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Sample records for salivary cotinine level

  1. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

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    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  2. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

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    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  3. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

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    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  4. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers.

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    Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  6. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

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    Omayma Alshaarawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n=2027 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n=734, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80–89 mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (≤0.024 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (≥0.224 ng/mL was 1.45(1.00, 2.11; P trend =0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

  7. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    . In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation...... and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old......), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level...

  8. Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users.

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    Etter, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    To assess saliva cotinine levels in experienced users of e-cigarettes ('vapers'). An internet survey in 2011 and 2012, with collection of saliva vials by mail. Participants were 71 users of e-cigarettes enrolled mainly on websites and online forums dedicated to e-cigarettes. Use of e-cigarettes, tobacco and nicotine medications. Collection of saliva by mail and analysis of cotinine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most participants (89%) were former smokers, most (92%) were using e-cigarettes daily, had been using e-cigarettes for 12 months on average and puffed a median of 150 times per day on their e-cigarettes [mean = 220 puffs/day, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 169-271]. The median concentration of nicotine in refill liquids was 16 mg/ml (mean = 16.4, 95% CI = 14.5-18.3). In the 62 e-cigarette users who, in the past 5 days, had not used any tobacco or nicotine medications, the median cotinine level was 353 ng/ml (mean = 374, 95% CI = 318-429), the correlation between cotinine and nicotine concentration in e-liquids was r = 0.33 (P = 0.013), and the correlation between cotinine and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before quitting smoking was r = 0.48 (P Addiction.

  9. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  10. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

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    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  11. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

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    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  12. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

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    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

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    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  14. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

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    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  15. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

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    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

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    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  18. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E.; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A. Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home

  19. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  20. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  1. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  2. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  3. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  4. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  5. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  6. Correlation between salivary secretion and salivary AQP5 levels in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Iwata, Fusako; Muraguchi, Masahiro; Ooga, Keiko; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Takai, Masaaki; Mori, Toyoki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    Saliva samples are useful for noninvasive diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. The water channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is released into human saliva. Salivary AQP5 levels show a diurnal variation with the secretion of high levels during the waking hours. An age-related decrease in salivary AQP5 levels parallels a decrease in the volume of saliva. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, induces the release of AQP5. Changes in salivary AQP5 levels after cevimeline administration occur simultaneously with changes in saliva flow rate. AQP5 and lipid rafts are released separately from human salivary glands upon M(3) mAChR stimulation. In patients with diabetes mellitus or Sjögren's syndrome, a decrease in salivary secretion occurs concomitantly with low salivary AQP5 levels. Salivary AQP5 levels correlate with salivary secretion in both healthy and disease states, suggesting that changes in salivary AQP5 levels can be used as an indicator of salivary flow rate and the effect of M(3) mAChR agonists on human salivary glands.

  7. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A McGrath-Morrow

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth.Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml. After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2. These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  8. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  9. Intranasal Cotinine Plus Krill Oil Facilitates Fear Extinction, Decreases Depressive-Like Behavior, and Increases Hippocampal Calcineurin A Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Mendoza, Cristhian; Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Echeverria, Florencia; Iarkov, Alexandre; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2018-02-27

    Failure in fear extinction is one of the more troublesome characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cotinine facilitates fear memory extinction and reduces depressive-like behavior when administered 24 h after fear conditioning in mice. In this study, it was investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of cotinine, and other antidepressant preparations infused intranasally. Intranasal (IN) cotinine, IN krill oil, IN cotinine plus krill oil, and oral sertraline were evaluated on depressive-like behavior and fear retention and extinction after fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Since calcineurin A has been involved in facilitating fear extinction in rodents, we also investigated changes of calcineurin in the hippocampus, a region key on contextual fear extinction. Short-term treatment with cotinine formulations was superior to krill oil and oral sertraline in reducing depressive-like behavior and fear consolidation and enhancing contextual fear memory extinction in mice. IN krill oil slowed the extinction of fear. IN cotinine preparations increased the levels of calcineurin A in the hippocampus of conditioned mice. In the light of the results, the future investigation of the use of IN cotinine preparations for the extinction of contextual fear memory and treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in PTSD is discussed.

  10. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.; Chuang, S.C.; Dahm, C.C.; Overvad, K.; Ueland, P.M.; Midttun, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Tjonneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bamia, C.; Naska, A.; Palli, D.; Pala, V.; Mattiello, A.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Lund, E.; Rodriguez, L.; Duell, E.J.; Perez, M.J.; Molina-Montes, E.; Castano, J.M.; Barricarte, A.; Larrañaga, N.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Ye, W.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Michaud, D.S.; Riboli, E.; Xun, W.W.; Allen, N.E.; Crowe, F.L.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective

  11. Pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine level: A cross-sectional comparative study between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, B; Muadz, B; Norizal, M N; Ismail, N; Kornain, N K; Kutty, M

    2017-07-01

    To compare the pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine levels between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers. This was a cross-sectional comparative study in a Malaysian tertiary obstetric hospital involving 200 non-smoking pregnant women at term, of whom 100 were secondhand smokers and 100 were non-secondhand smokers. Those with multiple pregnancies, with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30kg/m 2 or who delivered by Caesarean section were excluded. The participants' basic demographic details, delivery details, neonatal outcome and placental weight were recorded. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained, and cord blood cotinine levels were measured with a Cotinine ELISA kit. The primary outcomes were baby's birth weight, length, and head circumference, Apgar score at 5min and placental weight. The secondary outcome was difference in cord blood cotinine levels between the two groups and the correlation of these differences with the neonatal outcome. The secondhand smoker group had significantly lower baby weight (2.94±0.31kg vs 3.05±0.40kg), head circumference (30.87±2.35cm vs 37.13±2.36cm), length (46.58±1.95cm vs 51.53±2.05cm) and placental weight (520±73.5g vs 596±61.3g) and significantly higher cord blood cotinine levels (16.35±12.84ng/mL vs 0.56±0.22ng/mL). Cord blood cotinine levels had significant negative correlations with placental weight (r=-0.461), baby's weight (r=-0.297), baby's head circumference (r=-0.501) and baby's length (r=-0.374). Secondhand smoke increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (newborns'anthropometric measurements and placental weight) and causes higher cord blood cotinine levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level....

  13. Levels of Urine Cotinine from Hookah Smoking and Exposure to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke in Hookah Lounges and Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R; Posis, Alexander Ivan B; Chatfield, Dale A; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine, an addictive drug, is present in all forms of tobacco products, including hookah tobacco, which is not yet regulated in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the uptake of nicotine in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at indoor hookah social events in natural settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. We quantified cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers. Participants provided spot urine samples the morning of and the morning after attending an indoor hookah-only smoking social event at a hookah lounge or in a private home. Following a social event where exclusively hookah tobacco was smoked, urinary cotinine levels increased significantly 8.5 times (geometric mean (GM): 16.0 ng/mg to 136.1 ng/mg) among hookah smokers, and 2.5 times (GM: 0.4 ng/mg to 1.0 ng/mg) among non-smokers exposed exclusively to hookah tobacco SHS. Among hookah smokers, the highest increase in urinary cotinine levels post a hookah event was found in occasional hookah smokers in which GM levels increased significantly 31.2 times post smoking (from 2.0 ng/mg to 62.3 ng/mg). Reported reasons for preference to smoke hookah at home by hookah smokers who attended a hookah social event in a private home included recreational purposes, socializing with friends and family, 'Me' time and relaxing at home, more comfortable to smoke hookah at home, owning a hookah and hookah tobacco, eating and drinking while smoking hookah, and saving money by smoking at home and not going to hookah lounges. Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of substantial nicotine exposure. Our results call for protecting hookah smokers' and non-smokers' health by requiring accurate hookah tobacco labels, raising taxes on hookah tobacco, reducing the spread of hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans on smoking hookah tobacco in private homes.

  14. A Case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Short-Term Passive Smoking: An Evidence of Very High Level of Urinary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaku Komiya

    2010-01-01

    The level of urinary cotinine, which is a biomarker of smoke exposure, was considerably higher (0.198 μg/ml [201 ng/mg Creatinine] than that in nonsmokers, but never detected following period. This case suggests that short-term passive smoking may cause AEP.

  15. Assessment of Salivary Human Herpesvirus-6 and Immunoglobulin A Levels in Nurses Working Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirom Fukuda, RN, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Salivary HHV-6 level may be a more sensitive stress marker than salivary IgA or mood for assessing chronic fatigue in nurses working shifts. Improvement to shift assignments using assessment by salivary HHV-6 is required.

  16. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stragierowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000 ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000 ng/mL. The mean recoveries were 3.7±7.6% for urine and 99.1±2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12 ng/mL and for urine 0.05 ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9 ng/mL and urine 42.3 ng/mL or 53.1 μg/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting.

  17. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  18. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  19. Loneliness depends on salivary estradiol levels in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Obara, Tatsuro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Loneliness is one of the psychological characteristics in adolescence, during which sex hormones are elevated. The elevation of sex steroid hormones is known to sculpture and remodel neuronal circuits, which cause behavioral characteristics in adolescence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness and sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Fifty-eight adolescents (28 boys and 30 girls) participated in this study. The salivary levels of T and E2 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Loneliness was assessed by the UCLA loneliness scale, which is widely used as a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that Salivary E2 levels had positive relevance to loneliness in females, whereas there was no relationship in males. Salivary T level was not shown to be relevant with loneliness in either sex group. These findings suggest that E2 has gender specific effects on loneliness in adolescent females.

  20. Reference Intervals for Urinary Cotinine Levels and the Influence of Sampling Time and Other Predictors on Its Excretion Among Italian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Protano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure remains a public health problem worldwide. The aims are to establish urinary (u- cotinine reference values for healthy Italian children, to evaluate the role of the sampling time and of other factors on children’s u-cotinine excretion. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 330 children. Information on participants was gathered by a questionnaire and u-cotinine was determined in two samples for each child, collected during the evening and the next morning. (3 Results: Reference intervals (as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution in evening and morning samples were respectively equal to 0.98–4.29 and 0.91–4.50 µg L−1 (ETS unexposed and 1.39–16.34 and 1.49–20.95 µg L−1 (ETS exposed. No statistical differences were recovered between median values found in evening and morning samples, both in ETS unexposed and exposed. Significant predictors of u-cotinine excretions were ponderal status according to body mass index of children (β = 0.202; p-value = 0.041 for evening samples; β = 0.169; p-value = 0.039 for morning samples and paternal educational level (β = −0.258; p-value = 0.010; for evening samples; β = −0.013; p-value = 0.003 for morning samples. (4 Conclusions: The results evidenced the need of further studies for assessing the role of confounding factors on ETS exposure, and the necessity of educational interventions on smokers for rising their awareness about ETS.

  1. Salivary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  2. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in pat...

  3. Level of Salivary Uric Acid in Gingivitis and Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Rizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is common chronic adult condition. Antioxidants are present in the body fluid as protection against free radical. Uric acid is one of antioxidants that can be found in saliva. Moreover, the relationship among the antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe uric acid level activities in the saliva of gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Methods: Six patients with gingivitis and six patients with periodontitis in Dental Hospital Trisakti University were included in the study. Clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, and probing depth were determined. The salivary uric acid level was measured using the Folin-Wu method. Result: Salivary uric acid levels in the periodontitis patients with a mean ± SD  7.40 ± 0.31  (p = 0.004 were found to be higher compared to the gingivitis patients (mean ± SD = 6.84 ± 0.19. In addition, there were no significant differences in salivary uric acid levels between gender (p = 0.641. Conclusion: Uric acid levels in periodontitis patients were found to be higher than in gingivitis patients. Moreover, uric acid has more role on periodontitis than in gingivitis as an antioxidant agent.

  4. Friendship network position and salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    We employed a social network analysis approach to examine the associations between friendship network position and cortisol levels. The sample consisted of 74 first-year students (93% female, ages 22-38 years, M = 27) from a highly competitive, accelerated Nursing program. Participants completed questionnaires online, and the entire group met at one time to complete a series of sociometric nominations and donated a saliva sample. Saliva was later assayed for cortisol. Metrics derived from directed friendship nominations indexed each student's friendship network status regarding popularity, gregariousness, and degree of interconnectedness. Results revealed that (1) individuals with lower gregariousness status (i.e., lowest number of outgoing ties) had higher cortisol levels, and (2) individuals with higher popularity status (i.e., higher numbers of incoming ties) had higher cortisol levels. Popularity and gregariousness-based network status is significantly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Implications for prevailing theories of the social determinants of individual differences in biological sensitivity and susceptibility to context are discussed.

  5. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  6. Influence of radioiodine therapy on ocular changes and their relation to urine cotinine level in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnywojtek, A.; Czepczynski, R.; Budny, B.; Ruchata, M.; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, M.; Florek, E.; Komar-Rychlicka, K.

    2015-01-01

    0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively. Urinary cotinine excretion correlated positively with CAS and TSHR-Ab in the smoking group (r = 0.41; P < 0.05) at baseline and during follow-up. In the NOSPECS classification, the symptoms changed from mild to moderate, mostly in smoking patients. Conclusions: ablative RIT dose with prophylactic oral prednisone is a safe treatment in both smokers and non-smokers with mild GO. The post hoc analysis showed that urinary level of cotinine can be very helpful in the assessment of exacerbation of ophthalmological clinical symptoms before and after RIT particularly in smokers. (authors)

  7. Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, A; Darka, O; Topaloğlu, B; Bek, Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between passive smoking, as determined by salivary cotinine level, and caries, salivary pH, buffering capacity, flow rate and microbiological counts in young children. Ninety passive smokers (PS) with a mean age of 5.02 years and 90 healthy age-matched controls were included in this study. Family income, smoking habits of household members, parental education levels, child's tooth-brushing habit and child's daily dietary sugar exposure were recorded by questionnaire. Three categories were formed with respect to the number of cigarettes smoked. A dmft score was calculated according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The children were also investigated for stimulated salivary cotinine level, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli colonisation. There were no significant differences in tooth-brushing habit, sugar exposure, family income and parental education levels between the two groups (P>0.05). The mean cotinine level of the PS subjects was 1.58+/-4.3ng/ml. The dmft scores, and salivary S. mutans and lactobacilli colonisation in PS children were significantly higher than in the control subjects (Psalivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were found in the PS subjects (P<0.05). PS children are at increased risk of caries compared with control subjects.

  8. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure......-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis...... confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed...

  9. Low Cotinine Glucuronidation Results in Higher Serum and Saliva Cotinine in African American Compared to White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon E; Sipe, Christopher J; Choi, Kwangsoo; Raddatz, Leah M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-07-01

    Background: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African Americans (AA) compared with Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. Methods: UGT2B10 activity was phenotyped in 1,446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide. Urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and 6 metabolites, were determined to quantify smoking dose, and cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in saliva (study 1) or serum (study 2). Results: Ninety-seven smokers (78% AA) were null for UGT2B10 activity, and the saliva and serum cotinine levels, after adjustment for TNE and cigarettes per day (CPD), were 68% and 48% higher in these smokers compared with nonnull smokers ( P smokers, but with additional adjustment for UGT2B10 activity, there were no significant differences in saliva and serum cotinine concentrations between these two groups. Conclusions: UGT2B10 activity significantly influences plasma cotinine levels, and higher cotinine concentrations in AA versus White smokers (after adjustment for smoking dose) result from lower levels of UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation by AA. Impact: UGT2B10 activity or genotype should be considered when using cotinine as a tobacco exposure biomarker, particularly in populations such as AA with high frequencies of UGT2B10 nonfunctional variants. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1093-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michelle; Mindell, Jennifer S; Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin; Wardle, Heather; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-03-01

    On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of nonsmokers with undetectable levels of cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine. Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and among lower-SES groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion of participants with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher in the last 6 months of 2008 compared with the first 6 months of 1998 and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). We observed a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced--the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.8] and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjusting for the prelegislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not, however, seen in those living in lower-social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days. We found that the impact of England's smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation. This finding suggests that these groups should receive more support to reduce their exposure.

  11. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  12. Correlations of hair level with salivary level in cortisol and cortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Shenghuo; Yu, Tian; Wang, Juxia; Wang, Weiwen; Deng, Huihua

    2018-01-15

    Contrary findings exist on the consistency between hair cortisol and salivary cortisol in assessing the basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The mismatches in temporal characteristic and the indices of hair and salivary cortisol might be potential reasons for the inconsistency. The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency between hair and salivary levels in cortisol and cortisone by directly examining the correlation between hair level and salivary level with different temporal characteristics (acute, short-term and long-term levels) and reflecting different HPA functions (basal level and reactivity level) in the well-matched time span. A longitudinal design within a five-week period was conducted in a sample of 44 healthy female college students (mean age: 18.8yrs.; age range: 18-22yrs) of Han nationality with the exclusion criteria, such as use of oral contraceptives or glucocorticoids and bleached hairs, etc. Four saliva samples (awakening, awakening+30min, awakening+4h and awakening+9h) were collected from an identical participant on three separate days with an interval of one week and 1-cm hair segment nearest to the scalp was collected two weeks later after completing saliva collection. Cortisol and cortisone in saliva and hair were simultaneously measured with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There were significantly moderate correlations in cortisol and cortisone between hair level and three-day average of single-day salivary level, but low to moderate correlations between hair level and single-point and single-day salivary level. Hair cortisol and cortisone were unrelated to single-day level and three-day average of diurnal slope and cortisol awakening response of salivary cortisol and cortisone, respectively. The considerable consistency between hair level and long-term salivary level in cortisol and cortisone implies that cortisol and cortisone in hair are valid biomarkers of

  13. The relationship between salivary histatin levels and oral yeast carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, A; Johnson, D A; Yeh, C K

    1998-06-01

    Candida species are common commensal inhabitants of the oral cavity. Human saliva contains antifungal proteins called histatins. We tested the hypothesis that oral yeast status is related to salivary histatin levels. Thirty subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 15) or absence (n = 15) of yeast on oral mucosa surfaces. Unstimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual and parotid saliva was collected from each subject. Salivary flow rates were measured and histatin concentrations were determined in the stimulated saliva samples. The yeast colony positive group showed lower median unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates as well as lower median concentrations of total histatins in submandibular and sublingual saliva. There was a negative correlation between yeast colony-forming units and unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and between yeast colony-forming units and submandibular and sublingual saliva histatin concentration and secretion. The results suggest that oral yeast status may be influenced by unstimulated parotid saliva flow rates and by submandibular and sublingual histatin concentration and secretion.

  14. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  15. Correlation of Salivary Statherin and Calcium Levels with Dental Calculus Formation: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa Pateel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20–55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech. Results. Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96 μg/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups (p<0.05. Conclusions. Our preliminary data indicates that statherin could possibly play a role in the formation of dental calculus.

  16. Correlation of Salivary Statherin and Calcium Levels with Dental Calculus Formation: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Gunjal, Shilpa; Math, Swarna Y; Murugeshappa, Devarasa Giriyapura; Nair, Sreejith Muraleedharan

    2017-01-01

    Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20-55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA) and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech). Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96  μ g/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups ( p dental calculus.

  17. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between - Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  18. Tobacco-induced neuronal degeneration via cotinine in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Ali; Okay, Onder; Helvacioglu, Fatma; Daglioglu, Ergun; Akdag, Rifat; Take, Gulnur; Belen, Deniz

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals including well-characterized toxicants and carcinogens, among which is cotinine. Cotinine is the principal metabolite of nicotine that has adverse affects on the microcirculation via vasoconstriction, hypoxia and the wound-healing cascade. Its impact on spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cotinine effect on SCI. 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: sham-control, sham-trauma, vehicle-control, vehicle-trauma, cotinine-control, and cotinine-trauma. Initially, a defined concentration of cotinine blood level was maintained by daily intraperitoneal injection of cotinine for 14 days in the cotinine groups. The concentration was similar to the cotinine dose in the blood level of heavy smokers. Only ethyl alcohol was injected in the vehicle groups during the same period. Then, SCI was performed by a Tator clip. The cotinine groups were compared with rats subjected to vehicle and sham groups by immunohistochemical biomarkers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) expressions. Electron microscopic examination was also performed. GFAP-positive cells were noted to be localized around degenerated astrocytes. Marked vacuolization with perivascular and perineural edema was seen in the cotinin consumption groups. These findings showed the inhibition of regeneration after SCI. Similarly, vacuolization within myelin layers was noted in the cotinine groups, which was detected through reduced CNP expression. Cotinine, a main metabolite of nicotine, has harmful effects on SCI via GFAP and CNP expression. The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that tobacco causes neuronal degeneration via cotinine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Dewi; Nasution, Abdillah Imron; Surbakti, Mutiara Rizki Wardarni; Gani, Basri A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involvin...

  1. Smoking affects diagnostic salivary periodontal disease biomarker levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Sorsa, Timo; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Tervahartiala, Taina; Kari, Kirsti; Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-09-01

    The effects of smoking on periodontal biomarkers in adolescents are unknown. This study investigates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase levels in saliva together with periodontal health indices accounting for body mass index and smoking in a birth cohort from Finland. The oral health of boys (n = 258) and girls (n = 243) aged 15 to 16 years was examined clinically. Health habits were assessed by questionnaire. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorometric and peptide assays for MMP-8 levels and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase activities, and investigated statistically with the background factors. Median MMP-8 values of male smokers were 112.03 microg/l compared to 176.89 microg/l of non-smokers (P = 0.05). For female smokers corresponding values were 170.88 microg/l versus 177.92 microg/l in non-smokers (not statistically significant). Elastase values in male smokers were 5.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 11.0 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.02), and in female smokers 9.16 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 10.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.72). The effect was strengthened by high pack-years of smoking (MMP-8, P = 0.04; elastase, P = 0.01). Both biomarkers increased with gingival bleeding. However, statistically significant associations were observed with bleeding on probing and MMP-8 (P = 0.04); MMP-8 was suggestively associated with probing depth (P = 0.09) in non-smoking boys. In smokers with calculus, MMP-8 increased after adjusting with body mass index (P = 0.03). No corresponding differences were seen in girls. Smoking significantly decreased both biomarkers studied. Compared to girls, boys seem to have enhanced susceptibility for periodontitis as reflected in salivary MMP-8 values.

  2. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  3. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were...

  4. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  5. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir R Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Materials and Methods: Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. Results: The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  6. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir R; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K A

    2013-07-01

    Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  7. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    ños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at

  8. Diagnostic utility of daytime salivary melatonin levels in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

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    Chik, Constance L; Rollag, Mark D; Duncan, Wallace C; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-01-01

    An inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin (MT) likely contributes to the sleep disturbance in patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Plasma MT levels have documented this altered rhythm, but daytime levels of salivary MT has not been determined. Daytime measures of salivary MT might have utility in home/outpatient settings for assessing MT levels in undiagnosed patients with clinical features of SMS. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of daytime salivary MT as a diagnostic test in SMS. Thirty individuals with confirmed SMS [28 with del 17p11.2 and 2 with the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene mutation] and five controls were studied. Single or serial daytime salivary MT levels were measured. The mean midday salivary MT level was 79.0 pg/ml in SMS patients, compared with 16.3 pg/ml in controls, with nine patients having values similar to controls. The median MT level in SMS patients was 49.0 pg/ml (first and third quartile values = 15.5 and 106.8 pg/ml). Twenty-six (90%) of 29 patients had at least one MT value >15.5 pg/ml, including 70 (78%) of 90 samples from patients with del 17p11.2 and one (20%) of five samples from the two patients with the RAI1 mutation. Neither the pattern of medication use nor age had an effect on daytime salivary MT levels. Although most SMS patients had elevated daytime salivary MT levels, multiple sampling appears necessary to distinguish patients with SMS from other conditions.

  9. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

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    Dewi Saputri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involving 40 male smokers. Before participating, they filled a questionnaire related to the history of their smoking habit. Using a spitting method for 5 minutes their saliva was collected. Results: Result of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking intensity and salivary flow rate of those smokers (r = -0.486 and p0.512. There was no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and salivary pH of those smokers (r = -0.216, p>0.181. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary pH of those smokers (r= 0.686, p<0.00,. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the intensity of smoking with salivary flow rate and its pH. However, there is no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and both salivary flow rate as well as salivary pH.

  10. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

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    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic ...

  11. Relationships between Salivary Melatonin Levels, Quality of Sleep, and Stress in Young Japanese Females

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    Yasuhiro Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the quality of sleep is believed to cause anxiety and worsen depression. Comparisons of salivary melatonin levels with different factors including quality of sleep, state and trait anxieties, and depression, were conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between melatonin, presumably associated with sleep, and psychological stress. The saliva of healthy young females was collected during the daytime and before they went to bed at night (when they were awake and resting in a sitting position, and salivary melatonin levels were measured. The quality of sleep was scored using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI–-a questionnaire method. State and trait anxieties, and depression were scored using other questionnaire methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, respectively. The following findings were obtained: (1 Salivary melatonin levels measured during the daytime and before going to bed were higher in females with a high depression score, compared to those with a low score, and there was a correlation between the depression scores and salivary melatonin levels measured at night; and (2 salivary melatonin levels measured before going to bed at night (in a sitting position were higher in females with a high state anxiety score, suggesting a correlation between state anxiety scores and salivary melatonin levels during the night. Both depression and a sense of anxiety are forms of psychological stress. Therefore, it is assumed that, when a person is under psychological stress, the action of melatonin as a ligand on its receptor is reduced. Meaning psychological stress may induce oxidative stress in the body. On the other hand, no correlation was noted between the quality of sleep and salivary melatonin levels during the night, presumably because saliva was collected when the subjects were awake and sitting, rather than sleeping.

  12. Salivary cortisol levels are associated with outcomes of weight reduction therapy in obese Japanese patients.

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    Himeno, Akihiro; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Usui, Takeshi; Wada, Hiromichi; Tochiya, Mayu; Kono, Shigeo; Yamada-Goto, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Hasegawa, Koji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Shimatsu, Akira

    2012-02-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the detailed relationships of HPA axis activity with weight reduction and CVD risk factors in obese patients have not been examined. This study was designed to elucidate the associations of salivary cortisol levels with weight reduction and CVD risk factors in obese patients. As a marker of HPA axis activity, we measured the morning salivary cortisol levels of 83 obese Japanese outpatients. We also examined metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and indicators of arterial stiffness, that is, the pulse wave velocity and cardio-ankle vascular index. All 83 obese patients underwent 3-month weight reduction therapy with lifestyle modification. At the baseline, multivariate regression analysis revealed that only logarithmic transformation of C-reactive protein (β = 0.258, P cortisol levels. However, other metabolic parameters were not significantly associated with the salivary cortisol levels. In addition, lower salivary cortisol levels and higher body weight at the baseline were the only independent determinants of successful weight loss through the weight reduction therapy (P cortisol levels are significantly associated with the levels of an inflammatory marker, arterial stiffness, and successful weight reduction in obese patients. Therefore, salivary cortisol could be a useful marker for assessing and managing body weight and CVD risk factors in obese patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

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    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  14. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

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    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  15. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

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    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  16. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shishir R.; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the b...

  17. Changes in human parotid salivary protein and sialic acid levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, S; Curbelo, H M; Tumilasci, O R; Tessler, J A; Houssay, A B

    1989-01-01

    Saliva was collected with a Carlson-Crittenden device, under citric acid stimulation, in 107 pregnant women, 9 puerperal and 7 non-pregnant controls. No significant changes were found in salivary flow rate, pH and amylase levels. The total protein levels were decreased during pregnancy and the puerperium. The sialic acid levels decreased gradually but markedly during pregnancy, returning to normal levels in the puerperium. These changes in parotid saliva may be related to the hormonal changes of pregnancy.

  18. Levels of salivary stress markers in patients with anxiety about halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Makoto; Hinode, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Masami; Kataoka, Kosuke; Ito, Hiro-O

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between salivary stress markers and mental stress states in patients complaining of oral malodour. The utility of the salivary stress markers in assessment of mental conditions of those patients was also investigated. The study population included 74 patients, aged 20-59 years, who complained of oral malodour and were referred to the Breath Odor Clinic at Tokushima University Hospital. Patients were classified into two groups, genuine halitosis (GH) and psychosomatic halitosis (PH), according to the results of organoleptic rating measurement. All patients were subjected to examination by the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) Health Questionnaire. Resting saliva was collected and levels of salivary IgA, cortisol and chromogranin A were determined by ELISA. Twenty-three volunteers not complaining of halitosis were included as the control group. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney's U-test were used for statistical analysis. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of salivary cortisol in the PH group as compared with GH and control groups (psalivary cortisol concentrations were found in CMI scale III and IV (tendency towards neurosis) than in scale I and II (normal) (psalivary cortisol reflects a status of chronic stress condition, psychosomatic halitosis might be closely related to this state of chronic stress. Determination of cortisol levels in saliva may provide useful information for evaluating the mental status of patients complaining of halitosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  20. Relationship between salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in saliva and chronic periodontitis

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    Siddhi Mudrika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 20 subjects, with clinical examinations including oral hygiene index, sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann and Son and probing depth was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software package (version 7.0, and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to see the correlation between the groups. Results: In cortisol and DHEA the mean and standard deviation of periodontitis group were (2.6 ± 0.37 and (66.7 ± 8.7 respectively. Conclusion: This shows there is an increase in the mean value of cortisol and DHEA in periodontitis than the control group. Salivary cortisol and DHEA level were found to be increased in concordance with disease severity. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001.

  1. Effects of Pilates Exercise on Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoonyoung; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

  2. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Yokoi, Aya; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Sugiura, Yoshio; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Aim . The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods . The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: 24.1 ± 2.6 years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results . Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132-1.916, and P gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis.

  3. Estimation and comparison of salivary calcium levels in healthy controls and patients with generalized gingivitis and chronic periodontitis

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    Madhura Vijay Rane

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Salivary calcium levels can be used as a biomarker to assess the periodontal disease progression. Early diagnosis of periodontal disease by estimation of calcium levels in saliva can help in prevention of gingivitis or periodontitis by various therapeutic measures.

  4. Evaluating the relationship between dental caries number and salivary level of IgA in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri-Araghi, Hesam; Safarzadeh-Khosroshahi, Shadab; Mirzadeh, Monirsadat

    2018-01-01

    Background Dental caries are the most common mouth infectious disease and also chronic disease of childhood. Saliva plays different roles in oral cavity; for example, salivary immunoglobulins play significant role in body and oral immunity. Various studies were conducted on the different effects of IgA on oral cavity, especially dental caries, and reported controversial results. The current study aimed to compare salivary IgA level at different stages of dental caries in adults. Material and Methods A total of 40 adults, aged 20 to 40 years, referred to the department of oral medicine at Qazvin Faculty of Dentistry, were selected voluntarily based on the number of decayed teeth. Their unstimulated saliva was collected by the spitting method. The cases were assigned to 4 groups each of 10, based on the number of decayed teeth, as follows: Group 1: Caries free, Group 2: With 1 or 2 decayed teeth, Group 3: With 3 or 4 decayed teeth, and Group 4: With 5 or more decayed teeth. None of the cases had systemic diseases or the history of using medicines which affect the quality or quantity of saliva. The salivary IgA level of the cases was measured immunoturbidometrically and analyzed by ANOVA and t test. Results Significant difference was observed between the groups 1 and 4, but there was no significant difference between the other groups. Conclusions According to the results of the current study, the salivary IgA can be considered as an index for the function of immune system, which may be increased by the number of decayed teeth. In fact, the increase of salivary IgA is just the response of immune system to the accumulation of microorganisms and may be the attempt of body to control them. Key words:Saliva, IgA, Dental caries. PMID:29670718

  5. Effect of levulose containing sweets on blood and salivary glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; K L, Girish Babu; Gona, Harsha

    2015-06-01

    It is common that many diabetic patients crave for sweets which are normally prohibited. To satisfy their desire to have sweets, alternative sweeteners have been introduced to provide sweetness to some items of their diabetic diet. To (1) assess the effect of sweets containing levulose on glucose levels in blood and saliva, and (2) compare it with effect of sweets containing sucrose on blood and saliva levels of glucose. The study consisted of 20 healthy participants, aged 17-20 years. Two sweet preparations of 36 g each were selected for the study. One preparation was sweetened with levulose (diabetic sweet; Group I) and the other with sucrose (regular sweet; Group II). Blood sugar and salivary glucose levels were estimated before and after the consumption of diabetic and regular sweets. The mean increase in salivary glucose level was lower in Group I than in Group II. Similarly, increase in blood glucose levels in Group I was lower and highly significant. In comparison with regular sweets, consumption of levulose containing sweet resulted in significantly lower blood and salivary glucose levels.

  6. Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y-S L; Jordan, L; Chen, H-S; Kang, D; Oxford, L; Plemons, J; Parks, H; Rees, T

    2017-06-01

    More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no

  7. Salivary TNFα levels in groups of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, Ehsan B; Hashim, Nada T; Satti, Asim; Gismalla, Bakri G

    2017-01-07

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with significant pathological and clinical similarities. Numerous studies have indicated a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the TNF-α levels in saliva among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis as well as healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven patients diagnosed of RA, 57 patients with chronic periodontitis and 57 healthy subjects. These patients have been examined with regard to TNF-α level from salivary samples. Their teeth were examined with regard to Plaque Index , Gingival Index, probing depth and clinical attachment level.All patients were non-smokers. The results revealed a significant difference in all periodontal parameters among the three groups. The chronic periodontitis group showed a significantly higher value in all clinical periodontal parameters in comparison to both the RA and healthy groups. No significant difference was found between salivary TNF-α level among the three study groups. Patients with chronic periodontitis had the highest periodontal indices. However there was no significant difference regarding the level of salivary TNF-α. Hence, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines might prove beneficial in suppressing periodontal diseases among RA patients.

  8. No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Charmaine S; Frost, Elizabeth A; Xie, Wenting; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of weight loss by diet or diet and exercise on salivary cortisol levels, a measure of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity, in overweight individuals is not known. The objective was to test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate caloric restriction (CR) (25%) by diet or diet and aerobic exercise would alter morning and diurnal salivary cortisol levels. Randomized control trial in an institutional research center. Thirty-five overweight (BMI: 27.8±0.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy participants (16 M/19 F). Participants were randomized to either calorie restriction (CR: 25% reduction in energy intake, n=12), calorie restriction+exercise (CR+EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake+12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n=12) or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n=11) for 6 months. Salivary cortisol measured at 8:00, 8:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:30, 13:00, 16:00 and 16:30. Morning cortisol was defined as the mean cortisol concentration at 08:00 and 08:30. Diurnal cortisol was calculated as the mean of the 8 cortisol measures across the day. In the whole cohort, higher morning and diurnal cortisol levels were associated with impaired insulin sensitivity (morning: P=0.004, r(2)=0.24; diurnal: P=0.02, r(2)=0.15). Using mixed model analysis, there was no significant effect of group, time or sex on morning or diurnal cortisol levels. A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact morning or diurnal salivary cortisol levels. © 2013.

  9. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  10. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

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    Greggory R. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328 and B (r=0.615 but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (χ2=5.14 but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.

  11. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and

  12. Maternal salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy are positively associated with overweight children.

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    Hohwü, Lena; Henriksen, Tine B; Grønborg, Therese K; Hedegaard, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the development of obesity, but human studies of biological indicators of HPA axis activity are lacking. We studied the association between levels of the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified into the equal age groups: 2-6, 7-11, and 12-16 years. We found non-significant higher maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy in offspring that were overweight at the age of 2-6, 7-11 and 12-16 years than in normal weight peers; adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol 11% (95% CI: -2; 25), 6% (95% CI: -7; 20), and 9% (95% CI: -4; 24), respectively. A statistically significantly higher level of maternal cortisol was found in the second trimester in 2-6-year-old and 12-16-year-old overweight offspring; relative difference 19% (95% CI: 3; 37), and 20% (95% CI: 3; 41), respectively. The median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was similar for overweight and normal weight children; e.g. at age 2-6 years in third trimester 4.31 (95% CI: 4.05; 4.60)nmol/l and 4

  13. Effect of laughter on salivary flow rates and levels of chromogranin A in young adults and elderly people.

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    Toda, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Hiroe

    2012-11-01

    Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels and salivary flow rates were measured to evaluate the stress relief effect of laughter on the young and the elderly. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 aged 20-25 years; 15 aged 62-83 years) performed a serial arithmetic task for 15 min and then watched a comedy video for 30 min. On a different day, as a control, they watched a non-humorous video after performing a task similar to the first one. Saliva samples were collected immediately before and after the arithmetic task, 30 min after completing the task (immediately after watching the film), and 30 min after watching the film (60 min after completing mental task). Salivary CgA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the elderly group, salivary flow rates, which had declined by the end of the arithmetic task, were statistically significantly higher after watching the comedy video. In the young group, salivary CgA levels, which had increased by the end of the task, had statistically significantly declined after watching the comedy video. No such post-task changes were apparent in control results; in the young group, there was a statistically significant interprotocol difference in salivary CgA levels. These findings suggest that laughter may relieve stress, particularly in the young people.

  14. Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure from Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendizábal, Nieves Vélez; Jones, David R.; Jahn, Andy; Bies, Robert R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a recent technology that has gained rapid acceptance. Still, little is known about them in terms of safety and effectiveness. A basic question is how effectively they deliver nicotine, however the literature is surprisingly unclear on this point. Here, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinine concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates (i.e. weight and breath carbon monoxide CO levels). Methods This study included 10 adults self-identified as heavy smokers (at least one pack per day). Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured at regular 10-minute intervals for 90 minutes while human subjects inhaled nicotine vapor from a modified e-cigarette. Airflow measurements were recorded every 200 milliseconds throughout the session. A population PK model for nicotine and cotinine was developed based on previously published PK parameters and the airflow recordings. All the analyses were performed with the nonlinear mixed-effect modelling software NONMEM 7.2. Results The results show that e-cigarettes deliver nicotine effectively, although the pharmacokinetic profiles are lower than those achieved with regular cigarettes. Our PK model effectively predicts plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations from the inhalation volume, and initial breath CO. Conclusion E-cigarettes are effective at delivering nicotine. This new PK model of e-cigarette usage might be used for pharmacodynamic analysis where the PK profiles are not available. PMID:25503588

  15. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

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    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  16. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

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    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  17. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  18. Comparison of Salivary Cortisol and α-amylase Levels and Psychological Profiles in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome.

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    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Salimi, Saeedeh; Parvaee, Azadeh

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels and psychological profiles in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and healthy subjects. Spitting method was used to collect unstimulated salivary. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were determined using ELISA and the Caraway starch-iodine technique. SLC-90 questionnaire was used to determine the psychological profiles. The difference between mean of salivary cortisol levels in patients with BMS and in healthy subjects was not significant (4.50 ± 3.68 ng/mL vs. 3.69 ± 3.07 ng/mL, p = 0.377). The difference between mean of α-amylase levels in the BMS patients and healthy subjects was significant (351.68 ± 142.5 and 146.22 ± 130.4, p = 0.001). Note that, 83.4% and 18% of the patients in the case and control groups had psychological problems (p = 0.001). The results showed higher salivary levels of cortisol and α-amylase in patients with BMS compared to healthy individuals. Psychological problem was prevalent in patients. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  20. Salivary levels of SIgA and perceived stress among dental students

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    João Paulo Menck Sangiorgio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic stress may impair mucosal immunity and expose dental students to an increased risk of infections. Objective: to assess stress scores in dental students and their relationship with variation in SIgA levels. Methods: All students (n = 289 were invited to take part of the study, and 207 (71.63% effectively participated, being 152 (73.4% females. At the day of data collection, the students answered The Dental Environmental Stress Questionnaire (DES and unstimulated saliva samples were collected for determination of salivary flow rate and SIgA concentration and secretion rate. Results: Mean DES scores were higher in females (78.97 ± 16.42, but no correlations between the sum of DES scores and salivary parameters were observed (P=0.08. A moderate inverse relationship was observed between SIgA secretion rates and the subscales Academic Performance (P=0.01, Interpersonal relationships (P=0.02 and Difficulties and Insecurities about Professional Future (P=0.05. A weak correlation was found between SIgA concentration and the items Amount of assigned classwork (P=0.02, Lack of confidence in self to be a successful dentist (P=0.01, Lack of time for relaxation (P=0.01, Financial responsibilities (P=0.02 and Personal physical health (P=0.005. Weak correlations between SIgA secretion rates and DES items were also found for Lack of cooperation by patient in their home care (P=0.003, Patients being late or not showing up for their appointments (P=0.02, Lack of self confidence to be a successful dentist (P=0.008, Personal physical health (P=0.019, and others. Conclusion: Different sources of stress were observed among first to fifth year students and some of these stressors may negatively impact on salivary SIgA secretion.

  1. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

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    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity.

  2. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli among Palestinian school children in East Jerusalem.

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    Steinberg, Doron; Eskander, Lana; Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold; Bajali, Musa

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of oral cariogenic bacteria among 12-year-old Palestinian children attending schools in East Jerusalem. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were examined by semi-quantitative commercial kits and then correlated to social-demographic parameters. Overall, 52.1 % of the examined children presented the highest possible ranking score categories for MS bacteria, with only 5.4 % in the lowest category. Only 12.6 % of the school children presented the highest LB score, while 25 % had the lowest ranking score. Salivary MS levels in children attending private schools were lower than those of children in government schools and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools. Conversely, levels of LB were lowest in children attending UNRWA schools compared to government and private schools. Girls had significantly higher amounts of MS and LB than boys (p = 0.001). Lower MS levels were significantly related to the following socioeconomic variables: higher father's education level (p = 0.037), higher mother's education level (p = 0.063), mother's employment status (p = 0.012), and lower home density (p = 0.001). For LB, the only significant socioeconomic variable was higher father's employment level, which was related to lower LB level (p = 0.025). Levels of MS and LB were found to be strongly related with socioeconomic status among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. The relatively high prevalence of cariogenic bacteria suggests that oral care prevention and treatment demands special attention from the health care institutions and authorities.

  3. Salivary bisphenol A levels and their association with composite resin restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ha; Yi, Seung-Kyoo; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Soo; Son, Sung-Ae; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-04-01

    Composite resin has been increasingly used in an effort to remove minimal amount of tooth structure and are used for restoring not just carious cavities but also cervical abrasion. To synthesize composite resin, bisphenol A (BPA) is used. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in salivary BPA level related with composite resin restoration. ELISA was used to examine the BPA levels in the saliva collected from 30 volunteers whose teeth were filled with composite resin. Salivary samples were collected immediately before filling and 5 min and 7 d after filling. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and linear regression were performed to test the significant differences of the changes in BPA levels in saliva. Before a new composite resin filling, there was no significant difference between with and without existing filling of composite resin and BPA level in the saliva was not correlated to the number of filled surfaces with composite resin. However, BPA level in the saliva increased to average 3.64 μg/L from average 0.15 μg/L after filling 5 min. BPA level increased in proportion with the number of filled surfaces. BPA level decreased to average 0.59 after filling 7 d. However it was higher than the BPA level before a new composite resin filling. Considering 50 μg/kg/day as the Tolerable Daily Intake of BPA suggested by European Food Safety Authority, the amount of BPA eluted in saliva after the composite resin filling is considered a safe level that is not a hazard to health at all. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salivary pH levels and caries among siblings and parents within families.

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    Basch, Yaffa; Peretz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    High level of caries activity is related to organisms in the dental plaque with high acidogenesis capacity. To test salivary pH in children of the same family and compare it with their caries status. To compare pH levels between children and their parents. To examine the relationship between pH and caries status among children of the same family and their parents. We examined 123 children and adolescents aged 3-18, (73 boys and 50 girls) and 33 adults, (12 men and 21 women), parents of these children. Caries status was examined clinically, using DMF index. Salivary pH measurements were made by a digital pH meter. Among adults, increase in patient age led to increased DMF (p = 0.005). The higher the pH, the lower the DMF (p = 0.037). Among men, DMF was lower by 3 compared to women (p = 0.049). Children's pH correlated with the parents' (p = 0.004). Children's DMF correlated to their pH (p = 0.001). Children's pH was the best predictor of their DMF (R2 = 0.309, p = 0.001). Among children, the higher the pH, the lower the DMFT. Children's pH was the best predictor of their DMF.

  5. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice

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    NEIRE M. DE GOUVEIA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75% of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose.

  6. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

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    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (pperiodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the mother and the fetus.

  7. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  8. The relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children

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    Rosdiana Rosdiana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome on chromosome 21. Down syndrome child, however, has good resistance against caries, and some of them even are caries-free. It is because the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is equal or even higher than that in normal children. Purpose: This review was aimed to review the relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children. Reviews: Down syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by chromosomal abnormality that has a number of physical and mental disorders. Down syndrome children, nevertheless, have significantly lower incidence of caries than normal children. These conditions are thought to relate to characteristics of oral cavity and the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children. Caries is a disease of dental hard tissues caused by the fermentation of sucrose into glucans by glucosyltransferase enzymes (GTF of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. One of proteins in saliva that acts as a defense mechanism is imunoglubulin. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA inhibits the activity of S. mutans as bacteria causing caries forming glucan. This immunoglobulin, sIgA, is the most abundant immunoglobulin in saliva. The level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is significantly higher than that in normal children. Conclusion: Besides factors of tooth eruption delays, wide spaces among teeth, microdontia, pH, and high saliva contents (calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, the low incidence of caries in Down syndrome children is also related with the higher level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children than that in normal children.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down atau Trisomi 21 merupakan kelainan genetik yaitu adanya kromosom ekstra pada kromosom 21. Anak sindroma Down memiliki resistensi yang baik terhadap karies dan sebagian dari mereka bebas karies. Kadar sIgA saliva anak sindroma Down sama atau bahkan lebih tingi

  9. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

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    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  10. Salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) levels and gelatinase (MMP-9) activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, H L; Sorsa, T; Meurman, J H; Niskanen, L; Salo, T; Rönkä, H; Konttinen, Y T; Koivisto, A M; Uusitupa, M

    2000-10-01

    We studied the salivary levels and activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -8 and -9 in 45 type 2 diabetic patients and 77 control subjects. The patients' mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 8.7%, indicating an unsatisfactory metabolic control of the disease. The MMP levels were further related to the clinical and microbiological periodontal findings as well as to salivary flow rate and other factors. The salivary flow rate, albumin and amylase concentrations were similar in type 2 diabetic patients to those in the control group. The mean gingival and periodontal pocket indexes were higher in the diabetes group. The number of potential periodontopathogenic bacteria was lower, however, in the diabetic than in the control group. Zymography and immunoblotting revealed that the major MMPs in the type 2 diabetic patients' saliva were MMP-8 and MMP-9. Salivary MMP levels and activities in type 2 diabetic patients were in general similar to those in the control group. However, the correlation coefficients using multiple regression analysis revealed that gingival bleeding, pocket depths and HbA1c were associated with increased MMP-8 levels which, in turn, were negatively predicted by elevated plasma lipid peroxide levels in the diabetic group. Our data on salivary MMP-8 and -9 do not support the concept of generalized neutrophil dysfunction in unbalanced diabetes. Moreover, plasma lipid peroxidation levels reflecting the increased oxidative burden, which is generated mainly by triggered neutrophils, do not indicate neutrophil dysfunction due to diabetes, but may rather be related to the increased tissue damage in an uncontrolled disease. However. advanced periodontitis in type 2 diabetes seems to be related to elevated salivary MMP-8 levels which might be useful in monitoring periodontal disease in diabetes.

  11. Can salivary creatinine and urea levels be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2017-11-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop many metabolic changes in blood that often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis. Serum analysis is an invasive and painful procedure. It would be highly beneficial if a noninvasive alternative process to serum analysis in children were identified. Saliva can be collected noninvasively, repeatedly, and without the use of healthcare personnel. The aims of this study were to compare serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels in children with CKD and healthy controls, and to determine if salivary creatinine and urea levels can be used to diagnose CKD in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels. This case-control study included 35 children with CKD and 28 healthy children as controls. Saliva and blood samples were collected for measurement of urea and creatinine levels. The urea and creatinine levels in serum and saliva in the CKD and control groups were compared using the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between the serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine and cutoff values were identified. In the CKD group, the mean salivary creatinine level was 0.45 mg/dL and the mean salivary urea level was 0.11 mg/dL, versus 28.83 mg/dL and 21.78 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group. Stage 4 and 5 CKD patients had a mean salivary urea level of 31.35 mg/dL, as compared to 17.78 mg/dL in the control group. Serum urea and creatinine, and salivary creatinine were significantly higher in the CKD patients (regardless of disease stage) than in the controls (p creatinine. The area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.805. The cutoff value for salivary creatinine was 0.125 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 78.6%. Based on the positive correlation between the serum and saliva

  12. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

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    Valentina eEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  13. Self-Reported Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Avoidance Compared with Cotinine Confirmed Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women and Their Infants

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    Adam Gregory Gavarkovs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests, as well as less invasive and lower-cost, self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure, and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks’ gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and the biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support the inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measures.

  14. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

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    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  15. A Comparison of Salivary Steroid Levels during Diagnostic Tests for Adrenal Insufficiency

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    Michaela Dušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous diagnostic tests are used to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis. The gold standard is still considered the insulin tolerance test (ITT, but this test has many limitations. Current guidelines therefore recommend the Synacthen test first when an HPA axis insufficiency is suspected. However, the dose of Synacthen that is diagnostically most accurate and sensitive is still a matter of debate. We investigated 15 healthy men with mean/median age 27.4/26 (SD ±4.8 years, and mean/median BMI (body mass index 25.38/24.82 (SD ±3.2 kg/m2. All subjects underwent 4 dynamic tests of the HPA axis, specifically 1 μg, 10 μg, and 250 μg Synacthen (ACTH tests and an ITT. Salivary cortisol, cortisone, pregnenolone, and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During the ITT maximum salivary cortisol levels over 12.5 nmol/l were found at 60 minutes. Maximum cortisol levels in all of the Synacthen tests were higher than this; however, demonstrating that sufficient stimulation of the adrenal glands was achieved. Cortisone reacted similarly as cortisol, i.e. we did not find any change in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone. Pregnenolone and DHEA were higher during the ITT, and their peaks preceded the cortisol peak. There was no increase of pregnenolone or DHEA in any of the Synacthen tests. We demonstrate that the 10 μg Synacthen dose is sufficient stimulus for testing the HPA axis and is also a safe and cost-effective alternative. This dose also largely eliminates both false negative and false positive results.

  16. Higher levels of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 in individuals with gastric diseases who harbor Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.G.; Stevens, R.H.; Macedo, J.M.B.; Hirata, R.; Pinto, A.C.; Alves, L.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Tinoco, E.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the salivary levels of MUC5B and MUC7 in individuals with dyspeptic disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach, compared to individuals without dyspeptic disease. Methods: 30 individuals with dyspeptic disease, who underwent

  17. Assessment of urinary cotinine as a marker of nicotine absorption from tobacco leaves: a study on tobacco farmers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kimura, Kaoru; Sato, Hajime; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Naing, Lin; Morita, Yoko; Sakai, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Araki, Shunichi

    2003-05-01

    To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were significantly higher than those of controls; farmers with urinary cotinine of 50 ng/ml/m2 or above showed eye symptoms more frequently than those below this level (ptobacco farmers evidence a risk of nicotine poisoning from tobacco leaves, assessment including GTS together with effects of pesticides will be necessary.

  18. Measurement of Salivary Resistin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jinhua Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum resistin was initially hypothesized as a link between obesity and insulin resistance in mice. The latest evidence suggests that serum resistin is proinflammatory cytokines. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Many reports have previously identified changed serum resistin levels in patients with T2DM, but little is known of the levels of resistin in saliva. In our study, saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM at each time point of OGTT and 35 nondiabetic controls at fasting state. Resistin concentrations were measured using ELISA. We have demonstrated the presence of resistin in saliva of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects. Saliva resistin levels of T2DM are significantly higher than those of nondiabetic controls. Resistin levels in saliva are not affected by eating activity and correlated with serum resistin levels at any time points of OGTT. A positive correlation of serum and salivary resistin with BMI and HOMA-IR existed in T2DM. Measurement of resistin in saliva is a simple, noninvasive and may be an acceptable alternative to blood sampling for evaluatinginflammation/obesity/insulin resistance state.

  19. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

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    Mary Mockus

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  20. Comparison of salivary alpha-amylase levels in gingivitis and periodontitis

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    Dyah Nindita Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease is influenced by bacteria-plaque, while there are also several factors modifying the host’s response, one of which is psychological stress. Alpha-amylase as a biomarker is also associated with periodontal inflammatory disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of alpha-amylase level between gingivitis and periodontitis. Methods: This research constitutes a descriptive study involving 44 subjects, divided into two groups: one of 22 gingivitis subjects and the other of 22 periodontitis subjects. These individuals completed a PSS-14 questionnaire before their levels of alpha salivary amylase were measured by Cocorometer. Data was analyzed by means of a paired T test and a Mann Whitney test with p < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between the alpha-amylase levels of gingivitis and periodontitis. However, no significant contrast existed in the PSS-14 scores of the two periodontal disease groups. Conclusion: In conclusion alpha-amylase levels in the periodontitis group were higher than those in the gingivitis group and could be used as marker indicators of stress.

  1. Education and levels of salivary cortisol over the day in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jennifer B; Ranjit, Nalini; Do, D Phuong; Young, Elizabeth A; House, James S; Kaplan, George A

    2011-02-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is hypothesized to be an important pathway linking socioeconomic position and chronic disease. This paper tests the association between education and the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol. Up to eight measures of cortisol (mean of 5.38 per respondent) over 2 days were obtained from 311 respondents, aged 18-70, drawn from the 2001-2002 Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Multi-level models with linear splines were used to estimate waking level, rates of cortisol decline, and area-under-the-curve over the day, by categories of education. Lower education (0-11 years) was associated with lower waking levels of cortisol, but not the rate of decline of cortisol, resulting in a higher area-under-the-curve for more educated respondents throughout the day. This study found evidence of lower cortisol exposure among individuals with less education and thus does not support the hypothesis that less education is associated with chronic over-exposure to cortisol.

  2. Evaluation of salivary immunoglobulin A levels in tobacco smokers and patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpashree, H. S.; Sarapur, Shriprasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of smoking on the salivary immunoglobulin response in smokers and to evaluate the salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods: The study included total of 80 subjects, of whom 40 were having history of chronic smoking habit, 20 were clinically diagnosed cases of recurrent aphthous ulcer and 20 were in the control group. Sample of unstimulated saliva was collected, centrifuged ...

  3. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  4. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  5. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

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    Angel Fenol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs. We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI, oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  6. Salivary Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 2 and Lactobacillus casei levels predict pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Li, Yihong; Wiener, Howard; Ruby, John D; Lee, Men-Jean

    2005-02-01

    Gravida's poor periodontal health is emerging as a modifiable independent risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight. To test the hypothesis that oral bacteria other than periodontal pathogens are also associated with pregnancy outcomes, specific oral bacterial levels measured during pregnancy were evaluated in relation to gestational age and birth weight while controlling for demographic, medical, and dental variables. The study population consisted of 297 predominantly African- American women who were pregnant for the first time. The salivary bacterial levels evaluated were Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies (gsp) 1 and 2, total streptococci, and total cultivable organisms. For 1 unit increase in log(10) A. naeslundii gsp 2 levels, there was a 60 gm decrease in birth weight (beta = -59.7 g; SE = 29.1; P = 0.04), and a 0.17 week decrease in gestational age (beta = -0.17 wk; SE = 0.09; P = 0.05). In contrast, per 1 unit increase in log(10) L. casei levels, there was a 42 gm increase in birth weight (beta = 42.2 g; SE = 19.3; P = 0.03), and a 0.13 week increase in gestational age (beta = 0.13 week; SE = 0.06; P = 0.04). We conclude that other oral bacterial species can also be related to pregnancy outcomes in addition to previously reported periodontal pathogens. These organism levels may not only predict poor pregnancy outcomes, but also be used as modifiable risk factors in reducing prematurity and low birth weight.

  7. Expression analysis of CD63 in salivary neutrophils and the increased level of Streptococcus mutans in severe early childhood caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and decay exfoliation filling teeth (def-t >6 is a destructive disease that afflicts teeth, including maxillary anterior teeth. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease is still high, for instance in Semarang 2007, the rate reached 90.5% in urban areas and 95.9% in rural areas for early childhood caries which is caused by Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity which become the main component of the very first line of defense against microbes. Purpose: This study analyzed the effect caused by the change of CD63 expression on the surface of salivary neutrophils and the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC. Method: This study employs observational analytic and cross sectional approach by using T test analysis technique for forty cases of early childhood that had been divided into two groups, first group of twenty children positively diagnosed as S-ECC and second group of twenty children negatively diagnosed as the control group. The sample’s result of gargling with 1.5% NaCl was used for neutrophils isolation and analysis function of salivary neutrophils phagocytosis by using flow cytometry test, while the sample of saliva was used to isolate S. mutans and calculate the level of S. mutans. Result: The expression of CD63+ salivary neutrophils in S-ECC was lower (2.32% ± 0.57 than in caries-free (2.67% ± 0.46, while the level of S. mutans showed that the level was not higher than in S-ECC (9.78 ± 2.22x105 CFU/ml compared to in caries-free (5.13 ± 1.86x105 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The low expression of CD63 in salivary neutrophils can lead to the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC.

  8. Relation of salivary antioxidant status and cytokine levels to clinical parameters of oral health in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdacka, Anna; Ciężka, Edyta; Pioruńska-Stolzmann, Maria; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Korybalska, Katarzyna; Kawka, Edyta; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Witowski, Janusz

    2011-05-01

    Both pregnancy and diabetes are thought to predispose to the impairment of oral health. As saliva contributes to oral homeostasis, we have characterised its properties and flow rate in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected from 63 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and analysed for the concentration of selected antioxidants, cytokines, and growth factors. Pregnant women with diabetes were found to have markedly increased indexes of caries activity, plaque formation, gingival and periodontal status, as well as increased salivary antioxidant capacity and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. These changes were more pronounced in patients with long-term disease and systemic diabetic complications, but only partly correlated with the level of blood glycated haemoglobin. Of the cytokines examined, salivary VEGF and HGF concentrations in diabetic pregnant women correlated in a positive and negative manner, respectively, with the prevalence of caries. Moreover, VEGF levels in this group correlated inversely with the probing depth and clinical attachment levels. All such associations did not occur in healthy individuals. In contrast, the salivary pH and flow rate correlated inversely with several parameters of caries and plaque formation irrespectively of whether the pregnant women were diabetic or not. Diabetes in pregnant women significantly changes saliva properties, which may contribute to accelerated deterioration of the oral status in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1±4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69±0.09 μ g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2±4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27±0.03 μ g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted

  10. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  11. Salivary Cytokine Levels and Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, Paolo, E-mail: Paolo.bossi@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Bergamini, Cristiana [Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Miceli, Rosalba [Clinical Epidemiology and Trial Organization Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Cova, Agata [Unity of Immunotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Orlandi, Ester [Radiotherapy 2 Unity, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Resteghini, Carlo; Locati, Laura; Alfieri, Salvatore; Imbimbo, Martina; Granata, Roberta [Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mariani, Luigi [Clinical Epidemiology and Trial Organization Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Iacovelli, Nicola Alessandro [Radiotherapy 2 Unity, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Huber, Veronica [Unity of Immunotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Cavallo, Anna [Department of Physics and Radiation Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Licitra, Lisa [Department of Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Rivoltini, Licia [Unity of Immunotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: We assessed the presence of salivary cytokines, their modulation during chemoradiation therapy (CTRT), and their association with oral mucositis severity in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The present prospective observational study enrolled 55 patients with locally advanced HNC requiring CTRT. We also studied 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with other cancers. The salivary levels of 13 cytokines were analyzed. We constructed a cytokine predictive score of oral mucositis severity. Results: The baseline salivary cytokine levels were not associated with the severity of treatment-induced oral mucositis. The cytokine levels overall increased during treatment, especially in patients with worse mucositis. In particular, on univariable analysis, an increase of interleukin (IL)-1β (area under the curve [AUC] 0.733; P=.009), IL-6 (AUC 0.746; P=.005), and tumor necrosis factor-α (AUC 0.710; P=.005) at the third week of treatment was significantly associated with the development of severe oral mucositis. On multivariable analysis, the predictive score based on the IL-1β and IL-6 changes from baseline to week 3 was an early strong predictor of higher grade oral mucositis. Conclusions: The treatment of HNC patients with concurrent CTRT induces a significant increase in the salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, all positively associated with the severity of mucosal toxicity. A greater increase of IL-1β and IL-6 3 weeks after treatment initiation is predictive of worse oral mucositis, representing a potential tool for the early identification of patients at risk.

  12. Changes in salivary chromogranin A levels in adults with atopic dermatitis are correlated with changes in their condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liang; Kaneko, Sakae; Morita, Eishin

    2018-05-01

    Stress-induced scratching is an issue in patients with adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Symptoms of stress-induced AD are common in clinical practise. Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) level has research value as a possible index related to a patient's psychological stress. Using saliva, which is easily collectable, we compared two assessments of the severities of AD and stress with the levels of stress proteins in the saliva of 30 patients with AD in the Department of Dermatology of Shimane University between April 2015 and May 2017. The severities of AD and stress were assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, respectively. Additionally, the assessments included those of personality using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG)-II score and quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index score. Simultaneously, we measured their salivary CgA levels. The change in salivary CgA per protein in patients with AD was correlated with their changes in SCORAD score (correlation coefficient, r = 0.596, P = 0.001) and objective SCORAD (r = 0.608, P < 0.001). The changes in CgA per protein correlated with those in TEG-II A (r = 0.370, P = 0.022), while the changes in SCORAD score correlated with those in DLQI (r = 0.309, P = 0.048). Our results suggest that changes in a patient's condition are reflective of the changes in the patient's stress. The changes in salivary CgA level in patients with AD correlated with the changes in their condition. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

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    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  14. Assessing oral candidal carriage with mixed salivary glucose levels as non-invasive diagnostic tool in type-2 diabetics of davangere, karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rashmi; Mujib B R, Ahmed; Raaju, U R; Telagi, Neethu

    2014-07-01

    The health of oral tissues is known to be related to salivary flow and its composition which may be altered in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to correlate mixed salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage and to assess the prevalence of candidal carriage in diabetics and controls. Thirty adults with type-2 diabetes and 30 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 30-60 yr, participated in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected and investigated for glucose levels (using glucose oxidase method) and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida, this was stained with two stains, periodic acid-schiff stain and Grocott Gomori stain. In the present study mixed salivary glucose concentration in diabetics was significantly higher (pCandida was not isolated. The diabetics without intraoral candidal carriage had lower salivary glucose levels (mean = 5.36±2.24 mg/dl). This relationship could be seen in controls (non-diabetics) also. Diabetics showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 80% which was significantly higher compared to nondiabetics who showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 40%. Mixed salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in diabetics. The possible high salivary glucose level could predispose to oral candidal infection. So saliva can be used as a quick, non-invasive tool to assess the oral candidal status and possible infection.

  15. Assessing agreement between salivary alpha amylase levels collected by passive drool and eluted filter paper in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Munro, Cindy; Elswick, R K

    2012-07-01

    To assess the validity of filter paper (FP) against the gold standard of passive drool (PD) for collecting salivary alpha amylase as a surrogate biomarker of psychological stress in adolescents with cancer. Part of a longitudinal, descriptive study of symptoms in adolescents with cancer during chemotherapy. A pediatric hematology/oncology treatment center. 33 saliva sample pairs from nine adolescents with cancer, aged 13-18 years. Salivary alpha amylase was collected by PD and FP at four time points during a cycle of chemotherapy: days 1 (time 1) and 2 (time 2) of chemotherapy, day 7-10 (time 3), and day 1 of the next cycle (time 4). A random effects regression was used to assess the correlation between PD and FP values, and a Bland Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement between the values. Salivary alpha amylase. The estimated correlation between PD and FP values was r = 0.91, p < 0.001. Regression results were also used to rescale FP values to the levels of the PD values because the FP values were on a different scale than the PD values. The Bland Altman analysis revealed that the agreement between the rescaled FP values and PD values was not satisfactory. Eluted FP may not be a valid method for collecting salivary alpha amylase in adolescents with cancer. Psychological stress in adolescents with cancer may be linked to negative outcomes, such as greater symptom severity and post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses need valid, efficient, biobehavioral measures to assess psychological stress in the clinical setting.

  16. Associations between Salivary Testosterone Levels, Androgen‐Related Genetic Polymorphisms, and Self‐Estimated Ejaculation Latency Time

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    Patrick Jern, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: We were unable to find support for the hypothesis suggesting an association between T levels and ELT, possibly because of the low number of phenotypically extreme cases (the sample used in the present study was population based. Our results concerning genetic associations should be interpreted with caution until replication studies have been conducted. Jern P, Westberg L, Ankarberg‐Lindgren C, Johansson A, Gunst A, Sandnabba NK, and Santtila P. Associations between salivary testosterone levels, androgen‐related genetic polymorphisms, and self‐estimated ejaculation latency time. Sex Med 2014;2:107–114.

  17. Characterization of urinary cotinine in non-smoking residents in smoke-free homes in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS

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    Jeonghoon Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine urinary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes and to establish the relationship of urinary cotinine with housing type and other socio-demographic and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure factors. Methods We used data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey I (2009–2011. The study included 814 non-smoking adult residents living in apartments, attached, and detached housing. Residents who lived with smokers were excluded. Urinary cotinine concentration was used as a biomarker for SHS exposure. The factors associated with urinary cotinine levels in non-smoking residents were determined using multivariate regression analysis. Results Urinary cotinine was detected in 88 % of the 814 non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes. The urinary cotinine concentrations of residents living in attached [1.18 ng/mg creatinine (Cr] and detached housing (1.23 ng/mg Cr were significantly higher than those of residents who lived in apartments (0.69 ng/mg Cr. Urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in residents who were men, those with a household income ≤1000 USD/month, those who were former smokers with >1 year and ≤1 year of not smoking, and those who experienced SHS odor every day. In the multivariate regression analysis, housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were associated with urinary cotinine concentrations (R 2 = 0.14. Conclusions The majority of non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes had detectable urinary cotinine. Housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were predictors for urinary cotinine concentrations in the study participants.

  18. Association between salivary level of infection with Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacilli and caries-risk factors in mothers.

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    Latifi-Xhemajli, B; Véronneau, J; Begzati, A; Bytyci, A; Kutllovci, T; Rexhepi, A

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors in mothers associated with high and low salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli is an important strategy for early childhood caries prevention. Aim of the study was to identify the association between salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus and potential caries risk factors in mothers. Cross-sectional design used a voluntary sample of 300 mothers of young children. Close-ended questions and observations were used to identify mothers' potential caries risk factors. The presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was determined using the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent). All collected information was converted into frequency and proportion describing the prevalence factor in correlation with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli cariogenic bacteria levels of infection. Results Sample participants showed a high caries risk based on socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical factors. also showed high levels (>105) of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections among 28% of mothers. Three factors were significantly associated with Streptococcus mutans infection: level of education, past caries experiences, and observable dental plaque, whereas, a fourth factor, frequency of daily tooth brushing, was associated to Lactobacilli infection. This study showed that easily collectible informations such as maternal level of education, frequency of daily tooth brushing and past clinical factors tend to be associated with high level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections in caregivers.

  19. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

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    Hou YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chou Hou,1 Yen-Ju Lin,2 Kuo-Cheng Lu,1 Han-Sun Chiang,3 Chia-Chi Chang,4 Li-King Yang1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, 2Department of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 4School of Gerontology Health Management, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear.Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49 or control (n=50 group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes.Results: The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (−2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05, as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (−3.35±5.76 vs −0.81±4.59, P<0.05, the severity of adverse reactions score (−1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05, and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS score (−6.00±4.68 vs −0.877±7.08, P<0.05. The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05, systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05, and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05 and negatively with finger temperature (r=−0.235, P<0.05 in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs

  20. Pseudomembranous Type of Oral Candidiasis is Associated with Decreased Salivary Flow Rate and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Bela; Bagul, Neeta; Desai, Rajiv; Reddy, Mamatha; Mahajan, Amit; Shete, Ashwini; Risbud, Arun; Mane, Arati

    2015-08-01

    Saliva plays an important role in maintaining microbial homeostasis in the oral cavity, while salivary gland hypofunction predisposes the oral mucosa to pathologic alteration and increases the risk for oral candidiasis. This study sought to determine the salivary flow rate (SFR) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and evaluate their relationship with the determinants of oral candidiasis. Sixty HIV-positive (30 with and 30 without oral candidiasis) and 30 healthy HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. Cotton pellet was weighed pre- and post-saliva collection for the assessment of SFR, while SIgA levels were estimated by commercial ELISA (Diametra, Italy) kit. The mean ± SD, SFR and SIgA levels in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis, without candidiasis and HIV-negative controls were 0.396 ± 0.290, 0.546 ± 0.355 and 0.534 ± 0.214 ml/min and 115.891 ± 37.621, 136.024 ± 51.075 and 149.418 ± 31.765 µg/ml, respectively. A positive correlation between low CD4 counts (indicator of immunodeficiency) and SIgA was observed in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis (r = 0.373, p = 0.045). We also report here for the first time the significant decrease in SFR and SIgA levels in individuals presenting with pseudomembranous type of oral candidiasis and Candida albicans infection.

  1. Reduction in salivary α-amylase levels following a mind-body intervention in cancer survivors--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether salivary α-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels would be positively modulated by sleep-focused mind-body interventions in female and male cancer survivors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 57 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance received either a Sleep Hygiene Education (SHE; n=18) control, or one of two experimental mind-body interventions, namely, Mind-Body Bridging (MBB; n=19) or Mindfulness Meditation (MM; n=20). Interventions were three sessions each conducted once per week for three consecutive weeks. Saliva cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline and 1 week after the last session. Participants also completed a sleep scale at the same time points when saliva was collected for biomarker measurement. Our study revealed that at post-intervention assessment, mean sAA levels upon awakening ("Waking" sample) declined in MBB compared with that of SHE. Mean Waking cortisol levels did not differ among treatment groups but declined slightly in SHE. Self-reported sleep improved across the three interventions at Post-assessment, with largest improvements in the MBB intervention. In this exploratory study, sleep focused mind-body intervention (MBB) attenuated Waking sAA levels, suggesting positive influences of a mind-body intervention on sympathetic activity in cancer survivors with sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  3. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

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    Shahla Kakoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT and periodontal index (PDI scores (P <0.050. s-IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects with oral candidiasis (P <0.050. Among diabetic patients, significantly higher s-IgA levels were concomitant with xerostomia and denture stomatitis (P ≤0.050. There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes.

  4. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  5. Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Goddard, Eileen; Higgins, Vanessa; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew; Cook, Derek G

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children's exposure to passive smoking has changed since the late 1980s. Design Cross sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of secondary school children carried out between 1988 and 1998 by Office for National Statistics. Setting England. Subjects Secondary school children aged 11-15. Main outcome measures Salivary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking children. Results Cotinine concentrations in all non-smoking children almost halved between 1988 and 1998, from a geometric mean of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11) ng/ml in 1988 to 0.52 (0.43 to 0.62) ng/ml in 1998. This reduction was largely due to reductions in exposure in children from non-smoking households and to decreases in the percentage of parents who smoked. Children living with mothers or fathers who smoked experienced little reduction in exposure. Conclusions Exposure to passive smoking among children in England has approximately halved since the late 1980s. This reduction is partly explained by the fall in the percentage of both mothers and fathers who smoke and is also likely to reflect reductions of smoking in public places. However, there is only limited evidence that children from smoking households have experienced a reduction in exposure through parents' avoidance of smoking in their presence. PMID:10926591

  6. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

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    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  7. The effect of recommending a CPP-ACPF product on salivary and plaque pH levels in orthodontic patients: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.

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    Heshmat, Haleh; Banava, Sepideh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mojtahedzadeh, Faramarz

    2014-11-01

    Along with their re-mineralizing capacity, calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products combined with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) could also be beneficial by neutralizing acidic salivary and plaque pH. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACPF on salivary and plaque pH in orthodontic patients. As a triple-blind, cross-over randomized trial, 30 orthodontic patients with fixed appliances (age range = 15.70 ± 4.08 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. A CPP-ACPF paste (MI Paste Plus, GC America, Alsip, IL) was used by group 1 (n = 15) and a placebo by group 2 (n = 15) for 1 month. After a 1 month washout period, patients used the alternative paste for another month. Plaque and salivary pH levels were measured at all before and after periods. By applying MI Paste Plus, the plaque pH increased from 5.81 ± 0.45 to 6.60 ± 0.38 (p salivary pH recordings, which were 6.72 ± 0.43 and 6.71 ± 0.38, respectively, remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05). MI Paste Plus can be clinically beneficial in increasing plaque pH levels, but has no effect on the salivary pH.

  8. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

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    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  10. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  11. Salivary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) in the form pertechnetate ion is a relatively simple procedure, which can provide a unique and sensitive means for investigating salivary gland physiologic function and its derangements. However, salivary scintigraphy is poorly suited for the detection and characterization of masses in and around the salivary glands. Computed tomography (CT) has, therefore, largely supplanted scintigraphy for the evaluation of masses and is the method of choice because it can provide exquisite anatomic detail. Consequently, CT is more sensitive for mass detection and can also provide useful information as to whether a mass has arisen from within or from outside of a salivary gland or whether a mass is circumscribed or invasive. It also can disclose the relationship of the mass to the facial nerve and occasionally can provide histologic characterization of such masses as cysts, lipomas, and masseter muscle hypertrophy

  12. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  13. Salivary Levels of IL-6 and IL-17 Could Be an Indicator of Disease Severity in Patients with Calculus Associated Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Batool

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums that causes loss of supporting structures of teeth, that is, gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Levels of various cytokines in the serum, gingival tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis have been studied, but limited data are available on the level of cytokines in saliva. Therefore, a study was designed to determine levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 in patients with calculus associated chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods. It was a comparative, cross-sectional study that is comprised of 41 healthy controls and 41 calculus associated chronic periodontitis patients (CP patients. According to the degree of attachment loss, CP patients were subcategorized as mild (CAL 1-2 mm, moderate (CAL 3-4 mm, and severe (CAL > 5 mm forms of periodontitis. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results. Between healthy controls and CP patients (moderate and severe disease, a statistically significant difference was observed in the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-17. In CP patients, the highest mean ± SD of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 was observed in severe CP, followed by moderate and mild CP. Regarding level of IL-6, a statistically significant difference was observed between mild and severe disease and between moderate and severe subcategories of CP patients. Similarly, statistically significant difference was observed in the level of IL-17 between mild and moderate, mild and severe disease, and moderate and severe disease. Conclusion. The levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 were increased significantly in calculus associated CP patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels increased with the progression of CP. Clinical Significance. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may help in the subcategorization

  14. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Berg, Carla J; Hayes, Rashelle B; Nollen, Nicole L; Thomas, Janet L; Guo, Hongfei; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-05-01

    Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers during the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups. We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Participants included 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4-24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, they smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and they smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9 ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated (r = .84); NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd (r = .39 and r = .34; all p values smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%-50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking.

  15. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated...... with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... through nationwide registers. RESULTS: Familiar predisposition to unipolar and bipolar disorder was not associated with any specific genotype pattern of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, not in this sample of 124 val/val, 58 val/met and 8 met/met individuals. However, the combination of having a high...

  16. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (-2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P 0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, P predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD.

  17. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  18. Status of Serum and Salivary Levels of Superoxide Dismutase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Oral Manifestations: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Medhini; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Shetty, Shishir; Achalli, Sonika; Madiyal, Ananya; Bhat, Manohar

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a very well known metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress increases in Diabetes Mellitus because of the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and an impaired antioxidant defence mechanism. This study estimated, compared and correlated the serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels in healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus having oral manifestations. In this study, serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were estimated in 45 healthy subjects and 45 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations. The mean serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations compared to the healthy subjects. Positive correlation in both healthy and diabetics was observed between serum and salivary samples. This study highlights that the abnormally high levels of oxidative stress in diabetics coupled with simultaneous decline in antioxidant defence mechanism results in complications in Diabetes mellitus. Thus exploring saliva for antioxidant markers that accurately reflect the redox status of the body is worthwhile.

  19. Salivary cortisol levels: the importance of clown doctors to reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. Saliba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological biomarker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS. Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner: collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  20. The Role and Impact of Salivary Zn Levels on Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milaim Sejdini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Minimal attention has been given to the role of salivary microelements, the importance they have in reducing the intensity of caries, and the effect of caries prophylaxes. Aim. This research aimed to determine the concentration and quantity of Zn and its impact on the prevention and the reduction of the intensity of caries in schoolchildren aged 12-13 years with permanent dentition. Methods. For this research, we analyzed the stimulated and nonstimulated full saliva of 106 schoolchildren divided into three groups by mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT index. The control group consisted of 25 caries-free children, the second group had 47 children with mean DMFT index of 1 to 6, and the third group had 34 children with DMFT index of ≥ 6. Complete saliva was collected from all children in a sterile test tube. Results. The concentration of Zn in saliva before stimulation in caries-free children has variations of the order of 0.001+ to 0.01 mmol/l. The maximum concentration after stimulation is 6.72 mmol/l, while the maximum value is 64.38 mmol/l. Conclusion. The Zn concentration in the stimulated saliva showed a significant increase in the group of caries-free children and could be described as a positive value for the reduction of caries.

  1. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  2. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Chatterjee, Elashri; Rajesh, K S; Kumar, M S Arun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and correlate salivary thiocyanate (SCN) levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. The study population consisted of 40 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years that was further divided into four groups: Control, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) (Loe and Silness-1963), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss was assessed. Estimation of SCN was performed by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 447 nm wavelength. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVAs Welch test and Pearson's correlation test using SPSS version 17 software. Results showed statistically significant increase in SCN levels in smokers as compared to gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis, control, and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis subjects. Significantly higher PD and loss of attachment were seen in smokers group compared with other groups. A negative correlation observed between the GI and thiocyanate levels. The present study revealed a significant increase in SCN levels in smokers with periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers.

  4. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  5. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  6. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  7. A longitudinal study of cotinine in long-term daily users of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    It is not clear whether, in established vapers, cotinine levels remain stable or change over time. We enrolled 98 exclusive users of e-cigarettes on websites and forums dedicated to smoking cessation and to e-cigarettes. We collected saliva vials by mail in 2013-2014 (baseline), and collected a second saliva vial eight months later (follow-up) in the same participants. Participants had not used any tobacco or nicotine medications in the previous five days. Cotinine in saliva was analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Use of e-cigarettes, tobacco and nicotine medications was self-reported. All participants were former smokers, and 99% were using e-cigarettes daily. They had already been using e-cigarettes for nine months on average at baseline. The median cotinine level was 252ng/mL at baseline (quartiles: 124-421ng/mL) and 307ng/mL at follow-up (114-466ng/mL, W=0.9, p=0.4 for change over time). The median concentration of nicotine in refill liquids was 11mg/mL at baseline (quartiles: 6-15mg/mL) and 6mg/mL at follow-up (5-12mg/mL) (Wilcoxon signed rank test: W=5.2, p<0.001 for change over time). The median volume of e-liquid used per month was 80mL at baseline (quartiles: 50-130mL) and 100mL at follow-up (60-157mL, W=3.3, p=0.001 for change over time). In experienced e-cigarette users enrolled online, cotinine levels were similar to levels usually observed in cigarette smokers. Over time, these users decreased the concentration of nicotine in their e-liquids, but increased their consumption of e-liquid in order to maintain their cotinine levels constant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cotinine improves visual recognition memory and decreases cortical Tau phosphorylation in the Tg6799 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzell, J Alex; Patel, Sagar; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice. Tg mice showed short-term visual recognition memory impairment in the novel object recognition test, and higher levels of Tau phosphorylation when compared to NT mice. Cotinine significantly improved visual recognition memory performance increased CREB phosphorylation and reduced cortical Tau phosphorylation. Potential mechanisms underlying theses beneficial effects are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  10. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  11. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  12. Free cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels during a six-hour-water immersion in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, N.; Wirth, D.; Fraßl, W.; Kowoll, R.; Schlemmer, M.; Vogler, S.; Kirsch, K. A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Gunga, H.-C.

    2005-08-01

    Limited data are available on the response of stress systems to microgravity. Increased activity of stress systems is reported during space flight, but unchanged or decreased activity during simulated microgravity. We here investigated the impact of head-out water immersion on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system.Eight healthy young men were exposed to a six-hour water immersion in a thermo neutral bath and a control condition. Saliva samples were taken before, during, and after interventions to assess cortisol as an index for HPA axis activity, and salivary α-amylase as an index for SAM system activity.Cortisol levels uniformly decreased during both conditions. Amylase levels increased during both conditions, but were significantly lower during the first half of water immersion compared to the control condition.In conclusion, the HPA axis is not influenced by simulated microgravity, while SAM system activity shows initial decreases during water immersion.

  13. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente; Knorr, Ulla; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kessing, Lars V

    2009-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Familiar predisposition to unipolar and bipolar disorder was not associated with any specific genotype pattern of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, not in this sample of 124 val/val, 58 val/met and 8 met/met individuals. However, the combination of having a high familiar risk of affective disorder and the met allele was associated with a higher whole blood BDNF (p=0.02) and a higher evening cortisol level (p=0.01), but not with awakening cortisol. Individuals at high risk of affective disorders and who are carriers of the met allele of the Val66Met polymorphism may present with an enhanced stress response. The presence of a specific genotype alone may not enhance the risk of developing an affective episode. Rather, the altered stress response may be expressed only in combination with other risk variants through interactions with the environment.

  14. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar ePatel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels, Aβ plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  15. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  16. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers’ stress.

  17. Salivary melatonin levels and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with hypertensive and glucose metabolic disorders: A prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mieko; Seki, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Michikazu; Hayase, Mako; Shirai, Fumie

    2016-02-01

    In preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, the sympathetic nerves are activated, leading to disrupted sleep. Melatonin, which transmits information to regulate the sleep-wake rhythm and other such biorhythms, has been implicated in insulin resistance, antioxidant behaviors, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, its reduced secretion increases the risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the features of melatonin secretion, sleep quality, and sleep-wake rhythms in pregnant women with complications. Fifty-eight pregnant women with pregnancy complications (hypertensive or glucose metabolic disorders) and 40 healthy pregnant women completed questionnaires, including sleep logs and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), during the second to third trimesters. Their salivary melatonin levels were also measured. Pregnant women with complications had significantly lower morning (p melatonin values than healthy pregnant women. Pregnant women with complications also had significantly smaller melatonin amplitudes than healthy pregnant women (p melatonin secretion, and their values were lower throughout the day than healthy pregnant women.

  18. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress.

  19. The influence of cigarette smoking on blood and salivary super oxide dismutase enzyme levels among smokers and nonsmokers—A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haziel Diana Jenifer

    2015-04-01

    Systemic and local antioxidant status is affected by periodontal disease and by the impact of smoking. The increased blood and salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in smokers may be an adaptive defense mechanism to counteract the increased reactive oxygen species production induced by smoking. This study emphasizes the importance of saliva as an easy noninvasive tool in diagnosing patients who are more prone to precancerous lesions and conditions, and its importance in patient education and motivation programs for smoking cessation.

  20. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey's honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined.

  1. Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.

  2. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, M.; Vreeburg, S.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working

  3. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Michiel; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working

  4. Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-level laser therapy for the prevention of low salivary flow rate after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Palma, Luiz Felipe; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Deboni, Aline Lima Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to determine whether low-level laser therapy can prevent salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: ee evaluated 23 head and neck cancer patients, of whom 13 received laser therapy and 10 received clinical care only. An InGaAlP laser was used intra-orally (at 660 nm and 40 mW) at a mean dose of 10.0 J/cm 2 and extra-orally (at 780 nm and 15 mW) at a mean dose of 3.7 J/cm 2 , three times per week, on alternate days. Stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests were performed before the first radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions (NO) and at 30 days after the end of treatment (N30). Results: At N30, the mean salivary flow rates were significantly higher among the laser therapy patients than among the patients who received clinical care only, in the stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests (p = 0.0131 and p = 0.0143, respectively). Conclusion: low-level laser therapy, administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, appears to mitigate treatment induced salivary hypofunction in patients with head and neck cancer. (author)

  6. Low-level laser therapy for the prevention of low salivary flow rate after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Palma, Luiz Felipe; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Deboni, Aline Lima Silva

    2016-03-15

    Objective: to determine whether low-level laser therapy can prevent salivary hypofunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: ee evaluated 23 head and neck cancer patients, of whom 13 received laser therapy and 10 received clinical care only. An InGaAlP laser was used intra-orally (at 660 nm and 40 mW) at a mean dose of 10.0 J/cm{sup 2} and extra-orally (at 780 nm and 15 mW) at a mean dose of 3.7 J/cm{sup 2} , three times per week, on alternate days. Stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests were performed before the first radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions (NO) and at 30 days after the end of treatment (N30). Results: At N30, the mean salivary flow rates were significantly higher among the laser therapy patients than among the patients who received clinical care only, in the stimulated and unstimulated sialometry tests (p = 0.0131 and p = 0.0143, respectively). Conclusion: low-level laser therapy, administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, appears to mitigate treatment induced salivary hypofunction in patients with head and neck cancer. (author)

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mind-Body Interventions Targeting Sleep on Salivary Oxytocin Levels in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Grewen, Karen; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    Cancer survivors experience high levels of distress, associated with a host of negative psychological states, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence, which often lead to sleep problems and reduction in quality of life (QOL) and well-being. As a neuropeptide hormone associated with affiliation, calmness, and well-being, oxytocin may be a useful biological measure of changes in health outcomes in cancer survivors. In this exploratory study, which comprised a subset of participants from a larger study, we evaluated (a) the feasibility and reliability of salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels in cancer survivors and (b) the effects of 2 sleep-focused mind-body interventions, mind-body bridging (MBB) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with a sleep hygiene education (SHE) control, on changes in sOT levels in 30 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance. Interventions were conducted in 3 sessions, once per week for 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, postintervention (~1 week after the last session), and at the 2-month follow-up. In this cancer survivor group, we found that intra-individual sOT levels were fairly stable across the 3 time points, of about 3 months' duration, and mean baseline sOT levels did not differ between females and males and were not correlated with age. Correlations between baseline sOT and self-report measures were weak; however, several of these relationships were in the predicted direction, in which sOT levels were negatively associated with sleep problems and depression and positively associated with cancer-related QOL and well-being. Regarding intervention effects on sOT, baseline-subtracted sOT levels were significantly larger at postintervention in the MBB group as compared with those in SHE. In this sample of cancer survivors assessed for sOT, at postintervention, greater reductions in sleep problems were noted for MBB and MM compared with that of SHE, and increases in mindfulness and self

  8. The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam M.; Wheelock, Muriah D.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; Mrug, Sylvie; Granger, Douglas A.; Knight, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid’s impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation. Thus, uric acid may impact emotion by modifying the function of these brain regions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a psychosocial stress task to investigate the relationship between baseline uric acid levels (in saliva) and brain function. Results demonstrate that activity within the bilateral hippocampal complex varied with uric acid concentrations. Specifically, activity within the hippocampus and surrounding cortex increased as a function of uric acid level. The current findings suggest that uric acid levels modulate stress-related hippocampal activity. Given that the hippocampus has been implicated in emotion regulation during psychosocial stress, the present findings offer a potential mechanism by which uric acid impacts mental health. PMID:27725214

  9. The hippocampal response to psychosocial stress varies with salivary uric acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adam M; Wheelock, Muriah D; Harnett, Nathaniel G; Mrug, Sylvie; Granger, Douglas A; Knight, David C

    2016-12-17

    Uric acid is a naturally occurring, endogenous compound that impacts mental health. In particular, uric acid levels are associated with emotion-related psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Therefore, understanding uric acid's impact on the brain would provide valuable new knowledge regarding neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between uric acid and mental health. Brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus underlie stress reactivity and emotion regulation. Thus, uric acid may impact emotion by modifying the function of these brain regions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a psychosocial stress task to investigate the relationship between baseline uric acid levels (in saliva) and brain function. Results demonstrate that activity within the bilateral hippocampal complex varied with uric acid concentrations. Specifically, activity within the hippocampus and surrounding cortex increased as a function of uric acid level. The current findings suggest that uric acid levels modulate stress-related hippocampal activity. Given that the hippocampus has been implicated in emotion regulation during psychosocial stress, the present findings offer a potential mechanism by which uric acid impacts mental health. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 fatty acids reduces salivary tumor necrosis factor-α levels in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskiner, I; Saygun, I; Bal, V; Serdar, M; Kantarci, A

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on physiological processes and on a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of omega-3 PUFAs in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP) on salivary markers in patients with chronic periodontitis. Thirty systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups. The control group (n = 15) was treated with SRP + placebo whereas the test group was treated with SRP and dietary supplementation of low-dose omega-3 PUFAs (6.25 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 19.19 mg docosahexaenoic acid). Clinical parameters were taken at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 mo following therapy. Saliva samples were obtained at the same time intervals and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both groups showed significant changes in clinical parameters in response to treatment compared to baseline with no significant difference between groups. Salivary TNF-α levels showed a statistically significant decrease in the test group at 6 mo compared to the control group. Salivary SOD levels increased significantly at 3 and 6 mo in the test group and at 6 mo in placebo groups compared to baseline with no statistically significant differences between the groups. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 PUFAs improves salivary TNF-α without any significant impact on clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that the systemic benefits of dietary omega-3 PUFAs may not be translated to periodontal health. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02719587). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  12. Sustaining elevated levels of nitrite in the oral cavity through consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice in young healthy adults reduces salivary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Barbara; Haselgrübler, Renate; Müller, Ulrike; Stadlbauer, Verena; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Lirk, Gerald; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-11-30

    Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) and its reduced forms nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, are of critical importance for host defense in the oral cavity. High concentrations of salivary nitrate are linked to a lower prevalence of caries due to growth inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. In-vitro studies suggest that the formation of antimicrobial NO results in an increase of the pH preventing erosion of tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to prove this effect in-vivo. In a randomized clinical study with 46 subjects we investigated whether NO 3 - rich beetroot juice exhibits a protective effect against caries by an increase of salivary pH. Our results show that, in comparison to a placebo group, consumption of beetroot juice that contains 4000 mg/L NO 3 - results in elevated levels of salivary NO 2 - , nitrite NO 3 - , and NO. Furthermore, we determined an increase of the mean pH of saliva from 7.0 to 7.5, confirming the anti-cariogenic effect of the used NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice. Taken together, we have found that NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice holds potential effects against dental caries by preventing acidification of human saliva. C-87-15 (Ethics Commissions of Upper Austria). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  14. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onodera, Takeshi [Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toko, Kiyoshi, E-mail: toko@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  15. Impact of low-level laser therapy on hyposalivation, salivary pH, and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients post-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Luiz Felipe; Gonnelli, Fernanda Aurora Stabile; Marcucci, Marcelo; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2017-05-01

    Late effects of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment have been increasingly investigated due to its impact on patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on hyposalivation, low salivary pH, and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients post-radiotherapy. Twenty-nine patients with radiation-induced xerostomia received laser sessions twice a week, during 3 months (24 sessions). For this, a continuous wave Indium-Gallium-Aluminium-Phosphorus diode laser device was used punctually on the major salivary glands (808 nm, 0.75 W/cm 2 , 30 mW, illuminated area 0.04 cm 2 , 7.5 J/cm 2 , 10 s, 0.3 J). Six extraoral points were illuminated on each parotid gland and three on each submandibular gland, as well as two intraoral points on each sublingual gland. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH (two scales with different gradations), and quality of life (University Of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatment. There were significant increases in both mean salivary flow rates (unstimulated: p = 0.0012; stimulated: p quality of life questionnaire (p patients submitted to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, thereby leading to an improvement in quality of life.

  16. Relationships of salivary cortisol and melatonin rhythms to sleep quality, emotion, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2017-08-01

    After being diagnosed with lung cancer, patients often experience sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur because of changes in neurotransmitter secretion caused by tumors. This study investigated the correlation of cortisol and melatonin rhythms with sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study and recruited 40 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 40 healthy adults. The patient group had a lower salivary melatonin level and flatter slope (p cortisol level and steeper slope (p cortisol slope (p = 0.005) and fatigue score (p = 0.032) predicted the sleep quality score (p = 0.011). Overall, the patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer had poorer sleep quality, higher depression levels, lower salivary melatonin levels, higher cortisol levels, and flatter melatonin and cortisol slopes than did the controls. The fatigue level and cortisol slope significantly predicted sleep quality. Therefore, the assessment of cortisol and melatonin rhythms and levels could provide crucial information that may be beneficial for managing symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  18. Lactobacillus reuteri supplements do not affect salivary IgA or cytokine levels in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Kragelund, Camilla; Hamberg, Kristina; Ericson, Dan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Twetman, Svante

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18-32 years) who volunteered for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial after informed consent. During intervention, the subjects ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, immediately after each intervention period and 3 weeks post-intervention. ELISA was used to measure sIgA and luminex technology was used to measure the interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. For statistical analyses a mixed ANOVA model was employed to calculate changes in the salivary outcome variables. Forty-one subjects completed the study and reported a good compliance. No significant differences in the concentrations of salivary sIgA or cytokines were recorded between the L. reuteri and placebo interventions or between baseline and 3 weeks post-intervention levels. No side- or adverse effects were reported. Supplementation with two strains of the probiotic L. reuteri did not affect sIgA or cytokine levels in whole saliva in healthy young adults. The results thereby indicate that daily oral supplementation with L. reuteri do not seem to modulate the salivary oral immune response in healthy young subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017886).

  19. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Protein in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome: Determination of the Plasma Level and Expression in the Labial Salivary Gland.

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    Chen-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes that are involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation in response to inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of Gas6 in Sjögren syndrome (SS and its expression in the labial salivary gland.A total of 254 adults, including 159 with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS, 34 with secondary Sjögren syndrome (sSS, and 61 normal controls, were recruited. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were determined, and Gas6 expressions in labial salivary gland (LSG tissues from controls and pSS and sSS patients were also evaluated. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly lower among patients with pSS than normal controls (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 19.9 ± 13.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001. There were, however, no significant differences in plasma Gas6 levels between pSS and sSS patients (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 16.9 ± 11.2 ng/ml, p = 0.068. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, lymphocyte count, and C3 and C4 levels, lower plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of SS. Moreover, by using a semi-quantitative scale to evaluate Gas6 expression in LSG tissues, Gas6 expression was found to be markedly lower in LSG tissues from pSS patients than in tissues from normal controls.Decreased plasma Gas6 concentration and LSG expression were associated with pSS. As such, Gas6 may represent a novel independent risk factor for pSS, with a potential role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction.

  20. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is associated with salivary levels of two specific basic proline-rich proteins in humans.

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    Tiziana Cabras

    Full Text Available Thiourea tasting can be predictive of individual differences in bitter taste responses, general food preferences and eating behavior, and could be correlated with saliva chemical composition. We investigated the possible relationship between PROP bitter taste responsiveness and the salivary proteome in subjects genotyped for TAS2R38 and gustin gene polymorphisms. Taste perception intensity evoked by PROP and NaCl solutions was measured in sixty-three volunteers (21 males, 42 females, age 25±3 y to establish their PROP taster status, and 24 PROP super-tasters and 21 nontasters were selected to participate in the study. TAS2R38 and gustin gene molecular analysis were performed using PCR techniques. Qualitative and quantitative determination of salivary proteins was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS before and after PROP taste stimulation. PROP super-tastings was strongly associated with the 'taster' variant (PAV haplotype of TAS2R38 and the A allele of rs2274333 polymorphism in the gustin gene and nontasting was associated with the minor alleles at both loci. ANOVA revealed that basal levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein (bPRPs family, were significantly higher in PROP super-taster than in nontaster un-stimulated saliva, and that PROP stimulation elicited a rapid increase in the levels of these same proteins only in PROP super-taster saliva. These data show for the first time that responsiveness to PROP is associated with salivary levels of II-2 peptide and Ps-1 protein, which are products of the PRB1 gene. These findings suggest that PRB1, in addition to TAS2R38 and gustin, could contribute to individual differences in thiourea sensitivity, and the expression of the PROP phenotype as a complex genetic trait.

  1. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is associated with salivary levels of two specific basic proline-rich proteins in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Melis, Melania; Castagnola, Massimo; Padiglia, Alessandra; Tepper, Beverly J; Messana, Irene; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2012-01-01

    Thiourea tasting can be predictive of individual differences in bitter taste responses, general food preferences and eating behavior, and could be correlated with saliva chemical composition. We investigated the possible relationship between PROP bitter taste responsiveness and the salivary proteome in subjects genotyped for TAS2R38 and gustin gene polymorphisms. Taste perception intensity evoked by PROP and NaCl solutions was measured in sixty-three volunteers (21 males, 42 females, age 25±3 y) to establish their PROP taster status, and 24 PROP super-tasters and 21 nontasters were selected to participate in the study. TAS2R38 and gustin gene molecular analysis were performed using PCR techniques. Qualitative and quantitative determination of salivary proteins was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS before and after PROP taste stimulation. PROP super-tastings was strongly associated with the 'taster' variant (PAV haplotype) of TAS2R38 and the A allele of rs2274333 polymorphism in the gustin gene and nontasting was associated with the minor alleles at both loci. ANOVA revealed that basal levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein (bPRPs) family, were significantly higher in PROP super-taster than in nontaster un-stimulated saliva, and that PROP stimulation elicited a rapid increase in the levels of these same proteins only in PROP super-taster saliva. These data show for the first time that responsiveness to PROP is associated with salivary levels of II-2 peptide and Ps-1 protein, which are products of the PRB1 gene. These findings suggest that PRB1, in addition to TAS2R38 and gustin, could contribute to individual differences in thiourea sensitivity, and the expression of the PROP phenotype as a complex genetic trait.

  2. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  3. Salivary chromogranin A levels correlate with disease severity but do not reflect anxiety or personality of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

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    Kaneko, Sakae; Liu, Lijuan; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Minami-Hori, Masako; Morita, Eishin

    2017-08-01

    Stress-induced scratching is an issue in patients with adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Although itching and stress are believed to be intimately related, no objective index is available; therefore, most evaluations are subjective. Using saliva, which is easily collected, we investigated the degree to which AD severity and patient stress levels are reflected in stress proteins in the saliva. Here, we evaluated the severity (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD] score), stress (State-Trait Anxiety Index [STAI] score), personality (Tokyo University Egogram [TEG] II score) and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] score) of 51 patients with AD who were examined in the Department of Dermatology of Shimane University between April and December 2015. We collected saliva and measured salivary chromogranin A (CgA), amylase and cortisol. The amount of salivary CgA per protein in patients with AD was correlated with their SCORAD score (r = 0.458, P < 0.001). There was no correlation between cortisol or amylase levels and SCORAD score. SCORAD score was correlated with DLQI (r = 0.390, P = 0.006). CgA per protein was correlated with DLQI (r = 0.393, P = 0.004). There was no correlation between scores for the anxiety component of the STAI, TEG II or DLQI. Our results suggested that patients with more severe AD may have high stress levels. The personalities of these patients with AD tended to involve elevated anxiety levels. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

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    Ruud eVan Den Bos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behaviour in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focussed. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis: the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behaviour is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focussed behaviour following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase (indicative for activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling.

  5. A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine

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    Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

    1991-03-01

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

  6. Salivary calcium concentration and periodontal health of young adults in relation to tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutej, Ivana; Peros, Kristina; Benutic, Anica; Capak, Krunoslav; Basic, Kresimir; Rosin-Grget, Kata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking and salivary calcium on the periodontal status of young adults. Plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing, supragingival calculus, DMFT index, salivary flow, pH and salivary calcium in unstimulated salivary samples were recorded in smokers and nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to salivary flow (P = 0.08) and calcium level (P = 0.09). Significant correlations (P smoking of tobacco cigarettes in young healthy subjects may not have a significant impact on salivary flow or calcium concentrations in unstimulated saliva, but an association exists between an increased level of salivary calcium and development of periodontal disease.

  7. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.

  8. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  9. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Varma, Siddhartha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied for statistical analysis. The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at psalivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  10. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Benowitz, N L; Feyerabend, C

    1988-01-01

    Cotinine elimination from plasma, saliva, and urine was studied over 11 days in five subjects (three nonsmokers and two occasional smokers). Half-lives for cotinine averaged 16-19 hours in the different body fluids (range 10 to 27 hours between subjects). There was no tendency for the half-life in saliva to be longer than in plasma or urine. We conclude that choice of body fluid for cotinine assay in smoking studies should depend on practical rather than pharmacokinetic considerations. PMID:3369603

  11. Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. adult smokers, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2011-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR

  12. Changes In Men’s Salivary Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And In Sexual Desire After Smelling Female Axillary And Vulvar Scents

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    Ricardo eMondragón-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60 and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  13. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

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    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  14. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

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    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  15. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Sandra López-Verdín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow.

  16. Cerebral laterality for language is related to adult salivary testosterone levels but not digit ratio (2D:4D) in men: A functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Martin, Maryanne

    2017-03-01

    The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D). A significant quadratic relationship between degree of cerebral laterality for language and adult T concentrations was observed, with enhanced T levels for strong left hemisphere dominance and strong right hemisphere dominance. No systematic effects on laterality were found for cortisol or 2D:4D. Findings suggest that higher levels of T are associated with a relatively attenuated degree of interhemispheric sharing of linguistic information, providing support for the callosal and the sexual differentiation hypotheses rather than the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of menopause on the relationship between hyperlipidemia and periodontal disease via salivary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and myeloperoxidase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemer Doğan, Esra Sinem; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğan, Burak; Fentoğlu, Özlem; Kale, Banu

    2018-03-01

    Impairment of the lipid metabolism could affect the periodontal disease; increased oxidative stress may have a role in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of menopause in the relationship between hyperlipidemia and periodontal disease via oxidative stress markers in saliva. Sixty-seven women were enrolled in the study and divided into four groups as systemically healthy and premenopause (C) (n = 18), hyperlipidemia and premenopause (H) (n = 16), systemically healthy and postmenopause (M) (n = 17), and hyperlipidemia and postmenopause (MH) (n = 16). Sociodemographics, periodontal and metabolic parameters, and saliva oxidative markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO] and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) were evaluated. Menopause and/or hyperlipidemia were associated with an increase in all evaluated periodontal parameters. Saliva 8-OHdG and MPO levels were higher in menopausal groups (M and MH). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that hyperlipidemia was related to an increase in periodontal parameters. Salivary oxidative stress markers and periodontal parameters were also positively associated with menopause and hyperlipidemia. Saliva 8-OHdG and MPO levels may indicate that the relationship between periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia is aggravated by menopause.

  18. Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougea, Anastasia M; Spandideas, Nick; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Thomaides, Thomas; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term effects of the emotional freedom technique (EFT) on tension-type headache (TTH) sufferers. We used a parallel-group design, with participants randomly assigned to the emotional freedom intervention (n = 19) or a control arm (standard care n = 16). The study was conducted at the outpatient Headache Clinic at the Korgialenio Benakio Hospital of Athens. Thirty-five patients meeting criteria for frequent TTH according to International Headache Society guidelines were enrolled. Participants were instructed to use the EFT method twice a day for two months. Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Short-Form questionnaire-36. Salivary cortisol levels and the frequency and intensity of headache episodes were also assessed. Within the treatment arm, perceived stress, scores for all Short-Form questionnaire-36 subscales, and the frequency and intensity of the headache episodes were all significantly reduced. No differences in cortisol levels were found in any group before and after the intervention. EFT was reported to benefit patients with TTH. This randomized controlled trial shows promising results for not only the frequency and severity of headaches but also other lifestyle parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers

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    C.D.C. Neves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  20. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A

    2017-10-19

    Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Age Differences of Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels of Basal and Acute Responses to Citric Acid Stimulation Between Chinese Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-Min; Chen, Long-Hui; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1) copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount) in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount) and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount, and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  3. Age differences of salivary alpha-amylase levels of basal and acute responses to citric acid stimulation between Chinese children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1 copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  4. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Karibasappa, G N; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19-21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p salivary pH (p salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases

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    Ayodeji Olatunde Olayanju

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  6. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  7. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scali, Jacqueline; Norton, Joanna; Ritchie, Karen; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression) has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene ( 5-HTTLPR ) is a strong candidate in this regard. To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR . This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD) = 76.5 (6.3)). Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal) and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16). 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42% higher basal morning cortisol in the SS participants specifically, but did not modify the association between stressful events and cortisol levels. An adverse psychological

  8. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Ancelin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR is a strong candidate in this regard. Objective: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR. Methods: This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD = 76.5 (6.3. Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16. 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Results: Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p < 0.001 were observed for the LL participants having experienced multiple recent stressful events or severe lifetime traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42

  9. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional versus metal-injection molding brackets on salivary nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Harandi, Saghar; Mollaei, Mobina; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-10-01

    Despite the importance of nickel and chromium release from orthodontic brackets, there are no in vivo or in vitro studies on this issue in the case of metal-injection molding (MIM) brackets. Saliva samples were collected from 30 orthodontic patients divided randomly into two groups of conventional and MIM brackets, before treatment and 2 months later. Approved attendees with odd and even numbers were, respectively, assigned to the control and treatment groups. For blinding, the patients were not informed of their bracket types, and the saliva samples were coded. Nickel and chromium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analysed using repeated-measures two-way analysis of covariance, independent-samples t-test, chi-squared, Spearman and point-biserial correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Mean nickel level increased from 7.87±8.14 (pre-treatment) to 12.57±9.96 (2nd month) in the control group, and from 8.62±9.85 (pre-treatment) to 8.86±6.42 µg/l in the MIM group. Both of these increases were significant (Wilcoxon P 0.1). The differences between both ions' levels measured in the 60th day in both bracket groups were not significant (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The extents of changes over time were not significantly different between the bracket types (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The sample size was not predetermined based on power calculations. The spectrophotometer was limited to detecting chromium concentrations above 0.25 µg/l. Ion discharge from brackets might continuously change. The current in vivo methods are unable to take such fluctuations into account. Nickel might increase in patients undergoing treatment with both bracket types, although the rate of increase might be greater in patients under treatment with conventional brackets. Using MIM brackets might reduce salivary chromium for a trivial but generalizable amount. Still, ion levels leached from conventional versus MIM brackets might

  10. Comparative cytotoxicity study of nicotine and cotinine on MRC-5 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Vlasceanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM for 24 or 48 h and analyzed for cell viability by MTT test. The results indicated that high nicotine concentrations (2 mM induced marked cell death (about 50% in MRC-5 cell line. Cotinine showed lower toxicity than nicotine on the MRC-5 cells. In contrast to nicotine treatment, cells treated with cotinine continued to proliferate after the 48h incubation period.

  11. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests [fr

  12. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125 I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  13. Salivary factors in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, K M; Knuuttila, M L; Käär, M L

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemia in IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) could interfere with salivary secretion rates, salivary glucose levels, and salivary microbial counts, we studied salivary factors in two groups of children and adolescents with IDDM. One study group included 14 children with newly diagnosed IDDM )mean age 11 years, SD +/- 2.4 years). Samples of saliva were collected on admission to hospital and after 2 weeks on insulin treatment. The other study group were 50 IDDM children (mean age 14.4 years, SD +/- 1.7 years, mean duration of diabetes 6.2 years, SD +/- 1.4 years) visiting the outpatient diabetic clinic. Samples of saliva were collected during two visits, approximately 3 months apart. In the newly diagnosed IDDM cases, mean salivary glucose level decreased from 54.1 +/- 31.7 mg/l to 35.2 +/- 29.5 mg/l (P = 0.096) after beginning insulin treatment. During hyperglycemia, salivary glucose levels correlated with mean blood glucose levels for the day concerned (r = 0.65, P salivary glucose levels. Stimulated saliva secretion increased significantly from 5.4 +/- 3.3 ml/5 min to 7.3 +/- 2.6 ml/5 min (P salivary flow rates and salivary glucose levels were not significantly related to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) values. Salivary glucose levels and salivary secretion rates were inversely correlated (P salivary secretion and high salivary glucose levels. As a consequence, salivary lactobacilli and yeast counts tended to increase.

  14. Evaluation of muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism before and after low level laser applied to acupoints: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Mônica da Consolação Canuto; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Horliana, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Motta, Pamella de Barros; MesquitaFerrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-08-08

    Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints. The children will be randomly allocated to four groups of 19 individuals: G1 - low-level laser; G2 - occlusal splint; G3 - placebo laser; and G4 - control (without bruxism). The BTS TMJOINT electromyography will be used to determine muscle activity and a digital gnathodynamometer will be used to measure bite force. Salivary cortisol will be analysed at baseline as well as one and six months after treatment. Two-way ANOVA will be employed and complemented by Tukey's test. Bruxism is a repetitive activity of the masticatory muscles that can have negative consequences if not treated, such as tooth wear, noises, discomfort and anxiety. Thus, control and treatment measures should be taken. Although low-level laser therapy over acupoints has been indicated for children, the effects of this treatment modality have not yet been studied. NCT02757261 on 8 April 2016. This study protocol received a grant from the Brazilian fostering agency São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP: #2015/24731-0).

  15. The potential role of cotinine in the cognitive and neuroprotective actions of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccafusco, Jerry J; Terry, Alvin V

    2003-05-16

    Cotinine is a primary metabolite of nicotine that has been suggested in many studies in animals and in humans to exert measurable effects on aspects of on-going behavior or on cognitive function. Much of the interest in cotinine derives from its long pharmacological half-life (15-19 hours) relative to nicotine (2-3 hours). Despite decades of study focusing on nicotine as the predominant behaviorally active component of tobacco, there continue to be aspects of the pharmacology of the drug that have yet to be explained. For example, nicotine can evoke a protracted behavioral response, i.e., in great excess of the presence of the drug in the plasma. Also, there is often a striking differential between the potency for nicotine-induced behavioral responses in humans and animals, and its potency as a cholinergic agonist, neurochemically. One possibility that may explain one or more of these properties of nicotine is the presence of a long-lived bioactive metabolite or breakdown product of nicotine such as cotinine. Preliminary data in support of this hypothesis are consistent with the ability of cotinine to improve performance accuracy on delayed matching task by macaque monkeys, and in reversing apomorphine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rats. The drug also was shown to be as potent as nicotine in the ability to act as a cytoprotective agent in cells that express a neuronal cholinergic phenotype. This new appreciation for the role of cotinine in nicotine's actions, and as a pharmacological agent in its own right, particularly in aspects of cognitive function and for neuroprotection, ultimately may be applied towards the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, and for various psychiatric syndromes.

  16. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  18. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  19. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Devasya; Ke, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (pice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored.

  20. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  1. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  2. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  3. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  4. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  5. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  6. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  7. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  8. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, Sabina de; Thomas, Chris M.G.; Kuster, Josien E.T.G.; Cikot, Rolf J.L.M.; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  11. Biological aspects of salivary hormones in male half-marathon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Branimir B.; Žarković Miloš P.; Ignjatović Svetlana D.; Dajak Marijana M.; Milinković Neda Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Physical effort is known to alter the blood levels of many hormones, but there are only a few studies about the biological changes of salivary hormones. The aim of this work was to determine whether salivary testosterone and salivary cortisol levels, measured two weeks before a half-marathon race, relate to running performance in male recreational athletes. A group of eleven male recreational athletes preparing for a half-marathon was included in the study....

  12. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  13. Synthesis of optically pure deuterium-labelled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P. III; Benowitz, N.L.; Shulgin, A.T.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1988-01-01

    We describe methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d 2 , (S)-nornicotine-3',3-d 2 , and (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d 2 . The key intermediate was 5-bromomyosmine, which underwent base catalyzed exchange with deuterium oxide to give 5-bromomyosmine-3',3'- d 2 with >99% incorporation of label. This intermediate was reduced to (±)-5-bromo-nornicotine-3',3'-d 2 with sodium borohydride, resolved, and converted to (S)-nornicotine-3',3'-d(sub)2 by reductive debromination with hydrogen and a palladium catalyst. Reductive alkylation with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride provided (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d 2 , which was converted to (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d 2 by reaction with bromine followed by zinc reduction. The deuterium label is located at positions that are not attacked in the major routes of mammalian metabolism of these alkaloids. Syntheses of tetradeuterated analogs of nicotine and cotinine and a pentadeuterated analog of nicotine, in which additional deuterium atoms are incorporated in the methyl groups, are also reported. (author)

  14. Urinary cotinine testing as pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing free flap surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, C; Rausky, J; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2015-02-01

    The identified risks of smoking with regard to operated tissues are so elevated that it is clearly dangerous to operate a smoker when the proposed intervention is neither vital nor urgent. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a simple method of screening patients who smoke, with the evaluation carried out before agreeing to carry out free tissue transfer. The purpose of the testing was to hold the patient responsible for his actions and minimize smoking-related complications by cancelling or postponing the planned operation if the patient continued to smoke. Screening included use of a standardized questionnaire at the first consultation and detection of cotinine using a urine test strip 7 days before the scheduled surgery. Patients were informed that in the event of positive results, the operation would not take place. A six-week preoperative smoking cessation period was mandatory. Seventy-six patients were included in this study. Among them, 25 (32.9%) reported being former smokers and 11 (14.5%) admitted in the initial questionnaire to being active smokers. Six patients (7.9%), including one self-reported non-smoker, tested positive for cotinine, and their operations were cancelled. Screening using a questionnaire and cotinine detection appeared to constitute a simple, inexpensive, rapid and reliable test. It allowed us to refuse to operate 6 non-compliant patients and was thereby likely to diminish morbidity in the free tissue transfers carried out in our ward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cotinine concentration in the saliva in relation to oral hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek, Teresa; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Piekarczyk, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Cotinine is a biomarker of the exposure to the tobacco smoke, nicotine metabolite with half-life in the saliva which is 17 hours. Assessment of cotinine concentration enables among others verification of the questionnaire data as well as evaluation of both smokers and non-smokers exposure to the tobacco smoke. Practicing proper oral hygiene procedures is an essential factor of the prophylaxis of dental caries and periodontal diseases which influence general health state. The removal of dental calculus is achieved by proper teeth brushing and the use of additional oral aids. The aim of the study was evaluation of cotinine concentration in non-stimulated saliva in order to verify questionnaire data (smoker/non-smoker) and analysis of practicing oral hygiene procedures in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Questionnaire and biochemical studies were conducted in the group of 116 people aged 20-54. In questionnaire survey 53 people (45.69%) confirmed cigarette smoking, 63 (54.31%) declared they had never smoked and never tried to smoke. Non-stimulated saliva was collected between 9(30) and 11(30), 1,5-2 hours after meal. Cotinine concentration was assayed with the use of Cotinine ELISA (Calbiotech, USA). Obtained study results were submitted to statistic analysis with the use of Chi2. Statistically essential test values were those with psmokers and 4.76% non-smokers, brushing teeth at least twice a day was reported subsequently by 73.08% and 95.24% participants. Non-smokers in comparison with smokers considerably more frequently brushed their teeth, at least twice a day (XZ=11.11, pSmokers used a toothbrush with medium hardness bristle (X2=6.05, pSmokers more fre. quently brushed their teeth improperly (X2=1 3.41, pSmokers in comparison with non-smokers did not practice proper oral hygiene which is an essential risk factor of the oral health. It is crucial for dental surgeons to conduct oral hygiene instructions in smokers as well as realization of health

  16. Níveis sérico e salivar de imunoglobulina A em portadores de câncer da boca e orofaringe Serum and salivary immunoglobulin A levels in patients with cancer of the mouth and oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Machado de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração sérica e salivar de IgA. Pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço podem apresentar alterações na concentração de IgA sérica e salivar, decorrentes de desordem imunológica inespecífica que acompanha o desenvolvimento das lesões malignas. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em dois grupos: 34 pacientes portadores de carcinoma epidermóide da boca e orofaringe e 34 controles pareados por idade e sexo. Sangue e saliva foram colhidos e as amostras dosadas por nefelometria e imunodifusão radial. A análise estatística incluiu teste t de Student, ANOVA e coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com limite de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre os métodos de nefelometria e imunodifusão radial não mostrou diferença (p = 0,039. As concentrações de IgA sérica foram de 279,4 ± 131,7 mg/dl no grupo controle e 310,9 ± 194,1 mg/dl no grupo de estudo. A concentração de IgA salivar, por nefelometria, foi de 17,0 ± 10,4 mg/dl para os controles e 7,2 ± 5,0 mg/dl nos portadores de câncer e a imunodifusão radial mostrou concentrações de 13,7 ± 9,1 mg/dl e 5,6 ± 4,2 mg/dl para controles e grupo de estudo, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas correlações entre idade, estádio clínico da doença e níveis sérico ou salivar de IgA. CONCLUSÃO: Os indivíduos com câncer da boca e orofaringe apresentaram concentração sérica de IgA semelhante aos controles, mas com concentração de IgA salivar menor no grupo oncológico. Causas associadas à diminuição de IgA salivar como desnutrição, estresse e uso de tabaco podem estar relacionadas a estes achados.OBJECTIVE: Patients carriers of head and neck cancer (HNC may show changes in concentrations of serum and salivary IgA owing to an inespecific immunologic disorder that follows the development of malignant lesions. PURPOSE: Evaluate the serum and salivary IgA levelS in Patients With Hnc. METHODS: A prospective study based on a sample

  17. Salivary and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) assays in anorexic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszynska, Elzbieta; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Slopien, Agnieszka; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Marta; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary and serum free IGF-1 concentration of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) in comparison to an average population. A controlled clinical trial was designed for an age- and gender-matched group of 121 AN patients and 77 healthy individuals. A clinical examination was made and blood and salivary samples were taken during the acute stage of AN (BMI measuring free IGF-1 was used. Anorexic patients had significant reductions in salivary unstimulated flow rate (UFR), pH and free IGF-1 levels in their saliva and serum. Significant correlations between serum IGF-1 and BMI; salivary IGF-1 and UFR and pH were detected. Salivary and serum IGF-1 analyses appear to be a reliable biochemical indicator of malnutrition in AN patients. Measurement of salivary IGF-1 levels would allow new perspectives in monitoring AN in its early stages.

  18. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A.

    1993-01-01

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  20. Lactobacillus reuteri supplements do not affect salivary IgA or cytokine levels in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Kragelund, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18–32 years) who volunteered for a randomize....... reuteri do not seem to modulate the salivary oral immune response in healthy young subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017886).......Objectives: To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18–32 years) who volunteered for a randomized...... and 3 weeks post-intervention levels. No side- or adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: Supplementation with two strains of the probiotic L. reuteri did not affect sIgA or cytokine levels in whole saliva in healthy young adults. The results thereby indicate that daily oral supplementation with L...

  1. Evaluation of Dried Urine Spot Method to Screen Cotinine among Tobacco Dependents: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raka; Quraishi, Rizwana; Verma, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine in body fluids, is an important approach for validating the self-report among tobacco users. Adaptation of assays on dried urine spots (DUSs) has advantages of ease of collection, transportation, minimal invasiveness, and requirement of small volume. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method for testing cotinine in DUSs and evaluating its clinical applicability. This involved optimization of conditions for detection, recovery, and stability of cotinine from dried urine, spotted on filter paper. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for screening, whereas confirmation was done by gas chromatography. For clinical applicability, urine samples of tobacco users were tested. Water was found to be a suitable extracting solvent as compared to carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.2) and saline. Screening was achieved by two punches taken from a 20 μl (diameter 1.3 cm) spotted urine samples, and confirmation was achieved by five complete circles each of 20 μl sample volume. The recovery was found to be 97% in water. Limit of detection for the method was found to be 100 ng/ml. No signs of significant degradation were found under all storage conditions. All the urine samples of tobacco users were found to be positive by a conventional method as well as DUSs, and the method proved to be efficient. DUS samples are a useful alternative for biological monitoring of recent nicotine use, especially in developing countries where sample logistics could be an important concern.

  2. Association of salivary triglycerides and cholesterol with dental caries in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Sharma, Akhliesh; Kaje, Keerthan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus can affect oral health. Altered levels of salivary lipids have been suggested as a risk for dental caries. There has been lack of research in this regard and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To assess the salivary triglycerides and cholesterol levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlate them with their dental caries status. Thirty children aged 12-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children were included in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each child and evaluated for salivary triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Dental caries status (DMFT) was recorded. Salivary cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p ≤ 0.05). In comparison to controls, mean DMFT score was higher in the diabetic children. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant correlation with dental caries status in the study group (p = 0.035). In normal children, salivary cholesterol levels showed a significant association with dental caries. (p = 0.008). Both salivary cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant association with dental caries in these children. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Salivary serotonin does not correlate with central serotonin turnover in adult phenylketonuria (PKU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU is an inborn error of metabolism associated with an increased risk of behavioural and mood disorders. There are currently no reliable markers for monitoring mood in PKU. The purpose of this study was to evaluate salivary serotonin as a possible non-invasive marker of long-term mood symptoms and central serotonin activity in patients with PKU. Methods: 20 patients were recruited from our Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic. Age, sex, plasma phenylalanine (Phe level, DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales depression score, DASS anxiety score, BMI, salivary serotonin, salivary cortisol, 2-year average Phe, 2-year average tyrosine (Tyr, and 2-year average Phe:Tyr ratio were collected for each patient. Spearman's ρ correlation analysis was used to determine if there was any relationship between any of the parameters. Results: There were positive correlations between DASS anxiety and DASS depression scores (Spearman's ρ = 0.8708, p-value < 0.0001, BMI and plasma Phe level (Spearman's ρ = 0.6228, p-value = .0034, and 2-year average Phe and BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.5448, p-value = .0130. There was also a negative correlation between salivary cortisol and plasma Phe level (Spearman's ρ = −0.5018, p-value = .0338. All other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary serotonin does not correlate with peripheral phenylalanine levels, DASS depression scale scores, or DASS anxiety scale scores, implying that salivary serotonin does not reflect central serotonin turnover. Additionally, this study suggests that salivary serotonin is not a suitable marker for monitoring dietary control, mood, or anxiety in PKU. Synopsis: Salivary serotonin does not correlate with peripheral phenylalanine levels, DASS depression scale scores, or DASS anxiety scale scores, suggesting that salivary serotonin is not a suitable marker for monitoring dietary control, mood, or anxiety in PKU

  4. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  5. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  6. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  7. Salivary DNA and markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baňasová, Lenka; Kamodyová, Natália; Janšáková, Katarína; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Stanko, Peter; Turňa, Ján; Celec, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Previous observational studies have shown that periodontal status is associated with salivary markers of oxidative damage. A direct comparison of periodontitis patients and controls using a wide palette of salivary markers of oxidative stress is lacking. Characteristics of salivary DNA in periodontitis are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the salivary markers of oxidative stress and characteristics of salivary DNA between patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontitis-free controls. Saliva was collected from 23 patients with chronic periodontitis and 19 periodontitis-free controls. All participants underwent a clinical periodontal examination. Markers of oxidative and carbonyl stress were measured in saliva. Human and bacterial DNA was quantified, and human DNA integrity was assessed. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances were higher in patients than in controls; at least in men, the difference was significant (p periodontitis patients. The results confirmed the association of salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances with periodontitis. Lipid peroxidation in periodontitis seems to be caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species in men and by decreased antioxidant status in women. Whether lower salivary DNA integrity is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains to be elucidated. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances are associated with periodontitis at least on a population level. Sex-specific causes of lipid peroxidation might point towards different pathogenic mechanisms.

  8. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  9. Relation between salivary amylase and cortisol respnses to different stress tasks: Impact of sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.; Wolf, O.T.; Kindt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many

  10. Salivary flow and composition in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, T J; Fasanmade, A A

    2012-06-07

    The study investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on salivary flow and composition in humans compared to healthy sex and age matched controls. Forty adult human subjects divided into 20 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic healthy subjects were included. Saliva samples were collected and analysed for glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Salivary flow rate was also determined. The results showed that salivary glucose and potassium levels were significantly higher (p = 0.01 and 0.002 respectively) in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic participants. It was also found that the diabetic patients had significant reduction in salivary flow rate when compared with non-diabetic individuals. In contrast, there was no significant difference in levels of total protein, Na+, Ca++, Cl- and HCO3- between the two groups. These results suggest that some oral diseases associated with diabetes mellitus may be due to altered levels of salivary glucose, potassium and flow.

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P A; Guggenheimer, J; Etzel, K R; Weyant, R J; Orchard, T

    2001-09-01

    The Oral Health Science Institute at the University of Pittsburgh has completed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 406 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 268 control subjects without diabetes that assessed the associations between oral health and diabetes. This report describes the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia), the prevalence of hyposalivation in this population, and the possible interrelationships between salivary dysfunction and diabetic complications. The subjects with diabetes were participants in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study who were enrolled in an oral health substudy. Control subjects were spouses or best friends of participants or persons recruited from the community through advertisements in local newspapers. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia measures and quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates. Subjects with diabetes reported symptoms of dry mouth more frequently than did control subjects. Salivary flow rates were also impaired in the subjects with diabetes. Regression models of potential predictor variables were created for the 3 self-reported xerostomia measures and 4 salivary flow rate variables. Of the medical diabetic complications studied (ie, retinopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, and peripheral vascular disease), only neuropathy was found to be associated with xerostomia and decreased salivary flow measures. A report of dry-mouth symptoms was associated with current use of cigarettes, dysgeusia (report of a bad taste), and more frequent snacking behavior. Xerogenic medications and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with decreased salivary flow. Resting salivary flow rates less than 0.01 mL/min were associated with a slightly higher prevalence of dental caries. Subjects who reported higher levels of alcohol consumption were less likely to have lower rates of stimulated

  12. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  13. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  14. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  15. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera-Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia; Morales-Bozo, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia.

  16. Influence of periodontal treatment on subgingival and salivary microbiotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Grande, Maria Anastasia; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens...... correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study. Stimulated saliva samples and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline and 2, 6 and 12 weeks after non......-surgical periodontal therapy. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique, and characterized based on relative abundance. Spearman signed rank test was used to test correlation of periopathogens in subgingival and saliva samples...

  17. Salivary function impairment in type 2 Diabetes patients associated with concentration and genetic polymorphisms of chromogranin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Evelyn Mikaela; Grisi, Daniela Corrêa; Falcão, Denise Pinheiro; Amorim, Ingrid Aquino; Rezende, Taia Maria Berto; da Silva, Izabel Cristina Rodrigues; Silva, Osmar Nascimento; Franco, Octávio Luiz; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on salivary function impairments according to glycemic control status and subsequently compare the concentration of chromogranin A (CHGA) with its genetic profile. Thirty-six patients with controlled T2DM, 36 with poorly controlled T2DM, and 38 nondiabetic subjects underwent salivary flow rate measurements by means of unstimulated labial (ULS), unstimulated whole (UWS), and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) collections. CHGA concentrations were determined in saliva and plasma with ELISA, and two CHGA polymorphisms (T-415C and Glu264Asp) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. T2DM patients presented significantly lower ULS and UWS flow rates regardless of glycemic control status compared to controls (P = 0.002 and P = 0.027, respectively). The SWS flow rate in the poorly controlled T2DM was the lowest among the groups (P = 0.026). Significantly higher plasma and salivary CHGA levels were found in T2DM groups (P = 0.019 and P diabetics and control subjects when associated with lower salivary flow and higher salivary CHGA production (P salivary glands. However, poorly controlled T2DM has the most influence on SWS flow rates. Our findings indicate an association between plasma and salivary CHGA levels and T2DM patients. Furthermore, the results suggest that CGHA polymorphisms might be associated with salivary gland hypofunction and higher salivary CHGA production in T2DM patients. Nevertheless, further epidemiological studies are required to elucidate this clinical implication. Salivary impairments and high levels of CHGA are associated with T2DM patients. In addition, CGHA polymorphisms might be associated with salivary gland hypofunction and higher salivary CHGA production in T2DM patients. This could be a significant insight to establish a role for salivary CHGA as a potential clinical biomarker to T2DM.

  18. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Cheol Min

    2016-05-01

    Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

  19. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /− 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  20. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  1. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monique; Loucif, Yacine; Methot, Julie; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-02-03

    Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW) and 98 menopausal women (MW)). Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p salivary pH (R2) was 10.8% (p salivary pH quartiles (p = 0.005). These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  2. Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Oshiumi, Y.; Yonetsu, K.; Muranaka, T.; Sakai, K.; Kanda, S.; National Fukuoka Central Hospital

    1991-01-01

    Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome were performed in 17 patients and 6 volunteers as controls. The ability of SPECT to detect small differences in the level of uptake can be used to separate glands from background even when uptake is reduced as in the patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. In control and probable Sjoegren's syndrome groups the uptake ratio of the submandibular gland to parotid gland on salivary SPECT (S/P ratio) was less than 1.0. However, in the definite Sjoergren's syndrome group, the ratio was more than 1.0. Moreover, the ratio in all patients with sialectasia, which is characteristic of Sjoegren's syndrome, was more than 1.0. Salivary factor analysis of normal parotid glands showed slowly increasing patterns of uptake and normal submandibular glands had rapidly increasing patterns of uptake. However, in the definite Sjoegren's syndrome group, the factor analysis patterns were altered, with slowly increasing patterns dominating both in the parotid and submandibular glands. These results suggest that the S/P ratio in salivary SPECT and salivary factor analysis provide additional radiologic criteria in diagnosing Sjoegren's syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  5. Measurement of urinary Benzo[a]pyrene tetrols and their relationship to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and cotinine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Donald C; Trinidad, Debra A; Hubbard, Kendra; Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically uses measurement of metabolites of PAHs with four or less aromatic rings, such as 1-hydroxypyrene, even though interest may be in exposure to larger and carcinogenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An improved procedure for measuring two tetrol metabolites of B[a]P has been developed. Using 2 mL urine, the method includes enzymatic deconjugation of the tetrol conjugates, liquid-liquid extraction, activated carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) and Strata-X SPE, and gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization-tandem mass spectrometric determination. Limits of detection were 0.026 pg/mL (benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol, BPT I-1) and 0.090 pg/mL (benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol, BPT II-1). We quantified BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 in urine from a volunteer who consumed one meal containing high levels of PAHs (barbequed chicken). We also measured urinary concentrations of BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 in smokers and nonsmokers, and compared these concentrations with those of monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) and cotinine. Urinary elimination of BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 as a function of time after dietary exposure was similar to that observed previously for OH-PAHs. While the median BPT I-1 concentration in smokers' urine (0.069 pg/mL) significantly differs from nonsmokers (0.043 pg/mL), BPT I-1 is only weakly correlated with cotinine. The urinary concentration of BPT I-1 shows a weaker relationship to tobacco smoke than metabolites of smaller PAHs, suggesting that other routes of exposure such as for example dietary routes may be of larger quantitative importance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  7. Smoking, secondhand smoke, and cotinine levels in a subset of EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, V.T.; Xun, W.W.; Chuang, S.C.; Relton, C.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Midttun, O.; Johansson, M.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum

  8. Smoking, Secondhand Smoke, and Cotinine Levels in a Subset of EPIC Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, Valeria Troncoso; Xun, Wei W.; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Relton, Caroline; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Midttun, Oivind; Johansson, Mattias; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Huerta Castano, Jose Maria; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez Perez, Maria Jose; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlota; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Goran; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum

  9. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Hirota, Makoto; Iwai, Toshinori; Aoki, Shinjiro; Chikumaru, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Ryoichi; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2007-03-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a distinctive and aggressive neoplasm. The most frequent site of origin is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. SDC originating in the minor salivary glands, particularly in the ectopic glands within the mandible, is extremely rare. We describe a 62-year-old man with SDC in the mandible, who presented with a painless lump in the right submandibular region (later identified as lymph node metastasis) and ipsilateral mental nerve palsy. Histologic examination after ablative surgery revealed SDC originating in the mandible and cervical nodal metastases spreading to levels I-III. The patient remains alive 59 months after presentation as a result of postoperative full-dose irradiation and regular intensive chemotherapy using TXT, 5-FU, and CDDP. However, the patient has local recurrence and distant metastases to the lung and brain. In this report, we also discuss the specific diagnostic criteria and developmental theories of intraosseous salivary gland tumors.

  10. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  11. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  12. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  13. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladt, T Moritz; Nordmann, Gregory C; Emilius, Roman; Kudielka, Brigitte M; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT) concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures). Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  14. Comparative evaluation of salivary bisphenol A levels in patients wearing vacuum-formed and Hawley retainers: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Akila Srinivasan; Pottipalli Sathyanarayana, Haritha; Kailasam, Vignesh; Padmanabhan, Sridevi

    2017-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate and compare the bisphenol A (BPA) levels in saliva in patients using vacuum-formed retainers or Hawley retainers. Forty-five patients who had completed their fixed orthodontic treatment and were entering the retention phase were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: vacuum-formed retainer, Hawley retainer fabricated by heat cure, and Hawley retainer fabricated by chemical cure. Saliva samples were collected immediately before placement, within 1 hour after placement, 1 week and 1 month after placement. Statistical analyses were performed by using 2-way analysis of variance and post-hoc multiple-comparisons Tukey HSD tests. Statistically significant BPA levels in saliva were found for all groups (P ≤0.05). The highest levels were noted in the vacuum-formed retainer group, followed by Hawley retainers fabricated by chemical cure; the lowest levels were found with Hawley retainers fabricated by heat cure. With many options available for removable retainers, clinicians should consider the BPA release from these retainers; a Hawley retainer fabricated by heat cure is a favorable choice. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship Between Salivary Pepsin Concentration and Esophageal Mucosal Integrity in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Wen; Sifrim, Daniel; Xie, Chenxi; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Ying-Lian

    2017-10-30

    Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD ( r = 0.669, P = 0.035). We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.

  16. Effect of Sleep and Salivary Glucose on Gingivitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaderi, H; Tavares, M; Hartman, M; Goodson, J M

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that inadequate sleep has deleterious effects on health by suppressing immunity and promoting inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep and salivary glucose levels on the development of gingivitis in a prospective longitudinal study of Kuwaiti children. Data were collected from 10-y-old children ( N = 6,316) in 2012 and again in 2014. Children were approximately equally distributed from 138 elementary schools representing the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Calibrated examiners conducted oral examination, self-reported sleep evaluation interviews, anthropomorphic measurements, and unstimulated whole saliva sample collection. Salivary glucose levels were measured by a florescent glucose oxidase method; values of salivary glucose ≥1.13 mg/dL were defined as high glucose levels. A multilevel random intercept and slope analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between sleep duration and gingivitis on 3 levels: within schools, among children, and over time. The outcome was the progression of the extent of gingival inflammation in children over time. The main independent variables were the number of daily sleep hours and salivary glucose levels. Other explanatory variables and confounders assessed were governorate, dental caries and restorations, and obesity by waist circumference (adjusted for snacking and sex). Gingivitis increased over time in children who had shorter sleep duration ( P 1.13 mg/dL predicted gingivitis ( P gingivitis ( P gingivitis and obesity. The level of gingivitis was different among the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Additionally, there was a strong clustering effect of the observations within schools and among children across time. Longitudinal analysis of 6,316 Kuwaiti children revealed that shorter sleep duration and higher salivary glucose levels were both associated with increased gingival inflammation.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  18. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing

  19. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Jacob; Dijkstra, Rene JB; Busscher, Hendrik

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical

  20. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Chandra Pani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.

  1. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  2. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Takehito; Kaji, Sanae; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2018-07-15

    Smoking not only increases the risk of lung cancer but is strongly related to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, passive smoking due to sidestream smoke is a critical public health problem. To assess active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, we developed a simple and sensitive method, consisting of on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to determine nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in hair samples. These compounds were separated within 5 min using a Polar-RP80A column and detected in the positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles of 40 μL of sample at a flow rate of 200 μL/min using a Carboxen 1006 capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted compounds in the stationary phase on the inner wall of the capillary could be dissolved easily into the mobile phase and transferred to an LC column. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS/MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the 5-1000 pg/mL ranges for nicotine and cotinine, and the detection limits (signal to noise ratio of 3) were 0.45 and 0.13 pg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were below 3.4% and 6.0% (n = 5), respectively. This method was utilized successfully to analyze pg/mg levels of nicotine and cotinine in 1 mg of hairs without interference peaks, and good recoveries were obtained. The concentration of cotinine in hair was two orders of magnitude lower than that of nicotine, but a good positive correlation was found between the concentrations of these compounds. This method can automate the extraction, concentration and analysis of samples, and is useful for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Mi Jang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS.ResultsMidnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12 than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34 (P=0.001. Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4.ConclusionThe results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

  4. Mutacins and bacteriocins like genes in Streptococcus mutans isolated from participants with high, moderate, and low salivary count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carolina; Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga

    2017-02-01

    To detect S. mutans producers of mutacins and bacteriocins like substances (BLIS) from saliva of participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts. 123 strains of S. mutans were obtained from participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts (age 18 and 20 years old) and their antibacterial capacity analyzed. By using PCR amplification, the expression levels of mutacins and BLIS genes were studied (expressed in arbitrary units/ml) in all three levels. S. mutans strains from participants with low salivary counts show high production of mutacins (63%). In contrast, participants with moderate and high salivary counts depict relatively low levels of mutacins (22 and 15%, respectively). Moreover, participants with low salivary counts showed high expression levels of genes encoding mutacins, a result that correlates with the strong antimicrobial activity of the group. Participants with moderate and high salivary counts however depict low expression levels of mutacin related genes, and little antimicrobial activity. No BLIS were detected in any of the groups studied. S. mutans isolated from the saliva of participants with low bacterial counts have significant antibacterial capacity compared to that of participants with moderate and high salivary counts. The superior lethality of S. mutans in participants with low salivary counts is likely due to the augmented expression of mutacin- related genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the salivary urea and creatinine tests as screening methods of chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Anh Vu

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this case control study were to correlate the serum and salivary urea as well as creatinine levels; and to evaluate salivary urea and creatinine as noninvasive alternatives to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 112 CKD patients and 108 subjects without CKD for quantitative analysis of urea and creatinine. Spearman's correlation coefficients between salivary and serum urea as well as creatinine were obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic tests of salivary urea and creatinine. Cut-off values were determined based on the best trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity for both salivary urea and creatinine. Salivary urea and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in CKD patients than those in control subjects; and increased by the stages of the severity of the disease. The positive correlation was significantly found between salivary and serum creatinine (r  =  0.90) and between salivary and serum urea (r  =  0.73). Area under the curve for salivary urea was 0.76 and a cut-off value of 14.25 mmol/L gave a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 57.8%. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.92 and a cut-off value of 0.24 mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 86.5% and specificity of 87.2%. Both salivary urea and creatinine have a high capacity for serum creatinine estimation. Salivary urea and creatinine tests can be used as low-cost, easily accessible and noninvasive tools for screening, diagnosing, monitoring treatment outcomes and ascertaining prognosis of chronic kidney disease.

  6. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man. II. Response of the salivary glands during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative dose-response curve for salivary gland function in patients during radiotherapy is presented. Salivary-function data used in this study were obtained from four previously published reports. All patients were treated with 60 Co teletherapy to the head and neck using conventional treatment techniques. Salivary dysfunction was determined at specific dose levels by comparing salivary flow rates before therapy with flow rates at specific dose intervals during radiotherapy up to a total dose of 6000 cGy. Fifty percent salivary dysfunction occurred after 1000 cGy and eighty percent dysfunction was observed by the end of the therapy course (6000 cGy). The salivary-function curve was also compared to the previously published dose-response curve for taste function. Comparisons of the two curves indicate that salivary dysfunction precedes taste loss and that the shapes of the dose-response curves are different. A new term, tissue tolerance ratio, defined as the ratio of responses of two tissues given the same radiation dose, was used to make the comparisons between gustatory and salivary gland tissue effects. Measurements of salivary gland function and analysis of dose-response curves may be useful in evaluating chemical modifiers of radiation response

  7. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  10. Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monique; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-09-08

    The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS) components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva collection was performed on 198 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin of which 55 were premenopausal women (PMW) and 143 menopausal women (MW). Student's t test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to assess the association between salivary pH and MetS components. The salivary pH level was significantly correlated with several MetS covariates, namely triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (apo B) and plasma glucose concentrations as well as waist circumference and the number of MetS components present in the whole sample and PMW only. Mean pH levels decreased as the number of MetS components increased (p = 0.004). The correlations between salivary pH and variables associated with MetS components tended to be stronger in PMW. The proportion of the variance (R2) of salivary pH explained by MetS-related variables in PMW, MW and the whole sample was 23.6% (p = 0.041), 18.1% and 17.0% (p salivary pH could be an inexpensive screening tool. These exploratory data suggest that salivary pH may be a significant correlate of the expression of MetS components. However, other studies with different populations are needed to confirm these findings before our observations lead to practical use in clinical settings.

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  12. Second-hand smoke exposure in 4-year-old children in Spain: Sources, associated factors and urinary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Guxens, Mònica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-01

    Second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) in children remains as a major pollution problem, with important consequences for children's health. This study aimed to identify the sources of exposure to SHS among 4-year-old children, comparing self-reports to a urinary biomarker of exposure, and characterize the most important variables related to SHS exposure in this population. 4-year-old children's exposure to SHS was assessed by a parental-reported questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) measurements in 1757 participants from 4 different areas of the Spanish INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente - Environment and Childhood) Project. The questionnaire about SHS included information about smoking habits at home by household members, and about exposure to SHS in other places including other homes, bars, restaurants or transportation. The association between quantified UC levels (>4ng/ml) and sociodemographic variables and the different sources of SHS exposure was examined using logistic regression. Based on parental reports, 21.6% of the children were exposed to SHS at home and 47.1% elsewhere; making a total 55.9% of the children exposed to SHS. In addition, 28.2% of the children whose parents reported being not regularly exposed to SHS had quantified UC values. Children from younger mothers (<34 vs. ≥39.4 y) had a higher odds of exposure to SHS [OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.70-3.05) per year], as well as from families with a lower educational level [OR secondary: 2.12 (1.69-2.65); primary or less: 2.91 (2.19-3.88)]. The odds of quantifiable UC in children dropped after the smoking ban in public places [OR=0.59 (0.42-0.83)]. Regarding the sources of SHS exposure we observed that quantifiable UC odds was increased in children whose parents smoked at home in their presence [OR mother occasionally: 13.39 (7.03-25.50); mother often: 18.48 (8.40-40.66); father occasionally: 10.98 (6.52-18.49); father often: 11.50 (5.96-22.20)] or in children attending other confined places, mainly other

  13. Estimation of salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and urea in type II diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaiy, Masoumeh; Heidari, Fatemeh; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Dehghan, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease due to insufficiency production of insulin that is associated with altered quantity and quality in salivary secretion. Alteration in saliva can reflect the changes in patients' blood. The collection of saliva is easy therefore; the assessment of saliva is suitable for screening tests of large population. The study aimed at evaluate some elements in diabetic patients' saliva. A total of 25 diabetic patients and age-sex matched control group enrolled into the study. Absorbance spectrophotometer technique was used for assessment of some salivary elements. The assessment of saliva showed that diabetics had unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.18 ± 0.14 mL/min compared to 0.30 ± 0.12 mL/min for healthy individuals (Pdiabetics compared to healthy group (Psalivary urea, potassium and phosphorus was significantly elevated in diabetic males compared to healthy males and the level of salivary calcium in diabetic females was significantly reduced compared to healthy females (Psalivary sodium of healthy and diabetic persons according to gender (P>0.05). The finding showed that there were some alterations in salivary elements in diabetic patients even in well-controlled subjects compared to healthy group. Moreover, some salivary elements concentrations were various in diabetic and healthy subjects regarding to the sex. Assessment of salivary composition could be beneficial in oral health evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion

  15. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of cotinine in rats: a potential therapeutic agent for disorders of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D; Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Attention has been paid to cotinine (COT), one of the major metabolites of nicotine (NIC), for its pro-cognitive effects and potential therapeutic activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of cognitive impairment. In order to facilitate pharmacological and toxicological studies on COT for its pro-cognitive activities, we conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of COT in rats, providing important oral and intravenously (iv) PK information. In this study, plasma samples were obtained up to 48 h after COT was dosed to rats orally and iv at a dose of 3mg/kg. Plasma samples were prepared and analyzed using a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method, providing concentration profiles of COT and metabolites after oral and iv administrations. The data were fitted into a one-compartment model and a two-compartment model for the oral and iv groups, respectively, providing important PK information for COT including PK profiles, half-life, clearance and bioavailability. The results suggested fast absorption, slow elimination and high bioavailability of COT in rats. Several important facts about the PK properties in rats suggested COT could be a potential pro-cognitive agent. Information about the pharmacokinetics of COT in rats revealed in this study is of great importance for the future studies on COT or potential COT analogs as agents for improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  18. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  19. Salivary creatinine and urea analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Taye Jemilat; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Salako, Babatunde Lawal

    2016-01-16

    Many metabolic changes develop in patients with chronic kidney disease which often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis of blood. Saliva analysis as an alternative to blood has many advantages. The aims of this study were to evaluate levels of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease in comparison to healthy individuals; to determine correlation between salivary creatinine/urea and blood creatinine/urea and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of saliva. A case control study, involving 50 patients with late stage chronic kidney disease and 49 healthy individuals as control. Blood and saliva samples were analyzed for urea and creatinine levels. Data are presented as median with interquartile range and compared using Independent Samples Mann Whitney U test. Correlation between plasma and salivary creatinine as well as urea was determined using Spearman's correlation test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was done to determine the diagnostic ability of salivary creatinine and urea and cut-off values were established. Median salivary creatinine levels were 2.60 mg/dl and 0.20 mg/dl while median salivary urea levels were 92.00 mg/dl and 20.50 mg/dl in patients with chronic kidney disease and controls respectively. Salivary levels of creatinine and urea were significantly elevated in chronic kidney disease patients (p creatinine as well as urea levels. Total areas under the curve for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.97 and 0.89 respectively. Cut-off values for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.55 mg/dl and 27.50 mg/dl respectively which gave sensitivity and specificity of 94 % and 85 % for creatinine; as well as 86 % and 93 % for urea. Findings of this study suggest that analysis of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease reflects their levels in blood. Hence, salivary creatinine and urea could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of chronic kidney disease.

  20. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, R. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertechnetate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor.

  1. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, R.

    1983-01-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertecnate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor

  2. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  4. Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3′-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies for tobacco addiction. In this paper we describe a highly sensitive liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in human plasma, urine, and saliva. Lower limits of quantitation range from 0.02 to 0.1 ng/ mL. The extraction procedure is straightforward and suitable for large-scale studies. The method has been applied to several thousand biofluid samples for pharmacogenetic studies and for studies of exposure to low levels of secondhand smoke. Concentrations of both metabolites in urine of non-smokers with different levels of secondhand smoke exposure are presented. PMID:21208832

  5. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  6. Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

    2014-12-01

    Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30-60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC ® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics.

  8. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI and its relation to salivary flow rate and buffer capacity in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Jyrki; Laine, Merja; Parkkila, Seppo; Rajaniemi, Hannu

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that pregnancy may have unfavourable effects on oral health. The pH and buffer capacity (BC) of paraffin-stimulated saliva, for example, have been found to decrease towards late pregnancy. Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) probably protects the teeth by accelerating the neutralization of hydrogen ions in the enamel pellicle on dental surfaces. Since estrogens and androgens are known to regulate CA expression in some tissues, we studied here whether salivary CA VI concentration shows pregnancy-related changes. Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from nine pregnant women 1 month before delivery and about 2 months afterwards and assayed for salivary CA VI concentration, BC and flow rate. The enzyme concentration was determined using a specific time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. The control group consisted of 17 healthy non-pregnant women. The results indicated that salivary CA VI levels varied markedly among individuals, but no significant differences in mean concentrations were seen between the samples collected during late pregnancy and postpartum. BC values were lower during pregnancy, however. Our findings suggest that CA VI secretion is not significantly affected by the hormonal alterations associated with pregnancy, and confirm the earlier reports that CA VI is not involved in the regulation of actual salivary BC.

  9. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  10. A statistical method to calculate blood contamination in the measurement of salivary hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Guilherme A; Patel, Jay P; Coote, Marg; Moreira, Jose C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that salivary concentrations of certain hormones correlate with their respective serum levels. However, most of these studies did not control for potential blood contamination in saliva. In the present study we developed a statistical method to test the amount of blood contamination that needs to be avoided in saliva samples for the following hormones: cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oxytocin. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 healthy, medication-free women (mean age=33.8±7.3yr.; range=19-45). Serum and salivary hormonal levels and the amount of transferrin in saliva samples were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Salivary transferrin levels did not correlate with salivary cortisol or estradiol (up to 3mg/dl), but they were positively correlated with salivary testosterone, progesterone and oxytocin (phormones in order to determine the level of blood contamination that might affect specific hormonal salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  12. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  13. Salivary Amylase Induction by Tannin-Enriched Diets as a Possible Countermeasure Against Tannins

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, G.; Lamy, E.; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Andersen, J.; Sales Baptista, E.; Coelho, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole sa...

  14. Evaluation of potential salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol in oral cancer patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaelli, H; Apaydin, A; Aydil, B; Ayhan, M; Karadeniz, A; Ozel, S; Yılmaz, E; Akgün, B; Eren, B

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde has been implicated as a major factor in oral carcinogenesis associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, saliva samples from oral cancer patients and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with ethanol in order to investigate factors which can influence salivary acetaldehyde production. A total of 66 individuals (40 males and 26 females, mean age 52 years) participated in the study. Participants were classified into three groups: Group 1 (oral cancer patients [n = 20]); Group 2 (poor dental health status [n = 25]) and Group 3 (good dental health status [n=21]). Every patient chewed a 1g piece of paraffin chewing gum for 1 minute then saliva samples were collected from all individuals. After in vitro incubation of the samples with ethanol, the levels of salivary acetaldehyde production was measured by head space gas chromatography. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman's Correlations analysis were performed for statistical analyses. The salivary acetaldehyde production was significantly higher (p oral hygiene habits and dental visits, smoking and presence of a dental prosthesis were significant parameters for increased levels of salivary acetaldehyde production from alcohol. The evaluation of salivary acetaldehyde production after in vitro incubation with ethanol may be useful for early detection of oral cancer. According to the results of this study, the significantly higher levels of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cancer patients and individuals with poor dental health status may suggest a possible link between increased salivary acetaldehyde production and oral cancer. Improved oral hygiene can effectively decrease the level of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cavity. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 269-274.

  15. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  16. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  17. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  18. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  19. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carme; Vall, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar; Papaseit, Esther; Pichini, Simona; Saltó, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to

  20. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  1. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  2. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  3. Immune recognition of salivary proteins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus differs according to the genotype of the bovine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F

    2017-03-14

    Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes. We describe the profiles of humoral responses against tick salivary proteins elicited during repeated artificial infestations of bovines of a tick-resistant (Nelore) and a tick-susceptible (Holstein) breed. We measured serum levels of total IgG1, IgG2 and IgE immunoglobulins and of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies specific for tick salivary proteins. With liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry we identified tick salivary proteins that were differentially recognized by serum antibodies from tick-resistant and tick-susceptible bovines in immunoblots of tick salivary proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Baseline levels of total IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly higher in tick-susceptible Holsteins compared with resistant Nelores. Significant increases in levels of total IgG1, but not of IgG2 accompanied successive infestations in both breeds. Resistant Nelores presented with significantly higher levels of salivary-specific antibodies before and at the first challenge with tick larvae; however, by the third challenge, tick-susceptible Holsteins presented with significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 tick salivary protein-specific antibodies. Importantly, sera from tick-resistant Nelores reacted with 39 tick salivary proteins in immunoblots of salivary proteins separated in two dimensions by electrophoresis versus only 21 spots reacting with sera from tick-susceptible Holsteins. Levels of tick saliva

  4. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  5. Self-perceived oral health and salivary proteins in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, F; Sundin, U; Altamash, M; Klinge, B; Engström, P-E

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to validate self-perceived oral health with salivary IgG as an inflammatory parameter in children with type 1 diabetes. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 36 children with well controlled and 12 with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and 40 non-diabetic children (Controls). Salivary flow rate, random blood glucose level, salivary protein concentration and immunoglobulin A and G levels were recorded using standard techniques. Data concerning oral health and diabetes status were collected. Self-perceived gingival bleeding (bleeding gums), bad breath and dry mouth were higher in diabetic children when compared with those in controls (P diabetes (P diabetes (P Salivary flow rate was lower in the diabetic children compared to controls (P diabetes. Salivary IgG per mg protein concentration was higher in the diabetics when compared with the control group (P diabetes (P diabetes. Self-perceived gingival bleeding and salivary IgG per mg protein concentration were increased in children with type 1 diabetes compared with controls. These variables were also increased in children with poorly controlled compared with well-controlled type 1 diabetes.

  6. Dental caries in diabetes mellitus: role of salivary flow rate and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Shahid, Syed M; Qader, Shah A; Azhar, Abid

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective role of salivary factors like salivary flow rate and adequate level of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with dental caries. A total of 398 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with dental caries and 395 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects with dental caries were included as controls, all of whom gave informed consent. All subjects were divided into four groups according to their age. Decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) were scored to indicate the severity of dental caries. Saliva was collected, flow rate was noted, and calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were analyzed. The blood glucose, HbA1c, and DMFT indices were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients as compared to controls. The salivary flow rate, calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were found to be significantly low whereas no significant difference was found in salivary magnesium in patients as compared to controls. Optimum salivary flow rate is responsible for establishing protective environment against dental caries. Adequate level of salivary calcium, phosphate, and fluoride is also involved in significant deposition of these minerals in plaque, which greatly reduces the development of caries in the adjacent enamel of teeth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  8. Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina U; Soares, Maria Sueli M; Almeida, Paulo C; Soares, Teresa C

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 +/-16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 +/- 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 +/- 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 +/- 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 +/- 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 +/- 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 +/- 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 +/- 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups.

  9. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  10. Biological aspects of salivary hormones in male half-marathon performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Branimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical effort is known to alter the blood levels of many hormones, but there are only a few studies about the biological changes of salivary hormones. The aim of this work was to determine whether salivary testosterone and salivary cortisol levels, measured two weeks before a half-marathon race, relate to running performance in male recreational athletes. A group of eleven male recreational athletes preparing for a half-marathon was included in the study. Saliva for testosterone and cortisol determinations was collected before and immediately after a 15-km training run, two weeks before the half-marathon. Individual official half-marathon times, expressed in hours, were used as a measure of performance. Mean testosterone concentrations were 1.07±0.33 nmol/L before the run and 0.88±0.35 nmol/L after the run (p<0.05. Mean cortisol concentrations were 12.28±8.46 nmol/L before the run and 38.08±19.63 nmol/L after the run (p<0.05. The pre-run salivary testosterone levels marginally correlated with the corresponding half-marathon running times (p=0.068, 95% bootstrap CI for slope -0.40 to -0.06. However, post-run salivary testosterone levels significantly correlated with the corresponding half-marathon running times (p=0.011, 95% bootstrap CI for slope -0.41 to -0.16, even considering correlations with the runners’ age. Salivary cortisol levels, either pre- or post-run, did not correlate with the corresponding half-marathon running times. The results of this study suggest that post-exercise salivary testosterone levels could have the potential to predict performance in endurance running, at least in recreational athletes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175036

  11. What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, L.; Crombie, I. K.; Clark, R. A.; Slane, P. W.; Goodman, K. E.; Feyerabend, C.; Cater, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with parents who smoke are often exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke, and children with asthma are particularly susceptible to the detrimental effects of passive smoking. Data were collected from parents who smoke and from their asthmatic children. The families are currently taking part in a randomised controlled trial to test an intervention designed to reduce passive smoking in children with asthma. This paper reports on the baseline data. Questionnaire data and cotinine levels were compared in an attempt to assess exposure and to identify factors which influence exposure of the children. The aim of the study was to identify the scope for a reduction in passive smoking by these children. METHODS: A sample of 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years was obtained. Factors influencing passive smoking were assessed by interviewing parents. Cotinine levels were measured from saliva samples using gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection. RESULTS: Cotinine levels in children were strongly associated with the age of the child, the number of parents who smoked, contact with other smokers, the frequency of smoking in the same room as the child, and crowding within the home. Parental cotinine levels, the amount smoked in the home, and whether the home had a garden also exerted an independent effect on cotinine levels in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Many children are exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke and their cotinine levels are heavily dependent upon proximity to the parent who smokes. Parents who smoke have a unique opportunity to benefit their child's health by modifying their smoking habits within the home. 


 PMID:9371205

  12. Possible roles for frequent salivary antiepileptic drug monitoring in the management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkes, G K; Eadie, M J

    1990-07-01

    Salivary levels of phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and carbamazepine-epoxide correlate with the simultaneous plasma water levels of these substances, after correcting for the effects of pH differences between saliva and plasma in the case of phenobarbitone. Saliva is easy and painless to collect, and salivary levels of the drugs are conveniently measured. Frequent (often daily) monitoring of pre-dose morning anticonvulsant drug concentrations in saliva over periods of weeks or months in 3 groups of epileptic subjects showed that (i) in some but not all poorly controlled epileptic patients seizures tended to occur on days when salivary anticonvulsant levels were lower than on non-seizure days, (ii) in such subjects it was possible to estimate an anticipated optimal drug concentration and dose to minimize seizure activity from the plot of seizure frequency against drug concentrations, (iii) in women with 'catamenial' epilepsy, salivary anticonvulsant levels were lower on perimenstrual days than at mid-cycle in half of the subjects studied, and (iv) in pregnant epileptic women the time course of the change in drug levels relative to dose could be followed more closely throughout pregnancy and the post-natal period than was practicable when using blood level measurements. Frequent measurement of salivary anticonvulsant concentrations appears a promising and inexpensive adjunct to the investigation and management of certain problem areas in epilepsy.

  13. Salivary analytes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Petra Nola; Rogić, Dunja; Vidović-Juras, Danica; Susić, Mato; Milenović, Aleksandar; Brailo, Vlaho; Boras, Vanja Vucićević

    2011-06-01

    Literature data indicates that measurement of certain salivary constituents might serve as a useful diagnostic/prognostic tool in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In 24 patients with OSCC (60 +/- 2.5 yrs) and in 24 controls (24 +/- 3.7 yrs) we have determined levels of salivary magnesium, calcium, copper, chloride, phosphate, potassium, sodium, total proteins and amylase. Sodium, potassium and chloride were determined by indirect potentiometry whereas copper, magnesium and phosphate were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total proteins were determined by pyrogalol colorimetric method. Amylase levels were determined by continued colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was performed by use of chi2 test and Spearman's correlation test. The results of this study indicate that the concentrations of sodium and chloride were significantly elevated in patients with OSCC when compared to the controls. However, level of total protein was significantly decreased when compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between alcohol consumption and total protein concentration in patients with oral carcinoma. We might conclude that in patients with OSCC increased salivary sodium and chloride might reflect their overall dehydration status due to alcohol consumption rather than consequence of OSCC itself.

  14. Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tue H; Kern, Timo; Bak, Emilie G; Kashani, Alireza; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2018-04-11

    Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers. We show that compositional differences in the salivary microbiota of vegans and omnivores is present at all taxonomic levels below phylum level and includes upper respiratory tract commensals (e.g. Neisseria subflava, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa) and species associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas endodontalis). Dietary intake of medium chain fatty acids, piscine mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibre was associated with bacterial diversity, community structure, as well as relative abundance of several species-level operational taxonomic units. Analysis of imputed genomic potential revealed several metabolic pathways differentially abundant in vegans and omnivores indicating possible effects of macro- and micro-nutrient intake. We also show that certain oral bacteria are associated with the systemic inflammatory state of the host.

  15. Salivary flow and xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Carinci, Francesco; Lucchese, Alberta; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Saliva is secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. There are a number of physiological factors that can reduce this secretion such as age, sex, body weight, number of teeth present in the mouth or time of day. This decrease may also be caused by the use of certain drugs, radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, chronic rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and other systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type 2 DM on salivary secretion and its relation to the sensation of xerostomia. Forty-seven patients with type 2 DM and 46 healthy individuals, aged 40-80, participated in the study. Samples of saliva were collected, at rest and after stimulation, at baseline and after the administration of a meal. A questionnaire of 10 items was used to define the patients' sensations of xerostomia. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the difference in salivary flow between the two groups and the relationship between the response to each of the questions and salivary flow levels. The degree of the patients' sensation of xerostomia was analysed by the Fisher test. There was a significant decrease in total saliva levels at rest in patients with type 2 DM compared to the control group. The study group also experienced higher levels of dryness at night and on waking as well as a greater sensation of lingual burning compared to the control group. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period.

  17. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  18. Salivary DJ-1 could be an indicator of Parkinson’s disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yan eKang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of the current investigation was to explore whether salivary DJ-1 could be a potential biomarker for monitoring disease progression in Parkinson’s disease (PD by evaluating the association between salivary DJ-1 concentrations and nigrostriatal dopaminergic function.Methods: First, in 74 patients with PD and 12 age-matched normal controls, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging with labeled dopamine transporters (DAT (99mTc-TRODAT-1, which has been used for measuring DAT density in PD was prformed. Then, the DJ-1 level in their saliva was analyzed by quantitative and sensitive Luminex assay and compared to caudate or putamen DAT density. Finally, based on the above, our cross-section study was carried out in 376 research volunteers (285 patients with PD and 91 healthy controls to measure salivary DJ-1 level.Results: From our analysis, we found a correlation between salivary concentration of DJ-1 and putamen nucleus uptake of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 in the PD group. Although salivary DJ-1 levels were not affected by UPDRS scores, gender, age and pharmacotherapy, DJ-1 levels in H&Y 4 stage of PD were higher than those in H&Y 1-3 stage as well as those in healthy controls. Salivary DJ-1 also decreased significantly in mixed type PD patients compared to the tremor-dominant type (TDT and akinetic-rigid dominant type (ARDT PD patients.Conclusions: According to the investigation in a large cohort, we reported for the first time the prognostic potential of the salivary DJ-1 as a biomarker for evaluating nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in PD.

  19. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iihama, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Izumi; Kato, Joji

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T 1 and T 2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T 2 -weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T 1 and T 2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T 1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  20. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  1. Associations between sociodemographic, sampling and health factors and various salivary cortisol indicators in a large sample without psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Kruijtzer, Boudewijn P.; van Pelt, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; DeRijk, Roel H.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda

    Background: Cortisol levels are increasingly often assessed in large-scale psychosomatic research. Although determinants of different salivary cortisol indicators have been described, they have not yet been systematically studied within the same study with a Large sample size. Sociodemographic,

  2. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  3. Correlation of salivary immunoglobulin A against lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis with clinical periodontal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major challenge in clinical periodontics is to find a reliable molecular marker of periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess, whether any correlation exists between salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA level against lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis and clinical periodontal parameters (probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: Totally, 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were included for the study based on clinical examination. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each study subject. Probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded in all selected subjects using University of North Carolina-15 periodontal probe. Extraction and purification of lipopolysaccharide were done from the standard strain of P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the level of IgA antibodies against lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis in the saliva of each subject by coating wells of ELISA kit with extracted lipopolysaccharide antigen. Statistical Analysis: The correlation between salivary IgA and clinical periodontal parameters was checked using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method and regression analysis. Results: The significant correlation was observed between salivary IgA level and clinical periodontal parameters in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: A significant strong correlation was observed between salivary IgA against lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis and clinical periodontal parameters which suggest that salivary IgA level against lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis can be used to predict the severity of periodontal destruction in chronic periodontitis patients.

  4. Estimation of salivary neopterin in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Little; Mahendra, Jaideep; Borra, Sai Krishna; Nagarajan, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common bacterial infection predominantly associated with Gram-negative microorganisms that exist in the subgingival biofilm. Analysis of saliva provides a noninvasive means of evaluating the role of the host response in periodontal disease. Though salivary enzymes can be used as the biomarkers, neopterin has been recently used as one of the important diagnostic tools in the field of periodontics. Hence, we aimed to identify the neopterin levels in unsimulated saliva from the chronic periodontitis patients and compare them with the periodontally healthy subjects. Twenty subjects participated in the study and were categorized as the experimental group (chronic periodontitis patients) and control groups (healthy subjects). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from both the groups for neopterin estimation. Neopterin in saliva was estimated using Shimadzu High Performance Liquid Chromatography with LC-20AD pump system, equipped with RF-10 AXL fluorescence detector. Data were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 6.0 (California, USA). Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test. The neopterin level in unstimulated saliva was found to be higher in the experimental group than the control group with P≤0.05. The chronic periodontitis patients showed higher neopterin level in unstimulated saliva as compared to control. Hence, neopterin can be used as a potential biomarker for identification of the periodontal disease in its initial stage can help in preventing the disease progression.

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Profile among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K M, Prathibha; Johnson, Priscilla; Ganesh, Mathangi; Subhashini, Arcot S

    2013-08-01

    A lack of consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction motivated us to conduct this investigation on the salivary parameters in diabetic and non diabetic subjects. This could also make the use of saliva as an alternative to that of blood in the diagnosis/monitoring of diabetes mellitus. To compare the salivary flow rates and the salivary physical and biochemical parameters of diabetic (D) and non diabetic (ND) subjects. The participants in this study included 30 non diabetic subjects and 30 diabetic volunteers who had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for a minimum of 2 years. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the fasting state. Salivary pH, flow rate and organic and inorganic constituents were evaluated. Data which was collected was statistically analysed and interpreted. Salivary pH (ND=7.09±0.29, D=6.69±0.35), flow rate (ND=0.67±0.07, D=0.46±0.02) and salivary amylase (ND=92.51±13.74, D=19.20±1.8) were significantly lower in diabetics. They had significantly higher levels of salivary glucose (ND=4.33 ± 0.29, D=17.31±2.05), total proteins (ND=424.46±237.34, D=877.29±603.84), sodium (ND=4.31±0.65, D=14.42±1.83) and potassium (ND=20.84±0.71, D=25.95±1.56) and lower levels of calcium (ND=6.39±0.5, D=4.22±0.12) in comparison to those in the non-diabetic group. Significant variations were observed in salivary physical and biochemical parameters between diabetics and non diabetics. Evaluation of salivary parameters can be a cost effective and a non invasive alternative for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, to blood.

  6. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  8. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  9. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  10. Salivary alterations in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belazi, M A; Galli-Tsinopoulou, A; Drakoulakos, D; Fleva, A; Papanayiotou, P H

    1998-03-01

    To examine the flow rate and composition of unstimulated whole saliva and of serum in children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to compare these with values for a group of healthy controls. Cross-sectional. Diabetic Department of a University Hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece. The test group was made up of 10 recently diagnosed child patients with IDDM, aged 4-15 years and free of other systemic disease. Ten healthy children aged 5-17 years served as controls. Children were clinically examined before unstimulated saliva was collected over a 5 minute period and blood samples taken. Saliva and serum measurements included glucose, total proteins, albumin and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG). No significant difference was seen in salivary flow rate between the two groups. Significantly greater concentrations of glucose were seen in saliva and serum in children with IDDM. Neither total protein nor albumin differed significantly between the two groups. Salivary IgA concentration was higher in the test group as was serum IgG. Findings in this sample suggest that changes in salivary composition may, together with estimated glucose levels, play a helpful diagnostic role in the early stages of IDDM in some children.

  11. [Anatomy and histology of salivary glands of Triatominae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, D

    1999-01-01

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.

  12. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  13. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study D...

  14. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Human α-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jochen; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Pantelis, Annette; Kraus, Dominik; Reckenbeil, Jan; Reich, Rudolf; Jepsen, Soeren; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Because of the infrequence of salivary gland tumours and their complex histopathological diagnosis it is still difficult to exactly predict their clinical course by means of recurrence, malignant progression and metastasis. In order to define new proliferation associated genes, purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human α-defensins (DEFA) 1/3 and 4 in different tumour entities of the salivary glands with respect to malignancy. Tissue of salivary glands (n=10), pleomorphic adenomas (n=10), cystadenolymphomas (n=10), adenocarcinomas (n=10), adenoidcystic carcinomas (n=10), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=10) was obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of DEFA 1/3 and 4 were analyzed by quantitative realtime PCR and compared with healthy salivary gland tissue. Additionally, the proteins encoded by DEFA 1/3 and DEFA 4 were visualized in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining. Human α-defensins are traceable in healthy as well as in pathological altered salivary gland tissue. In comparison with healthy tissue, the gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) increased in all tumours – except for a significant decrease of DEFA 4 gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas and a similar transcript level for DEFA 1/3 compared to healthy salivary glands. A decreased gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 might protect pleomorphic adenomas from malignant transformation into adenocarcinomas. A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin’s tumour

  16. Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Lu, Juming

    2013-10-01

    The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity--in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level--salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

  17. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  18. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  19. Evaluation of salivary mucins in children with deciduous and mixed dentition: comparative analysis between high and low caries-risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angwaravong, O.; Pitiphat, W.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Chaiyarit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine levels of salivary mucins in children with deciduous and mixed dentition and to determine correlations between salivary mucins and dental caries status in two dentition stages. Materials and methods Saliva samples were collected from preschool children

  20. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  1. Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre; Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique; Sudaka, Anne; Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for ≤24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland

  2. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  3. Total salivary nitrates and nitrites in oral health and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Miozza, Valeria A; Delgado, Alejandra; Busch, Lucila

    2014-01-30

    It is well known that nitrites are increased in saliva from patients with periodontal disease. In the oral cavity, nitrites may derive partly from the reduction of nitrates by oral bacteria. Nitrates have been reported as a defence-related mechanism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the salivary levels of total nitrate and nitrite and their relationship, in unstimulated and stimulated saliva from periodontal healthy subjects, and from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Nitrates and nitrites were determined in saliva from thirty healthy subjects and forty-four patients with periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary nitrates and nitrites was observed. Nitrates and nitrites concentration was related to clinical attachment level (CAL). A positive and significant Pearson's correlation was found between salivary total nitrates and nitrites. Periodontal treatment induced clinical improvement and decreased nitrates and nitrites. It is concluded that salivary nitrates and nitrites increase, in patients with periodontal disease, could be related to defence mechanisms. The possibility that the salivary glands respond to oral infectious diseases by increasing nitrate secretion should be explored further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  5. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min. The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications. Keywords: Immunosensor, Centrifugal fluid valve, Automation, Cortisol, Saliva

  6. Salivary IgA concentration in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The alterations in salivary flow rate and its compositions could affect the development, symptoms, and severity of oral changes in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salivary IgA in type I in comparison with type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with type I diabetes, 25 patients with type II diabetes, and 25 control subjects (12 subjects for the type I and 13 subjects for the type II were enrolled. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by spitting method and the concentration of salivary IgA was measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: The mean of salivary IgA in type I diabetic patients was 148.3 ± 38.7 μg/ml and in their controls was 65.8 ± 17.4 μg/ml (P < 0.001. In type II diabetic patients the mean of salivary IgA was 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml and in their controls was 63.3 ± 15.2 μg/ml. There was no significant difference between patients with type II diabetes and controls (P = 0.54. The mean of salivary IgA in patients with type I diabetes was significantly higher than in patients with type II diabetes (148.3 ± 38.7 versus 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Level of salivary IgA in type II diabetic patients in comparison with their healthy control did not show any significant difference, but in type I diabetic patients was higher than that of healthy controls and type II diabetic patients.

  7. Effect of childhood malnutrition on salivary flow and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Spielman, Andrew L; Gebrian, Bette; St Jean, Rudolph; Katz, Ralph V

    2008-03-01

    While protein-energy malnutrition may have multiple effects on oral tissues and subsequent disease development, reports of the effect of malnutrition on the human salivary glands are sparse. A retrospective cohort study of the effect of early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (EC-PEM) and adolescent nutritional status on salivary flow and pH was conducted with rural Haitian children, ages 11-19 years (n=1017). Malnutrition strata exposure cohorts were based on 1988-1996 weight-for-age records which covered the birth through 5-year-old period for all subjects. Then, data on current anthropometrical defined nutritional status categories, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates, and salivary pH were collected for the same subjects of 11-19 years old during field examinations in the summer of 2005. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used for the analyses. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were reduced at statistically significant levels in subjects who had experienced severe malnutrition in their early childhood or who had continuing nutrition stress which resulted in delayed growth, as measured at ages 11-19 years. Salivary pH demonstrated little clinically meaningful variability between malnourished and nonmalnourished groups. This study is the first to report of a continuing effect on diminished salivary gland function into adolescence as a result of early childhood malnutrition (EC-PEM) and suggests that exocrine glandular systems may be compromised for extended periods following EC-PEM, which may have important implications for the body's systemic antimicrobial defences.

  8. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Are salivary amylase and pH - Prognostic indicators of cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Atmakuri Shanmukha; Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Surekha, Ch; Deepak, K G K

    2015-01-01

    Saliva, "Mirror of body's health" has long been of particular interest as a substitute for blood for disease diagnosis and monitoring. The radiation effects on salivary glands are of particular interest in which salivary amylase is a good indicator of salivary glands function. Thus, estimation of these parameters represents a reasonable approach in evaluation of patient's risk for disease occurrence, intensity and prognosis. To evaluate and compare the pH and amylase levels in saliva of cancer patients prior to treatment, patients during treatment. Saliva samples of 90 individuals were taken which were divided into 3 groups - 30 individuals without cancer, 30 cancer patients prior treatment and 30 cancer patients during treatment. Materials used were pH strips and pH meter, Salivary Amylase assay. Statistical analysis - ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test. 1) Significant decrease in salivary amylase levels - in cancer patients, during treatment when compared to others. 2) Significant decrease in salivary pH levels in newly diagnosed cancer patients prior to treatment. To conclude, pH strips and pH meter showed to be a useful tool in the measurement of pH of saliva in individuals with and without cancer. This study showed that cancer patients without treatment have a lower pH of saliva. Treatment increased the pH of the saliva to a more alkaline level whereas amylase levels decreased in those subjects. Therefore those parameters can be an area of further research with an increased sample size, which in-turn may help in opening the doors for new dimension in non invasive prognostic markers.

  10. Restoration of radiation therapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice by post therapy IGF-1 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Fillinger, Jamia L; Victory, Kerton R; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer results in severe and chronic salivary gland dysfunction in most individuals. This results in significant side effects including xerostomia, dysphagia, and malnutrition which are linked to significant reductions in patients' quality of life. Currently there are few xerostomia treatment approaches that provide long-term results without significant side effects. To address this problem we investigated the potential for post-therapeutic IGF-1 to reverse radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation and significant reductions in salivary function were confirmed 3 days after treatment. On days 4-8 after radiation, one group of mice was injected intravenously with IGF-1 while a second group served as a vehicle control. Stimulated salivary flow rates were evaluated on days 30, 60, and 90 and histological analysis was performed on days 9, 30, 60, and 90. Irradiated animals receiving vehicle injections have 40-50% reductions in stimulated salivary flow rates throughout the entire time course. Mice receiving injections of IGF-1 have improved stimulated salivary flow rates 30 days after treatment. By days 60-90, IGF-1 injected mice have restored salivary flow rates to unirradiated control mice levels. Parotid tissue sections were stained for amylase as an indicator of functioning acinar cells and significant reductions in total amylase area are detected in irradiated animals compared to unirradiated groups on all days. Post-therapeutic injections of IGF-1 results in increased amylase-positive acinar cell area and improved amylase secretion. Irradiated mice receiving IGF-1 show similar proliferation indices as untreated mice suggesting a return to tissue homeostasis. Post-therapeutic IGF-1 treatment restores salivary gland function potentially through normalization of cell proliferation and improved expression of amylase. These findings could aid in the rational design of

  11. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  12. Closing the Border on a New Frontier : The Problem With Salivary Nerve Growth Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    In 2013, a study appeared in Psychosomatic Medicine showing that salivary levels of nerve growth factor (sNGF) rapidly increase (to +45% of baseline levels) in response to an acute psychosocial stress task that involved discussing an unresolved conflict with a romantic partner (1). NGF, also

  13. Salivary oxidative status in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darczuk, D; Krzysciak, W; Vyhouskaya, P; Kesek, B; Galecka-Wanatowicz, D; Lipska, W; Kaczmarzyk, T; Gluch-Lutwin, M; Mordyl, B; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including oral lichen planus. Therefore, determining the salivary markers of oxidative stress is an excellent alternative approach to diagnosing oral cavity diseases. The objective of our study was to provide preliminary validation and determination of the salivary markers of oxidative stress in both patients with reticular and erosive forms of oral lichen planus as well as in healthy individuals without any oral lesions. In total, 62 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) were enrolled in the study, including 31 with the reticular form of lichen planus (44.63 ± 11.05 years) and 31 with erosive forms (40.43 ± 10.05 years), who had never been treated for their disease. The control group comprised 30 individuals without any oral lesions (42.12 ± 12.22 years). We determined the saliva levels in glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The mean saliva levels of GSH and TAC were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in OLP patients compared to the control group. The mean levels of salivary TBARS were higher in both OLP groups (reticular and erosive) compared to the control group (P = 0.01). The lower saliva levels of GSH and TAC in patients with OLP indicate that free radicals and the resulting oxidative damage may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OLP lesions. In conclusion, monitoring the oxidant-antioxidant status of saliva may serve as an efficient and less intrusive marker for determining stages of disease development in patients with OLP.

  14. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  15. Relationships between oral MUC1 expression and salivary hormones in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Yoon-Young; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2017-06-01

    To investigate possible relationships among oral mucosal epithelial MUC1 expression, salivary female gonadal hormones and stress markers, and clinical characteristics in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Thirty post-menopausal female patients with BMS (60.0±5.0 years) were included. Clinical and psychological evaluations were performed and the expression level of oral mucosal epithelial MUC1 was analyzed. The levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17β-estradiol, progesterone, chromogranin A, and blood contamination were determined from unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) samples. Salivary progesterone level had significant positive correlations with oral mucosal epithelial MUC1 expression level and with salivary cortisol and DHEA levels. The salivary level of 17β-estradiol showed significant positive correlations with period of symptom duration, severity of effects of oral complaints on daily life, and results from psychological evaluations. Cortisol level in UWS and cortisol/DHEA ratio in UWS and SWS had negative correlations with severity of oral burning sensation significantly. The severity of taste disturbance had positive correlations with results from psychometry significantly. Dysregulated psychoendocrinological interactions might affect oral mucosal MUC1 expression and severity of oral burning sensation in post-menopausal BMS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and number of teeth present, teeth with active carious lesions were recorded. Salivary flow rate and pH was recorded and subjected to biochemical investigation. Estimation of inorganic calcium and phosphate was performed by colorimetric method. Results showed statistically significant increase in salivary inorganic calcium and phosphate levels, poor oral hygiene status, pH and salivary flow rate in patients with periodontitis when compared with dental caries group and controls. Individuals who have increased salivary inorganic calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate and maintain poor oral hygiene could be at a higher risk for developing periodontitis and may have less dental caries and more number of intact teeth.

  17. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  18. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  19. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  20. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Baliga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001 whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  1. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

    2013-07-01

    Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.

  2. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  3. Recovery time from radiation-induced xerostomia and impairment of salivary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, Yukimi; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Murase, Kenya; Fujii, Takashi; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2000-01-01

    Between June 1995 and August 1997, we treated 23 patients with head and neck malignancies using an x-ray beam and then interviewed the patients to determine the degree of subjective salivary secretion and xerostomia after long-term radiation therapy. Interviews were continued for a maximum 179 weeks (mean, 76.3 weeks) after irradiation. We scored the results as the degree of subjective salivary secretion, then noted the recovery time for salivary secretion and xerostomia. When salivary glands had been irradiated to a total dose of 30 to 60 Gy, salivary secretion and oral dryness recovered within three years in 72% (13/18) and 67% (13/18) of the patients, respectively. However, these symptoms never recovered to their original levels when the total dose was more than 60 Gy. The acute and late effects of radiation therapy may induce a risk of dental caries, oral dryness, and osteoradionecrosis as well as taste impairment. Therefore, education as to dental and oral care is mandatory for patients who will be or who have been treated with radiotherapy. (author)

  4. The diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Idris; Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Demir, Nazan; Aktas, Gokce; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Late-night salivary cortisol is a frequently used and easily implemented diagnostically valuable test for the diagnosis of overt Cushing's syndrome. The use of late-night salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is somewhat controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol in diagnosing subclinical Cushing's syndrome and compare it with 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels (UFC). The study consisted of 33 cases of subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 59 cases of non-functioning adrenal adenoma, and 41 control subjects. Late-night salivary cortisol and UFC were measured in all the cases. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome was based on combined results of 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test > 1.8 μg/dL and ACTH Cushing's syndrome were significantly higher than in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma and the control group (p Cushing's syndrome were determined as 82% and 60%, respectively. Using a cut-off value of 137 μg/day, the sensitivity and specificity of UFC was determined as 18% and 90%, respectively. Because the sensitivity of late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is limited, using it as the sole screening test for subclinical Cushing's syndrome may lead to false negative results. However, using it as an adjunct test to other tests may be beneficial in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 487-492).

  5. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B; Crosara, Karla T B; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active.

  6. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  7. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  8. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  9. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  10. Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhini Madhavan Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6 in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P< 0.000. The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P< 0.002. Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6 can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children.

  11. Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland.

  12. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most salivary gland tumors in children are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to other tissues, but some are malignant (cancer). The prognosis for salivary gland cancer in children is usually good. Get information about of the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  14. Effect of Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Punica granatum Oral Rinse on the Levels of Salivary Streptococcus mutans in 8 to 12 Years Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aayushi; Marwah, Nikhil; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Goenka, Puneet; Goel, Deepak

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate and Punica granatum oral rinse on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children. A total of 60 children of 8 to 12 years of age were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group A was given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group B was given 10% A. aspera mouthwash and group C was given 15% P. granatum mouthwash. The day 1 saliva samples were collected from the subjects and inoculated onto mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. The colony counts were obtained by a clinical microbiologist who was blinded to the subject allocation. Plaque scores were then recorded by the investigator with the help of a volunteer. Following this, they received a thorough scaling and polishing. Subjects in each group were then provided with 140 ml of the respective mouthwash, as a daily supervised rinse after breakfast and before sleeping as per instructions. Following mouth rinsing, the children were instructed not to eat or drink for 15 minutes. At the 7th day, unstimulated saliva was again collected from the subjects of all 3 groups, inoculated onto MSB agar and colony count was obtained. Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index was also evaluated for the refreshed score at this stage. Colony counting was done using loop method and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 21. All the three mouthwashes showed statistically significant reduction of S. mutans count and plaque index after 7 days, i.e. chlorhexidine (p granatum (p granatum was statistically significant with respect to reduction of S. mutans count with chlorhexidine being marginally better than the other two; All the three mouthwashes were found to be at par when plaque index values from baseline and after interception of 7 days was calculated; Punica granatum has better antimicrobial effect than A. aspera.

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma: a Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. METHODS: By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... carcinoma incidence averages to two episodes per year in the entire Kingdom of Denmark. With half of patients in this study experiencing distant recurrences and only a third surviving at 5 years, prognosis is dismal. Advanced overall stage, vascular invasion and involved resection margins all seem...

  16. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  17. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh R. Khairnar; Arun S. Dodamani; G.N. Karibasappa; Rahul G. Naik; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2017-01-01

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19?21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). U...

  18. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  19. Xerostomia, salivary characteristics and gland volumes following intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a two-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Cpc; Soong, Y L; Pang, Epp; Lim, C; Walker, G D; Manton, D J; Reynolds, E C; Wee, Jts

    2018-03-23

    To evaluate changes in xerostomia status, salivary characteristics and gland volumes 2 years following radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Xerostomia scores, salivary flow rates, pH and buffering capacity were measured at pre-radiotherapy, mid-radiotherapy, 2 weeks, 3 months and 2 years post-radiotherapy. Salivary gland volumes and their correlation with radiation dose were also assessed. Mean radiation dose to oral cavity, parotid and submandibular glands (SMG) was 44.5, 65.0 and 38.6 Gy respectively. Parotid and SMG volumes decreased 33% at 3 months post-radiotherapy; volumes at 2 years post-radiotherapy were 84% and 51% of pre-radiotherapy levels, respectively. Correlations were observed between parotid gland volume per cent reduction and its radiation dose and between resting salivary flow rate reduction and post-radiotherapy/pre-radiotherapy SMG volume ratio. Salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly low at 2 years post-radiotherapy (both flow rates, P = 0.001; resting saliva pH, P = 0.005). Similarly, xerostomia scores remained significantly higher compared with pre-radiotherapy levels. Submandibular gland volumetric shrinkage persisted 2 years after radiotherapy. Xerostomia scores remained significantly higher, and salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly lower, suggesting that study participants were still at risk for hyposalivation-related oral diseases. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, D; Ganesan, S

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of saliva is currently being explored in various branches of dentistry, remarkably in the field of caries research. This study was aimed to determine if assessment of salivary pH and buffering capacity would serve as reliable tools in risk prediction of early childhood caries (ECC). Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from 50 children with ECC (group I) and 50 caries free children (group II). Salivary pH and buffering capacity (by titration with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid) were assessed using a handheld digital pH meter in both groups. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between both the groups for all salivary parameters assessed, except for the buffering capacity level at 150 μl titration of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (p = 0.73; significant at 1% level). Salivary pH and buffering capacity may not serve as reliable markers for risk prediction of ECC. How to cite this article: Jayaraj D, Ganesan S. Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):167-171.

  1. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  2. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain: the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdeladhim

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi-a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions-is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains.A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species.Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

  3. Salivary Markers and Microbial Flora in Mouth Breathing Late Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mummolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is a 6-month observational case-control study that aims to estimate plaque index (PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and specific Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Lactobacillus rates in a mouth breathing late adolescents sample, after a professional oral hygiene procedure and home oral hygiene instructions. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 20 mouth breathing late adolescents/young adults (average: 19.2±2.5; range: 18–23 years and a matched control group of nose breathing subjects (average: 18.3±3.2; range 18–23 years were included in the study. All the participants were subjected to a professional oral hygiene procedure and appropriate home oral hygiene instructions (t0. After three months (t1 and six months (t2, the PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and S. mutans and Lactobacilli rates were recorded. Results. The mean buffering capacity of saliva and the salivary flow rate showed no significant difference between the two groups, all over the observational period. For PI, a significantly higher mode (score 1 of PI was observed in the study group at t1 (score 0 = 35% of subjects; score 1 = 60%; score 2 = 5% and t2 (score 1 = 65% of subjects, score 2 = 35%, with respect to control group. Furthermore, mouth breathing subjects show a significant 4 times higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 (CI lower limit: 0.95; CI upper limit: 9.48; chi-square: 4.28; p=0.03, with respect to the control subjects. Conclusions. Mouth breathing late adolescents show a significantly higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 and an increased level of PI. Interceptive orthodontic treatments in growing subjects, like palatal expansion, are encouraged to improve the nasal air flow. In older subjects, orthodontic treatments should be performed with removable appliances like clear aligners, in order to allow a better oral hygiene level.

  4. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H. [Univ. Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peskar, B. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. Pharmakologie

    1998-03-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether {sup 131}I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received {sup 131}I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF{sub 1{alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}), PGF{sub 2{alpha}}], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF{sub 1} {sub {alpha}}, bicyclo-PGEm and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} and higher levels of TXB{sub 2} were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of {sup 131}I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  5. Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Havlik, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Peskar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prostaglandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate whether 131 I therapy influences the levels of PGs in saliva. Patients who had previously received 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer and healthy volunters were studied. Levels of PGs [6-oxo-PGF 1α , bicyclo-PGEm, thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ), PGF 2α ], in unstimulated saliva were measured using enzyme immunoassay. Significantly lower levels of 6-oxo-PGF 1 α , bicyclo-PGEm and PGF 2α and higher levels of TXB 2 were found in the group of patients in comparison with the controls. Differences between patients and controls were more pronounced in smokers. This study demonstrates that salivary gland uptake of 131 I significantly affects PG levels in saliva. (orig.)

  6. The role of neurotrophins related to stress in saliva and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruta, Juri; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in neurogenesis, differentiation, growth, and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play key roles in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when the developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimuli. Early life events, such as psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis, thereby affecting brain development and contributing to inter-individual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. Immobilization stress modifies BDNF mRNA expression in some organs. We studied the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rat submandibular glands, and found increased BDNF expression in duct cells under immobilization stress. Upon further investigation on the influence of salivary glands on plasma BDNF using an acute immobilization stress model, we found that acute immobilization stress lasting 60 min significantly increases the plasma BDNF level. However, plasma BDNF elevation is markedly suppressed in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. This suggests that salivary glands may be the primary source of plasma BDNF under acute immobilization stress. This report reviews the structure of salivary glands, the role of neurotrophins in salivary glands, and the significance of BDNF in saliva and salivary glands, followed by a summary of the evidence that indicates the relationship between immobilization stress and BDNF expression within salivary glands.

  7. Unstimulated Saliva-Related Caries Risk Factors in Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Unstimulated Salivary Flow, pH, and Buffering Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Alaa A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Presland, Richard B; Rothen, Marilynn L; Chi, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity are associated with dental caries, but studies from the cystic fibrosis (CF) literature are inconclusive regarding these salivary factors and caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate these factors and their associations with dental caries in individuals with CF. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from individuals aged 6-20 years at Seattle Children's Hospital CF Clinic, USA (n = 83). Salivary flow rate was measured in milliliters per minute. Salivary pH was assessed using a laboratory pH meter. Buffering capacity was assessed by titration with HCl. The outcome measure was caries prevalence, defined as the number of decayed, missing, or filled primary and permanent tooth surfaces. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t test were used to test for bivariate associations. Multiple variable linear regression models were used to (1) run confounder-adjusted analyses and (2) assess for potential interactions. There was no significant association between salivary flow rate or buffering capacity and caries prevalence. There was a significant negative association between salivary pH and caries prevalence, but this association was no longer significant after adjusting for age. There was no significant interaction between salivary flow rate and buffering capacity or between antibiotic use and the 3 salivary factors. Our results indicate that unstimulated salivary factors are not associated with dental caries prevalence in individuals with CF. Future studies should investigate other potential saliva-related caries risk factors in individuals with CF such as cariogenic bacteria levels, salivary host defense peptide levels, and medication use. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Semantic conditioning of salivary pH for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Carolin A; De Massari, Daniele; Wagner-Podmaniczky, Franziska; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Semantic conditioning of salivary pH was investigated as a new paradigm for binary communication. In a sample of eleven healthy participants, affirmation or negation of presented statements were paired with milk and lemon to condition changes in salivary pH level. Significant differences between the conditioned reactions were found at the group level. However, the analysis of pH changes on single-subject level revealed significant differences between affirmative and negative responses to the presented statements only for isolated samples in few participants. When classifying a change in pH value of more than .01 as correct response to a statement, only responses to affirmative statements reached mean accuracies of more than 60%. Improvements in the paradigm are necessary before testing it with the critical target population of patients to prove its profit for basic yes/no communication in case no other reliable means of communication could be preserved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary Interleukine 6 and its role on developing periodentitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Mohammed Juda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines .These cytokines are produced by leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells, and it is involved mainly in inflammatory processes. IL-6 has a role in stimulating the immune response as trigger to infection or trauma through the production of acute-phase proteins that accompany the inflammatory process. IL-6 synthesized according to code from messenger RNA, so their production in tissue in responce of inflammation are increased by the action of increasing expression of its own specific messenger RNA and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up- or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells according to the state of periodontal in health and disease so the local concentration of cytokines reflect the state of inflammatory process under control at nuclear level. The aim of study is to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine that associated the process of periodentitis Methods: Salivary specimens were obtained from patients having chronic periodentitis and healthy subject act as control group. The assessment of IL6 concentrations were established by technique enzyme linked immunoassay. . Results: level of IL-6 in saliva sample after evaluation the result showed statistically significant difference between patients and control . Conclusions: The result obtained from this study revealed that estimated salivary IL 6 can be used in management protocol of process of periodentitis

  10. Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tue H; Kern, Timo; Bak, Emilie G

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composi......Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity...... of vegans and omnivores is present at all taxonomic levels below phylum level and includes upper respiratory tract commensals (e.g. Neisseria subflava, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa) and species associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas...... endodontalis). Dietary intake of medium chain fatty acids, piscine mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibre was associated with bacterial diversity, community structure, as well as relative abundance of several species-level operational taxonomic units. Analysis of imputed genomic potential...

  11. Salivary microbiota and metabolome associated with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P endodontalis, and Prevotella nanceiensis), together with the smallest amount of Actinobacteria. T-CD children were also characterized by decreased levels of some Actinomyces species, Atopobium species, and Corynebacterium durum. Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome.

  12. Effect of Sugar-Free and Regular Toothpaste on Salivary Glucose and pH among Type 2 Diabetes- A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Junaid; Dodamani, Arun; Baviskar, Priya; Karibasappa, G N; Pathak, Parag; Bezalwar, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases of mankind having general as well as oral health manifestations. Also, there is an increase of salivary glucose level in diabetic, inducing saccharolytic bacteria in saliva which can have adverse effects on oral tissue. To assess and compare the effect of sugar-free toothpaste on salivary glucose and pH among Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. A randomized controlled-crossover study was carried out on 30 Type 2 diabetic (Group A) and 45 non-diabetic (Group B) subjects. In first half of study, subjects in Group A and Group B were intervened with sugar-free and regular toothpaste respectively. Salivary glucose and pH was assessed before and after brushing at interval of one week for a period of four weeks. In second half, toothpastes were switched over between the groups, after sufficient washout period. Salivary glucose and pH were assessed again in the same manner for both the groups. The data was subjected to paired t-test and unpaired t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison respectively. Salivary glucose level was significantly reduced and salivary pH was increased significantly (psalivary glucose level and salivary pH level on diabetes and non-diabetes population.

  13. Effect of Salivary Factors on the Susceptibility of Hydroxyapatite to Early Erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ligtenberg, A. J. M.; Bronkhorst, E.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; Vissink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salivary pellicle is known to reduce the erosion of enamel and differences in the level of protection exist between individual saliva sources, but which parameters or components are important is not known. The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between saliva

  14. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…

  15. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Bianchi, S.; Gravina, G.; Podesta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/I and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low-or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment

  16. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Bianchi, S.; Gravina, G.; Podesta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/I and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low-or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment.

  17. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  18. Focus on Methodology: Salivary Bioscience and Research on Adolescence: An Integrated Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A.; Fortunato, Christine K.; Beltzer, Emilie K.; Virag, Marta; Bright, Melissa A.; Out, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the salivary proteome and advances in biotechnology create an opportunity for developmental scientists to measure multi-level components of biological systems in oral fluids and identify relationships with developmental processes and behavioral and social forces. The implications for developmental science are profound…

  19. Salivary Cortisol Mediates Effects of Poverty and Parenting on Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha; Greenberg, Mark T.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Fortunato, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income population-based longitudinal sample of 1,292 children followed from birth, higher level of salivary cortisol assessed at ages 7, 15, and 24 months was uniquely associated with lower executive function ability and to a lesser extent IQ at age 3 years. Measures of positive and negative aspects of parenting and…

  20. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  1. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  2. Salivary antioxidants in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes and inflammatory periodontal disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pinar; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Hawkins, Samuel I; Renaud, Diane; Kinane, Denis F; Scott, David A

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare salivary concentrations of reduced, oxidized glutathione, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant capacity in subjects with diabetes and systemically healthy subjects with inflammatory periodontal disease. Sixteen patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), 25 patients with type 2 DM, and 24 systemically healthy patients, all with inflammatory periodontal disease, were recruited. Whole-saliva samples were obtained, and full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements, including plaque index, probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing, were recorded at six sites per tooth. Saliva flow rate and salivary levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione, vitamin C, uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity were determined. Data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric tests. The subjects with type 2 DM had fewer teeth and more sites with probing depths >4 mm than the patients with type 1 DM (both P salivary reduced-glutathione concentration was lower in patients with type 1 DM than in the other two groups (both P salivary concentrations of the other antioxidants measured were found among the groups (P >0.05). Oxidized glutathione levels in the patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower than in the systemically healthy group (P = 0.007). In both groups with diabetes, salivary reduced-glutathione levels correlated positively with probing depth, and total antioxidant capacity correlated with salivary flow rate (P salivary reduced-glutathione levels in patients with type 1 DM may have a role in periodontal tissue destruction by predisposing tissues to oxidative stress.

  3. Effect of long-term smoking on salivary flow rate and salivary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Mala Singh; Navin Anand Ingle; Navpreet Kaur; Pramod Yadav; Ekta Ingle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Saliva is a complex and important body fluid which is very essential for oral health and it is the first biological fluid that is exposed to cigarette smoke, which contains numerous toxic compositions responsible for structural and functional changes in saliva. Aim: To evaluate the long-term effect of smoking on salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study were divided into smokers and nonsmokers. Each group comprised of 35 male adul...

  4. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Abolfazli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an impor-tant role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical perio-dontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodonti-tis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL and radio-graphic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodon-tal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]. Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05. Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels.

  5. Effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture on salivary immunoglobulin A and the autonomic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideaki, Waki; Tatsuya, Hisajima; Shogo, Miyazaki; Naruto, Yoshida; Hideaki, Tamai; Yoichi, Minakawa; Yoshihiro, Okuma; Kazuo, Uebaba; Hidenori, Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous study has reported that low-frequency (LF) electroacupuncture (EA) influences salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is known to control the secretion volume of sIgA; however, the effect of high-frequency (HF) EA on salivary sIgA has not been determined. We investigated whether HF EA affects salivary sIgA levels and the ANS. Method Sixteen healthy subjects were randomly classified into two groups: a control group and an EA group. After a 5 min rest, subjects in the EA group received EA at 100 Hz bilaterally at LI4 and LI11 for 15 min before resting for a further 40 min post-stimulation. Subjects in the control group rested for a total of 60 min. Measurements of the ANS and sIgA levels in both groups were made before, immediately after, 20 min after, and 40 min after rest or 15 min EA treatment. HF and LF components of heart rate variability were analysed as markers of ANS function. LF/HF ratio and HF were taken as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively. Salivary protein concentrations and sIgA levels were determined by Bradford protein assay and ELISA, respectively. Results LF/HF ratio was significantly increased immediately after EA. HF was significantly increased at 20 min after EA and sIgA level was significantly increased at 40 min after EA. In addition, HF and salivary sIgA level were positively correlated with each another. Conclusions HF EA exerted sequential positive effects on sympathetic nerve activity, parasympathetic nerve activity, and salivary sIgA level (immediately and after 20 and 40 min, respectively). HF EA may increase salivary sIgA levels by influencing parasympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26449884

  6. Effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture on salivary immunoglobulin A and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideaki, Waki; Tatsuya, Hisajima; Shogo, Miyazaki; Naruto, Yoshida; Hideaki, Tamai; Yoichi, Minakawa; Yoshihiro, Okuma; Kazuo, Uebaba; Hidenori, Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    A previous study has reported that low-frequency (LF) electroacupuncture (EA) influences salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is known to control the secretion volume of sIgA; however, the effect of high-frequency (HF) EA on salivary sIgA has not been determined. We investigated whether HF EA affects salivary sIgA levels and the ANS. Sixteen healthy subjects were randomly classified into two groups: a control group and an EA group. After a 5 min rest, subjects in the EA group received EA at 100 Hz bilaterally at LI4 and LI11 for 15 min before resting for a further 40 min post-stimulation. Subjects in the control group rested for a total of 60 min. Measurements of the ANS and sIgA levels in both groups were made before, immediately after, 20 min after, and 40 min after rest or 15 min EA treatment. HF and LF components of heart rate variability were analysed as markers of ANS function. LF/HF ratio and HF were taken as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively. Salivary protein concentrations and sIgA levels were determined by Bradford protein assay and ELISA, respectively. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased immediately after EA. HF was significantly increased at 20 min after EA and sIgA level was significantly increased at 40 min after EA. In addition, HF and salivary sIgA level were positively correlated with each another. HF EA exerted sequential positive effects on sympathetic nerve activity, parasympathetic nerve activity, and salivary sIgA level (immediately and after 20 and 40 min, respectively). HF EA may increase salivary sIgA levels by influencing parasympathetic nerve activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Salivary biomarkers associated with gingivitis and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndergaard, Ben; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Kryscio, Richard J; Xi, Jing; Ding, Xiuhua; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Miller, Craig S

    2014-08-01

    Salivary biomarkers are potentially important for determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. However, clinical translation of biomarker technology from lab to chairside requires studies that identify biomarkers associated with the transitional phase between health and periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis). Eighty participants (40 with gingivitis, 40 healthy) provided saliva at baseline and 7 to 30 days later. An additional sample was collected from gingivitis participants 10 to 30 days after dental prophylaxis. Clinical parameters of gingival disease were recorded at baseline and the final visit. Salivary concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Clinical features of health and gingivitis were stable at both baseline visits. Participants with gingivitis demonstrated significantly higher bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) (P ≤0.002) and a significant drop in BOP, PI, and GI post-treatment (P ≤0.001). Concentrations of MIP-1α and PGE2 were significantly higher (2.8 times) in the gingivitis group than the healthy group (P ≤0.02). After dental prophylaxis, mean biomarker concentrations did not decrease significantly from baseline in the gingivitis group, although concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 approached healthy levels, whereas MIP-1α and PGE2 concentrations remained significantly higher than in the healthy group (P ≤0.04). Odds ratio analyses showed that PGE2 concentrations, alone and in combination with MIP-1α, readily discriminated gingivitis from health. Salivary PGE2 and MIP-1α discriminate gingivitis from health, and patients with gingivitis who return to clinical health continue to produce inflammatory mediators for weeks after dental prophylaxis.

  8. Association of onabotulinum toxin A treatment with salivary pH and dental caries of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Beatriz; Dabbagh, Basma; Daniel, Sam J; Schwartz, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Sialorrhea is a common manifestation of several neurological disorders. The use of intraglandular onabotulinum toxin A (OBTXA) injection has been recognized to effectively treat sialorrhea. As OBTXA injection reduces salivary flow rate and alters salivary quality, its use may have a detrimental effect on oral health. To examine the effect of OBTXA injection on caries experience and salivary pH of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea. Twenty-five children receiving OBTXA treatment and 25 control children were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva was collected to determine salivary pH. All participants underwent an interview on their dietary habits. Dental clinical examinations were carried out to evaluate caries experience and oral hygiene level. Overall, mean salivary pH value was significantly lower in the OBTXA group (6.92 ± 0.77) compared with the control group (7.36 ± 0.70). Caries activity was significantly higher in the OBTXA group (P = 0.01). The regression analyses showed a significant association between OBTXA treatment and salivary pH value (P = 0.03). Results from the logistic regression show that dental caries was significantly associated with OBTXA treatment (OR = 1.73, CI = 1.14-27.3). The study showed an intricate relationship between OBTXA treatment and oral findings. Hence, special dental care should be given to children receiving OBTXA treatment. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the e