemical findings in the saliva and to correlate these biochemical disturbances with the morphologic findings previously described. Clinical information were gathered about 33 patients, 17 had type 2 diabetes. Samples of whole saliva were obtained for biochemical analysis and serum samples to determine metabolic control. In the diabetics saliva we found urea and total proteins increased and reduced levels of microalbumina. Salivary glucose was only augmented in patients with poor metabolic control. Clinical symptoms of xerostomia were present in 76,4% and dental and periodontal disease in 100%. The parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, lipid intracytoplasmic droplets, as well as adipose stroma infiltration. The acinar cytoqueratins expression was heterogeneous and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts. These biochemical disorders in the saliva of the type 2 diabetic patients would be related with the structural changes previously observed in parotid glands.

  14. Morphological aspects of the salivary glands of Crab-eating racoon (Procyon cancrivorus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.12675

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Gonçalves de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyon cancrivorus is a wild mammal from the Procyonidae family, being one of the least studied Brazilian carnivores. The aim of this study was to describe the morphological aspects of the salivary glands of Procyon cancrivorus, and to compare with literature data on the morphology of domestic animals and wilds animals, such as coatis and possums. Three adult animals were collected on highways (roadkilled, fixed 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and submitted to desiccation. The salivary glands of the crab-eating raccoon are formed by the parotid, mandibular, sublingual and zygomatic glands. The parotid gland shows irregularly triangular shape with its respective duct. The mandible gland shows rounded outline surrounded by a fibrous capsule with its respective duct. The sublingual gland is divided into two parts: the caudal part, located in the occiptomandibular region of the digastric muscle and the rostral part between the tunica mucosa of the mouth and the mylohyoid muscle with its respective duct. The zygomatic gland is small and rounded, located in the rostral part of the pterygopalatine fossa with its respective duct. The morphology of the salivary glands of crab-eating raccoon presents great similarity in shape and arrangement with the glands of dog, cat, coatis and possum.  

  15. Comparative histochemistry of posterior lingual salivary glands of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Fletcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Normal posterior deep and superficial salivary glands of tongue were examined in male mice by means of light microscopical histochemistry and neurohistology. Both glands showed acini and simple ducts. Demilunes were present in the superficial gland. Disulphides and neutral mucosubstances occurred in acini and demilunes. Tryptophan staining was seen in acini of the deep gland and demilunes, whereas acid mucosubstances were exclusively localised in the superficial gland. Dehydrogenase activities were widespread. Strong esterase activity occurred throughout the parenchyma of the deep gland and in demilunes; it was variably inhibited by E600, apart from acinar apical regions in the deep gland. Lipase was confined to acini of the deep gland and demilunes. Acid phosphatase staining was similarly localised; it was also seen in periluminal ductal rims of the deep gland, in which ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase was localised basolaterally. Staining for alkaline phosphatase decorated occasional myoepithelial-like arrangements and interstitial capillaries. Acetylcholinesterase was associated with nerve fibres embracing glandular parenchyma. Adrenergic fibres were not seen. The results suggest that the acini of the posterior deep lingual gland secrete neutral glycoproteins, whereas the ducts transport ions and absorb luminal material. The posterior superficial lingual gland mainly secretes acid glycoproteins. Both glands produce lingual lipase, receive cholinergic-type innervation and have inconspicuous myoepithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimum Leakage/Low Cost Duct Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Proctor

    2003-08-01

    Leaky and disconnected joints in HVAC air distribution systems are extremely widespread. The average efficiency of duct systems in homes in the US is approximately 55% with approximately 60% of the loss due to duct leakage. Beyond the energy and emissions penalties caused by these leaks, leaky systems have detrimental comfort, health, and safety effects. The health and safety effects include the delivery of combustion products into the homes due to leakage induced depressurization. Current duct installation practice does not attempt to address the problem. This project developed a prototype Professionally Engineered Duct System that will virtually eliminate air leakage and that can be applied in new and replacement installations at the same labor cost as current designs. It uses snap-together duct fittings that will not come apart, can be applied to all types of duct systems, and cannot be separated without exceptional force. its use would require minimal changes to current installation practice. The research team developed the prototype through a multi-step process beginning with a functional analysis of duct connections. This was followed by identifying duct sealing and attachment methods offering potential to meet design objectives, evaluating the designs in terms of function and economic feasibility, and building and testing the most promising design option. Two versions of this design were developed through a test, revise, retest process. One application was to a rigid sheet metal duct, the other was to a helix core flex duct. The process produced a sheet metal application with 1/20th the leakage of a standard connection and a flex duct application with 1/10th the leakage of a standard connection. A patent search has found that the design will not infringe on existing patents and is patentable.

  17. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Is Necessary for Salivary Glands and Pancreas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, K A; Do, M A; Nguyen, K; Mallick, S; Kin, K; Farokhnia, N; Jun, G; Fakhouri, W D

    2017-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) acts as a tumor suppressor and controls cell differentiation in ectodermal and craniofacial tissues by regulating expression of target genes. Haploinsufficiency of IRF6 causes Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndrome, 2 syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Around 85% of patients with Van der Woude express pits on the lower lip that continuously or intermittently drain saliva, and patients with the common cleft lip and palate have a higher prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis. This study aims to identify the role of IRF6 in development of exocrine glands, specifically the major salivary glands. Our transgenic mouse model that expresses LacZ reporter under the control of the human IRF6 enhancer element showed high expression of IRF6 in major and minor salivary glands and ducts. Immunostaining data also confirmed the endogenous expression of IRF6 in the developing ductal, serous, and mucous acinar cells of salivary glands. As such, we hypothesized that Irf6 is important for proper development of salivary glands and potentially other exocrine glands. Loss of Irf6 in mice causes an increase in the proliferation level of salivary cells, disorganized branching morphogenesis, and a lack of differentiated mucous acinar cells in submandibular and sublingual glands. Expression and localization of the acinar differentiation marker MIST1 were altered in Irf6-null salivary gland and pancreas. The RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that 168 genes are differentially expressed and confer functions associated with transmembrane transporter activity, spliceosome, and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in the EGF pathway-that is, Ereg, Ltbp4, Matn1, Matn3, and Tpo-was decreased at embryonic day 14.5, while levels of apoptotic proteins were elevated at postnatal day 0. In conclusion, our data report a novel role of Irf6 in exocrine gland development and support a rationale for performing exocrine

  18. The role of neurotrophins related to stress in saliva and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Juri; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in neurogenesis, differentiation, growth, and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play key roles in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when the developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimuli. Early life events, such as psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis, thereby affecting brain development and contributing to inter-individual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. Immobilization stress modifies BDNF mRNA expression in some organs. We studied the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rat submandibular glands, and found increased BDNF expression in duct cells under immobilization stress. Upon further investigation on the influence of salivary glands on plasma BDNF using an acute immobilization stress model, we found that acute immobilization stress lasting 60 min significantly increases the plasma BDNF level. However, plasma BDNF elevation is markedly suppressed in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. This suggests that salivary glands may be the primary source of plasma BDNF under acute immobilization stress. This report reviews the structure of salivary glands, the role of neurotrophins in salivary glands, and the significance of BDNF in saliva and salivary glands, followed by a summary of the evidence that indicates the relationship between immobilization stress and BDNF expression within salivary glands.

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a new entity associated with ETV6 gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Stodulski, Dominik; Klimková, Adéla; Steiner, Petr; Stankiewicz, Czesław; Biernat, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma.

  20. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  1. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  2. Aggressive Salivary Malignancies at Early Stage: Outcomes and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppsteiner, Robert W; Fowlkes, Jonathan W; Anderson, Carryn M; Robinson, Robert A; Pagedar, Nitin A

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined whether the use of adjuvant treatment impacts survival for early stage high-grade salivary tumors. A retrospective review of the SEER database between 1973 and 2012 was performed. Patients with high-grade major salivary gland tumors including salivary duct carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma, NOS were identified. Only stage I-II tumors were included. The impact of radiation status on observed and relative survival was examined. Five hundred seventy-four patients with high-grade, early stage salivary tumors met inclusion criteria. Sixty-seven percent of patients received radiation therapy. There was no difference in observed or relative survival based on having received radiation. Adjuvant radiation is indicated for advanced stage tumors or early stage tumors with adverse features. For early stage tumors without adverse features, there was no survival benefit from radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation should be decided on a case-by-case basis for these patients.

  3. Members of the Salivary Gland Surface Protein (SGS) Family Are Major Immunogenic Components of Mosquito Saliva*

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonas G.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675

  4. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  5. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via ...

  6. Clinicopathological aspects of 25 cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazao-Silva, Marco Tullio; Prosdocimi, Fabio Cesar; Lemos-Junior, Celso Augusto; de Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands (SMSG) is rarely reported and presumably represents an underestimated disease. This study examined the clinicopathological aspects of 25 selected SMSG cases over an 11-year period at the Oral Pathology Department of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. SMSG was not a clinical diagnosis in 92% of the cases. Histologically, the sialoliths tended to be superficial and formed by concentric layers with variable degrees of mineralization. Chronic periductal and parenchymal inflammation were frequent, as well as squamous metaplasia of the affected duct. Ectasia, squamous and mucous metaplasia, mucous plug formation, and cellular debris were seen in adjacent ducts. Clinicians should be aware of SMSG, especially with regard to its higher incidence in the upper lip and buccal mucosa.

  7. Diffuse bile duct tumors: guidelines for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, K; Longmire, W; Tompkins, R; Chavez, M; Cates, J; Roslyn, J

    1991-12-01

    The majority of patients with bile duct cancer have small focal adenocarcinomas localized to the upper, middle, or lower third of the bile duct. In contrast, a small subgroup of patients have been identified with bile duct tumors that are diffuse, involving multiple segments of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Among 186 patients with documented bile duct cancer treated at the UCLA Medical Center between 1954 and 1988, 13 patients (7%) had diffuse lesions. Patients with diffuse tumors had markedly poorer survival rates than did those with focal lesions. As diffuse tumors are not amenable to resection, surgical management consists primarily of establishing suitable biliary drainage. All patients with bile duct cancer should undergo careful intraoperative evaluation to exclude a diffuse lesion before tumor resection.

  8. Identification and subcellular localization of paracellin-1 (claudin-16) in human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Homann, Veronika; Kinne-Saffran, Evamaria; Kinne, Rolf K H

    2007-07-01

    Salivary calcium plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dental caries and the bio-mineralization of dental enamel and exposed dentin. The cellular and molecular basis of calcium secretion by the human salivary glands is, however, poorly understood. Recently a transcellular transport of calcium by the acinus cells has been proposed. In this paper we looked for evidence for paracellular calcium transport by investigating the presence and cellular localization of paracellin-1 (claudin-16) that has been implied in paracellular magnesium and calcium transport in the kidney. At the mRNA level, using RT-PCR with primers of appropriate sequence, paracellin-1 mRNA could be found in human Glandula parotis, Glandula submandibularis, Glandula labialis and Glandula sublingualis samples. In addition, a splice variant was detected in three out of 15 glands consisting of exons one and five of the paracellin gene. In immunohistochemical studies paracellin-1 colocalised in the salivary excretory ducts with the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin suggesting a potential role in paracellular calcium and magnesium transport. In the acini no such colocalisation was observed; paracellin was instead detected at the basal poles of the cells, between cells of the same acinus as well as between cells of neighboring acini. At this location paracellin-1 might act as selectivity filter for the paracellular movement of ions and water during stimulated secretion. Thus, both in the ducts and in the acini a paracellular transport of calcium appears possible. Whether it occurs at all and the extent to which it contributes to the overall salivary calcium secretion remains, however, to be determined.

  9. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  10. Lysozyme Expression Can be Useful to Distinguish Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma from Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Gómez, Camila Andrea Concha; de Souza do Nascimento, Juliana; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Egal, Erika Said; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Altemani, Albina

    2016-12-01

    Lysozyme is an enzymatic marker of acinar and intercalated duct cells of normal salivary glands. The aim of this study was to verify whether lysozyme expression could be useful to distinguish acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) from its main mimic, mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC). For comparison, DOG1 expression was analyzed as well. Seventeen cases of ACC, 15 MASC, and 125 other salivary tumors were studied. Lysozyme expression was found in tumor cells as well as in secreted material of MASC (86.6 % of cases) and in ductal cells of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC-53.8 %), pleomorphic adenoma (PA-29.1 %) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA-23.8 %). However, in ACC, lysozyme was not expressed. Three patterns of DOG1 staining were seen: apical-luminal, cytoplasmic, and mixed cytoplasmic/membranous. The apical-luminal pattern was detected in ductal cells of ACC (58.8 % of cases), EMC (38.4 %), adenoid-cystic carcinoma (AdCC-35.3 %), PA (8.3 %), and PLGA (4.8 %). These tumors also showed mixed membranous/cytoplasmic staining for DOG1. MASC, mucoepidermoid, and salivary duct carcinomas exhibited only DOG1 cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, lysozyme cannot be used as a marker of acinar differentiation in salivary tumors. However, lysozyme expression can be helpful to distinguish MASC from ACC due to its high frequency in the former and absence in ACC. It is likely that in MASC, lysozyme expression may reflect a lactational-like secretory differentiation since lysozyme belongs to breast milk proteins. Regarding DOG1 expression, the apical-luminal pattern is related to acinar and intercalated duct differentiation whereas the cytoplasmic staining does not seem to be associated with a specific cellular phenotype.

  11. Advantages of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Yue; Shi, Cheng-Xian; Tang, Ke-Li; Huang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, De-Lin

    2017-07-31

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and open common bile duct exploration for treatment of common bile duct stones. In total, 210 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups: laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and open common bile duct exploration. The primary outcome measures were the common bile duct stone clearance rate and the complication rate. The secondary outcome measures were mortality, total costs, and length of hospital stay. The success rates in the laparoscopic common bile duct exploration group (97.14%, 68 out of 70) and open common bile duct exploration group (98.57%, 69/70) were significantly higher than that in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography group (85.71%, 60/70, both p  0.05). Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration provides an alternative therapeutic approach that was safer and more reliable, allowed for earlier recovery, and provided more cost-effective treatment of common bile duct stones.

  12. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  13. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  14. Symptomatic pancreatic duct stones in the disconnected bile duct: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, Alexander R; Irani, Shayan; Kozarek, Richard A

    Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) refers to the union of the pancreatic and biliary ducts outside of the duodenal wall. Patients are at increased risk of bile duct and gallbladder cancer, likely secondary to pancreatic juice refluxing into the biliary tree, and it is recommended that they undergo biliary diversion. This is a case series of all patients in our institution with PBM and bilioenteric anastomosis who presented with symptomatic pancreatic duct stones in a disconnected bile duct. IRB approval was obtained prior to the initiation of the study. We describe eight cases of this finding. All patients underwent ERCP, with stones successfully removed from the disconnected bile duct in seven patients and from the pancreatic duct in one patient. This novel finding has not been described in the medical literature, and may become more prevalent as more patients with PBM undergo bilioenteric anastomosis. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  16. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  17. Traumatic resin ducts as indicators of bark beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Matthew F. Bekker; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) represents an important induced defense in woody plants that enhances oleoresin production and flow in response to environmental perturbations. In some genera (Pinus), resin ducts are copious and conspicuous; however, in others (Picea), resin ducts are relatively rare. The occurrence and strength of resin ducts, in...

  18. On approaches to the functional restoration of salivary glands damaged by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with a review of related aspects of salivary gland morphology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R S

    2008-06-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck can devastate the salivary glands and partially devitalize the mandible and maxilla. As a result, saliva production is drastically reduced and its quality adversely altered. Without diligent home and professional care, the teeth are subject to rapid destruction by caries, necessitating extractions with attendant high risk of necrosis of the supporting bone. Innovative techniques in delivery of radiation therapy and administration of drugs that selectively protect normal tissues can reduce significantly the radiation effects on salivary glands. Nonetheless, many patients still suffer severe oral dryness. I review here the functional morphology and development of salivary glands as these relate to approaches to preventing and restoring radiation-induced loss of salivary function. The acinar cells are responsible for most of the fluid and organic material in saliva, while the larger ducts influence the inorganic content. A central theme of this review is the extent to which the several types of epithelial cells in salivary glands may be pluripotential and the circumstances that may influence their ability to replace cells that have been lost or functionally inactivated due to the effects of radiation. The evidence suggests that the highly differentiated cells of the acini and large ducts of mature glands can replace themselves except when the respective pools of available cells are greatly diminished via apoptosis or necrosis owing to severely stressful events. Under the latter circumstances, relatively undifferentiated cells in the intercalated ducts proliferate and redifferentiate as may be required to replenish the depleted pools. It is likely that some, if not many, acinar cells may de-differentiate into intercalated duct-like cells and thus add to the pool of progenitor cells in such situations. If the stress is heavy doses of radiation, however, the result is not only the death of acinar cells, but also a marked

  19. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bågesund, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  20. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  1. Artificial Induction of Native Aquaporin-1 Expression in Human Salivary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pradhan-Bhatt, S; Farach-Carson, M C; Passineau, M J

    2017-04-01

    Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i.e., viral vectors and genetic sequences of bacterial origin). In this study, we applied 2 emerging technologies, artificial transcriptional complexes and epigenetic editing, to explore whether AQP1 expression could be achieved by activating the native gene locus in a human salivary ductal cell line and primary salivary human stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs), as opposed to the conventional approach of cytomegalovirus promoter-driven expression from an episomal vector. In our first study, we used a cotransfection strategy to express the components of the dCas9-SAM system to create an artificial transcriptional complex at the AQP1 locus in A253 and hS/PCs. We found that AQP1 expression was induced at a magnitude comparable to adenoviral infection, suggesting that AQP1 is primarily silenced through pretranscriptional mechanisms. Because earlier literature suggested that pretranscriptional silencing of AQP1 in salivary glands is mediated by methylation of the promoter, in our second study, we performed global, chemical demethylation of A253 cells and found that demethylation alone induced robust AQP1 expression. These results suggest the potential for success by inducing AQP1 expression in human salivary ductal cells through epigenetic editing of the native promoter.

  2. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  3. Sun ducts: new design and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coch, H.; Isalgue, A. [School of Architecture, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Developed in Barcelona since 1968, sun ducts are an architectural technique which takes advantage of direct sunlight, enabling it to reach interior zones of buildings which would normally be dark and gloomy. In addition to its main function of illuminating interiors with a special quality, unlike other natural lighting devices, sun ducts also offer other associated functional possibilities making their use highly advantageous in many cases of dense modern architecture. In recent years, using the experience gained since 1968, we have been attempting to produce standardised sun duct designs; new models have been researched and developed which once standardised, have begun to be used in buildings. The good results in the applications carried out and the ample possibilities for future uses of the ducts in architectural and urban design solutions in compact urban fabrics together make the development of applications of this technique very interesting. (author)

  4. Thoracic duct injury from blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, G P; Bhatti, N A; Ellison, R G; Rubin, J W; Moore, H V

    1984-05-01

    We have reported a case of traumatic chylothorax occurring as a rare complication of fracture dislocation of the dorsal spine. When conservative management by drainage, low-fat diet, and parenteral alimentation proved unsuccessful, thoracic duct ligation effected a cure.

  5. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    CERN Document Server

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  6. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  7. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  8. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  9. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    by CCH by 55%. In resting ducts, an increase in extracellular pH, pHe, by means of HEPES and HCO3-/CO2 buffers, increased [Ca2+]i; a decrease in pHe had the opposite effect. In stimulated ducts the pH-evoked effects on Ca2+ influx were more pronounced and depended on the agonist used. At pHe 6.5 both ATP...

  10. Factors affecting common bile duct diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, Salam; Tarawneh, Emad; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to see the effect of age, sex, body mass index, previous cholecystectomy, hepatomegaly and fasting status on the common bile duct diameter. A series of 463 patients, 283 females and 180 males, with no hepatobiliary or pancreatic pathology were included in this study, the mean age was 45 +/- 16 years. Their age, sex, weight, height, fasting status and previous cholecystectomy was assessed and recorded by a physician prior to ultrasound examination. All patients were examined by real-time ultrasound to see if there was any pathology in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic area. Those with history of common bile duct exploration, endoscopic sphincterotomy or with previous history of cholecystectomy of less than 6 months and patients with common bile duct pathology were excluded from the study. The midportion of the common bile duct was taken as a fixed measurement for all patients and the size of the liver was also recorded. Analysis of variance as part of SPSS statistical package was used where common bile duct was considered a dependent variable, while sex, fasting status, hepatomegaly and previous cholecystectomy were considered to be independent variables, age and sex were considered as co-variants. The factors found to be significantly affecting the diameter of the common bile duct (P<0.05) were age, previous cholecystectomy and body mass index. If the CBD dilatation can not be explained by age, previous cholecystectomy and BMI, a pathology causing obstruction should be ruled out.

  11. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  12. Drug-induced bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Michele; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Gai, Zhibo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2017-09-04

    Drug-induced liver injury includes a spectrum of pathologies, some related to the mode of injury, some to the cell type primarily damaged. Among these, drug-induced bile duct injury is characterized by the destruction of the biliary epithelium following exposure to a drug. Most of the drugs associated with bile duct injury cause immune-mediated lesions to the epithelium of interlobular ducts. These share common histopathological features with primary biliary cholangitis, such as inflammation and necrosis at the expense of cholangiocytes and, if the insult persists, bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. Some drugs selectively target larger ducts. Such injury is often dose-dependent and thought to be the result of intrinsic drug toxicity. The histological changes resemble those seen in primary sclerosing cholangitis. This overview focuses on the clinical and pathological features of bile duct injury associated with drug treatment and on the immunological and biochemical effects that drugs exert on the biliary epithelium. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary glands of second and third instars of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2007-05-01

    Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin.

  14. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Preservation of quality of life of patients treated for a upper aero-digestive ducts cancer: contribution of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy; Preservation de la qualite de vie des patients traites pour un cancer des voies aerodigestives superieures: apport de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, P.; Desandes, E.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermond-Ferrand (France); Ortholan, C.; Bensadoun, J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 Nice (France); Alfonsi, M. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Maingon, P. [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Bourhis, J. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of quality of life among patients irradiated for an upper aero-digestive ducts cancer has revealed a benefit of I.M.C.R.T. (intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy) in term of salivary alteration, oral discomfort, and feeding difficulties. (N.C.)

  16. Simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch for treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enliang, Li; Rongshou, Wu; Shidai, Shi; Jingling, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Wenjun, Liao; Linquan, Wu

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of simple resections of bile duct branch lesions for the treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.A retrospective analysis of the clinical data from patients in our hospital from November 2008 to November 2015, who only underwent a simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch. The patients' clinical characteristics, surgical features, postoperative complications, stone clear rate, residual stone rate, and recurrence stone rate were analyzed.This study of 32 patients included 13 males and 19 females with intrahepatic bile duct stones confined to the right hepatic bile duct branch. The intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and postoperative hospital stay were 478.0 ± 86.5, 210.7 ± 6.6, and 10.8 ± 3.5, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 6 patients (18.8%), all of whom recovered with conservative management. There were no deaths during hospitalization. The intraoperative stone clearance rate was 95.8%. Three patients had a recurrence of stones at a mean of 22 months of follow-up (range, 4-36 months).Simple resection of bile duct branch lesions is safe and feasible for patients who have regional hepatic bile duct stones limited to the right hepatic bile duct branches.

  17. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  18. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by oral contraceptives so women taking birth control pills can still participate in the study. Summary Salivary cortisol is an effective...in cortisol binding globulin (found in oral contraceptives ). Salivary cortisol is not influenced by saliva flow rate and there are obvious

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies ... in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET ...

  20. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  1. Peculiar salivary glands in a silk-producing mite Bakericheyla chanayi (Cheyletidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Svetlana A; Amosova, Ludmila I

    2015-07-01

    This is the first ultrastructural investigation of salivary glands in the family Cheyletidae. In both sexes of Bakericheyla chanayi, paired acinous salivary glands and tubular coxal glands were shown to be united into the common podocephalic system. The secretory portion of the salivary gland includes medial and lateral lobes composed of the five and two cells, respectively, with clearly distinct ultrastructure. The cytoplasm of the cells is occupied by the secretory granules containing fine fibrous material. The fine structure of both cell types suggest a proteinaceous nature of their secretions. A single central process extending from the apical face of each secretory cell passes through the common acinar cavity to enter the conducting duct. A pair of intercalary cells at the base of the conducting duct links it with the secretory portion of the gland. Extending towards the acinar cavity, protrusions of intercalary cells alternate the apical regions of the secretory cells and form with them highly-specialized contacts characterized by the apical network of microtubules and microfilaments. Two possible ways of secretion are suggested: 1) exocytosis into the acinar cavity and 2) direct passage via the central processes. The detection of axon profiles in the gland body suggests a neural control for the glandular cell function. In tritonymphs, neither secretion nor large lateral lobe cells were observed up to the pharate stage when the lateral lobe undergoes rapid differentiation. The arrangement of the acinous gland is compared to that of other arthropods. Its composition appears to be close to the class three of insect glands. The involvement of the lateral lobe cells in silk production is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  3. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  4. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  5. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao Yin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Renormalization Group (RNG k—ɛ turbulence model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap ratios, the force on the duct was calculated. When the bottom gap ratio is 0, the drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, and composite force reach their maximum values, and the azimuth reaches its minimum. With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1, the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much, but the azimuth increases dramatically. With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward, the drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force, and azimuth vary little. Thus, the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct. When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1, the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct. When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1, the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  6. Characterization of flow in a scroll duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.

  7. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-gao YIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Fluent software, Renormalization Group (RNGk-ε turbulent model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method are employed to simulate the flow past circular duct to obtain and analyze the hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap-ratios, the force on duct is calculated. Firstly, when bottom gap-ratio is 0, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient and composite force reach the maximum respectively and azimuth reaches the minimum. Secondly, with the increase of bottom gap-ratio from 0 to 1, drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, lift force coefficient decreases a little, but azimuth increases dramatically. Thirdly, with the continuous increase of bottom gap-ratio from 1, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force and azimuth vary little. So, bottom gap-ratio is the key factor influencing the force on circular duct. When bottom gap-ratio is less than 1, upper gap-ratio has the remarkable influence on the circular duct force. When bottom gap-ratio is greater than 1, the varation of upper gap-ratio has a little influence on the circular duct force.

  8. Mucoceles of minor salivary glands in children. Own clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bogumił; Brodowski, Robert; Pakla, Paweł; Makara, Aleksander; Stopyra, Wojciech; Startek, Bartek

    Mucoceles are benign lesions associated with the pathology of the oral mucosa of minor salivary glands. Two types of cysts are distinguished depending on their pathogenesis. Most often they occur as a result of mechanical trauma and mucus extravasation into tissues or obstruction of the gland ducts. The aim of the study was to present our own experiences regarding mucoceles of minor salivary glands in the oral cavity taking into account how frequently the individual types of cysts occur in children. The research was carried out based on medical files from the years 2005-2015. These were: medical case records, operating books and the medical registry of patients treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Frederic Chopin Clinical Regional Hospital in Rzeszow. In that period 64 children and teenagers, 28 girls and 36 boys were treated. What was considered was the age and gender of the patients, the reason for their appointment with a doctor, the location, size and histopathological type of the cysts, as well as the course and results of the diagnostic and therapeutic process. In the group analyzed, the reasons for referral to the Clinic were: in 25 patients accidental ascertainment of a non-symptomatic tumor in the oral cavity during examination by a dentist, pediatrician or laryngologist which had not caused any discomfort to the children; in 13 patients concern had been raised by a gradually increasing tumor; in 18 cases there was an increased tissue tension surrounding the tumor, while in 3 children red oedema was observed in the oral cavity (suspicion of abscess). The most frequent mucocele location was the lower lip (34 children). The most frequent size was 2.1-3 cm (28 children). The most frequent histological type was MEP. All the patients were treated at the Clinic in the one-day surgery mode, with good outcome. Mucocele ascertainment in children's oral cavity could be made accidentally in routine pediatric examination, therefore it is necessary to extend

  9. [Clinical analysis of 22 cases with parotid gland duct injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong-lian; Yang, Pei-lei; Liu, Guo-yuan

    2011-08-01

    To discuss the early diagnosis and treatment of injury to the parotid duct. Segmental epidural catheter was used to repair the injured parotid duct, if the broken ends of the parotid duct can't be anastomized end to end, facial vein transplantation and fascia parotideomasseterica flap were used for reconstruction. In 22 cases, one case was lost to follow-up, nineteen cases had successful reconstruction of the parotid duct with good parotid secretions. Two cases had atrophy of the parotid gland. Early diagnosis is critical for treatment of injury of parotid duct. The efficacy of segmental epidural catheter is excellent for repair of parotid duct defect.

  10. Re-evaluating historic cohort of salivary acinic cell carcinoma with new diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Chiosea, Simion I

    2012-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) was recently identified as a distinct salivary gland neoplasm, morphologically resembling intercalated duct cell predominant acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). To determine how frequently MASC has mimicked an intercalated duct cell predominant AciCC, we reviewed AciCC diagnosed from 1956 to 1975. Nine AciCC consecutively diagnosed in that period were identified. Based on morphologic examination, one case diagnosed as AciCC in a male patient in 1960 was re-classified as MASC [confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showing ETV6 translocation]. Another case diagnosed as AciCC of the palate in a female patient in 1975 was re-classified as mucoepidermoid carcinoma (based on the lack of acinar differentiation, presence of mucous cells, and confirmed by FISH showing MAML2 translocation). In this proof-of-principle study, we show that 1 in 9 cases historically designated as AciCC represents a MASC. "Intercalated duct cell predominant AciCC", especially among male patients, most likely represent examples of MASC. For anatomic sites outside of the parotid glands, broader differential diagnoses should be considered before accepting morphologic variants of AciCC as the final diagnosis.

  11. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  12. Xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray combined with laser artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation for nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhao Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray in combination therapy of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of nasal inflammation on nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: Totally 279 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction were collected, who received lacrimal passage irrigation, CT angiography for lacrimal passage and nasal endoscope before treated by lacrimal laser forming and artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation combined with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. In group A, 137 patients were treated with antibiotic eye drop and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after operations. In group B, 142 patients were treated with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray besides the same treatment for group A. RESULTS:In the 279 patients 217(77.8%, in which 105 cases(76.6%were in group A and 112 cases(78.9%were in group B, were suffered with nasal inflammation, including nasal mucosal hyperemia, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, middle turbinate hypertrophy. At 3mo after the ducts were drawn, efficacy of group B was 95.8%, which was significant better than that of group A(86.1%, PCONCLUSION: Nasal inflammation was an important factor in the incidence of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which shoud pay more attention in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Combination therapy could improve the cure rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  13. Determination of salivary glucose in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria-Sueli-Marques; Batista-Filho, Mário-Márcio-Vasconcelos; Pimentel, Marcele-Jardim; Passos, Isabela-Albuquerque; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the concentration of salivary glucose in healthy individuals and to compare it with the capillary glycemia. Samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 63 non-diabetic patients. The concentration of salivary glucose and capillary blood was measured in all of the patients. The salivary glucose was determined by enzymatic method and spectrophotometry. The data was then analyzed using the Spearman correlation test, considering values of pglucose among the males studied was 100.05+/-13.51 mg/dL, and among females, it was 99.5+/-13.9 mg/dL. The average salivary glucose for the whole sample was 5.97+/-1.87 mg/dL, with 5.91+/-2.19 mg/dL among males and 5.97+/-1.56 mg/dL among females, respectively, without presenting any significant differences (p=0.908). The concentration of salivary glucose did not present any statistically significant correlation with the capillary glycemia (p=0.732). The results suggest that the concentration of salivary glucose is not dependent on capillary glycemia and that the concentration of salivary glucose does not present significant differences between the measurements for males and females.

  14. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  15. Collecting duct carcinoma associated with oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Yousef

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare, highly aggressive malignant neoplasm that arises from the collecting duct epithelium of the kidney. CDC was reported to coexist with renal cell and transitional cell carcinomas. We report a rare case of CDC associated with oncocytoma, confirmed by the characteristic histological appearance and immunohistochemistry. We also review the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical criteria for diagnosis, in addition to the genetic and cytogenetic aberrations reported in the literature. Identification and reporting CDC is important for the establishment of treatment strategies and monitoring prognosis.

  16. Acoustic power balance in lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the two common definitions of acoustic energy density and intensity in uniform unlined ducts carrying uniform flow are compatible to the extent that both energy densities can be used in an appropriate variational principle to derive the convected wave equation. When the duct walls are lined both energy densities must be modified to account for the wall energy density. This results in a new energy conservation equation which utilizes a modified definition of axial power and accounts for wall dissipation. Computations in specific cases demonstrate the validity of the modified acoustic energy relation.

  17. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  18. P27 expression in pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakji, Bassel; Umair, Ayesha; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Mahmoud, Abla Sayed; Darwish, Shourouk; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ashok, Nipun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to characterise alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of p27 in normal tissue of the salivary gland surrounding pleomorphic adenoma and in the tumour cells of pleomorphic adenoma. A retrospective study of data including 120 cases of pleomorphic adenomas (66 female, 54 male) retrieved from the files of the Oral Pathology Departments of Aleppo University, Syria and Al-Farabi Dental and Nursing College. Immunohistochemical expression against p27 was examined in the selected cases. The percentage of p27-positive nuclei was semi-quantitatively assessed by two independent observers and scores were given. The statistical analysis included the use of descriptive statistics and proportional frequencies. The results showed that P27 nuclear staining with high staining (moderate to strong positive staining in more than 50% of nuclei, depending on the percentage of nuclei for the cells) was noted in tumour duct cells of pleomorphic adenoma in 90 (75%) cases out of 120, while 30 (25%) cases showed low staining (positive staining in less than 5% of nuclei, depending on the percentage of nuclei for the cells). Our data suggests that p27 might have a minor role in the development of pleomorphic adenoma.

  19. Scientific frontiers: emerging technologies for salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B J; Yates, J R; Srivastava, S; Wong, D T W; Melvin, J E

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic 'omics' era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB), now have taken center stage in the dissemination of the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers and other translational and clinical utilities. © International & American Associations for Dental Research

  20. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  1. Salivary

    OpenAIRE

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa; Hassan Mohamed Abouelkheir; Shaban El-Fadly Khodiar; Mohamed, Gamal Aldeen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Asthma patients can be effectively treated and controlled with currently available medications, inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids have harmful effects on dentition. Therefore we aimed to investigate the influence of exposure to inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids on the composition of saliva as a risk factor to increase the incidence of dental caries among children aged 8–14 years old. The study group is compared with a control group of healthy children of ...

  2. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Expeditionary Warfare Center. This technology internally seals leaks in air distribution ducts by injecting a fog of aerosolized sealant particles...Duct Sealant The Aeroseal™ duct sealant technology was demonstrated in four buildings at four different Navy facilities around the country...climatic conditions and different air distribution systems types. Data on thermal energy and fan power was collected before and after the duct sealant

  3. Mechanisms of Lower Bile Duct Stricture in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Maruyama, Masahiro; Ito, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Hasebe, Osamu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We attempted to clarify the mechanism underlying lower bile duct stricture in autoimmune pancreatitis. Methods Imaging and histologic finding of the bile duct were assessed for 73 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis to clarify whether IgG4-related biliary inflammation or pancreatic head swelling is associated with lower bile duct stricture. Results Lower bile duct stricture was found in 59 (81%) patients. Pancreatic head swelling was significantly more frequent among patients wit...

  4. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  5. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the intrapancreatic bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Katopodi, Aggeliki; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Georgiadou, Despoina; Choreftaki, Theodosia; Christopoulos, George; Margaris, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a history of surgically treated pulmonary leiomyosarcoma, presenting with recurrent acute cholangitis and metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the common bile duct. Preoperative examinations had revealed a high grade malignant neoplasm and bilateral lung metastases. The patient underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and survived for 5.5 years after the first diagnosis.

  6. Whistler instability in a magnetospheric duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, I.; Tripathi, V.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics); Jain, V.K. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-04-01

    A whistler wave propagating through a preformed magnetospheric duct is susceptible to growth/amplification by an electron beam. The interaction is non-local and could be of Cerenkov or slow-cyclotron type. First-order perturbation theory is employed to obtain the growth rate for flat and Gaussian beam densities. (author).

  7. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  8. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game,…

  9. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with. TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. Key words: Mullerian inhibiting factor, persistent. Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia. Address for correspondence: Dr. P.

  10. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  11. Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: irrigation or probing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Moon, S C; Yoo, K W

    2000-12-01

    The authors investigated the efficacy of antibiotic irrigation as the therapeutic option in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 76 patients' eyes in whom congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction had been diagnosed. In 50 of these patients, the colonizing microorganism was identified and, irrigation through canaliculi was performed using antibiotics of suitable sensitivity. Nasolacrimal system probing was performed on 26 patients as the control group. Treatment was regarded successful when over a 4 week period epiphora or mucous discharge disappeared and when saline passed without resistance on irrigation. 96.0% of patients in the irrigation group and 84.6% of patients in probing group were treated successfully. There was no statistical difference in the success rate between the two groups (P = 0.173). The recovery period based on culture results was 3.22 +/- 0.37 months in the group in which microorganisms were isolated and 2.39 +/- 0.35 months in the group in which no organisms were isolated. There were no statistically significant differences in the success rates between the group in which there was growth and the group in which there was no growth (P = 0.1308). Thus a similar result was obtained using nasolacrimal probing and canaliculus antibiotic irrigation in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Antibiotic irrigation is a safe and simple therapeutic option in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  12. Ducted wind turbines : A potential energy shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    In order to harvest wind resources more efficiently and to the greatest extent possible, unconventional wind turbine designs have been proposed, but never gained any acceptance in the marketplace. A team of researchers from TU Delft plans to revisit the concept of ducted wind turbines, which have

  13. Surgical management for bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobin; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-09-12

    The management of bile duct injury (BDI) remains a considerable challenge in hepatobiliary surgery. BDI is mainly iatrogenic, and mostly occurs in cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been performed widely, however, the incidence of BDI associated with LC increases 2-3 times compared to that in open cholecystectomy (OC). BDI also occurs in robotic cholecystectomy. In China, the evidence-based Practice Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of BDI was published by the Biliary Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, with the purpose of reducing the incidence of BDI as well as promoting its optimal diagnosis and treatment. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for BDI and traumatic bile duct stricture. The definitive repair involves a series of procedures including exposing the proximal and distal bile duct, anastomotic bile duct tissue preparation, minimally invasive tissue anastomoses, and so on. Successful management is a surgical challenge requiring great specialized experience and precise surgical skill. The application of precision biliary surgery is recommended for promoting standardized management of BDI.

  14. Surgical management of Stenson's duct injury using epidural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stenson's duct of parotid gland is a major duct which drains saliva into the oral cavity. Deep penetrating wound in the form of cut or crush injury to the buccal ... These conditions are difficult to diagnose because of complex anatomy and variable nature of injury. Successful management of parotid duct injury depends on early ...

  15. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS With Large Intraabdominal Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Harigovind

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism is characterized by the presence of the Mullerian duct derivatives in an otherwise phenotypically as well as genotypically normal male. We report a case of large intra abdominal seminoma in a male patient with cryptorchidism, along with persistence of Mullerian duct derivatives (uterus.

  16. Laser-Guided Repair of Complex Bile Duct Strictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas; Beek, Johan; de Reuver, Philip; Aronson, Daniel; van Delden, Otto; Busch, Olivier; Gouma, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Background: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. Aim: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile

  17. Termination pattern of the main and accessory pancreatic ducts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pancreas has the main and occasionally a patent accessory pancreatic ducts that carry secretions to the duodenum. Anatomical studies on these ducts are limited. The present study observed the anatomy of the two ducts in eighty six Tanzanians' autopsy subjects to find out if the pattern is similar to those reported from ...

  18. Laser-guided repair of complex bile duct strictures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, T. van; Beek, J.; Reuver, P. de; Aronson, D.C.; Delden, O. van; Busch, O.; Gouma, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. AIM: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile

  19. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  1. Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

  2. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  3. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Experimental evaluation of gas filled plenum (GFP) insulation for ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Guillot, Cyril

    2003-01-26

    Forced-air heating and cooling system ducts are often located outside conditioned space in US houses. For these systems to perform efficiently it is important that these ducts be well insulated. Common practice is to use a glass fiber wrap around the ducts--either field applied or more commonly, integrated into a flexible duct. Most duct insulation has an R-value of 4.2, with R6 and R8 ducts also occasionally used. With glass fiber insulation being about R4 per inch (RSI 0.28/cm), this adds 2 to 4 inches (50 to 100 mm) to the duct diameter. Some building codes are now requiring these higher insulation levels, for example, the EPA requires the use of R6 ducts (for Energy Star ducts), and International Energy Conservation Code (BOCA 2003) requires R8 ducts. The difficulty with adding insulation to ducts is the increase in diameter of the ducts that makes them expensive to transport because they take up a large volume and are difficult to install in the confined spaces available for ducts in houses. The objective of this study was to evaluate Gas Filled Plenum (GFP) technology as an alternative duct insulation. GFP ducts have the potential to provide greater insulation levels than existing ducts (for a given thickness of insulation or size of duct) and provide cost savings in transportation. These transportation cost savings are based on the idea of shipping the GFP ducts empty and inflating them on-site. To evaluate this technology for ducts we constructed a prototype duct and determined both its flow and heat transfer resistance in LBNL's duct testing laboratories. The GFP technology works by encapsulating a gas (usually air--but other noble gases such as Argon or Krypton can provide significant increases in thermal resistance with increased cost) in a metalized film jacket. A honeycomb structure is used to keep individual gas pockets small to minimize convection heat transfer. A metallic finish (usually aluminum) minimizes radiation heat transfer between the

  5. Late Probing for Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abrishami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the results of late nasolacrimal duct probing in patients with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on a consecutive series of patients with congenital NLDO who underwent late (after 15 months of age nasolacrimal duct probing for the first time. RESULTS: Over a period of five years, 158 patients including 75 (47.4% male and 83 (52.6% female subjects with mean age of 3±4.2 years (range, 15 months to 37 years underwent initial probing for NLDO. Nasolacrimal duct probing was performed unilaterally in 78% and bilaterally in 22% of the patients. Success rate was 75% overall, 72% in unilateral cases and 83% in bilateral instances. Success rate was not correlated with age at intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Nasolacrimal duct probing seems to be reasonably successful for treatment of congenital NLDO in patients older than 15 months who are seen for the first time. Silicone intubation or dacryocystorhinostomy should be reserved for refractory cases.

  6. Salivary Gland Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth V. Shetty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient who presented with pain and multiple swellings in the face. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. The patient was successfully treated by surgical drainage and oral administration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case from India on N. asteroides affecting the salivary gland.

  7. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila Baliga; Sangeeta Muglikar; Rahul Kale

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study D...

  8. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  9. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

  10. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured...... levels decreased and remained low during development and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Initial inflammation in gingival tissues is associated with a decrease in inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Further studies are needed to evaluate if inflammatory cytokines bind to their functional receptors...

  11. Experimental evaluation of gas filled plenum (GFP) insulation for ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Guillot, Cyril

    2003-01-26

    Forced-air heating and cooling system ducts are often located outside conditioned space in US houses. For these systems to perform efficiently it is important that these ducts be well insulated. Common practice is to use a glass fiber wrap around the ducts--either field applied or more commonly, integrated into a flexible duct. Most duct insulation has an R-value of 4.2, with R6 and R8 ducts also occasionally used. With glass fiber insulation being about R4 per inch (RSI 0.28/cm), this adds 2 to 4 inches (50 to 100 mm) to the duct diameter. Some building codes are now requiring these higher insulation levels, for example, the EPA requires the use of R6 ducts, and International Energy Conservation Code (BOCA 2003) requires R8 ducts. The difficulty with adding insulation to ducts is the increase in diameter of the ducts that makes them expensive to transport because they take up a large volume and are difficult to install in the confined spaces available for ducts in houses. The objective of this study was to evaluate Gas Filled Plenum (GFP) technology as an alternative duct insulation. GFP ducts have the potential to provide greater insulation levels than existing ducts (for a given thickness of insulation or size of duct) and provide cost savings in transportation. These transportation cost savings are based on the idea of shipping the GFP ducts empty and inflating them on-site. To evaluate this technology for ducts we constructed a prototype duct and determined both its flow and heat transfer resistance in LBNL's duct testing laboratories. The GFP technology works by encapsulating a gas (usually air--but other noble gases such as Argon or Krypton can provide significant increases in thermal resistance with increased cost) in a metalized film jacket. A honeycomb structure is used to keep individual gas pockets small to minimize convection heat transfer. A metallic finish (usually aluminum) minimizes radiation heat transfer between the surfaces.

  12. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  13. Coupled parametric design of flow control and duct shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Razvan (Inventor); Bertuccioli, Luca (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for designing gas turbine engine components using a coupled parametric analysis of part geometry and flow control is disclosed. Included are the steps of parametrically defining the geometry of the duct wall shape, parametrically defining one or more flow control actuators in the duct wall, measuring a plurality of performance parameters or metrics (e.g., flow characteristics) of the duct and comparing the results of the measurement with desired or target parameters, and selecting the optimal duct geometry and flow control for at least a portion of the duct, the selection process including evaluating the plurality of performance metrics in a pareto analysis. The use of this method in the design of inter-turbine transition ducts, serpentine ducts, inlets, diffusers, and similar components provides a design which reduces pressure losses and flow profile distortions.

  14. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  15. Salivary Amylase as a Marker of Salivary Gland Function in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant; Ganapathy, Sivadas

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary amylase in patients with primary oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as the main modality of treatment. The study was conducted on ten histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Stimulated whole saliva was collected at three stages of radiotherapy-0, 3, and 6 weeks. Salivary amylase was estimated using Henry-Chiamori method and comparison was made with appropriate age- and gender-matched controls. Salivary amylase levels showed significant decrease in healthy subjects when compared to oral cancer patients (P salivary amylase could be used as a surrogate marker of salivary gland function in patients with oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as primary treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances saliva secretion via direct binding to PACAP receptors of major salivary glands in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Yuko; Nonaka, Naoko; Takagi, Yoshitoki; Imamura, Eisaku; Narukawa, Masayuki; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shioda, Seiji; Banks, William A; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-09-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common syndrome that is generally treated with artificial saliva; however, no other effective methods have yet been established. Saliva secretion is mainly under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is recognized as a multifunctional neuropeptide in various organs. In this study, we examined the effect of PACAP on saliva secretion, and detected the distribution of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Intranasal administration of PACAP 38 increased the amount of saliva secreted, which was not inhibited by atropine pretreatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PAC1R was distributed in the three major salivary glands. In the parotid and sublingual glands, PAC1R was detected in striated duct cells, whereas in the submandibular gland, a strong PAC1R immunoreaction was detected in tall columnar epithelial cells in the granular ducts (i.e., pillar cells), as well as in some striated duct cells. PACAP significantly increased the concentration of epidermal growth factor in saliva. These results suggest that PACAP directly regulates saliva secretion by controlling the absorption activity in the ducts, and that pillar cells regulate the function of granular epithelial cells in the granular duct, such as the secretion of growth factors into the saliva. Collectively, these results suggest the possibility of PACAP as a new effective treatment of xerostomia. Anat Rec, 299:1293-1299, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  18. Renal collecting duct carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Suzuki, K; Shibuya, H; Sato, T; Aoki, I; Nagashima, Y

    2008-07-01

    An 8-year-old, male, mongrel dog developed severe cough and anorexia and died within 3 months. Autopsy revealed an invasive grayish-white mass in the right kidney and multiple nodules in the lungs, thoracic wall, and spleen. Histologically, the renal mass and the other nodules were mainly composed of papillotubular structures lined by oval-to-polygonal pleomorphic cells. The cells were reactive with DBA, PNA, and UEA-1 lectins and positive for vimentin but negative for CD10 and high molecular weight cytokeratin. Because of its histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical similarities with human collecting duct carcinoma (CDC), a diagnosis of renal collecting duct carcinoma with pulmonary, thoracic, and splenic metastases was established. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of CDC in animals.

  19. Active noise reduction systems in ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, J.; Poole, L. A.; Warnaka, G. E.

    1984-12-01

    Fundamentals of the theory of the sound propagation in ducts with perfectly reflecting walls, relevant to noise reduction systems, is summarized. A brief historical review of the active sound cancellation techniques is given. Systems based on time invariant parameters are analyzed and their inherited drawbacks outlined. A new generation of systems using controllers based on modified adaptive LMS algorithm is described. The measurements in an experimental duct show that the random noise can be reduced by 25-30 dB, while the noise with line spectra can be decreased by up to 40 dB. Good success is also reported with impulse signals which have random time intervals between the pulses.

  20. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-20 and Potential Interaction with Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in Human Major Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Komal; Saxena, Geetu; Ogbureke, Kalu U E

    2015-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) expression is widely regarded as tooth-specific, with expression limited to dental hard tissues. Necessary for sound enamel formation, MMP-20 and MMP-2 proteolytically process dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein during tooth formation. In the mid-2000s, three members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) were reported to bind specifically with high affinity (nM) to, and activate, three MMPs in vitro: bone sialoprotein with MMP-2; osteopontin with MMP-3; and dentin matrix protein1 with MMP-9. The SIBLING-MMP interaction was confirmed in biological systems such as the ducts of salivary glands, where all five members of the SIBLINGs are expressed. Recently, we documented MMP-20 expression and interaction with DSPP (another member of the SIBLING family) in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Here we report the expression of MMP-20, and confirm its co-expression and potential interaction with DSPP in human major salivary gland tissues and cell line using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, and proximity ligation assay. This report reinforces our earlier suggestion that the SIBLING-MMP complexes may be involved in the turnover of extracellular proteins damaged by oxidation byproducts in metabolically active duct epithelial systems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Light and electron microscopy studies of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of the horse stomach bot, Gasterophilus intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfstra, L; Vlimant, M; Betschart, B; Pfister, K; Diehl, P-A

    2010-09-01

    A morphological study of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis (De Geer) (Diptera: Oestridae) was conducted by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The midgut is anteriorly delimited by a proventriculus, without caeca, and is composed of posterior foregut and anterior midgut tissue from which a double-layered peritrophic matrix is produced. The midgut can be divided into anterior, median and posterior regions on the basis of the structural and physiological variations of the columnar cells which occur along its length. Two other types of cell were identified: regenerative cells scattered throughout the columnar cells, and, more rarely, endocrine cells of two structural types (closed and open). Different secretion mechanisms (merocrine, apocrine and microapocrine) occur along the midgut epithelium. Abundant microorganisms are observed in the endoperitrophic space of the anterior midgut. The origin and nature of these microorganisms remain unknown. No structural differences are observed between the second and third instar midguts. The salivary glands of G. intestinalis second and third instars consist of a pair of elongated tubular structures connected to efferent ducts which unite to form a single deferent duct linked dorsally to the pharynx. Several intermediate cells, without cuticle, make the junction with the salivary gland epithelium layer. Cytological characteristics of the gland epithelial cells demonstrate high cellular activity and some structural variations are noticed between the two larval stages.

  2. Primary tuberculosis of cystic duct lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Aamir; Asghar, Afifa; Khan, Naqeeb Ullah; Hassan, Iram

    2017-06-16

    Tuberculosis (TC) is very common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Isolated cystic duct lymph node TC cases without involvement of gallbladder are exceedingly rare. It is difficult to diagnose preoperatively because of lack of characteristic signs and symptoms of TC. We report a man aged 45 years who presented with right upper abdominal pain since 1week. It was associated with nausea and postprandial fullness. There was no evidence of jaundice and lymphadenopathy. Abdominal examination showed moderate right upper quadrant tenderness with positive Murphy's sign and splenomegaly but no signs of peritonism. Abdomen ultrasound revealed sludge in gallbladder, dilated pancreatic duct, coarse exotexture of liver, splenomegaly and no lymphadenopathy. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy; histological report showed chronic caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis with Langhans type of giant cells in lymph node near cystic duct with chronic cholecystitis of gallbladder. Standard antituberculosis therapy was given for 12 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  4. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  5. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ponte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  6. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  7. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  8. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  9. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  10. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  11. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  12. Granular Cell Tumour of the Bile Duct in Association with Intrahepatic Bile Duct Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Schweiger

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour of the extrahepatic biliary tract is a rare benign lesion likely of neurogenic origin. Review of the previously reported cases indicates that almost all patients are female, and the majority is Black. Symptoms usually are those of biliary obstruction or cholecystitis. Surgical resection of the tumour is curative. Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is another rare benign biliary neoplasm that does not manifest clinically but can be confused with metastatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma or other focal liver lesions at laparotomy or autopsy. The authors report the case of an asymptomatic Caucasian woman with biochemical evidence of liver disease who had a granular cell tumour of the bile duct as well as several intrahepatic bile duct adenomas.

  13. Pathological spectrum of bile duct lesions from chronic bile duct injury to invasive cholangiocarcinoma corresponding to bile duct imaging findings of occupational cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kubo, Shoji; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Hamano, Genya; Ito, Tokuji; Terajima, Hiroaki; Yamada, Terumasa; Nakamori, Shoji; Arimoto, Akira; Fujikawa, Masahiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Abue, Makoto; Nakagawa, Kei; Unno, Michiaki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Takenaka, Kenji; Shirabe, Ken; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to identify the pathological characteristics of occupational cholangiocarcinoma. We examined the location and distribution of the carcinomas: atypical epithelium including biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB); and chronic bile duct injuries in operative or autopsy liver specimens from 16 patients. We examined the detailed pathological findings and diagnostic imaging of three patients. Immunohistochemical analysis using primary antibodies against γH2AX and S100P was performed. BilIN and chronic bile duct injury were observed in 16 patients, and IPNB or invasive IPNB was observed in 11 patients. BilIN, IPNB, and/or chronic bile duct injury were observed in almost all the large bile ducts. Regional dilatation of the bile ducts without tumor-induced obstruction revealed such pathological changes. Highly positive results for the γH2AX and S100P markers were noted in invasive carcinoma, BilIN, and IPNB, whereas positive results for γH2AX and negative results for S100P were noted in non-neoplastic biliary epithelium. The carcinogenic process of occupational cholangiocarcinoma comprised chronic bile duct injury and DNA damage in almost all the large bile ducts, along with induction of precancerous lesions and development of invasive carcinoma. Such pathological findings reflected radiological changes on diagnostic imaging. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  15. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  16. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken Saavedra, Juan; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes Coloma, Andrea; Reyes Rojas, Montserrat; Viera Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca Martínez, Claudia; Morales Bozo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and ...

  18. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  19. Salivary and plasma insulin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Korec, R; Feketeova, E; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-07-01

    Changes in plasma and salivary immunoreactive insulin were studied in saliva and blood of 9 healthy subjects following either oral glucose or a test meal ingestion at 30 min intervals for up to 3h. The levels of plasma immunoreactive insulin reached maximum at 60 min with a value of 62.77 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the glucose load and 62.62 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the test meal. In the case of salivary immunoreactive insulin levels, the maximum was attained at 90 min with a value of 18.47 +/- 2.68 microU/min after the glucose load and 22.40 +/- 2.01 microU/min after the test meal. Positive linear correlation (r = 0.74) was found between the salivary and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels.

  20. Detecting viruses by using salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostics that involve the use of oral fluids have become increasingly available commercially in recent years and are of particular interest because of their relative ease of use, low cost and noninvasive collection of oral fluid for testing. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors discuss the use of salivary diagnostics for virus detection with an emphasis on rapid detection of infection by using point-of-care devices. In particular, they review salivary diagnostics for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus. Oral mucosal transudate contains secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A, as well as IgM and IgG, which makes it a good source for immunodiagnostic-based devices. Clinical Implications Because patients often visit a dentist more regularly than they do a physician, there is increased discussion in the dental community regarding the need for practitioners to be aware of salivary diagnostics and to be willing and able to administer these tests to their patients. PMID:23034833

  1. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of ncRNA species in saliva. These methods indicate that salivary exRNA provides an efficient medium for biomarker discovery of oral and systemic diseases.

  2. Ultrastructural localization of salivary mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in human labial glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Monica; Hand, Arthur R; Tore, Giorgio; Ledda, Gian Peppino; Piludu, Marco

    2010-02-01

    As a result of their presence throughout the mouth in the submucosa or between muscle fibers, minor salivary glands secrete directly and continuously into the oral cavity, providing mucosal surfaces with highly glycosylated proteins that are active in bacterial aggregation and in oral tissue lubrication. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructural localization of the MUC5B and MUC7 mucins in human labial glands by means of a postembedding immunogold technique. Thin sections of normal human labial glands, obtained during surgery, were incubated with polyclonal antibodies to human salivary mucins MUC5B and MUC7, and then with gold-labeled secondary antibodies. Specific MUC5B reactivity was found in the secretory granules of mucous cells of all glands examined, and was associated with the luminal membrane of duct cells. MUC7 labeling was observed in the granules of both mucous and seromucous secretory cells of the glandular parenchyma. Quantitative analyses demonstrated that seromucous granules have higher immunogold labeling densities for MUC7 than mucous granules. Our immunohistochemical data extend the results of previous light microscopic studies of MUC5B and MUC7 localizations, pointing out the significant contribution of human labial glands in the secretion process of these two mucins.

  3. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  4. Expression of ghrelin in human salivary glands and its levels in saliva and serum in Chinese obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Bin; Chen, Zhi-Bin; Li, Bo-Chun; Lin, Qin; Li, Xiao-Xin; Li, Sheng-Lin; Ding, Chong; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the expression characteristics of ghrelin in human three major salivary glands and to investigate saliva and serum ghrelin level and the relation with weight and lipid indices in Chinese children. Expression and distribution of ghrelin in parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 194 Chinese children and adolescents (mean age 12.98 years). Ghrelin levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significant differences were estimated by one-way ANOVA. Ghrelin mRNA was expressed in parotid and submandibular glands, but was not detectable in sublingual glands. Ghrelin proteins were widespread in the cytoplasm of striated, intercalated and excretory ducts, as well as in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands, but not in mucous acinar cells of sublingual glands. Saliva and serum ghrelin levels were increased along with BMI. There was positive correlation between saliva and serum ghrelin levels (r=0.534, Psaliva ghrelin levels were both significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.523, r=0.374, Psaliva. Although whether salivary ghrelin could be useful in the diagnosis of obesity remains to be determined, salivary ghrelin might be a possible alternative to serum ghrelin for predicting obesity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands.

  6. Endoscopic treatment for complex biliary and pancreatic duct injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bouchard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe injuries of biliary or pancreatic ducts are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe bile duct injuries such as major biliary leaks, complete transection, or complete occlusion of bile ducts can be grouped under the term complex bile duct injuries (CBDI. In the spectrum of pancreatic duct injuries, disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome (DPDS represents the most severe form and most often occurs after a severe episode of acute pancreatitis. Treatment of these complex injuries is quite challenging and for many years surgical management has been considered the treatment of choice. However, in the past few years, some studies have reported the successful management of CBDI or DPDS using endoscopic procedures alone or in combination with a percutaneous approach. In this review, we detail the endoscopic or combined endoscopic/percutaneous treatment possibilities for CBDI and DPDS.

  7. Flow regime analysis of non-Newtonian duct flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speetjens, Michel; Rudman, Murray; Metcalfe, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Reoriented duct flows of generalized Newtonian fluids are an idealization of non-Newtonian fluid flow in industrial in-line mixers. Based on scaling analysis and computation we find that non-Newtonian duct flows have several limit behaviors, in the sense that such flows can become (nearly) independent of one or more of the rheological and dynamical control parameters, simplifying the general flow and mixing problem. These limit flows give several levels of modeling complexity to the full problem of non-Newtonian duct flow. We describe the sets of simplified flow models and their corresponding regions of validity. This flow-model decomposition captures the essential rheological and dynamical characteristics of the reoriented duct flows and enables a more efficient and systematic study and design of flow and mixing of non-Newtonian fluids in ducts. Key aspects of the flow-model decomposition are demonstrated via a specific, but representative, duct flow.

  8. Salivary diagnostics: moving to the next level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ole; Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T W

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of salivary diagnostics has reached a new level toward the goal of using saliva as a powerful fluid for early detection and the first line of diagnosis for life-threatening diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Newly developed tools such as the novel saliva-based POCT and the SKB are helping to realize the goal of making salivary diagnostics available to clinicians worldwide. This is a unique moment where dentistry may be paving a new path for primary healthcare.

  9. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL (88th day to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day. The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day; however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day, both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape.

  10. Expression of Hormone Receptors and HER-2 in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nhu Thuy; Lingen, Mark W; Mashek, Heather; McElherne, James; Briese, Renee; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; van Zante, Annemieke; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2017-07-05

    With the advent of targeted therapies, expression of sex hormone receptors and HER-2 in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) is of clinical interest. Previous reports of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression have varied. Androgen receptor (AR) and HER-2 overexpression are frequently reported in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), but have not been studied systematically in other SGTs. This study examines ER, PR, AR, and HER-2 expression in SGTs. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, AR, and HER-2 was performed on 254 SGTs (134 malignant). ER, PR, and AR expression was scored using Allred system. HER-2 expression was scored using Dako HercepTest guidelines. FISH for HER-2 amplification was performed on select cases with HER-2 overexpression (2-3+). No SGT demonstrated strong expression of ER or PR. Combined strong AR and HER-2 expression was seen in 22 carcinomas: 14/25 SDC, 3/16 poorly differentiated, two oncocytic, and one each carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell, and intraductal carcinoma. Eighteen additional high grade carcinomas had HER-2 overexpression with absent, weak, or moderate AR expression; eight high grade carcinomas had isolated strong AR expression with 0-1+ HER-2 staining. Of 15 tested cases, six demonstrated HER-2 amplification by FISH, all of which had 3+ immunoreactivity. Neither benign nor malignant SGTs had strong expression of ER or PR. None of the benign SGTs overexpressed AR or HER-2. Coexpression of AR and HER-2 should not define SDC, but immunostaining should be considered in high grade salivary carcinomas, as some show overexpression and may benefit from targeted therapy.

  11. Pancreatic duct cells as a source of VEGF in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Guo, Ping; El-Gohary, Yousef; Fischbach, Shane; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K

    2014-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for proper pancreatic development, islet vascularisation and insulin secretion. In the adult pancreas, VEGF is thought to be predominantly secreted by beta cells. Although human duct cells have previously been shown to secrete VEGF at angiogenic levels in culture, an analysis of the kinetics of VEGF synthesis and secretion, as well as elucidation of an in vivo role for this ductal VEGF in affecting islet function and physiology, has been lacking. We analysed purified duct cells independently prepared by flow cytometry, surgical isolation or laser-capture microdissection. We infected duct cells in vivo with Vegf (also known as Vegfa) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in an intrapancreatic ductal infusion system and examined the effect of VEGF knockdown in duct cells in vitro and in vivo. Pancreatic duct cells express high levels of Vegf mRNA. Compared with beta cells, duct cells had a much higher ratio of secreted to intracellular VEGF. As a bioassay, formation of tubular structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was essentially undetectable when cultured alone and was substantially increased when co-cultured with pancreatic duct cells but significantly reduced when co-cultured with duct cells pretreated with Vegf shRNA. Compared with islets transplanted alone, improved vascularisation and function was detected in the islets co-transplanted with duct cells but not in islets co-transplanted with duct cells pretreated with Vegf shRNA. Human islet preparations for transplantation typically contain some contaminating duct cells and our findings suggest that the presence of duct cells in the islet preparation may improve transplantation outcomes.

  12. The importance of cognitive map placement in bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Francis; Dixon, Elijah

    2017-12-01

    Bile duct injuries often occur because of surgeon spatial disorientation. The psychological concept of cognitive map misplacement is a useful explanation of how this disorientation and injury occurs. Surgeons may find that using a "bile duct time out" is a helpful way to orient. Based on the mnemonic B-SAFE, they can use 5 subhepatic landmarks (B, bile duct; S, sulcus of Rouviere; A, hepatic artery; F, umbilical fissure; E, enteric/duodenum) to correctly place their cognitive map.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  14. Active noise control in a duct to cancel broadband noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chang, Cheng-Yuan; Kuo, Sen M.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents cancelling duct noises by using the active noise control (ANC) techniques. We use the single channel feed forward algorithm with feedback neutralization to realize ANC. Several kinds of ducts noises including tonal noises, sweep tonal signals, and white noise had investigated. Experimental results show that the proposed ANC system can cancel these noises in a PVC duct very well. The noise reduction of white noise can be up to 20 dB.

  15. Risk factors for central bile duct injury complicating partial liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, E. A.; de Boer, M. T.; Sieders, E.; Peeters, P. M. J. G.; de Jong, K. P.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Porte, R. J.

    Background: Bile duct injury is a serious complication following liver resection. Few studies have differentiated between leakage from small peripheral bile ducts and central bile duct injury (CBDI), defined as an injury leading to leakage or stenosis of the common bile duct, common hepatic duct,

  16. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS PAUCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Iryshkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinica-morphological features of syndromatic and nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods and results. The clinical records were analyzed and histological studies of native livers of 20 children, who had suffered from paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and to whom liver transplantation were made, were completed. The obtained data indicate higher levels of AST in patients with nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,023. Ductopenia was the more frequent indication of syndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01, while ductular proliferations, which form «ductular structure», were discovered more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,03. The extent of inflammatory-destructive changes was more expressed in nonsyndromatic pauci- ty of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01. Fibrosis or cirrhosis was formed more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,008. Conclusion. Our results indicate more severe clinical and morphological manifestations in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. These findings may suggest about heavier liver condition in patient with nonsyndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts

  17. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  18. Experimental investigation of a rapidly rotating turbulent duct flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, G.E.; Johansson, A.V. [Department of Mechanics, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Gunnarsson, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Moberg, H. [Alfa Laval, 14780 Tumba (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Rapidly rotating duct flow is studied experimentally with Rotation numbers in the interval. To achieve this, in combination with relatively high Reynolds numbers (5,000-30,000 based on the hydraulic radius), water was used as the working medium. Square and rectangular duct cross-sections were used and the angle between the rotation vector and the main axis of the duct was varied. The influence of the rotation on the pressure drop in the duct was investigated and suitable scalings of this quantity were studied. (orig.)

  19. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  20. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  1. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  3. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Pratt, T L; Van Rooyen, A

    2017-03-29

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  4. Internalization of fluorescent dextrans in the submandibular salivary glands of live animals: a study combining intravital two-photon microscopy and second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Here we show that a combination of two-photon microscopy and second harmonic generation can be successfully used to study endocytosis in the submandibular salivary glands of live animals. First, we have characterized the threedimensional structure of the acini and the ducts forming the parenchyma of the excised glands by exciting various endogenous molecules, which highlight the shape of the cells and various components of the extracellular matrix. Next, by time-lapse imaging we show the dynamic distribution of fluorescent probes injected systemically. This was achieved by using a custom-made holder aimed to reduce the motion artifacts associated with the heartbeat and the respiration in the live animals. Finally, we show that fluorescent dextrans are internalized primarily by the supporting cells in the salivary glands, a characteristic shared by other secretory organs such as the pancreas.

  5. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-01-01

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4?5 weeks)...

  7. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  8. Oblique bile duct predisposes to the recurrence of bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle α < 45°. 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72 ± 13 vs. 67 ± 13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02) and biliary surgery (p = 0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

  9. Oblique bile duct predisposes to the recurrence of bile duct stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α. Oblique common bile duct (OCBD was defined as a CBD with angle α < 45°. RESULTS: 103 patients (7.9% were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i significantly older (72 ± 13 vs. 67 ± 13, p<0.00001; (ii more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02 and biliary surgery (p = 0.003 prior to the diagnosis and (iii more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04 as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03. Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003. OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005 as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

  10. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  11. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  12. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  13. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location.In Cameroon, existing studies give ...

  14. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  15. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  16. The effect of exercise on salivary viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Liem, E.H.S.; Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2016-01-01

    A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both

  17. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  18. Classification and management of bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Miguel Angel; Domínguez, Ismael

    2011-04-27

    To review the classification and general guidelines for treatment of bile duct injury patients and their long term results. In a 20-year period, 510 complex circumferential injuries have been referred to our team for repair at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" hospital in Mexico City and 198 elsewhere (private practice). The records at the third level Academic University Hospital were analyzed and divided into three periods of time: GI-1990-99 (33 cases), GII- 2000-2004 (139 cases) and GIII- 2004-2008 (140 cases). All patients were treated with a Roux en Y hepatojejunostomy. A decrease in using transanastomotic stents was observed (78% vs 2%, P = 0.0001). Partial segment IV and V resection was more frequently carried out (45% vs 75%, P = 0.2) (to obtain a high bilioenteric anastomosis). Operative mortality (3% vs 0.7%, P = 0.09), postoperative cholangitis (54% vs 13%, P = 0.0001), anastomosis strictures (30% vs 5%, P = 0.0001), short and long term complications and need for reoperation (surgical or radiological) (45% vs 11%, P = 0.0001) were significantly less in the last period. The authors concluded that transition to a high volume center has improved long term results for bile duct injury repair. Even interested and tertiary care centers have a learning curve.

  19. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  20. Surgical management of Stenson's duct injury using epidural catheter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... ... drains saliva into the oral cavity. Deep penetrating wound in the form of cut or crush injury to the buccal area carries the risk of parotid duct injury. It is in the form of ductal exposure, laceration, total severing, or crushing of the duct. These conditions are difficult to diagnose because of complex anatomy.

  1. Sound Radiation Characteristics of a Rectangular Duct with Flexible Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Raviprolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic breakout noise is predominant in flexible rectangular ducts. The study of the sound radiated from the thin flexible rectangular duct walls helps in understanding breakout noise. The current paper describes an analytical model, to predict the sound radiation characteristics like total radiated sound power level, modal radiation efficiency, and directivity of the radiated sound from the duct walls. The analytical model is developed based on an equivalent plate model of the rectangular duct. This model has considered the coupled and uncoupled behaviour of both acoustic and structural subsystems. The proposed analytical model results are validated using finite element method (FEM and boundary element method (BEM. Duct acoustic and structural modes are analysed to understand the sound radiation behaviour of a duct and its equivalence with monopole and dipole sources. The most efficient radiating modes are identified by vibration displacement of the duct walls and for these the radiation efficiencies have been calculated. The calculated modal radiation efficiencies of a duct compared to a simple rectangular plate indicate similar radiation characteristics.

  2. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  3. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  4. Cystic duct closure by sealing with bipolar electrocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Damgaard, B; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic duct leakage after cholecystectomy is not uncommon and is a potentially serious complication. The aim of this study was to assess a bipolar sealing system (LigaSure) for closure of the cystic duct. METHODS: The records from consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed...

  5. Morphological study of pancreatic duct in red jungle fowl | Kadhim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neither goblet cells nor ductal glands were found in the pancreatic ducts. Secretion of both neutral and sulfated materials by the epithelial lining the pancreatic ducts, suggesting that they are acting not only to facilitate the transport of the pancreatic juice, but also as a protective barrier to protect the gland from autodigestion.

  6. Associated patent urachus and patent omphalo– mesenteric duct in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of patent urachus and a patent omphalo–mesenteric duct in children is very rare. A computer-assisted (PubMed and Google Scholar) search of the pediatric literature to identify all cases of patent urachus and a patent omphalo–mesenteric duct association was performed. We found only eleven cases of the ...

  7. Long duct nacelle aerodynamic development for DC-10 derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. P.; Donelson, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind tunnel test utilizing a 4.7-percent-scale semispan model of the DC-10 in the Calspan 8-foot transonic wind tunnel. The effect of a revised long-duct nacelle shape on the channel velocities, the incremental drag relative to the baseline long-duct nacelle, and channel velocities for the baseline long-duct nacelle were determined and compared with data obtained at Ames. The baseline and the revised long-duct nacelles are representative of a CF6-50 mixed-flow configuration and were evaluated on a model of a proposed DC-10 stretched-fuselage configuration. The results showed that the revised long-duct nacelle has an appreciable effect on the inboard channel velocities, resulting in an increased channel Mach number. However, the pressure recovery on the nacelle afterbody was about the same for both nacelles. The lift curves for both long-duct nacelle configurations were the same. The channel pressures measured at Calspan were in good agreement with those measured at Ames for the baseline long-duct nacelle. The incremental drag for the revised nacelle was measured as two to four counts (three counts is approximately equal to one percent of the airplane drag) higher than that of the baseline long-duct nacelle.

  8. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  9. Morphological study of pancreatic duct in red jungle fowl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Morphological and histochemical study of the pancreas and pancreatic ducts of ten adult red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were carried out by means of light microscopy. The bulk of the pancreas consists of a dorsal, ventral, third and small splenic lobe. Three pancreatic ducts were recognized as.

  10. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, ou...

  11. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3 buff...

  12. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  13. The anatomy of fluid-yielding ducts in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelves, Dominique; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Osin, Peter; Ward, Ann; Isacke, Clare M; Gui, Gerald P H

    2012-04-01

    The concept of an intraductal approach to evaluate the breast microenvironment assumes direct access to the cancer-containing duct. Central duct access to the cancer-affected lobe is essential if cytology or cell markers are to be useful indicators of pre-malignant change. Access to the cancer-bearing lobe would be less important if field change effects of malignant change were predominantly supra-lobar. The aim of this study was to determine how often duct lavage fluid drains the breast cancer-affected segment. 58 patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer were recruited among which 47 had at least one fluid-yielding duct. Following duct lavage, fluid-yielding ducts were perfused ex vivo with Polyurethane Elastomer (PU4ii) resin. Specimens were sliced sagittally, and the extent of resin perfusion and anatomical relationship to the cancer-affected segment was recorded. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed on selected mastectomies before cut-up for a feasibility study of 3D duct reconstruction. The median number of fluid-yielding ducts cannulated per cancer-affected breast was 2 (range 1-4). 35/47 (74%) mastectomy specimens were successfully cannulated for resin perfusion. 29/35 (83%) showed tracing of the cancer-affected duct system, 6/35 resin perfusions traced duct systems unaffected by cancer and 12/35 perfusions extravasated. The proportion of sagittal breast slices perfused by resin was 13-68% (median 43%). Volume rendering CT showed it is feasible to produce a simulated image of the perfused ducts. Duct access to the cancer-containing segment is feasible in the majority of patients. Fluid-yielding ducts proportionately drain a significant volume of the breast. Large symptomatic cancers may cause obstruction with distal collapse. Further quantitative study of breast perfusion CT scans may be helpful for estimating the volume fraction of breast tissue perfused by fluid-yielding ducts. The intraductal approach is a valid concept for biomarker

  14. Topological mixing study of non-Newtonian duct flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speetjens, Michel; Metcalfe, Guy; Rudman, Murray

    2006-10-01

    Tracer advection of non-Newtonian fluids in reoriented duct flows is investigated in terms of coherent structures in the web of tracer paths that determine transport properties geometrically. Reoriented duct flows are an idealization of in-line mixers, encompassing many micro and industrial continuous mixers. The topology of the tracer dynamics of reoriented duct flows is Hamiltonian. As the stretching per reorientation increases from zero, we show that the qualitative route from the integrable state to global chaos and good mixing does not depend on fluid rheology. This is due to a universal symmetry of reoriented duct flows, which we derive, controlling the topology of the tracer web. Symmetry determines where in parameter space global chaos first occurs, while increasing non-Newtonian effects delays the quantitative value of onset. Theory is demonstrated computationally for a representative duct flow, the rotated arc mixing flow.

  15. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Sushil K. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Fishbien, Thomas M. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); Haddad, Nadim G. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  16. Radiological spectrum of intraductal papillary tumors of the bile ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Yi, Chin A; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Seung Hoon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    Papillary tumor of the bile duct is characterized by the presence of an intraductal tumor with a papillary surface comprising innumerable frondlike infoldings of proliferated columnar epithelial cells surrounding slender fibrovascular stalks. There may be multiple tumors along the bile ducts (papillomatosis or papillary carcinomatosis), which are dilated due to obstruction by a tumor per se, by sloughed tumor debris, or by excessive mucin. Radiologically, the biliary tree is diffusely dilated, either in a lobar or segmental fashion, or aneurysmally, depending on the location of the tumor, the debris, and the amount of mucin production. A tumor can be depicted by imaging as an intraductal mass with a thickened and irregular bile duct wall. Sloughed tumor debris and mucin plugs should be differentiated from bile duct stones. Cystically or aneurysmally, dilated bile ducts in mucin-hypersecreting variants (intraductal papillary mucinous tumors) should be differentiated from cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma and liver abscess.

  17. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  18. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Grisolia, Anthony [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, Ari [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-10

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  19. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dickson, B. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Grisolia, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  20. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile duct proliferation and cholestasis in bile duct ligated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, E E; Gerunda, G E; Plebani, M; Galligioni, A; Giacomini, A; Neri, D; Faccioli, A M; Tiribelli, C

    1993-07-01

    The origin, mechanism, and significance of the bile duct proliferation (BDP) associated with cholestasis remain unexplained. This study examined the effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on both BDP and cholestasis in the rat. After bile duct ligation, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 30 days with either UDCA (5 mg/day) (group A) or saline solution (group B). Animals were sacrificed at day 30. The serum activity of aminotransferase (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was significantly lower (P acids were lower (P animals (33 +/- 11 vs 64 +/- 22 per 1000 cells; P acid and lithocolate and increase periductular bile acid recirculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Granular Cell Tumour of the Bile Duct in Association with Intrahepatic Bile Duct Adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, F; Radhi, J; Coop, FW; Murphy, RW

    1994-01-01

    Granular cell tumour of the extrahepatic biliary tract is a rare benign lesion likely of neurogenic origin. Review of the previously reported cases indicates that almost all patients are female, and the majority is Black. Symptoms usually are those of biliary obstruction or cholecystitis. Surgical resection of the tumour is curative. Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is another rare benign biliary neoplasm that does not manifest clinically but can be confused with metastatic carcinoma, cholangio...

  2. Transcatheter stenting of arterial duct in duct-dependent congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Critical congenital heart diseases (CHD are mostly duct-dependent and require stable systemic-pulmonary communication. In order to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA, the first line treatment is Prostaglandin E1 and the second step is the surgical creation of aortic-pulmonary shunt. To reduce surgical risk in neonates with the critical CHD, transcatheter stenting of DA can be performed in selected cases. Case Outline. A four-month old infant was diagnosed with the pulmonary artery atresia with ventricular septal defect (PAA/VSD. The left pulmonary artery was perfused from DA, and the right lung through three major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs. A coronary stent was placed in the long and critically stenotic DA, with final arterial duct diameter of 3.5 mm, and significantly increased blood supply to the left lung. After the procedure, the infant’s status was improved with regard to arterial oxygen saturation, feeding and weight gain. During the follow-up, one year later, aortography revealed in-stent stenosis. The left pulmonary artery, as well as the branches, was well-developed and the decision was made to proceed with further surgical correction. Conclusion. Stenting of DA can be an effective alternative to primary surgical correction in selected patients with duct-dependent CHD.

  3. Transcatheter stenting of arterial duct in duct-dependent congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Milan; Ilisić, Tamara; Stefanović, Igor; Gradinac, Marija; Vulićević, Irena; Parezanović, Vojislav; Jovanović, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Critical congenital heart diseases (CHD) are mostly duct-dependent and require stable systemic-pulmonary communication. In order to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA), the first line treatment is Prostaglandin E1 and the second step is the surgical creation of aortic-pulmonary shunt. To reduce surgical risk in neonates with the critical CHD, transcatheter stenting of DA can be performed in selected cases. A four-month old infant was diagnosed with the pulmonary artery atresia with ventricular septal defect (PAA/VSD). The left pulmonary artery was perfused from DA, and the right lung through three major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs). A coronary stent was placed in the long and critically stenotic DA, with final arterial duct diameter of 3.5 mm, and significantly increased blood supply to the left lung. After the procedure, the infant's status was improved with regard to arterial oxygen saturation, feeding and weight gain. During the follow-up, one year later, aortography revealed in-stent stenosis. The left pulmonary artery, as well as the branches, was well-developed and the decision was made to proceed with further surgical correction. Stenting of DA can be an effective alternative to primary surgical correction in selected patients with duct-dependent CHD.

  4. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Glands in Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedi, Jehona Reçica; Ahmedi, Enis; Perjuci, Ferjall; Ademi, Resmije; Gashi, Ali; Agani, Zana; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Reçica, Bylbyl

    2017-10-01

    Tumors of salivary glands are very rare in children overall, and rarely in minor salivary glands. Among them pleoomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands in children and it acounts 60% of all salivary neoplasms, frequently found in major salivary glands (85 %) and rarely in minor salivary glands (10-15%). PA appears as painless oval mass, elastic consistency and smooth surface. It characterized by slow evolution of growing. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histopathological features, after total excision of the lesion. This case report present the uncommon case of the formation well circumscribed in upper lip region, nearby the frenulum labii oris superior in 10 years old school girl. After clinical intraoral examination of the formation approximately 2cm in size the surgical treatment has been done and histopathologic analysis resulted as PA. Long term follow-up examination is necessary due to possible recurence or malignancy alteration.

  5. Congenital absence of salivary glands in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Hershkovits, Miriyam; Bornstein, Jacob; Loberant, Norman; Blumenthal, Monique; Ophir, Ella

    2013-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome have different saliva composition compared to normal children. The presence or absence of the salivary glands has not been previously reported. To examine the presence or absence of the salivary glands in children with Down syndrome. 15 children with Down syndrome underwent an ultrasound examination of the salivary glands. The control group consisted of 31 healthy children. The areas of the parotid and submandibular glands on both sides were scanned in an attempt to demonstrate all four glands. The result was reported as 'present' or 'absent'. In four children out of 15 with Down syndrome, one or more salivary glands were absent (26.7%), while in the controls all salivary glands were present. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.008). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and sex. At least one salivary gland is undetected by ultrasound in some children with Down syndrome.

  6. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  7. Oral mucosa biology and salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rosie; Steel, Andrea; Fazel, Nasim

    Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers. Within the oral cavity, saliva shows great promise as a noninvasive and sensitive marker for many systemic diseases. Biomarkers are being used as diagnostic or monitoring tools for a wide variety of diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren disease, Behçet disease, and autoimmune blistering disorders, as well as premalignant and malignant lesions of the mouth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  12. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya PatiI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of the salivary glands. It is an unusual type of a tumour in that it varies in its aggressiveness from a low-grade slow growing to high-grade rapidly growing behaviour. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas maybe masqueraded in their clinical presentation, thus need to be looked at with a suspicious eye. We present two intraoral cases of this unique tumour.

  13. Treatment of infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the different ages of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in infants, take different treatment methods at different times. METHODS:The 87 cases of 102 children were divided into three different age groups: the first group of 25d-3mo of age 21 cases 26 eyes; The second group >3mo-7mo 31 cases 36 eyes; The third group >7-24mo of age 35 cases 40 eyes. For the first group of infants, the implementation of the lacrimal sac nasolacrimal duct massage + eye drops; for the second group of infants, carry lacrimal pressure washing treatment; for the third group of infants, the implementation of the nasolacrimal duct probing treatment. RESULTS:The first group of children through the nasolacrimal duct sac massage + drops tobramycin eye drops treatment unobstructed 12, the cure rate was 46.2%; The second group of children through pressurized irrigation treatment lacrimal patency by 33, the cure rate was 91.7%; The third group of children through the nasolacrimal duct probing unobstructed 36 treatment, the cure rate was 90.0%. The second and third group were better than the first group(χ2=15.71, Pχ2=15.27, Pχ2=0.02, P>0.05.CONCLUSION:Infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction should distinguish between ages, taking different treatments, in order to obtain a better therapeutic effect, and lacrimal pressure washing is the preferred way of treating infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  14. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-04-01

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  15. [Clinicopathologic features of drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L H; Wang, C K; Zhang, H C; Liu, Z Q; Zheng, H W

    2017-04-20

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) manifests as progressive destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile duct caused by various factors and cholestasis. VBDS associated with drug-induced liver injury (D-VBDS) is an important etiology of VBDS, and immune disorder or immune imbalance may be the main pathogenesis. According to its clinical symptoms, serological markers, and course of the disease, D-VBDS is classified into major form and minor form, and its clinical features are based on various pathomorphological findings. Its prognosis is associated various factors including regeneration of bile duct cells, number of bile duct injuries, level and range of bile duct injury, bile duct proliferation, and compensatory shunt of bile duct branches. This disease has various clinical outcomes; most patients have good prognosis after drug withdrawal, and some patients may experience cholestatic cirrhosis, liver failure, and even death. Due to the clinical manifestation and biochemical changes are similar to the primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), it need to identify by clinical physician.

  16. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  17. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  18. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  19. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  20. Salivary Biomarkers in Pediatric Metabolic Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is now considered a global pandemic. The main goal of the pediatric obesity research community is to identify children who are at risk of becoming obese before their body mass index rises above age norms. To do so, we must identify biomarkers of metabolic health and immunometabolism that can be used for large-scale screening and diagnosis initiatives among at-risk children. Because blood sampling is often unacceptable to both parents and children when there is no direct benefit to the child, as in a community-based research study, there is a clear need for a low-risk, non-invasive sampling strategy. Salivary analysis is now well recognized as a likely candidate for this purpose. In this review, we discuss the physiologic role of saliva and its strengths and limitations as a fluid for biomarker discovery, obesity screening, metabolic disease diagnosis, and response monitoring after interventions. We also describe the current state of the salivary biomarker field as it pertains to metabolic research, with a special emphasis on studies conducted in children and adolescents. Finally, we look forward to technological developments, such as salivary "omics" and point of service diagnostic devices, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of research and discovery in this vitally important field.

  1. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  2. Lesions of the segmental and lobar hepatic ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, W P; Tompkins, R K

    1975-01-01

    Despite reports to the contrary, unobstructed drainage of 50% of an otherwise normal liver through either the right or left uninfected hepatic duct is adequate to restore normal liver function, even if the obstructed lobe remains in place. An undrained liver lobe, if present, may require no further treatment. As long as it is completely obstructed and uninfected, it will undergo a progressive asymptomatic atrophy. Cholangitis invariably develops behind a partial lobar ductal obstruction, producing jaundice, pruritis, and fever. Unless unobstructed, uninfected biliary flow can be achieved through a segmental or lobar duct, it is better that the duct be completely obstructed and the affected liver parenchyma allowed to atrophy, provided there is normal biliary flow from the residual 50% of liver. This concept is important in the management of injured anomalous segmental or lobar hepatic duct and in the palliative treatment of bile duct carcinoma. Localized intrahepatic infections communicating with abnormal biliary ducts will require hepatic resection of the infected parenchyma and ducts for cure. The abnormality may be saccular dilatation of the intrahepatic ductal system with abscess formation or intrahepatic abscess associated with stenosis of the ductal system from trauma to the duct, to the duct and liver, or to retained intrahepatic stones. Diffusely situated intrahepatic abscesses secondary to ductal abnormalities can be treated with systemic antibiotics, local drainage of a dmoninant abscess, and efforts to improve biliary drainage. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Figs. 11A and B Figs. 12A and B. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. PMID:1180585

  3. Imaging of Borrelia turicatae Producing the Green Fluorescent Protein Reveals Persistent Colonization of the Ornithodoros turicata Midgut and Salivary Glands from Nymphal Acquisition through Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnavajhala, Aparna; Wilder, Hannah K; Boyle, William K; Damania, Ashish; Thornton, Justin A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Lopez, Job E

    2017-03-01

    Relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes colonize and are transmitted to mammals primarily by Ornithodoros ticks, and little is known regarding the pathogen's life cycle in the vector. To further understand vector colonization and transmission of RF spirochetes, Borrelia turicatae expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker ( B. turicatae-gfp ) was generated. The transformants were evaluated during the tick-mammal infectious cycle, from the third nymphal instar to adult stage. B. turicatae-gfp remained viable for at least 18 months in starved fourth-stage nymphal ticks, and the studies indicated that spirochete populations persistently colonized the tick midgut and salivary glands. Our generation of B. turicatae-gfp also revealed that within the salivary glands, spirochetes are localized in the ducts and lumen of acini, and after tick feeding, the tissues remained populated with spirochetes. The B. turicatae-gfp generated in this study is an important tool to further understand and define the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. IMPORTANCE In order to interrupt the infectious cycle of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to enhance our understanding of vector colonization and transmission. Toward this, we generated a strain of Borrelia turicatae that constitutively produced the green fluorescent protein, and we evaluated fluorescing spirochetes during the entire infectious cycle. We determined that the midgut and salivary glands of Ornithodoros turicata ticks maintain the pathogens throughout the vector's life cycle and remain colonized with the spirochetes for at least 18 months. We also determined that the tick's salivary glands were not depleted after a transmission blood feeding. These findings set the framework to further understand the mechanisms of midgut and salivary gland colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-27

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  5. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  6. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  7. Spontaneous recanalization of the pancreatic duct: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkovitz, M S; Garcia, V F

    1996-06-01

    An eight-year-old boy received a grade 3 pancreatic injury as a result of a bicycle handlebar accident. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed a proximal pancreatic duct transection. At laparotomy, a complete transection of the gland and duct was visualized; however, only debridement and external fistulization were performed. Follow-up ERCP performed 3 months postoperatively showed recanalization of the pancreatic duct without further operative intervention. At 1-year follow-up, the patient is pain free and tolerating a regular diet.

  8. ROV [Remotely Operated Vehicle] inspection inside ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    An instrumentation package for carrying out visual inspections and radiation monitoring within radioactive duct-work has been developed. This paper describes the first application of the package in the main ventilation duct of the Dounreay fuel cycle area. The package was deployed via a commercial ROV within a duct consisting of two parallel runs, over 300 metres long, between 0.9 and 1.7 metres high and 1.1 metres wide. An integrated, computer-controlled station was used for data collection, recording in digital form and on video tape. (UK).

  9. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  10. Bile duct adenoma and von Meyenburg complex-like duct arising in hepatitis and cirrhosis: pathogenesis and histological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishima, Shinichi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kubo, Yuichiro; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2014-11-01

    Morphologic features and neoplastic potentials of bile duct adenoma (BDA) and von Meyenburg complex (VMC)-like duct arising in chronic liver disease were unknown. Thirty-five BDAs and 12 VMC-like duct lesions were observed in 39 cases with chronic liver disease. BDAs were divided into the EMA-cytoplasmic type (n = 14) and EMA-luminal type (n = 21). EMA-cytoplasmic BDA composed of a proliferation of cuboidal to low-columnar cells forming an open lumen with NCAM(+)/MUC6(-), resembling an interlobular bile duct. EMA-luminal BDA showed uniform cuboidal cells with narrow lumen, and NCAM(++)/MUC6(++), resembling a ductular reaction. VMC-like duct showed positive MUC1 expression and negative MUC6. The expression of S100P, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3) were not detected in three lesions. p16 expression was higher than those of the ductular reaction, and the Ki67 and p53 indexes were very low (bile duct type; BDA, ductular/peribiliary gland type; and VMC-like duct. They may be reactive proliferation rather than neoplastic lesions. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Technical knacks and outcomes of extended extrahepatic bile duct resection in patients with mid bile duct cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Mid bile duct cancers often involve the proximal intrapancreatic bile duct, and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) can result in a tumor-positive distal resection margin (RM). We attempted a customized surgical procedure to obtain a tumor-free distal RM during EHBD resection, so that R0 resection can be achieved without performing pancreaticoduodenectomy through extended EHBD resection. Methods We previously reported the surgical procedures of extended EHBD resection, in which the intrapancreatic duct excavation resembles a ≥2 cm-long funnel. This unique procedure was performed in 11 cases of mid bile duct cancer occurring in elderly patients between the ages of 70 and 83 years. Results The tumor involved the intrapancreatic duct in all cases. Deep pancreatic excavation per se required about 30-60 minutes. Cancer-free hepatic duct RM was obtained in 10 patients. Prolonged leakage of pancreatic juice occurred in 2 patients, but all were controlled with supportive care. Adjuvant therapies were primarily applied to RM-positive or lymph node-positive patients. Their 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 90.9% and 60.6%, respectively. Conclusions We suggest that extended EHBD resection can be performed as a beneficial option to achieve R0 resection in cases in which pancreaticoduodenectomy should be avoided due to various causes including old age and expectation of a poor outcome. PMID:26155223

  12. The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    .... Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands...

  13. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  14. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile duct cancer (also called cholangiocarcinoma) can occur in the bile ducts in the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (perihilar or distal extrahepatic). Learn about the types of bile duct cancer, risk factors, clinical features, staging, and treatment for bile duct cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. A case of double common bile duct in a deceased donor for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hajime; Eguchi, Susumu; Shapiro, A M James; Kin, Tatsuya

    2017-12-01

    A double common bile duct is extremely rare among the anatomical variations in the biliary tract system. We report an incidentally encountered case of the double common bile duct and discuss the novel anatomical findings of the accessory common bile duct from the viewpoint of embryology. A unique point of our case is that the accessory common bile duct bifurcated at the level of the intrapancreatic bile duct. There is no similar case in the previous literature among type II double common bile duct in the viewpoint of anatomical findings of the accessory common bile duct. We assume that this asymptomatic anatomical variation may be present more commonly, but not diagnosed.

  16. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  17. Biliary duct obstruction treatment with aid of percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biliary duct obstruction treatment with aid of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Daniel Knap, Natalia Orlecka, Renata Judka, Aleksandra Juza, Michał Drabek, Maciej Honkowicz, Tomasz Kirmes, Bartosz Kadłubicki, Dominik Sieron, Jan Baron ...

  18. Lacrimal gland duct stones: misdiagnosed as chalazion in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Lee, Kook; Lee, Sang Un

    2014-02-01

    To report 3 cases of lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion. Retrospective case series. Three patients with lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion at a local clinic between 2010 and 2012. A thorough review of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic manifestations. Clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland duct stones included conjunctival injection, lid swelling, tenderness, and ocular discharge, which are similar to chalazion symptoms. Computed tomography revealed a relatively well-defined, high-density mass near the lacrimal gland. Histopathologic examination of excised material revealed calcified amorphous stones. Intractable chalazion-like lesions at the lateral canthal area near the lacrimal gland should be carefully examined; imaging studies are required to confirm the presence of lacrimal gland duct stones, which require surgical removal. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  20. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.

    2015-07-21

    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  1. Minimally invasive treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Wurijile

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of endoscopic technology and equipment, minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones becomes increasingly diversified. In this paper, the concept of minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, surgical indications and contraindications, surgical methods, and the advantages and disadvantages of surgical methods are introduced. It is shown that the application of laparoscope has laid the foundation for the minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones, and the combined application of choledochoscope and endoscope has brought new ideas for minimally invasive treatment of bile duct stones. The combination of three endoscopes avoids the disadvantages of traditional open surgery: large trauma and long operation time, and reduces the patient′s pain and complications. In the near future, the combination of three endoscopes still has much room for growth. As long as the indications for several surgeries are mastered and the safety and efficacy are evaluated objectively, the combination of three endoscopes will play the biggest role.

  2. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium. Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access.

  3. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  4. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  5. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  6. Numerical Modeling of a Ducted Rocket Combustor With Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The present work was conducted with the intent of developing a high-fidelity numerical model of a unique combustion flow problem combining multi-phase fuel injection with substantial momentum and temperature into a highly complex turbulent flow. This important problem is very different from typical and more widely known liquid fuel combustion problems and is found in practice in pulverized coal combustors and ducted rocket ramjets. As the ducted rocket engine cycle is only now finding wides...

  7. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home. At the same time, a duct system that is poorly designed or maintained can have a detrimental effect on the health of the people who live in the house, through the unintended distribution of indoor air pollution.

  8. Parotid duct stenosis: interventional radiology to the rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D N; Juman, S; Hall, J R; Jonathan, D A

    1995-11-01

    Recurrent parotid sialadenitis due to isolated parotid duct stenosis is an uncommon condition and poses a difficult management problem. Conventional surgical practice carries with it a potentially high morbidity for what is a benign condition. We present three cases where parotid duct stenosis has been treated by balloon dilatation and propose that this is a safe, quick and repeatable method for dealing with this problem.

  9. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  10. Effect of surface deposits on electromagnetic propagation in uniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been used to study the effect of material surface deposits on the reflective characteristics of straight uniform ducts with PEC (perfectly electric conducting) walls. Over a wide frequency range, the effect of both single and multiple dielectric surface deposits on the duct reflection coefficient were examined. The power reflection coefficient was found to be significantly increased by the addition of deposits on the wall.

  11. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  12. Improving Diffusing S-duct Performance by Secondary Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Bruce A.; Wendt, Bruce J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study ways to reduce inlet flow distortion (i.e., total pressure nonuniformity) and improve total pressure recovery in a diffusing S-duct. This was accomplished by controlling the development of secondary flows within the duct through the use of tapered-fin type vortex generators. Reported are results for the bare duct and seven different configurations of vortex generators. Data presented for each configuration include surface static pressure, surface flow visualization, and exit plane total pressure and transverse velocity. The performance of each configuration was assessed by calculating total pressure recovery and inlet distortion descriptors from the data and comparing them to the values for the bare duct. The best configuration tested reduced distortion (as measured by the DC(45) and DC(90) descriptors) by more than 50 percent while improving total pressure recovery by 0.5 percent. These results should provide valuable guidance in designing vortex generator installations in ducts and for assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to calculate duct flows with installed vortex generators.

  13. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  14. Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M. [King Saud University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-15

    Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases. (orig.)

  15. Flow control in a diffusing S-Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.; Liver, P.; Bhat, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate measurements have been made of secondary flow in a 1.51 area ratio diffusing 30 deg - 30 deg S-Duct with circulair cross section. Turbulent flow was entering the duct at Mach number of 0.6, the boundary layer thickness at the duct entrance was ten percent of the duct inlet diameter. Through measurements made, local flow velocity vector as well as static and total pressures mapping of the flow at several stations were obtained. Strong secondary flow was measured in the first bend which continued into the second bend with new vorticity produced in there in the opposite direction. Surface oil flow visualization and wall pressures indicated a region of separated flow starting at theta approximately equal to 22 deg on the inside of the first bend up to theta approximately equal to 44 deg on the outside of the second bend. The flow separated in 'cyclone' form and never reattached in the duct. As a result of the secondary flow and the flow separation, significant total pressure distortion was observed at the exit of the duct. Using flow control devices the separation was eliminated while the exit distortion was improved.

  16. Human salivary micro-RNA in patients with parotid salivary gland neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matse, J.H.; Yoshizawa, J.; Wang, X.; Elashoff, D.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Leemans, C.R.; Pegtel, M.D.; Wong, D.T.W.; Bloemena, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical examination, ultrasound scanning (with or without fine needle aspiration cytology), preoperative CT-scan and MRI are available for the differential diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. A preliminary non-invasive salivary diagnostic tool may be helpful in the clinical

  17. Human antibody response to Lethocerus salivary antigens as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly in addition to a few immunogenic salivary proteins (85, 64, 37 and 33 kDa bands), a 28 kDa protein derived from salivary glands homogenate of aquatic insects was able to bind to Mycobacterium ulcerans and to be recognized by IgG antibodies of healthy subjects in endemic areas. The antibody responses to ...

  18. Digestive and Nondigestive Functions of Rodents' Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V V; Milto, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Serebryakova, O N; Buzenkova, A V

    2017-01-01

    Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Special attention has been paid to the characteristics of specific (parotin, sialorphin, etc.) and nonspecific (epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, kallikrein, etc.) active substances of the major salivary glands and their involvement in wound healing, mineral metabolism, regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity system. Summarized and analyzed major salivary glands endocrine function in the organs and systems. Available literature data suggest: the structure of the major salivary glands, as well as the synthesis and secretion of a number of biologically active substances are controlled by sex hormones. In turn, these biologically active factors of the salivary glands, as epidermal growth factor, and parotin, sialorphin, whose expression is regulated by androgens, have an impact on the morphological and functional state of the gonads. Thus, major salivary glands operate a wide range of functions and involved in the regulation of sexual behavior of reproductive function and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

  19. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, S.T.G.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Terlouw, B.; Brouwer, M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Wouters, D.

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  1. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria | Ajike | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation and management of minor salivary gland tumours at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods: Retrospective study of minor salivary gland tumours at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Results: The ...

  2. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. Methods A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic

  3. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Salivary gland tumours are common head and neck tumours. Malignant salivary gland tumours generally occur less frequently than benign ones and account for greater morbidity and mortality. Patients in our environment are seen to present at late stages and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the commonest ...

  4. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of salivary gland tumors is claimed to be influenced by geographical and racial factors. The pathological classification and nomenclature of salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature regarding the spectrum of ...

  5. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a descriptive study of all histotogically confirmed benign salivary gland tumours over a period of ten years. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made and classification done according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours.

  6. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, Sabrina T. G.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses

  7. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  8. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  10. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  11. Antimicrobial activity of synthetic salivary peptides against voice prosthetic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, GJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AV; Veerman, ECI; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ

    Objectives: To investigate whether synthetic salivary antimicrobial peptides have an inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria and yeasts isolated from used silicone rubber voice prostheses. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of six synthetic salivary peptides (histatin 5, dhvar1, dhvar4,

  12. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short‑term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH.

  14. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  15. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  16. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg-1 min-1 peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇2peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2peak. Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45+), granulocytes (CD45+CD15+), monocytes (CD45+CD14+), T-cells (CD45+CD3+), and B-cells (CD45+CD20+) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  17. Salivary glands as the source of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in stressed rats engaged in biting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Juri; Kondo, Yusuke; Sato, Chikatoshi; Shiiki, Naoto; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Sato, Sadao

    2010-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is crucial for the survival and differentiation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recently, BDNF has been reported to exert broader biological activity on non-neural cells. A previous study examined the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B in male rat submandibular glands. In the present study, we found that the rat submandibular gland is the major source of plasma BDNF during acute immobilization stress. Biting modulates the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the rat hippocampus, so we also investigated whether the plasma BDNF concentration is influenced by biting. Two hours of acute immobilization stress significantly increased the amount of BDNF mRNA within the rat submandibular glands. Moreover, allowing biting behavior for the second half of the 2-h stress exposure significantly increased the amount of salivary gland BDNF mRNA relative to stress alone. Similar results were found with plasma BDNF concentrations under the same conditions. We confirmed that biting during stress attenuates the increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone concentrations, but this was not dependent on the submandibular glands. Increased BDNF, mRNA and protein expressions were observed in salivary duct cells as a result of immobilization stress and biting behavior, as demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Taken together, the findings indicate that the submandibular glands evidently contribute to the increase in plasma BDNF upon biting.

  18. Cholera toxin B subunit-binding and ganglioside GM1 immuno-expression are not necessarily correlated in human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Svend

    2014-11-01

    To determine and compare the presence and in situ localization of the glycosphingolipid ganglioside GM1 in human salivary glands using the biomarkers for GM1: cholera toxin and antibodies against GM1. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on sections of adult human submandibular, parotid and palatinal glands using cholera toxin sub-unit B and two polyclonal antibodies against ganglioside GM1 as biomarkers. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the toxin and antibodies were co-localized in some acini but not in others. The cholera toxin mainly reacted with the cell membranes of the mucous acini in the submandibular gland, while incubation with the antibody against GM1 gave rise to a staining of the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm in some secretory acinar cells in the parotid gland was stained by the cholera toxin, whereas only small spots on the plasma membranes reacted with anti-GM1. The plasma membranes in the parotid excretory ducts appeared to react to anti-GM1, but not to cholera toxin. Cholera toxin induces the expression of ion channels and carriers in the small intestine and increases the production of secretory mucins. Although their mutual immunohistochemical localization may differ, both cholera toxin and ganglioside GM1 are present in the mucin-producing acini from salivary glands. This could point to a relationship between ganglioside expression and production of salivary mucins.

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  20. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Thou...

  1. Abnormal distribution of AQP4 in minor salivary glands of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lorusso, Loredana; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Nico, Beatrice; Ribatti, Domenico; Ruggieri, Simona; Lofrumento, Dario Domenico; Lisi, Sabrina

    2017-06-01

    A decreased saliva production occurs in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), an autoimmune disease characterized by oral and ocular dryness due to dysfunction of the lacrimal and salivary glands (SGs). Since water movement is involved in saliva secretion, the expression, localization, and function of the water channels aquaporins (AQPs) have been extensively studied in SGs. To date, the presence of AQP4 remains controversial and ambiguous in human SGs. We investigated by immunohistochemistry, high-resolution confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, the presence of the AQP4 gene, and the distribution of AQP4 protein in healthy controls and pSS SG biopsies. Through the immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated that AQP4 presence is confined to the basal region of acini, to the lateral and apical membrane of intercalated and striated ducts in both control and pSS glands. The most striking observation was the discovery of AQP4 localization in myoepithelial cells (MECs) that surround acini lobules and intercalated ducts, and the demonstration of AQP4-downregulated immunoreactivity in pSS MECs. Our studies suggest that the capacity for water flow across the membrane of MECs may be altered in pSS, identifying AQP4 as a promising new therapeutic agent to treat xerostomia.

  2. Anisometropia and amblyopia in nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Michael A; Kipp, Michael A; Struthers, William

    2013-06-01

    To investigate an association of childhood nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) with anisometropia and amblyopia. The medical records of patients from newborn to 6 years of age with a diagnosis of NLDO seen from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included age at onset of NLDO, laterality of NLDO, cycloplegic refractive error, determination of clinically significant anisometropia (defined as ≥1 D), and diagnosis of amblyopia with amblyopia subtype (anisometropic vs other). A total of 1,218 patients with NLDO were included. Of these, 887 cases (72.8%) were unilateral; 331 (27.2%), bilateral. Anisometropia was found in 67 (7.6%) unilateral cases and 12 (3.6 %) bilateral cases on initial examination (χ2=5.48, P anisometropia patients (χ(2) = 33.01, P anisometropia for a total of 105 of 1218 (8.6%). Of the 482 patients, 28 (5.8%) developed amblyopia, 16 cases of which were purely attributable to anisometropia. Of 41 patients with anisometropia who were in the follow-up, 9 (22%) developed amblyopia. Anisometropia occurred at a greater rate in unilateral NLDO patients compared with bilateral NLDO patients and occurred at a greater rate in this NLDO cohort than expected in the general pediatric population. Several patients with anisometropia developed clinical amblyopia. Measurement of cycloplegic refraction in all NLDO patients at initial examination should be considered. Periodic follow-up is appropriate for patients with NLDO and anisometropia. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ejaculatory duct obstruction in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paick, J; Kim, S H; Kim, S W

    2000-04-01

    To analyse our experience of ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) in infertile men, evaluating the diagnostic steps and the outcome of management according to the aetiology. Over a 7-year period, 50 infertile men were diagnosed with EDO as a contributory factor to male infertility. Diagnostic criteria included a history, physical examination, semen analyses, semen fructose measurement, hormonal study, testicular biopsy, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and/or vasography. Thirty-one patients with EDO were treated by transurethral resection (26) or forced lavage via a vasotomy (five). In 45 of the 50 men, semen analyses showed the typical characteristics of complete EDO. Seminal values were variable in five cases of partial EDO; the semen fructose levels were EDO was a midline cyst in 16, Wolffian malformation in four, tuberculosis in 17, previous genitourinary infection in five and idiopathic in eight men. In 17 patients the seminal vesicles appeared to be atrophied on TRUS; 15 of these patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and subsequent vasography in five showed multiple bilateral vasal obstruction. TRUS findings correlated well with vasography except in one case. The overall rate of improved semen values and paternity was 61% and 26%, respectively. Of 16 patients with midline cysts, 14 had improved semen variables and achieved paternity, seven after transurethral resection. TRUS should be the first diagnostic procedure used when infertile men are suspected of having EDO, but vasography should still be considered for a more comprehensive diagnosis. In patients with atrophic seminal vesicles on TRUS and with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis, further study is unnecessary and microscopic epididymal sperm aspiration is recommended for in vitro fertilization. The measurement of semen fructose may be helpful in diagnosing partial EDO. Patients with midline cysts who are treated by transurethral resection are expected to have the best outcome.

  4. Sialendoscopy of salivary glands affected by Sjögren syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Maarse, F.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands could alleviate the oral symptoms of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and restore salivary function. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands on salivary flow, saliva composition, and mouthfeel in

  5. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5-10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress.

  6. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw P Kozak

    Full Text Available The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.

  7. [Salivary testosterone and cognitive ability in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnikova, D; Dohnanyiova, M; Mataseje, A; Putz, Z; Laznibatova, J; Hajek, J

    2000-01-01

    There are suggestive data with indicate the link of testosterone levels with specific cognitive abilities in humans. As soon as during intrauterine development, testosterone is supposed to influence to organization of fetal specific brain structures. This influence is permanent and it is reflected in cognitive abilities during prepubetal period. In puberty, the testosterone level rapidly increases mainly in boys and it appears to influence the definitive development of cognitive functions. In this paper, results of the first four years of our logitudinal study are presented. Salivary testosterone levels in children were determined, and their effect on spatial ability was studied. Radioimmunoanalytical method of testosterone determination in saliva was developed, since saliva reflects free fraction of testosterone directly available for uptake by receptors in the central nervous system. The sampling of saliva is non-invasive and unstressful, which is important for relevant evaluation of cognitive performance. One hundred and forty-seven children (78 boys and 69 girls) at the ae of 8 to 12 were examined. The data received from intellectually gifted children attending the School for gifted children in Bratislava (100 measurements) were compared with the data received from age-matched children attending randomly chosen elementary schools (151 measurements). Lower salivary testosterone levels were found in intellectually gifted children of both sexes, and negative relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive abilities in preadolescent children was observed.

  8. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5–10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. Materials and methods In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. Results The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusions Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress. PMID:25737890

  9. Analysis of the results of treatment of patients with malignant tumors of the salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Vayradyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: improve results of the treatment of patients with malignant salivary gland neoplasm (MSGN.Materials and methods. Analysis of 417 patients suffering from MSGN treated in the Federal State Budgetary Institution “N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center” from 1988 to 2014. All the subjects were divided into 4 main groups according to the treatment assigned: group of the surgical treatment – 27.3 % (n = 114, group of the combined treatment (surgery and radiotherapy (RT – 54.0 % (n = 225, group of the complex treatment (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy – 10.5 % (n = 44, group of conservative treatment (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy – 8.2 % (n = 34.Results. Best 5-year disease-free survival (DFS was observed in patients with localization of the tumor process in the minor salivary glands (MSG, mucosal tunic (MT of mouth (73.2 ± 5.5% and parotid gland (62.3 ± 3.3 %, while the lowest survival rate was observed in tumors of sublingual salivary gland (0% (median was not achieved, p = 0.07. Depending on the morphological variants the best 5-year DFS was observed in groups of myoepithelial carcinoma, and acinar cell carcinoma: 81.3 ± 9.8 and 79.1 ± 8.4 %, respectively (median was not reached, p > 0.05; the worst survival rate was observed in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma of the salivary ducts and adenocarcinoma: 45.7 ± 15.5; 50.3 ± 12.7 and 53.0 ± 5.5 %, respectively (median was not reached. In poorly differentiated tumors (G3 5-year DFS was lowest and was equal to 32.7 ± 4.1 %, while in G1 tumors – 83.6 ± 3.1% (p = 0.000001. In G3 tumors addition of radiotherapy to the surgery significantly reduces the incidence of local recurrence - from 51.4 % (surgical treatment alone down to 33.8 % (combined treatment (p = 0.08. There was a significant decrease in 5-year disease-free survival rate from 74.2 ± 2.6 % without any adverse pathological signs down to 37.9 ± 5.4% in the presence of these signs

  10. Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  11. The Effects of Vortex Ingestion on the Flow in a Diffusing S-duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Reichert, B. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of an ingested vortex on the flowfield of a diffusing S-duct is reported. The vortex is generated through the use of a stationary pinwheel device mounted upstream of the diffusing S-duct. Three test conditions vary the location of the vortex in the duct inlet crossplane. For each condition of ingested vortex, a baseline S-duct and an S-duct with an array of vortex generators is examined. The data taken consist of duct inlet and exit crossplane surveys of velocity and total pressure. Duct surface flow visualization and static pressure are also recorded. The data acquired in these tests are compared to identical S-duct data taken in the absence of the ingested vortex. The ingested vortex is observed to have a strong influence on the flowfield inside (and exiting) the S-duct, but only when the vortex impinges at the inlet crossplane location coincident with the crossplane location of downstream flow separation within the duct. When the ingested vortex impinges at this location it reduces the extent of flowfield separation inside the baseline duct and promotes stronger crossflow in the exit plane of both the baseline duct and the duct with installed vortex generators. This enhanced crossflow also strengthens the vortices shed from the vortex generators. The other impingement locations of the ingested vortex are found to produce little effect on the flowfield of the duct with or without vortex generators.

  12. Optimum design of the injection duct system of a stenter machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juraeva, Makhsuda; Song, Dong Joo [Yeungnam University, Geyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Jin [Ajou Motor College, Boryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Stenter machines are used for drying fabrics in the textile industry and have a heater, injection duct system, and fans inside a chamber. The injection duct system has ducts and air-injecting holes. Plane-type injection duct systems were investigated to obtain uniform airflow at the air-injecting holes. The flow field of the injection duct systems was computed using ANSYS CFX with different heights of the duct end and different shapes for the air-injecting holes. There was a high mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes and high airflow circulation inside both plane-type and mountain-type ducts at the ends. The height of the duct end was varied between 40 mm and 160 mm. The injection duct systems were analyzed with four different shapes of air-injecting holes. The circular and elliptical holes had lower standard deviations of the mass flow rate than other shapes. Relatively uniform mass flow rates were obtained in the plane-type and mountain-type duct systems when the height of the duct end was 40 mm and the shape of the air-injecting holes was circular or elliptical. The developed injection duct systems were improved by obtaining a uniform mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes. A stenter prototype was fabricated with the developed injection duct system to confirm the numerical results. The developed injection duct system had better performance than the original system.

  13. Technical Note: Thoracic duct embolization for treatment of chylothorax: A novel guidance technique for puncture using combined MRI and fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alampath Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct embolization (TDE is an established radiological interventional procedure for thoracic duct injuries. Traditionally, it is done under fluoroscopic guidance after opacifying the thoracic duct with bipedal lymphangiography. We describe our experience in usinga heavily T2W sequence for guiding thoracic duct puncture and direct injection of glue through the puncture needle without cannulating the duct.

  14. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  15. Recurrence of choledocholithiasis following endoscopic bile duct clearance: Long term results and factors associated with recurrent bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakis, Christos; Triantos, Christos; Theopistos, Vasileios; Theocharis, Georgios; Maroulis, Ioannis; Diamantopoulou, Georgia; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the rate of recurrence of symptomatic choledocholithiasis and identify factors associated with the recurrence of bile duct stones in patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for bile duct stone disease. All patients who underwent ERCP and EST for bile duct stone disease and had their bile duct cleared from 1/1/2005 until 31/12/2008 was enrolled. All symptomatic recurrences during the study period (until 31/12/2015) were recorded. Clinical and laboratory data potentially associated with common bile duct (CBD) stone recurrence were retrospectively retrieved from patients' files. A total of 495 patients were included. Sixty seven (67) out of 495 patients (13.5%) presented with recurrent symptomatic choledocholithiasis after 35.28 ± 16.9 mo while twenty two (22) of these patients (32.8%) experienced a second recurrence after 35.19 ± 23.2 mo. Factors associated with recurrence were size (diameter) of the largest CBD stone found at first presentation (10.2 ± 6.9 mm vs 7.2 ± 4.1 mm, P = 0.024), diameter of the CBD at the first examination (15.5 ± 6.3 mm vs 12.0 ± 4.6 mm, P = 0.005), use of mechanical lithotripsy (ML) (P = 0.04) and presence of difficult lithiasis (P = 0.04). Periampullary diverticula showed a trend towards significance (P = 0.066). On the contrary, number of stones, angulation of the CBD, number of ERCP sessions required to clear the CBD at first presentation, more than one ERCP session needed to clear the bile duct initially and a gallbladder in situ did not influence recurrence. Bile duct stone recurrence is a possible late complication following endoscopic stone extraction and CBD clearance. It appears to be associated with anatomical parameters (CBD diameter) and stone characteristics (stone size, use of ML, difficult lithiasis) at first presentation.

  16. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  17. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hwan Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1, which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  19. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  20. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigations of a building-integrated ducted wind turbine module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannecker, Robert K. W.; Grant, Andrew D.

    2002-01-01

    So far, wind energy has not played a major role in the group of technologies for embedded generation in the built environment. However, the wind flow around conventional tall buildings generates differential pressures, which may cause an enhanced mass flow through a building-integrated turbine. As a first step, a prototype of a small-scale ducted wind turbine has been developed and tested, which seems to be feasible for integration into the leading roof edge of such a building. Here an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow through building-integrated ducting is presented. Pressure and wind speed measurements have been carried out on a wind tunnel model at different angles of incident wind, and different duct configurations have been tested. It was confirmed that wind speeds up to 30% higher than in the approaching freestream may be induced in the duct, and good performance was obtained for angles of incident wind up to ±60°. The experimental work proceeded in parallel with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. The geometry of the system was difficult to represent to the required level of accuracy, and modelling was restricted to a few simple cases, for which the flow field in the building-integrated duct was compared with experimental results. Generally good agreement was obtained, indicating that CFD techniques could play a major role in the design process. Predicted power of the proposed device suggests that it will compare favourably with conventional small wind turbines and photovoltaics in an urban environment.

  3. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  4. Guideline for design requirement on KALIMER driver fuel assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Lim, J. S.; Ryu, W. S.; Min, B. T.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needs for designing the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER as design guidance. The driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER consists of fuel rods, mounting rail, nosepiece, duct with pad, handling socket with pad. Fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with solid ferritic-martensitic steel rod and key way, fuel slug, cladding, and wire wrap. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array, and the rod bundle attaches to the nosepiece with mounting rails. The bottom end of the assembly duct is formed by a long nosepiece which provides the lower restraint function and the coolant inlet. It contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The design requirements are intended to be used for the design of the driver fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs.

  5. G Plus Industrial touts new ventilation ducting product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed a new line of industrial-strength plastic duct work for underground mine ventilation. G Plus Industrial Plastics manufactures an extensive line of industrial-strength plastic products that help solve corrosion, wear, impact, and weight problems commonly found in mining and related industries. The new ventilation ducting product is impact and corrosion resistant, and it produces better air-flow resulting in significant cost savings. Plastic helps overcome wear and corrosion problems encountered in mines, and it can be designed to be stronger than aluminum, wood, or steel because it reacts better to impact and slides better. Standard duct work for mine ventilation is either flexible vinyl cloth or sheet metal, both of which create air restriction and weaknesses causing cracks, resulting in air loss. Plastic performs better, requiring less energy to bring the same amount of air to the end point. The ducting has been in development for almost a year. With the high energy rates in Ontario, plastic ducting is expected to result in substantial cost savings. 1 fig.

  6. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  7. Does the bile duct angulation affect recurrence of choledocholithiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Beom; Bang, Byoung Wook; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Park, Shin Goo; Jeon, Yong Sun; Lee, Jung Il; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy influence the recurrence of choledocholithiasis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study inclu-ding 259 patients who underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis between 2000 and 2007. The imaginary line was drawn along the center of the bile duct and each internal angle was measured at the two angulation sites of the bile duct respectively. The values of both angles were added together. We then tested our hypothesis by examining whether T-tube choledochostomy was performed and stone recurrence occurred by reviewing each subject’s medical records. RESULTS: The overall recurrence rate was 9.3% (24 of 259 patients). The mean value of sums of angles in the recurrence group was 268.3° ± 29.6°, while that in the non-recurrence group was 314.8° ± 19.9° (P bile duct angulation and T-tube choledochostomy may be risk factors of recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:22039327

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  9. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  10. Immunohistochemical changes and atrophy after chronic ethanol intoxication in rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism in humans is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by loss of ethanol consumption control. Previous studies have reported that prolonged exposure to ethanol was responsible for alterations in glandular tissues of human and rodents. However, the interrelationship between ethanol and the glandular system is still the subject of numerous investigations, including the possible resistance of the submandibular gland (SG). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may affect the parotid gland (PG) and SG in female rats. Female rats (n=16) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (dose of 6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) through gavage for 55 days. Glands were collected, weighed and submitted to histological processing. Morphometric analysis was assessed by parenchymal and stromal area measurements. Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and apoptotic caspase-3 (CAS) were measured using ImageJ® software. Chronic ethanol administration did not alter the body weight of rats after treatment, although it increased glandular weight (pethanol induced CK19 and CAS overexpression, and the occurrence of duct-like structures in SG. These results suggest that ethanol induces histological and morphometric changes in salivary glands of female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these alterations needs to be investigated but may be not related to the inflammatory process.

  11. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6...

  12. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  13. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  14. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p caries free group (pcaries.

  15. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  16. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a Mobile Robot for Air Ducts Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses A. Koledoye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the solutions adopted for the design and the implementation of an autonomous wheeled robot developed for the exploration and mapping of air ventilation ducts. The hardware is based on commercial off-the-shelf devices, including sensors, motors, processing devices and interfaces. The mechanical chassis was designed from scratch to meet a trade-off between small size and available volume to host the components. The software stack is based on the Robot Operating System (ROS. Special attention was dedicated to the design of the mobility strategy, which must take into account some constraints and issues that are specific to the considered application, such as the relatively small size of ducts, the need to detect and avoid possible holes on the floor of the duct and other unusual obstacles and the unavailability of external reference frameworks for localization. The main contribution of this paper lies in the design, implementation and experimentation of the overall system.

  18. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...... buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did....... Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH....

  19. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  20. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600. Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49, the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49, or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49. In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications.

  1. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Chun; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ya-Liang; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Song, Yi-Zhi; Wu, Huan-Huan; Ding, Jin-Li; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600). Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49), the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49), or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49). In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications. PMID:25635427

  2. CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

  3. Observationally constrained modeling of sound in curved ocean internal waves: examination of deep ducting and surface ducting at short range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Timothy F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reeder, D Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones). © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. K+ channels on resting duct cells from rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mikio; Matsuda, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The ductal system of the exocrine pancreas produces HCO(3)(-)-rich fluid in response to secretin and other stimuli. HCO(3)(-) efflux across the luminal membrane is mediated by a Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger operating in parallel with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel. Basolateral K(+) channels provide an exit pathway for K(+) and play a vital role in maintaining the membrane potential, which is a crucial component of the driving force for anion secretion. Measurements of membrane potential with intracellular microelectrodes suggested that Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) conductance accounts for more than 60% of the total basolateral ionic conductance in resting ducts (1). To identify the Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, we isolated ducts from normal rat pancreas by collagenase digestion. We first demonstrated that the ducts did not express a vascular endothelial marker PECAM-1 (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), but expressed cytokeratin 20, a marker of duct cells (2), using immunofluorescent staining. In addition, monoclonal anti-CFTR antibody was detected near the luminal membrane of these cells. In cell-attached single-channel recordings, we observed three types of K(+) channels on basolateral membrane in unstimulated duct cells. The 40 pS K(+) channels are likely to mediate whole-cell inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) currents, which were blocked by extracellular Ba(2+) in a voltage-dependent manner. The properties of 90 pS and 170 pS K(+) channels are similar to those of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. We then identified Kir2.0 and SK4/IK1 (intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel) subunits as molecular candidates of the K(+) channels using RT-PCR analysis. The present results suggest that these subunits may mediate native K(+) currents in resting duct cells. Further functional studies with specific blockers are required to evaluate which of these K(+) channels contribute to the resting membrane potential

  5. Surgical strategy for bile duct cancer: Advances and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe recent advances and topics in the surgical management of bile duct cancer. Radical resection with a microscopically negative margin (R0) is the only way to cure cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with marked survival advantages compared to margin-positive resections. Complete resection of the tumor is the surgeon’s ultimate aim, and several advances in the surgical treatment for bile duct cancer have been made within the last two decades. Multidetector row computed tomography has emerged as an indispensable diagnostic modality for the precise preoperative evaluation of bile duct cancer, in terms of both longitudinal and vertical tumor invasion. Many meticulous operative procedures have been established, especially extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, to achieve a negative resection margin, which is the only prognostic factor under the control of the surgeon. A complete caudate lobectomy and resection of the inferior part of Couinaud’s segment IV coupled with right or left hemihepatectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy is the first choice for distal bile duct cancer. Limited resection for middle bile duct cancer is indicated for only strictly selected cases. Preoperative treatments including biliary drainage and portal vein embolization are also indicated for only selected patients, especially jaundiced patients anticipating major hepatectomy. Liver transplantation seems ideal for complete resection of bile duct cancer, but the high recurrence rate and decreased patient survival after liver transplant preclude it from being considered standard treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a potentially crucial role in prolonging survival and controlling local recurrence, but no definite regimen has been established to date. Further evidence is needed to fully define the role of liver transplantation and adjuvant

  6. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C......-section) during their first 6 months of life. METHODS: The study group consisted of 149 consecutively enrolled infants, delivered either vaginally (n = 96) or by C-section (n = 53) that volunteered after consent of their parents. Saliva samples were collected within 2 days after birth and then after 1, 3, and 6...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  7. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  8. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cancela e Penna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options.

  9. Effects of small boundary perturbation on the MHD duct flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabaleshwar Ulavathi Shettar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of small boundary perturbation on the laminar motion of a conducting fluid in a rectangular duct under applied transverse magnetic field. A small boundary perturbation of magnitude Є is applied on cross-section of the duct. Using the asymptotic analysis with respect to Є, we derive the effective model given by the explicit formulae for the velocity and induced magnetic field. Numerical results are provided confirming that the considered perturbation has nonlocal impact on the asymptotic solution.

  10. Sterility caused by functional absence of ejaculatory ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, B; Padrón, R S; Pérez-Plaza, M

    1981-01-01

    Five patients with functional absence of genital excretory ducts are presented, with emphasis on the scarcity of physical and complementary data obtained. The low impairment of spermatogenesis is pointed out. Seminal characteristics are analysed and the diagnostic importance of spermogram data stressed. The importance of the qualitative determination of fructose for the diagnosis of this syndrome is noted, as well as the incidence of this syndrome as the cause of azoospermia and sterility. The existence of a unilateral congenital absence of ejaculatory ducts is demonstrated. Cases of this sort cannot be detected unless a contralateral acquired lesion occurs.

  11. Sound propagation through a variable area duct - Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of experiment and theory has been made for the propagation of sound through a variable area axisymmetric duct with zero mean flow. Measurement of the acoustic pressure field on both sides of the constricted test section was resolved on a modal basis for various spinning mode sources. Transmitted and reflected modal amplitudes and phase angles were compared with finite element computations. Good agreement between experiment and computation was obtained over a wide range of frequencies and modal transmission variations. The study suggests that modal transmission through a variable area duct is governed by the throat modal cut-off ratio.

  12. Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyberg, M

    1989-01-01

    of a not previously described diverticular type were revealed. The diverticuli were of varying shape with a diameter of 30 to 110 microns and a length of 75 to 150 microns budding from small (12 to 25 microns), slightly ectatic bile ducts. The diverticular epithelium was disordered. Some cells appeared as bile duct...... cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory...

  13. Common bile duct stones: analysis of the videolaparoscopic surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Santo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: About 9% of the Brazilian population has gallstones and the incidence increases significantly with aging. The choledocholithiasis is found around 15% of these patients, and a third to half of these cases presented as asymptomatic. Once the lithiasis in the common bile duct is characterized through intraoperative cholangiography, the laparoscopic surgical exploration can be done through the transcystic way or directly through choledochotomy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results and outcomes of the laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct lithiasis. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients were evaluated. They prospectively underwent the treatment of the lithiasis in the common bile duct and the exploration ways were compared according to the following parameters: criteria on their indication, success in the clearance, surgical complications. It was verified that about ½ of the choledocholithiasis carriers did not show any expression of predictive factors (clinical antecedents of jaundice and/or acute pancreatitis, compatible sonographic data and the pertaining lab tests. The laparoscopic exploration through the transcystic way is favored when there are no criteria for the practice of primary choledochotomy, which are: lithiasis in the proximal bile duct, large (over 8 mm or numerous calculi (multiple calculosis. RESULTS: The transcystic way was employed in about 50% of the casuistic and the choledochotomy in about 30%. A high success rate (around 80% was achieved in the clearance of the common bile duct stones through laparoscopic exploration. The transcystic way, performed without fluoroscopy or choledochoscopy, attained a low rate of success (around 45%, being 10% of those by transpapilar pushing of calculi less than 3 mm. The exploration through choledochotomy, either primary or secondary, if the latter was performed after the transcystic route failure, showed high success rate (around 95%. When the indication to choledochotomy was

  14. [Mini invasive treatment of common biliary duct lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacu, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show modern techniques of treatment in common biliary duct lithiasis, in the context of the remarkable development of laparoscopic surgery. The text, trays to mark some directions for the surgeon to know when and which of the modern techniques to chose for safe treatment of common biliary duct lithiasis. The criteria are bound to the moment of diagnosis, clinical state of the patient and laboratory tests. Of course, a final commitment will be taken after an objective evaluation of the technique possibilities and the experience of the team.

  15. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  16. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  17. Azygos ladder and looped thoracic duct – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations in the posterior mediastinum close to the vertebral column is important for cardiothoracic surgeons, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons. We report variations of azygos veins and thoracic duct. The azygos system of veins showed a ladder pattern. The hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins communicated with the azygos vein through six transverse channels across the vertebral column. The accessory hemiazygos and hemiazygos veins joined to form a common channel which opened into the azygos vein. The thoracic duct gave two branches in the posterior mediastinum and these branches joined to form a loop.

  18. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level........ Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high...

  19. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present a Danish national series of oncocytic carcinoma (OC) patients, including data on treatment, recurrence and survival. METHODS: From the national Danish database of salivary gland carcinomas, all patients diagnosed with OC from 1990 to 2005 were identified and data concerning...... demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients....... Six patients were alive at 5 years follow up and one patient was alive without recurrence at 10 years follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report a national incidence of oncocytic carcinoma in the salivary glands. The results confirm oncocytic carcinoma to be a salivary gland carcinoma...

  20. Bond strengthening in oral bacterial adhesion to salivary conditioning films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Rustema-Abbing, Mina; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik

    Transition from reversible to irreversible bacterial adhesion is a highly relevant but poorly understood step in initial biofilm formation. We hypothesize that in oral biofilm formation, irreversible adhesion is caused by bond strengthening due to specific bacterial interactions with salivary

  1. Salivary biomarkers associated with academic assessment stress among dental undergraduates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Vivian; Koh, David; Mok, Betty Y Y; Chia, Sin-Eng; Lim, Lum-Peng

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to assess the difference in self-perceived stress before and after an academic assessment and its association with the marks scored and to study the association of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A (IgA...

  2. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  3. Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landegren, Nils; Pourmousa Lindberg, Mina; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis and ESRD in association with autoantibodies against kidney collecting duct cells. One of the patients developed autoantibodies targeting the collecting duct-specific water channel aquaporin 2, whereas autoantibodies...

  4. Congenital double bile duct presenting as recurrent cholangitis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Chakravarty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Double common bile duct (DCBD is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of these bile duct anomalies are associated with bile duct stones, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ, pancreatitis and bile duct or gastric cancers. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid long term complications. Surgical resection of the anomalous bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis is the treatment of choice. We report a rare case of DCBD anomaly in a girl, who presented with recurrent cholangitis. She had type Va DCBD anomaly. She underwent successful resection of the bile duct and reconstruction of the biliary enteric anastomosis. Preoperative imaging and diagnosis of the congenital biliary anomaly is very important to avoid intraoperative bile duct injury. Review of the literature shows very few cases of type Va DCBD, presenting with either bile duct stones or APBJ.

  5. Chemo Drug May Buy Time for Those with Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemo Drug May Buy Time for Those With Bile Duct Cancer For patients with the rare disease, survival ... system cancer, a new study finds. People with bile duct cancer who received the medication lived for an ...

  6. Intraoral lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Milano, Massimiliano; Caputo, Cristian; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and a case with involvement of minor salivary glands is very uncommon. We describe a case of LELC of the oral cavity with involvement of the upper lip and of minor salivary glands. The tumour was described at the clinical and instrumental level; moreover, its histopathological phenotype was defined. Finally, the problems of differential diagnosis and the most appropriate therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  7. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  8. Page 1 MAxillor ACI SURGERY Minor salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glands. Oral Surg 1962; 15:594 – 602. 7. Bergman F. Tumours of the minor salivary glands. A report of 46 cases. Cancer 1969; 23: 538 – 543. 8. Luna M. A., Stimson P. G., Bardwił J. M. Minor salivary gland tumours of the oral cavity. Oral Surg 1968; 25. 71 – 86. 9. Van-Der-Waal J E, Snow G B, Van-. Der-Waal I. | listological.

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  10. Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, T A; Nordman, E

    1987-01-01

    A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth.

  11. Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

  12. Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym J G Davies

    Full Text Available Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

  13. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-06-01

    Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic lesions of the oral mucosa. MRI of the neck was performed along with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid tumors and excisional biopsy of an oral lesion. Imaging and FNA findings of the parotid glands were suggestive of bilateral Warthin tumors. Excisional biopsy of the oral lesion revealed a minor salivary gland with histopathological features of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease. Submandibular gland enlargement was also attributed to this rare entity based on the imaging characteristics. This is the first report of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease of the minor salivary glands, combined with involvement of the submandibular glands and bilateral Warthin tumors of the parotid gland. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2437-E2439, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumors in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Salivary gland tumors are rare and specific lesions. There are differences in the incidence and frequency of salivary tumors in both minor and major salivary glands in different countries. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of major and minor salivary gland tumors in Ahvaz in the south of Iran. Materials and methods. All the cases, recorded in Imam Khomeyni Hospital and Shafa Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from 1997 to 2008 were assessed. Age, gender, anatomical location, and histology of all the specimens were evaluated. Results. Of 112 cases, 84 cases were benign and 28 cases were malignant. Female predominance was observed in these cases. Most lesions appeared in the third to fifth decades of life (60.71%. The incidence of malignant salivary gland tumors increased with age and male predominance was found in malignant tumors. The majority of the tumors occurred in parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type (65.17%. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. Conclusion. It was shown that the peak incidence age of all salivary gland tumors was the third to fifth decades, and malignant tumors mostly occurred in the sixth to eighth decades. Female predominance for all the tumors and slight male predominance in malignant tumors were observed. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor. The most common malignant tumors were mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  15. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  16. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  17. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  18. Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pippi ANTONIAZZI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min. A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012. No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384. A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59 had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  20. Surgical management of Stenson's duct injury using epidural catheter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-05

    rediffmail.com ... and silk worm gut as a indwelling stent inside the parotid duct before repairing have been reported.[6] Only ... of trauma from a road traffic accident 2 h before reporting was noted. Patient was conscious when ...

  1. Design requirement on KALIMER blanket fuel assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O

    1998-03-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER as design guidance. The blanket fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER consists of fuel rods, mounting rail, nosepiece, duct with pad, handling socket with pad. Blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with solid ferritic-martensitic steel rod and key way blanket fuel slug, cladding, and wire wrap. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array, and the rod bundle is attached to the nosepiece with mounting rails. The bottom end of the assembly duct is formed by a long nosepiece which provides the lower restraint function and the paths for coolant inlet. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. (author). 20 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  3. Reconstruction of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Bardram, Linda; Wettergren, André

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review aiming to examine the perioperative and the long...

  4. Effect of duct orientation on particle deposition in the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of alveolar re-circulation and gravity orientation are key factors in determining the deposition in the last four generations of the human respiratory tract. Keywords: duct orientation, particle deposition, respiratory tract, discretization approach. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 9, 2011 ...

  5. Clear cell carcinoid tumor of the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors rarely arise in the extrahepatic bile duct and can be difficult to distinguish from carcinoma. There are no reports of clear cell carcinoid (CCC tumors in the distal bile duct (DBD to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we report a CCC tumor in the DBD and review the literature concerning extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumors. Case presentation A 73-old man presented with fever and occult obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP demonstrated a nodular tumor projection in the DBD without regional lymph node swelling. Under suspicion of carcinoma, we resected the head of the pancreas along with 2nd portion duodenectomy and a lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a golden yellow polypoid tumor in the DBD (0.8 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm in size. The lesion was composed of clear polygonal cells arranged in nests and a trabecular pattern. The tumor invaded through the wall into the fibromuscular layer. Immunohistochemical stains showed that neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and pancreatic polypeptide and negative for inhibin, keratin, CD56, serotonin, gastrin and somatostatin. The postoperative course was uneventful and he is living well without relapse 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Given the preoperative difficulty in differentiating carcinoid from carcinoma, the pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate treatment choice for carcinoid tumors located within the intra-pancreatic bile duct.

  6. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.; Evers, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind jets, one between 30 and 50 km and the other around 70 km altitude. In this paper, using microbarom source modeling, a previously unidentified source region in the eastern Mediterranean is identified, besides the more well known microbarom source regions in the Atlantic Ocean. Infrasound data are then presented in which the above mentioned bidirectional duct is observed in microbarom signals recorded at the International Monitoring System station I48TN in Tunisia, from the Mediterranean region to the east and from the Atlantic Ocean to the west. While the frequency bands of the two sources overlap, the Mediterranean signal is coherent up to about 0.6 Hz. This observation is consistent with the microbarom source modeling; the discrepancy in the frequency band is related to differences in the ocean wave spectra for the two basins considered. This work demonstrates the sensitivity of infrasound to stratospheric dynamics and illustrates that the classic paradigm of a unidirectional stratospheric duct for infrasound propagation can be broken during a sudden stratospheric warming event.

  7. Biliary cystadenoma of the left intrahepatic duct (2007: 2b)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, R.; Weinrich, M.; Pistorius, G.; Fries, P.; Schneider, G.

    2007-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare epithelial cystic neoplasm representing only 5% of intrahepatic cystic lesions of biliary origin. Commonly, the lesions are solitary cystic structures with multiple thin-walled septa predominantly arising from the right hepatic duct. Although the lesions are generally

  8. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome: the hidden normal or abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare disorder of male sexual development. It is characterized by the presence of a uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina in an otherwise phenotypically and genotypically normal male. This malformation is usually an incidental finding during the operative treatment of other ...

  9. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  10. Symptomatic vitelline duct anomalies in children | Ameh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of anomalies may occur as a result of the vitelline duct (VD) failing to obliterate completely. Most reports on symptomatic VD focus on Meckel\\'s diverticulum, while other anomalies are given little attention. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution. According to the records 18 symptomatic children ...

  11. Laparoscopic managment of common bile duct stones: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroori, S.; Bell, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The management of choledocholithiasis has changed radically since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, perceived technical difficulties have deterred many surgeons from treating common bile duct stones laparoscopically at the time of cholecystectomy. This has lead to reliance on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy to deal with common bile duct stones. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had laparoscopic common bile duct exploration at Downe Hospital between December 1999 and August 2001. Among 149 laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by our group in this period, 10 patients (6.7%) underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration, three by the transcystic technique and seven by choledochotomy. Three patients (2%) had unsuspected stones found on routine per- operative cholangiogram. The mean operative time was 2.34hrs (range 1.50-3.30hrs). The mean hospital post- operative stay was 3 days (range 1-6 days). Post-operative morbidity was zero. Stone clearance was achieved in all cases. We conclude, laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct is relatively safe and straightforward method. The key skill required is the ability to perform laparoscopic suturing with confidence. PMID:12137159

  12. Radiation from a lined duct in uniform flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a boundary element formulation for modelling the sound field inside and outside a duct in uniform flow. The model is the first step towards models for predicting the noise radiated from turbo fan engines. For this purpose the frequency range is very large (up to ka=40), and non...

  13. Duct injection technology prototype development. Materials corrosion report, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, S.L. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Echinococcal Cyst of the Pancreas with Cystopancreatic Duct Fistula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echinococcal Cyst of the Pancreas with Cystopancreatic. Duct Fistula Successfully Treated by Partial Cystectomy and. Cystogastrostomy. Ahmed Elaffand, Adarsh Vijay1, Samah Mohamed, Hassan Hani Al-Battah1, Ayda Youssef, Ahmed Farahat. INTRODUCTION. Hydatid disease (HD) is a rare endemic disease in.

  15. A Rare Case of Mediastinal Cyst: Thoracic Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct cysts are very rarely observed cysts of the mediastinum. These cysts, which can become established in the costovertebral sulcus or the visceral compartment, have generally been reported at the level of the 10th and 11th vertebrae; however, they can be observed at any location along the ductus [1]. A 37-year-old male patient complained of chest pain for the last 3 months that especially increased after meals. He complained of shortness of breath while walking or going up the stairs, for the last month. The lung graphy showed an increased darkening at a 5x6cm smooth (clean-cut, regular, orderly bordered shadow just behind the heart shadow. The patient%u2019s computed thorax tomography showed a retrocardiac-paravertebral, middle line positioned, 8.5x7x6 cm proportioned, regular bordered, thin walled, homogenous cystic bulk at the subcarinal level. The patient, who could not be relieved with medical treatment, was taken to surgery. The lesion was reached by right posterolateral thoracotomy, and drainage of lymph-containing cystic fluid and excision of the cyst walls were performed by incising the thoracic duct cyst with a mediastinal pleura incision. Mass ligation was then performed to the thoracic duct. We wanted to present our thoracic duct cyst case in this article due to the currently limited number of actual cases reported in the literature.

  16. Heuristic approach to the passive optical network with fibre duct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PON) plan- ning problem ... This paper uses concepts from network flow optimisation to incorporate fibre duct shar- ing into a ...... 682–686. [31] Yen JY, 1971, Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network, Management Science, 17(11), pp.

  17. High-Lift Low Reynolds Number Aerofoils With Specified Pressure Drop for Ducted Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    A new high-lift aerofoil modification for the duct has been developed and will be experimentally tested in a small wind tunnel. Aerofoils for such wind tunnel ducts typically operate in the low Reynolds number range from 2 × 105 to 6 × 105. The effect of a duct and of rotor on power and pressure

  18. Resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic resin ducts form in xylem and phloem tissue of conifers in response to abiotic wounding, fungal invasion, and insect attack. Little is known about resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred trees. The aim of this study is to quantify changes in traits of both axial and radial resin ducts, along with those of associated epithelial cells and...

  19. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Syed; Katti, Girish; Ghali, Sreenivas Rao; Katti, Chandrika; Diwakar, Darshan D; Guduba, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine disease characterized by hyperglycemia, the pathogenic mechanisms by which hyperglycemia arises differ widely. Monitoring people with diabetes involve repeated estimations of plasma glucose either by finger pricks or by intravenous blood sampling. Hence, a noninvasive procedure for glucose measurements would be most precious under the circumstances. (1) To evaluate salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients and to compare with healthy nondiabetic control group. (2) To compare and correlate serum and salivary glucose levels in patients with T1DM. This study consisted of 30 T1DM patients and 30 controls. All subjects were subjected to the serum glucose, salivary glucose, and total protein and albumin estimations. Glucose estimations were done by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, total protein estimations were done by Biuret method, end point and albumin estimations were done by bromocresol green dye method, end point. All the estimations were performed using an autoanalyzer. Mean and standard deviation, Student's t-test and Karl Pearson correlation co-efficient were calculated. All these statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 11.5 software. The results showed elevated levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM group compared to healthy controls. Further the levels of serum and salivary glucose in T1DM patients were significantly correlated. There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  20. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not