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Sample records for salivary cotinine concentrations

  1. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

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    Pascual José A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

  2. Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh

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    Huque, Rumana; Shah, Sarwat; Mushtaq, Nasir; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours. Methods In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables. Results The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model. Conclusion This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention. PMID:27504912

  3. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

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    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary...

  4. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

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    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  5. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

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    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  6. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

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    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar el consumo de tabaco en la población adulta de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa (n=1117 de la población adulta (>16 años de la ciudad de Barcelona (2004-2005. El estudio recogió información sobre tabaquismo (activo y pasivo mediante cuestionario y una muestra de saliva para la determinación de cotinina. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad y especificidad estratificado por sexo, edad, tipo de consumo (diario y ocasional y exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en el hogar. Se calcularon las curvas ROC y el área bajo la curva. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores (diarios y ocasionales fue del 27,8% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 25,2-30,4%. El punto de corte óptimo que separa a los no fumadores de los fumadores es 9,2ng/ml (sensibilidad del 88,7% y especificidad del 89,0%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,952. El punto de corte fue 12,2ng/ml para los hombres y 7,6 para las mujeres, y aumentaba en los grupos de edad con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo. Los fumadores diarios tenían un punto de corte superior al de los fumadores ocasionales. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo que discrimina fumadores de no fumadores en la población adulta es 9,2ng/ml, con sensibilidad y especificidad cercanas al 90%. El punto de corte es más alto en los hombres y en los grupos de menor edad, y aumenta cuanto mayor es la prevalencia de consumo diario.Objective: To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=1,117 of the adult population (>16 years in Barcelona (2004-2005. This study gathered information on active and passive smoking by means of a questionnaire and a saliva sample for cotinine determination. We analyzed sensitivity and

  7. Evaluating the Accuracy of Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke during Pregnancy by Measuring Umbilical Cord Blood Cotinine Concentration

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    Seyed Zahra Banihosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS during pregnancy leads to fetal and neonatal complications. Since the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on maternal self-reporting may not be accurate, this study design to evaluate the validity and accuracy of maternal self- reported SHS exposure, using the cord blood cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 108 non-smoking pregnant women. They were divided into two groups based on their reports; smoke exposed (54 and non-exposed groups (54. Exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed during pregnancy by measuring cord blood cotinine and using questionnaires. The umbilical cord blood of newborns was obtained at delivery room to evaluate the amount of cotinine (main metabolite of nicotine and for estimation of the accuracy of maternal self-reported to SHS exposure, cut-off point Cotinine level of umbilical cord serum that more than 2 ng/ml was considered as positive exposed. Result: The geometric mean cotinine of umbilical cord serum in the exposed group (3.71±1.22 ng/ml was significantly higher than the non-exposed (0.404±0.63 ng/ml (P<0.0001. There was a strong association between maternal reported SHS exposure and umbilical cord cotinine (Kappa= 98%, P<0.0001. In addition, the reported SHS exposure had 98% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 98% negative predictive value in comparison to umbilical cord cotinine concentration. Conclusion: This study shows that maternal self-reported SHS exposure is highly accurate .Moreover it seems valid questionnaire. Should be considered as an alternative method for measuring chemical biomarkers, such as cotinine; if the structured questionnaires and accurate interviewing techniques is used.

  8. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Jenkins, Roger A [ORNL; Counts, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  9. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

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    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3′-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3′-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of

  10. Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.

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    Yuki, Dai; Kikuchi, Akira; Miura, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Onozawa, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in 16 healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics.

  11. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

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    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  12. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

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    Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  13. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

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    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  14. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

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    Joanna Stragierowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000 ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000 ng/mL. The mean recoveries were 3.7±7.6% for urine and 99.1±2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12 ng/mL and for urine 0.05 ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9 ng/mL and urine 42.3 ng/mL or 53.1 μg/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting.

  15. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

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    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  16. The influence of moderate reduction in dietary sodium on human salivary sodium concentration.

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    Christensen, C M; Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K; Navazesh, M; Engelman, K

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy subjects were placed for 12-13 weeks on diets that reduced average sodium intake from 145 to 74 m-equiv. Na+/day as determined by multiple 24-h urine collections before and during the diet. Whole-mouth resting and stimulated saliva was collected and analysed for flow rate and sodium concentration several times before and during the low-sodium period. Sodium restriction did not influence salivary flow rates but salivary sodium levels fell 25 per cent for resting and 17 per cent for stimulated saliva. Thus moderate reductions in sodium intake are accompanied by significantly lower salivary sodium levels.

  17. Nitric Oxide Concentration and Other Salivary Changes after Insertion of New Complete Dentures in Edentulous Subjects

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    Maria de Lourdes Breseghelo; Lídia Andreu Guillo; Túlio Eduardo Nogueira; Cláudio Rodrigues Leles

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes in levels of salivary nitric oxide (NO) after insertion of new complete dentures and its association with clinical and salivary parameters. Methods. Nineteen fully edentulous subjects were included, mean age 64.4. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after insertion of the dentures, at follow-up visits, and after 12 months. The concentration of the final stable NO product (nitrite) was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the Griess reaction. Cl...

  18. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

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    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  19. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

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    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed.

  20. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

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    Cedric Jurysta

    2009-01-01

    saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  1. Nitric Oxide Concentration and Other Salivary Changes after Insertion of New Complete Dentures in Edentulous Subjects.

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    Breseghelo, Maria de Lourdes; Guillo, Lídia Andreu; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes in levels of salivary nitric oxide (NO) after insertion of new complete dentures and its association with clinical and salivary parameters. Methods. Nineteen fully edentulous subjects were included, mean age 64.4. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after insertion of the dentures, at follow-up visits, and after 12 months. The concentration of the final stable NO product (nitrite) was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the Griess reaction. Clinical parameters were assessed during all clinical visits. Results. Functional adaptation to the dentures progressively improved, with no complaints at the long-term follow-up. NO concentration was not influenced by the level of functional adaptation, presence of injuries to the mucosa, salivary flow, and saliva viscosity. Pairwise comparison showed a reduction in NO concentration at the first follow-up compared to baseline values but differences were not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed in NO concentrations at the long-term follow-up when compared to the first (p = 0.024) and second (p = 0.027) visits. Conclusion. NO concentration reduced after denture insertion and returned to baseline levels in the long-term follow-up. This appears to be an autonomic response of the body and provides valuable complementary information for the management of the edentulous patient. PMID:27034674

  2. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

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    Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (...

  3. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

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    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  4. Investigation of The Association between Salivary Procalcitonin Concentration and Chronic Periodontitis

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    Hojatollah Yousefimanesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Changes in biomarkers seem to be associated with the disease progression. Procalcitonin (PCT is one of these biomarkers that are altered during infection. This study was established to investigate the relationship between periodontitis as an infectious disease and salivary PCT. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and 30 health individuals as control group who were referred to Dental School, Jundishapur University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran at Feb to Apr 2014. The saliva samples were collected and analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Data analysis was performed using t test with the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 13. Results: In both groups, age and sex distribution values were not significantly different. The concentrations of salivary PCT in controls and patients ranged from 0.081 pg/ mL to 0.109 pg/mL and from 0.078 pg/mL to 0.114 pg/mL, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the two groups were not observed (P=0.17. Conclusion: It seems that salivary PCT concentration is not affected by disease progression. Therefore, PCT is not a valuable marker for the existence of periodontal disease.

  5. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

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    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  6. Relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in 12–15 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyana Pratiwi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection leading to dissolution and localized damage of hard tissues. The assessment of caries risk is based on several caries indicators including clinical conditions (DMF-T index, environment (fluor, and general health. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in children aging 12–15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Methods: This study is an observational analytical study using crosssectional approach and is conducted in a field trial manner. The study sample consists of 80 students in the age of 12 to 15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII selected through Probability Sampling manner using simple random sampling method. Results: The result of this study shows a DMF-T index of 4.32 and salivary fluor concentration mean of 0.018. Pearson Product Moment correlation test shows that there is a weak correlation between salivary fluor concentration and DMF-T index. Conclusion: It is concluded that the salivary fluor concentration has an insignificant correlation with the DMF-T index since the fluor concentration in saliva is very low.Latar belakang: Karies gigi adalah penyakit infeksi bakteri yang berakibat pada disolusi dan kerusakan terlokalisasi jaringan keras. Penilaian risiko karies berdasarkan atas beberapa indikator karies yaitu kondisi klinis (indeks DMF-T, lingkungan (fluor, dan kesehatan umum. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan konsentrasi fluor yang terdapat dalam saliva dengan indeks karies pada anak usia 12-15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional yang dilakukan di lapangan. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 80 orang siswasiswi usia 12–15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan yang dipilih secara Probability Sampling dengan metode simple random sampling. Hasil

  7. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g, gummy bears (2.6 g, and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g; Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15 received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g. For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 μg.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 μg.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0

  8. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedy, Christine A; Milgrom, Peter; Ly, Kiet A; Rothen, Marilynn; Mueller, Gregory; Hagstrom, Mary K; Tolentino, Ernie; Zhou, Lingmei; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g)); Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g). For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL) were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length) after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC) for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product. Results In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup) had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 μg.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 μg.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 μg.min/mL, gummy

  9. Aggressive behavior and change in salivary testosterone concentrations predict willingness to engage in a competitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-08-01

    The current study investigated relationships among aggressive behavior, change in salivary testosterone concentrations, and willingness to engage in a competitive task. Thirty-eight male participants provided saliva samples before and after performing the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (a laboratory measure that provides opportunity for aggressive and defensive behavior while working for reward; all three involve pressing specific response keys). Baseline testosterone concentrations were not associated with aggressive responding. However, aggressive responding (but not point reward or point protection responding) predicted the pre- to post-PSAP change in testosterone: Those with the highest aggressive responding had the largest percent increase in testosterone concentrations. Together, aggressive responding and change in testosterone predicted willingness to compete following the PSAP. Controlling for aggression, men who showed a rise in testosterone were more likely to choose to compete again (p=0.03) and controlling for testosterone change, men who showed the highest level of aggressive responding were more likely to choose the non-competitive task (p=0.02). These results indicate that situation-specific aggressive behavior and testosterone responsiveness are functionally relevant predictors of future social behavior.

  10. A simplified method for the analysis of urinary cotinine by GC-MS

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    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and, being very stable and having a long biological half-life, it can be used as a biomarker for tobacco exposure. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical GC-MS technique to measure levels of cotinine in the urine of active and passive smokers and to compare the results with reference values. The extraction of cotinine to generate the calibration curve was performed by mixing urine (250 µL with 50 µL of a cotinine standard, 50 µL of an internal standard of deuterated cotinine (15 µg∙mL-1 and 50 µL of 10% NH4 OH solution. Next, 2 mL of a mixture of MTBE:dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (30:30:40 by volume was added and the whole was vortexed, then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Finally, 1.6 mL of the organic layer was evaporated under a stream of dry air at 50 °C. The resulting extract was dissolved in methanol and injected into the GC-MS system. The LOQ and LOD for cotinine were 100 and 20 ng∙mL-1, respectively. The curve was linear over the whole tested range of 100 - 5000 ng∙mL-1 and the method achieved 50% recovery. The intra and inter-day precisions were 1.62 – 7.28% and 0.86 – 2.68%, respectively. Accuracy was determined at three concentrations (low, medium and high, with six replicates (95.24 – 97.67%. The validation of this cotinine assay by GC-MS showed that it exhibited satisfactory limits and the assay could be performed with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction. The technique presented here can thus be used for the quantitation of cotinine levels in the urine of passive and active smokers.

  11. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P≤.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  12. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Mikkelsen, Sigurd;

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public...... employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed...... with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression...

  13. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. PMID:26852009

  14. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

  15. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Belva; M. Bonduelle; J. Schiettecatte; H. Tournaye; R.C. Painter; P. Devroey; J. de Schepper

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  16. INFLUENCE OF SMOKING ON THE SALIVARY AND BLOOD CONCENTRATION OF SOME BIVALENT CATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al. MANEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind the modifications observed in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper. The investigations were performed on an experimental group of 30 patients with clinically-onset chronic periodontitis, and on a control one, including 30 periodontitisfree patients. Total saliva samples were obtained as “first time in the morning” then weighed and processed. Cations were read on an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Calcium, Copper and Zinc and also by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium. The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. The obtained data were normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. The results obtained showed a clear connection of blood magnesium, and also of salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, to chronic periodontitis. Salivary cations are therefore related to the local inflammatory status and associated pathological processes. Blood magnesium could be affected by chronic inflammation.

  17. A theoretical analysis of the effects of plaque thickness and initial salivary sucrose concentration on diffusion of sucrose into dental plaque and its conversion to acid during salivary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Dibdin, G H

    1986-02-01

    A mathematical model, written in FORTRAN, has been developed to simulate the interrelated processes of salivary sucrose clearance from the mouth, diffusion of sucrose into dental plaque, and conversion of sucrose to acid and glucan. Reaction of acid with enamel is not included in the model. A total of 28 parameters can be varied by the user, and the relative importance of the different factors affecting acid formation can be assessed. The output of the program gives sucrose and acid concentrations and pH at different depths within the plaque. The initial variables studied were plaque thickness, the salivary sucrose concentration, and the duration of exposure of the plaque to sucrose. Stephan curves typical of those recorded in vivo were generated by the model. With any particular salivary sucrose concentration, there was an optimum plaque thickness at which a minimum pH was achieved at the enamel surface, with very thin or thick plaque samples producing a smaller pH fall. With thick plaque, the minimum pH was often not achieved at the inner surface but at some intermediate depth, which may explain the location of early caries lesions in fissures. The extent of the pH fall at the inner surface and the duration of the pH-minimum region of the Stephan curve were directly related to the initial salivary sucrose concentration and to the duration of exposure to sucrose prior to normal salivary clearance. Simulation of a water rinse at as short a time as two min after the beginning of normal salivary sugar clearance showed that this procedure had only a very small effect on the shape of the Stephan curve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3455974

  18. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in response to running, sexual self-stimulation, breastfeeding and the TSST: The Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D

    2015-12-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. PMID:26385109

  19. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in seven boys with autism spectrum disorder received massage from their mothers: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji eTsuji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven male children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, aged 8 – 12 years, attending special education classrooms for ASD and disabled children, were assigned to receive touch therapy. Their mothers were instructed to provide gentle touch in the massage style of the International Liddle Kidz Association. The mothers gave massages to their child for 20 minutes every day over a period of 3 months followed by no massage for 4 months. To assess the biological effects of such touch therapy, saliva was collected before and 20 minutes after a single session of massage for 20 minutes from the children and mothers every 3 weeks during the massage period and every 4 weeks during the non-massage period, when they visited a community meeting room. Salivary oxytocin levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit. During the period of massage therapy, the children and mothers exhibited higher oxytocin concentrations compared those during the non-massage period. The changes in oxytocin levels before and after a single massage session were not significantly changed in children and mothers. The results suggested that the ASD children (massage receivers and their mothers (massage givers show touch therapy-dependent changes in salivary oxytocin concentrations.

  20. Circadian variations in salivary chromogranin a concentrations during a 24-hour period in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Kazutaka; Hino, Mariko; Hori, Yasutomo; Nakao, Ruriko; HOSHI, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki; HIGUCHI, Seiichi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if salivary chromogranin a secretion in dogs exhibits a circadian rhythm. Saliva sampling was performed during three different sessions occurring in three nonconsecutive 24-h periods. Sixteen healthy adult beagle dogs (8 males and 8 females) were moved to a sampling room and housed individually in cages. Saliva samples were obtained every 4 h from 12:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. the following day. In the interest of habituation, saliva was obtained hourly f...

  1. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual images can produce rapid changes in testosterone concentrations. We explored the acute effects of video clips on salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance in highly trained male athletes (n=12). Saliva samples were collected on 6 occasions immediately before and 15 min after watching a brief video clip (approximately 4 min in duration) on a computer screen. The watching of a sad, erotic, aggressive, training motivational, humorous or a neutral control clip was randomised. Subjects then performed a squat workout aimed at producing a 3 repetition maximum (3RM) lift. Significant (Ppre-workout environment offers an opportunity for understanding the outcomes of hormonal change, athlete behaviour and subsequent voluntary performance. PMID:21983238

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  3. The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Anjana A; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos;

    2015-01-01

    Saliva samples are easy to collect and are applicable for home-sampling, e.g. when studying HPA-axis dynamics to characterize diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response. However, the storing and transport conditions might be critical in the home-sampling approach. Here, we tested...... the stability of saliva cortisol in samples stored at different temperatures and after repeated thawing-freezing cycles when measured with an Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA). Thirteen healthy volunteers, six women and seven men, mean age 31 (range 26-49) years collected saliva either in the morning hours (08...... it was stored at - 80°C. The last tube was stored directly at - 80°C and served as the 'gold standard'. The saliva samples were assayed using Salivary Cortisol Diagnostic EIA. Differences in cortisol measurements between each of the five conditions and the 'gold standard' (- 80°C) were evaluated by one-sample t...

  4. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  5. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  6. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann Laura; Veeck Elaine B; Marinho Sandra A; Rockenbach Maria I; Shinkai Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliv...

  7. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  8. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  9. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  10. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Heugten, van E.; Timmer, S.; Bosch, G.; Elias, A.; Whisnant, S.; Swarts, H.J.M.; Ferket, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research

  11. A receiver operated curve-based evaluation of change in sensitivity and specificity of cotinine urinalysis for detecting active tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has been associated with various carcinomas including lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix. Biomarkers such as concentration of cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva have been used as objective measures to distinguish nonusers and users of tobacco products. A change in the cut-off value of urinary cotinine to detect active tobacco use is associated with a change in sensitivity and sensitivity of detection. Aim: The current study aimed at assessing the impact of using different cut-off thresholds of urinary cotinine on sensitivity and specificity of detection of smoking and smokeless tobacco product use among psychiatric patients. Settings and Design: All the male subjects attending the psychiatry out-patient department of the tertiary care multispecialty teaching hospital constituted the sample frame for the current study in a cross-sectionally. Materials and Methods: Quantitative urinary cotinine assay was done by using ELISA kits of Calbiotech. Inc., USA. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off values of urinary cotinine to identify active smokers and users of smokeless tobacco products. Results: ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking provided the area under curve (AUC of 0.434. Similarly, the ROC analysis of urinary cotinine levels in detection of self-reported smoking revealed AUC of 0.44. The highest sensitivity and specificity of 100% for smoking were detected at the urinary cut-off value greater than or equal to 2.47 ng/ml. Conclusions: The choice of cut-off value of urinary cotinine used to distinguish nonusers form active users of tobacco products impacts the sensitivity as well as specificity of detection.

  12. The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad H. AL-Bayaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64 year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood “10 mL” were obtained in vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for quantitative analysis of serum levels of cotinine. The serum samples were analyzed for cotinine content by means of a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Results: Current smokers represent the highest mean cotinine serum level, 95.5 ng mL-1, compared to former smokers, 35.5 ng mL-1 and non smokers, 22.9 ng mL-1. The mean serum cotinine level in periodontally healthy patient showed the highest cotinine level (84 ng mL-1 followed by the gingivitis patients (68 ng mL-1 and (50 ng mL-1 for periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present observations clearly indicate an association between smoking, periodontal disease clinical parameters “plaque, gingival bleeding scores” and cotinine serum levels in current smokers. Cotinine serum levels doesn’t affected by the existence or the severity of periodontal disease.

  13. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ≤10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  14. Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Prolo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet other salivary components, such as α-amylase, which provide a re...

  15. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cassano, Christopher L; Xu, Xin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay have been developed for the detection of cotinine, a secondhand smoke (SHS) biomarker. The devices were fabricated by a craft-cutter to define flow channels, followed by lamination. This approach of cutting/lamination to fabricate LPAD is very similar to making an identification card, offering advantages in simplicity and rugged backing when compared to the common method of patterning paper using SU-8 or wax. We also developed a protocol of localized incision and paper-folding to isolate the detection zone from flow channels; the simple origami step eliminated possible reagent diffusion and flow during antibody immobilization steps and numerous washings. By incorporating luminol-based chemiluminescence for detecting horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cotinine, we employed origami-enabled LPAD to detect cotinine in mouse serum using competitive immunoassay. The detection limit was determined to be 5 ng/mL, a clinically relevant concentration. We believe that LPAD with chemiluminescence detection provides a new platform of low cost and sensitive assays for cotinine detection.

  16. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  17. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazli, Nader; Jabali, Sahar; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Babaloo, Zohreh; Shirmohammadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an important role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Materials...

  18. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  19. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  20. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  1. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  2. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  4. A New Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Solid-phase Extraction of Cotinine from Human Urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun YANG; Xiao Lan ZHU; Ji Bao CAI; Qing De SU; Yun GAO; Liang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), prepared around a cotinine template, has been synthesized. The feasibility of using the polymer for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of cotinine from biological samples has been investigated. The results show that cotinine can be quantitatively retained and eluted from the polymer. Experiments with human urine samples indicate that clean target analyte is obtained for HPLC with UV detection using the protocol.

  5. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay of cotinine in serum based on nanoparticle probe and immunochromatographic strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian Hungchi [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang Jun; Wu Hong [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lo, Jiunn-Guang [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kong-Hwa [Department of Applied Science, National DongHwa University, Hualien, 970, 30013, Taiwan (China); Pounds, Joel G. [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lin Yuehe, E-mail: yuehe.lin@pnnl.gov [Pacific Norwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoparticle probe in immunochromatographic strip. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced sensitivity by using nanoparticle label. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid and sensitive detection of cotinine in serum. - Abstract: A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine linked with quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL{sup -1} to 100 ng mL{sup -1} cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum. The results demonstrate that this sensor is rapid, accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  7. Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-03

    A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

  8. Cotinine – metabolism, application as a biomarker and the effects on the organism 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Marcin Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the current state of knowledge on cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine. Special attention is paid to the formation of this compound in the organism, its metabolism, application in diagnostic procedures and evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo activities. For many years, cotinine has been used as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Currently, this compound is applied in many other studies including the use of cotinine in the treatment of various diseases. Several years ago, Scott et al. patented therapeutic applications of cotinine in chronic and acute inflammation. Cotinine is an interesting compound with a well-known metabolism; therefore there are suggestions for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. 

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hassanzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001. Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001, saliva (p=0.001, and urine (p=0.0014. In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001, urine (p=0.007, and saliva (p=0.01 of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024, urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01 and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031 were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma.

  11. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  12. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

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    Lina Kalalo

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group.

  13. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

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    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  14. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

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    Valentina eEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  15. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  16. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aino eSalminen; K.A. Elisa Kopra; Kati eHyvärinen; Susanna ePaju; Päivi eMäntylä; Kåre eBuhlin; Nieminen, Markku S; Juha eSinisalo; Pirkko J Pussinen

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9±9.2 years) with coronary artery disease diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Median salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia...

  17. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pirkko J Pussinen

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromona...

  18. Simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine N-oxide in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Awwad, Ahmad; Arafat, Tawfiq; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (Nic) distribution in human fluids and tissues has a deleterious effect on human health. In addition to its poisoning profile, Nic may contribute to the particular impact of smoking on human reproduction. Although present in seminal fluid, still nobody knows whether nicotine is available in sperm or not. Herein, we developed and validated a new bioanalytical method, for simultaneous determination of Nic, cotinine (Cot), and nicotine N'-oxide (Nox) in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-ESI-orbitrap-MS. Blood and semen samples were collected from 12 healthy smoking volunteers in this study. Sperm bodies were then separated quantitatively from 1 mL of semen samples by centrifugation. The developed method was fully validated for plasma following European and American guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, and partial validation was applied to semen analysis. Plasma, semen, and sperm samples were treated by trichloroacetic acid solution for protein direct precipitation in single extraction step. The established calibration range for Nic and Nox in plasma and semen was linear between 5 and 250 ng/mL, and for Cot between 10 and 500 ng/mL. Nic and Cot were detected in human sperm at concentrations as high as in plasma. In addition, Nox was present in semen and sperm but not in plasma. Graphical abstract Nicotine correlation between plasma and semen a; Nicotine correlation between semen and sperm c; Cotinine correlation between plasma and semen b; Cotinine correlation between semen and sperm d.

  19. Salivary concentrations of urea released from a chewing gum containing urea and how these affect the urea content of gel-stabilized plaques and their pH after exposure to sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Dibdin, G H

    2001-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) determine the salivary concentrations of urea during 20 min chewing of a sugar-free gum containing 30 mg of urea; (2) measure the degree to which this urea would diffuse into a gel-stabilized plaque; (3) study the effect of the urea on the fall and subsequent rise in pH (Stephan curve) on exposure to 10% sucrose for 1 min; (4) model the measurements 2 and 3 mathematically. In point 1, the salivary urea concentration of the 12 subjects peaked at 47 mmol/l in the first 2 min of gum chewing, falling within 15 min to the unstimulated salivary concentration of 3.4 mmol/l. Recovery of urea from the saliva averaged 81.5%. 'Plaques' of 1% agarose or 67% dead bacteria in agarose accumulated urea from the saliva roughly as expected, whereas those plaques containing 8% live and 59% dead Streptococcus vestibularis showed negligible accumulation. Computer modelling showed this difference to be due to urease of live bacteria breaking down the urea as rapidly as it entered the plaque. Simulation of the effect of gum chewing subsequent to initiation of a Stephan curve in the latter type of plaque showed a rapid rise in pH but then a fall again on return to unstimulated conditions. This fall had not been seen in previous studies, with Streptococcus oralis, nor was it predicted by the computer modelling. Neither experimental simulation nor computer modelling suggested that chewing urea-containing gum before exposure to sucrose would have any effect on a subsequent Stephan curve. Thus chewing gum is only likely to inhibit caries when it is chewed after consumption of fermentable carbohydrate, rather than before.

  20. Exposure to secondhand smoke and cognitive impairment in non-smokers: national cross sectional study with cotinine measurement%非吸烟者被动吸烟与认知损害:可替宁检测的全国横断面研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J Llewellyn; Iain A Lang; Kenneth M Langa; Felix Naughton; Fiona E Matthews; 彭晶晶

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between a biomarker of exposure to secondhand smoke ( salivary cotinine concentration) and cognitive impairment. Design Cross sectional analysis of a national population based study. Setting Stratified random sample of households throughout England. Participants 4809 non-smoking adults aged 50 years or more from the 1998, 1999, and 2001 waves of the Health Survey for England who also participated in the 2002 wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and provided saliva samples for cotinine assay and a detailed smoking history. Main outcome measure Cognitive impairment as defined by the lowest 10% of scores on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Participants who did not smoke, use nicotine products, or have salivary cotinine concentrations of 14. 1 ng/ml or more were divided into four equal size groups on the basis of cotinine concentrations. Compared with the lowest fourth of cotinine concentration (0. 0-0. 1 ng/ml) the odds ratios (95% confidenco intervals) for cognitive impairment in the second (0.2-0.3 ng/ml), third (0.4-0.7 ng/ml), and highest fourths (0. 8-13. 5 ng/ml ) were 1.08 (0.78 to 1.48), 1. 13 (0.81 to 1.56), and 1.44 (1.07 to 1.94; P for trend 0. 02), after adjustment for a wide range of established risk factors for cognitive impairment. A similar pattern of associations was observed for never smokers and former smokers. Conclusions Exposure to secondhand smoke may be associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment. Prospective nationally representative studies relating biomarkers of exposure to cognitive decline and risk of dementia are needed.%目的 检测被动吸烟者的生物标记物(唾液可替宁浓度)与认知损害的关系.设计基于全国人口横断面分析的研究.样本全英格兰家庭的分层随机样本.参与者年龄≥50岁非吸烟的成年人4809例.他们来源于参加1998、1999和2001年英格兰健康调查且再次参加2002年英国人口老龄化纵

  1. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45) for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking) with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory) biomarker counterpart. PMID:22152006

  2. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  3. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  4. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced Aβ levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home

  6. Urine collection for nicotine and cotinine measurement in studies on nicotine addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequang, N T; Roussel, G; Roche, D; Migueres, M L; Chretien, J; Ekindjian, O G

    1994-02-01

    One of the reasons for the paucity of tabagism exposure data on the consequences of smoking is the difficulty in obtaining urine samples and the fact that the optimal storage conditions remains undetermined. The authors therefore assessed the influence of storage on urinary nicotine and cotinine levels both at room temperature and after freezing. The variations observed were not statistically significant for up to 30 hours at room temperature or for up to 8 days at -25 degrees C. They then studied the excretion of cotinine and nicotine in overnight and 24-h urine specimens collected from 90 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke and 40 smokers. The correlation between overnight and 24-h excretion was excellent in the case of cotinine (r = 0.89) and poor for nicotine (r = 0.18), probably because of their respective half-lives. Lastly, the usefulness of referring the urinary cotinine to the urinary creatinine was questioned. The authors conclude that valuable studies should be based on overnight urines samples stored at room temperature for up to 30 hours and then frozen at -25 degrees C until quantification of cotinine expressed in microgram/fraction. PMID:8090564

  7. Assessment of Cotinine Reveals a Dose-Dependent Effect of Smoking Exposure on Long-term Outcomes After Renal Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, Merel E.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Muller Kobold, Anna; van Son, Willem J.; Postmus, Douwe; Navis, Gerjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for poor late outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Smoking exposure can be assessed by self-report and cotinine measurements. We investigated whether use of cotinine as a biomarker for smoking exposure can serve as an alternative for self-report and to

  8. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/√2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  9. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  11. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  12. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Barros Machado

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9-52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0-6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only.

  13. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Max; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Oivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Jenab, Mazda; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez Perez, Maria-Jose; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castano, Jose Maria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio; Xun, Wei W.; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective

  14. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-γ (IFN-γ levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-γ levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-γ levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-γ level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  15. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salivary duct stones Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

  16. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 μl of the supernatant was added to 190 μl of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher

  17. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  18. Salivary Hsp72 does not track exercise stress and caffeine-stimulated plasma Hsp72 responses in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Matthew B.; Whitham, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) has been detected within saliva, and its presence may contribute to oral defence. It is currently unknown how physiological stress affects salivary Hsp72 or if salivary Hsp72 concentrations reflect plasma Hsp72 concentrations. We studied the effect of exercise upon salivary Hsp72 expression, and using caffeine administration, investigated the role of sympathetic stimulation upon salivary Hsp72 expression. Six healthy males performed two treadmill running exercise...

  19. The Development of Conductive Elements for the Selective Detection of Formaldehyde and Cotinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Boampong, Sadik

    The development of new materials and techniques presents an opportunity to revisit old problems. Innovations in materials engineering revolutionize the status quo by expanding the tool kit needed to develop robust solutions to complex problems. Challenges that had hitherto been intractable become surmountable; previously established methods are significantly enhanced; fresh impetus is injected into the materials design engine. In one way or another, every scientist contributes to this dynamic creative process where ideas are incubated and developed through fundamental research that culminates in compelling findings applicable in various realms of science. The work presented herein embodies this ethos. Our investigations have applied the relatively nascent technology of molecular imprinting to develop sensing elements for detection of cotinine and formaldehyde. Additionally, we have used different polymer systems to address the inherent limitations of conventional materials using a simple, cost-effective and efficient materials approach. Specifically, in Part I, we investigate molecular imprinting of nylon-6, polyvinylphenol and ElvamideRTM, with cotinine. We examine the capacity of these materials as polymer hosts for molecular imprinting by studying the effect of cotinine imprinting on their nanomechanical properties. By monitoring variations in mechanical properties induced by cotinine templating, we determine the factors critical for effective imprinting and ultimately demonstrate that polyvinylphenol is the most suitable polymer host. Based on these results, we develop a cotinine-imprinted polyvinylphenol-single walled carbon nanotube sensor that readily detects cotinine. Using electrical, spectral and chromatographic characterization, we rigorously demonstrate the enhanced affinity programmed into the sensing layer via molecular imprinting. Part II is dedicated to a familiar problem: formaldehyde sensing. While this challenge has been a trope of the

  20. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  1. Use of cotinine urinalysis to verify self-reported tobacco use among male psychiatric out-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a complex and significant correlation between respiratory disorders and psychiatric conditions. Reliability of self-reported tobacco use has been questioned in recent times. Aims: The current study aims at assessment of accuracy of self-reported tobacco use (both smoked and smokeless among psychiatric out-patients. Settings and Design: We recruited 131 consecutive subjects from the out-patient psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Male patients meeting the study criteria were approached for participation in the study. They were asked about their recent tobacco use history. Those reporting recent use were assessed for severity of dependence using Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-smoking and FTND-smokeless scales. Quantitative urine cotinine analysis was performed using the Enzyme Linked Immunesorbant Assay (ELISA method. Based on this method, a (50 ng/ml cut off score for urinary cotinine level for tobacco use was set. Statistical Analysis Used: Concordance between the self-report of tobacco use and urinary cotinine level was assessed using the Cohen′s kappa. Additionally, Pearson′s correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the FTND-smoking and FTND-smokeless scales and the urinary cotinine levels. Results: The values of Cohen′s kappa suggest no significant concordance between the self-reported recent tobacco use and urinary cotinine levels for both smoking and smokeless tobacco forms. The discordance was present irrespective of a higher (550 ng/ml or a lower (50 ng/ml cut off score for a urinary cotinine level. Pearson′s correlation coefficient failed to reveal any significant direct correlation between the FTND scores and urinary cotinine levels. Conclusions: It is recommended to use biological markers such as urinary cotinine levels to corroborates the information provided by the patients.

  2. LC-MS-MS Measurements of Urinary Creatinine and the Application of Creatinine Normalization Technique on Cotinine in Smokers’ 24 Hour Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of creatinine in human urine. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1×150 mm, 3.5 μm. The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (50/50, v/v. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1–2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.99 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD values were below 3%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of creatinine in Chinese smokers and nonsmokers. The total cotinine in 24 h urine and cotinine : creatinine ratio were also positively associated (Pearson R=0.942, P<0.0001. However, cotinine : creatinine ratio varied significantly across smoking groups for the difference of individual. 24 h urinary cotinine was more appropriate for expressing correlation with tar than cotinine : creatinine ratio.

  3. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  4. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  5. Salivary secretion and connective tissue disease in man.

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. Matthews; Bhoola, K. D.; Rasker, J J; Jayson, M. I.

    1985-01-01

    Parotid and submandibular gland secretions collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic sclerosis have been analysed and the results compared with those obtained from a matched group of healthy individuals. Flow rates were measured and the saliva samples assayed for amylase, kallikrein, protein, and salivary IgA concentration. The results showed that only patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a reduced salivary flow, especially parotid flow, with a significantly increased co...

  6. Influence of Different Sizes and Concentrations of Citric Acid Filter Paper on Salivary Secretion and Salivary Alpha-amylase Activity in Healthy Volunteers%柠檬酸滤纸面积及浓度对刺激健康人唾液分泌和唾液淀粉酶活性改变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙辉; 杨泽民; 李茹柳; 林传权; 张杰; 陈蔚文

    2013-01-01

    volunteers stimulated by citric acid filter paper at different concentrations and sizes. Methods Nine healthy volunteers in sitting position were stimulated for one minute by citric acid filter paper at different concentration and size combinations of 0. 2 mol/L - 0. 5 cm × 0. 5 cm, 0. 2 mol/L - 1 cm × 1 cm, 0. 2 mol/L - 2 cm × 2 cm, 0. 1 mol/ L - 1 cm × 1 cm and 0. 4 mol/L - 1 cm × 1 cm. The whole saliva sample of the volunteers was collected 2 min before stimulation, during stimulation for one minute and 2 min after stimulation. At the same time, the salivary volume was also recorded. Iodine spectrophotometry was adopted for the detection of sAA activity, and then the salivary flow rate and sAA activity ratio were calculated before stimulation, during stimulation and after stimulation. Results When the concentration of citric acid filter paper was set at 0. 2 mol/L, the paper size at 2 cm × 2 cm induced obvious increase of the saliva flow rate and sAA activity ratio (P 0. 05 ) and higher than that during the stimulation ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion In healthy volunteers, the saliva flow rate and sAA activity are closely related with the size and concentration of citric acid filter paper. For the detection of sAA activity ratio, the saliva can be collected by putting 0. 2 mol/L - 2 cm × 2 cm of citric acid filter paper at the tongue tip 2 min after stimulating for one minute, and the whole saliva is the best.

  7. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 μL in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de

  8. Sialography And Salivary Scan Study Of Salivary Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to established the characteristic radiographic features in salivary gland diseases by means of sialography and scintigraphy. Sialograms and scintigrams with diseases of salivary gland were examined. In this group were 5 salivary stones, 14 sialadenitis, 17 Sjogren's syndromes and 8 benign tumors. The obtained results were as follows;1. In the configuration of the shape of main duct, those revealed that modified curvilinear and curvilinear types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes but reverse sigmoid and angular types were in sialolithiasis and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 2. In the configuration of the course of main duct, those revealed that smooth types were predominant in sialadenitis and irregular types were predominant in Sjogren's syndromes and benign tumors and irregular types were seen in all salivary stones and sialadenitis combined with sialodochitis. 3. In the type of intraglandular pattern, those revealed that destructive changes of salivary duct system and parenchyma were severe in sialadenitis and salivary stones and predominantly severe in Sjogren's syndromes. 4. The function of salivary gland was decreased severely in Sjogren's syndrome. and also decrease in salivary stone and sialadenitis. In benign tumor, the uptake of radioisotope was not seen in lesion and the function of salivary gland decreased in its remaining normal parenchyma.

  9. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  10. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  11. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Férnandez-Lao, Carolina; Polley, Marie; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention) in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years) with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki) treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04) and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04). A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. PMID:22030577

  12. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  13. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  14. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands--the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands--along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter

  15. Biotransformation of caffeine, cotinine, and nicotine in stream sediments: Implications for use as wastewater indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Microbially catalyzed cleavage of the imadazole ring of caffeine was observed in stream sediments collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in three geographically separate stream systems. Microbial demethylation of the N-methyl component of cotinine and its metabolic precursor, nicotine, also was observed in these sediments. These findings indicate that stream sediment microorganisms are able to substantially alter the chemical structure and thus the analytical signatures of these candidate waste indicator compounds. The potential for in situ biotransformation must be considered if these compounds are employed as markers to identify the sources and track the fate of wastewater compounds in surface-water systems.

  16. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  17. Estudo comparativo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por doença do refluxo gastroesofágica antes e após o tratamento: resultados preliminares Salivary egf concentration in adults with reflux chronic laryngitis before and after treatment: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandra Eckley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do refluxo laringofaríngeo (RLF são pouco conhecidos. O Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico (EGF é a proteína de produção salivar com maior ação na regeneração do epitélio da orofaringe e tubo digestivo alto, tendo sido demonstradas deficiências em sua concentração salivar em indivíduos com RLF. OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração salivar de EGF em um mesmo indivíduo com RLF antes e após o tratamento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Neste estudo prospectivo doze indivíduos com DRGE e RLF de moderada intensidade tiveram sua saliva espontânea coletada antes e após o tratamento e controle da doença. A concentração salivar de EGF foi estabelecida através de exame de ELISA (Quantikine ®. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade média de 49 anos. A concentração salivar de EGF pré-tratamento foi de 2.867,6pg/mL e a pós-tratamento foi 1.588,5pg/mL, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,015. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a concentração salivar de EGF ser maior nos indivíduos antes do tratamento, esta não consegue alcançar àquela de uma população normal (estabelecida previamente, o que sugere uma deficiência primária deste importante fator de defesa em indivíduos com RLF.The Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR physiopathology is still unknown. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a biologically active salivary protein that aids in the rapid regeneration of the oropharyngeal and upper digestive tract mucosas. Salivary deficiency of this protein in patients with LPR has been demonstrated in previous studies. AIM: To compare salivary EGF concentration in patients with LPR before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study twelve patients with GERD and moderate LPR were studied. Whole saliva samples were collected before and after treatment and salivary EGF concentration was determined using a commercially available

  18. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Bayaty, Fouad H.; NorAdinar Baharuddin; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Hapipah Mohd Ali; Arkilla, Magaji B.; ALBayaty, Mustafa F.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at alpha < 0.05. ...

  19. Salivary total protein and experimental Coriolis sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M; Reschke, M F; Henley, C; MacDonald, S; Kohl, R; Mizukoshi, K

    1993-01-01

    Symptomatic reporting has been used in quantifying the severity of motion sickness including Coriolis sickness. This study was designed to objectively examine if the dynamic changes of salivary protein concentration relate to the severity of Coriolis sickness. Healthy adults with normal vestibular function underwent a modified Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) test, utilizing a staircase profile. Salivary samples were obtained prior to stimulation, 15, 30, and 45 min following stimulus onset, and/or upon reaching "nausea-II" endpoint. Total protein concentration tended to rise over the initial 30 min of stimulation, and then level off or decline. A statistically significant difference was found between the pre-stimulation and 30 min samples. Although some variability existed among the subjects, the general pattern of changes along the time course was similar. An inverse correlation approaching statistical significance was found between control (non-stimulus) total protein levels, and minutes of Coriolis stimulation required to reach the "nausea-II" endpoint. Thus, baseline salivary total protein levels can be of use in predicting susceptibility of Coriolis sickness and other forms of motion sickness.

  20. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  1. Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagaitkar Juhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3β-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5, although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.

  2. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Shi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

  3. Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauntofte Birgitte

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. Methods in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates and composition, measures of oral dryness, scores of decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS, periodontal indices, oral hygiene, and dietary habits were examined. Results in pSS, salivary flow rates, pH, and buffer capacities were lower, and DMFS, salivary sodium and chloride concentrations higher than in the healthy controls. DMFS also correlated inversely to salivary flow rates and positively to oral dryness. Apart from slightly increased gingival index, and more frequent dental visits in pSS, the periodontal condition, oral hygiene or sugar intake did not differ between these two groups. In pSS, findings were correlated to labial salivary gland focus score (FS and presence of serum-autoantibodies to SSA/SSB (AB. The patients having both presence of AB and the highest FS (>2 also had the highest salivary sodium and chloride concentrations, the lowest salivary phosphate concentrations, lowest salivary flow rates, and highest DMFS compared to those with normal salivary concentrations of sodium and chloride at a given flow rate. Conclusion the salivary changes observed in some pSS patients reflect impaired ductal salt reabsorption, but unaffected acinar transport mechanisms, despite low salivary secretion. Our results suggest that changes in salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune-mediated salivary gland dysfunction in pSS. The study also indicates that the ductal epithelium is functionally affected in some pSS patients, which calls for future pathophysiological

  4. Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep...

  6. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations...

  7. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked pani

  8. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Craig S.; Foley, Joseph D.; Bailey, Alison L.; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontiti...

  9. Arti fi cial Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

  10. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were...

  11. [Determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for the determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking was established based on stable isotope dilution by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and purified with chloroform. The extracts were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The cotinine-d3 as an isotope internal standard was applied to quantify and confirm the urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking. The method had a good linearity from 0.1 microg/L to 10 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) > 0.998. The recoveries of the cotinine in blank urine were from 79.2% to 112.8% at spiked levels of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ L, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.1% to 5. 8%. The limit of quantification ( LOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/L. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, rapid and can be applied to detect urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking at home. PMID:25269267

  12. Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva could offer an attractive opportunity for the diagnosis of different systemic conditions specifically in epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to investigate if certain salivary biomarkers could be used for detection of common systemic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1000 adults living in Skåne, a county in the southern part of Sweden, was invited to participate in a clinical study of oral health. 451 individuals were enrolled in this investigation, 51% women. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire, history was taken, a clinical examination was made and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary concentrations of IL-1β, -6, -8, TNF-α, lysozyme, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were determined using ELISA, IFMA or Luminex assays. RESULTS: Salivary IL-8 concentration was found to be twice as high in subjects who had experience of tumour diseases. In addition, IL-8 levels were also elevated in patients with bowel disease. MMP-8 levels were elevated in saliva from patients after cardiac surgery or suffering from diabetes, and muscle and joint diseases. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MMP-8, as well as the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in subjects with muscle and joint diseases. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers in saliva have the potential to be used for screening purposes in epidemiological studies. The relatively unspecific inflammatory markers used in this study can not be used for diagnosis of specific diseases but can be seen as markers for increased systemic inflammation.

  13. Surgery for Benign Salivary Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, M Boyd; Iro, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Salivary neoplasms are relatively infrequent entities that account for only 4% of tumors of the head and neck. Although slow-growing lesions of the preauricular area and submandibular space are often confused with sebaceous cysts, lymph nodes, or lipomas by the non-otolaryngologist, otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons recognize that all preauricular and submandibular masses should be considered a salivary neoplasm until proven otherwise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for benign salivary gland neoplasms; however, techniques continue to evolve in order to preserve salivary function and reduce surgical morbidity. The goals of management of benign salivary neoplasms include accurate diagnosis of the lesion, complete surgical extirpation, and functional preservation of adjacent cranial nerves. Accurate diagnosis is aided by appropriate preoperative physical examination, imaging, and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Benign neoplasms typically present as slow-growing, painless, mobile masses without adverse features, such as tissue fixation, ulceration, a cranial nerve deficit, or regional lymphadenopathy. Preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging reveals well-circumscribed lesions without an infiltrative growth pattern or associated adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy may favor a benign neoplasm, supporting the clinical presentation. Surgery for a benign or malignant salivary neoplasm is in essence a false dichotomy since the surgeon can never be completely confident of the diagnosis until the specimen is removed. The surgeon must recognize the significant overlap between benign and malignant salivary masses in terms of clinical presentation, imaging, and cytology, which requires the surgeon to remain vigilant and flexible at the time of surgery should tissue characteristics or frozen section analysis suggest a malignant process.

  14. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  15. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  16. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino eSalminen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9±9.2 years with coronary artery disease diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Median salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary A. actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥ 6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL. High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP. The combination of the four bacteria, i.e. the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13. When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52. The highest odds ratio 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63 was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were used. Salivary

  17. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein buffering capacity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheaib, Zeinab; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), albumin and total salivary protein buffering capacity at a pH range of 4-5. In addition, the buffering capacity and the number of carboxylic acid moieties of single pro...

  18. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov’s seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing ner...

  19. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  20. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor-Li Hartman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p<0.0001. Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p=0.89. Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents.

  1. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. eBarreto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine such as cotinine also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD.

  2. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Kamodyová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001–10%. Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p<0.01. Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p<0.001. Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p<0.05 and p<0.01. One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  3. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

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    Sagar ePatel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels, Aβ plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  4. Effect of fluoride dentifrices on salivary fluoride levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul S; Tandon S; Murthy K

    1993-01-01

    Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their caries preventive effects. The fluoride concentration in the oral fluids after tooth brushing with fluoride dentifrices may have an important relationship to the caries reducing capacity. The present study was aimed to clinically evaluate the salivary fluoride retention of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentration in 50 children, aged 7-9 years before, during and after the use of fluoride toothpaste. Estimation of fluoride in saliva was...

  5. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively ...

  6. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  7. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Radoslaw P; Urbanowicz, Paulina A; Punyadeera, Chamindie; Reiding, Karli R; Jansen, Bas C; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I; Fernandes, Daryl L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins. PMID:27610614

  8. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Jacob; Dijkstra, Rene JB; Busscher, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical

  9. Management of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  11. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  12. Impact of calcium on salivary α-amylase activity, starch paste apparent viscosity and thickness perception

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    Thickness perception of starch-thickened products during eating has been linked to starch viscosity and salivary amylase activity. Calcium is an essential cofactor for α-amylase and there is anecdotal evidence that adding extra calcium affects amylase activity in processes like mashing of beer. The aims of this paper were to (1) investigate the role of salivary calcium on α-amylase activity and (2) to measure the effect of calcium concentration on apparent viscosity and thic...

  13. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Réka GYERGYAY; Béla KOVÁCS; Nagy, Előd; Krisztina MÁRTHA; Cristina BICĂ; Melinda SZÉKELY

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119). Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental ...

  14. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha; Milva Maria Figueiredo De Martino; Dora Maria Grassi-Kassisse; Aglecio Luiz de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and...

  15. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg or an equal volume of water (W. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W, immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W, and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W. Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity.

  16. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  17. Salivary Metabolite Fingerprint of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Livia Roberta Piedade; Martins, Carla; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly Silva; Freitas-Fernandes, Liana Bastos; de Oliveira Torres, Rafaela; Soares, Aline Laignier; Almeida, Fabio C L; Valente, Ana Paula; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Metabolomics is an important tool for the evaluation of the human condition, in both health or disease. This study analyzed the salivary components of type I diabetic children (DM1) under six years of age, to assess oral health related to diabetes control, as well as metabolite profiling using NMR. Partial least squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare healthy (HG) and uncontrolled DM1 subjects that demonstrated a separation between the groups with classificatory performance of ACC = 0.80, R(2) = 0.92, Q(2) = 0.02 and for DM1 children with glycemia >200 mg/dL of ACC = 0.74, R(2) = 0.91, Q(2) = 0.06. The metabolites that mostly contributed to the distinction between the groups in the loading factor were acetate, n-acetyl-sugar, lactate, and sugar. The univariate analysis showed a decreased salivary concentration of succinic acid and increased levels of lactate, acetate, and sucrose in uncontrolled and DM1 children with glycemia >200 mg/dL. The present study demonstrates that the salivary profile of DM1 differs from that of HG children. It appears that diabetes status control has an important effect on the salivary composition. PMID:27306956

  18. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Wu

    Full Text Available Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear.Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes.The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001. High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235 and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM (P = 0.0183. Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023 and disease-free survival (DFS (P = 0.0025.The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors.

  19. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta;

    2015-01-01

    -relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis...... and innovative receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Smoking prevalence as evaluated by the questionnaire was generally high, and higher than official statistics, which suggests some under-reporting in the countries, particularly in Romania. Urinary cotinine levels provided biochemical...... relatively higher ETS exposure levels in all three countries. The established country-specific optimal cut-off values in urinary cotinine to distinguish smokers from non-smokers vary more than those to discriminate ETS exposure extent in non-smoking mothers and children. Although different between countries...

  20. Noise-Induced Stress Assessment by Salivary Cortisol Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise exposure is known as a risk factor for hearing loss and one of its effects is noise-induced stress. Cortisol as a stress hormone is used in noise-induced stress assessments. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and rest day in both case and control groups and to assess the association between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations in the two groups. Patients and Methods This study included 200 male participants (100 industrial workers and 100 office employees. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7 AM and 4 PM respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements were performed in two days; rest day and then in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired and independent sample t-test and regression analysis were used with α = 0.05. Results There was no significant difference between morning salivary cortisol concentrations in the two groups on the rest and work days. A significant higher level was observed comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day in worker group, but this was not observed in the control group. The evening cortisol in the working day in worker group was significantly higher than control group. Conclusions Our study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  1. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  2. Estudo da concentração salivar do fator de crescimento epidérmico em indivíduos com laringite crônica por refluxo laringofaríngeo Salivary EGF concentration in adults with chronic laryngitis caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Eckley

    2003-10-01

    inflammation and symptoms in the larynx and pharynx (Laryngopharyngeal Reflux LPR. Studies have not been able to establish a direct link between the refluxed acid and the typical laryngeal findings in LPR. The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is a polypeptide produced by the salivary glands and shown to induce epithelial development, inhibit gastric acid secretion and accelerate wound healing. This factor is decreased in the saliva of patients with reflux esophagitis, but there are no reports of its behavior in LPR. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the salivary concentration of EGF in adults with LPR compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The salivary EGF concentration of 39 patients with LPR and 20 healthy controls was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. LPR was diagnosed based on history and typical laryngopharyngeal signs. The 39 patients with LPR were graded according to endoscopic (presence of associated esophagitis and laryngoscopic criteria (severity of laryngitis. Patients with LPR were also submitted to esophageal manometry and 24-hour double probe pH-metry. RESULTS: Salivary EGF concentration was significantly lower in the LPR group when compared to controls (p= 0,002. No correlation between the severity of laryngeal findings or presence/absence of esophagitis and salivary EGF concentration could be determined. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a decreased salivary concentration of Epidermal Growth Factor could be associated to the pathogenesis of GERD and that this same deficiency could also be related to LPR.

  3. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Kaergaard, Anette;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three...... during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1% per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p...

  4. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly....... The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva......, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems...

  6. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  7. Individual differences in AMY1 gene copy number, salivary α-amylase levels, and the perception of oral starch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Mandel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. CONCLUSIONS: By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status.

  8. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, R. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertechnetate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor.

  9. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  11. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  12. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  13. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein buffering capacity: A pilot study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeinab Cheaib; Adrian Lussi

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), albumin and total salivary protein buffering capacity at a pH range of 4–5. In addition, the buffering capacity and the number of carboxylic acid moieties of single proteins were assessed. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 from 4 healthy volunteers on 3 successive days. The buffering capacities were measured for total salivary protein or for specific proteins. Also, the concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin were analysed. Within the limits of the current study, it was found that salivary protein buffering capacity was highly positively correlated with total protein, amylase and IgA concentrations. A weak correlation was observed for both albumin and mucin individually. Furthermore, the results suggest that amylase contributed to 35% of the salivary protein buffering capacity in the pH range of 4–5.

  14. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized

  15. Comparison of Urine Cotinine and the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Metabolite 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol (NNAL) and Their Ratio to Discriminate Active From Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; Eisner, Mark D.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Cotinine is the most widely used biomarker to distinguish active versus passive smoking. However, there is an overlap in cotinine levels when comparing light or occasional smokers versus heavily exposed passive smokers. 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine measurable in urine with a much longer half-life than cotinine. The aim of the study was to determine optimal cutoff points to discriminate active versus passive smokers and to compare sensitivity and specificity for the use of cotinine, NNAL, and the ratio of the NNAL/cotinine in urine. Methods: Cotinine and NNAL were measured in urine of 373 active smokers and 228 passive smokers. Results: Geometric mean cotinine levels were 2.03 ng/ml (interquartile interval: 0.43–8.60) and 1,043 ng/ml (658–2,251) and NNAL levels were 5.80 pg/ml (2.28–15.4) and 165 pg/ml (90.8–360) pg/ml in passive and active smokers, respectively. NNAL/cotinine ratio in urine was significantly higher for passive smokers when compared with active smokers (2.85 vs. 0.16, p < .01). The receiver operating characteristics analysis determined optimal cutoff points to discriminate passive versus active smokers: 31.5 ng/ml for cotinine (sensitivity: 97.1% and specificity: 93.9%), 47.3 pg/ml for NNAL (87.4% and 96.5%), and 0.74 × 10−3 for NNAL/cotinine ratio (97.3% and 87.3%). Conclusions: Both urine cotinine and NNAL are sensitive and specific biomarkers for discriminating the source of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine is the best overall discriminator when biomarkers are measured while a person has ongoing exposure to tobacco smoke. NNAL because of its long half-life would be particularly useful when there is a delay between exposure and biomarker measurement. The NNAL/cotinine ratio provides similar sensitivity but poorer specificity at discriminating passive versus active smokers when compared with NNAL alone. PMID:21330276

  16. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand.

  17. A Fast Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Salivary Nicotine and Its Metabolites at Different Smoking Levels by Liquid Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry%LC-MS/MS法快速分析不同吸烟量人体唾液尼古丁及其代谢物水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 周宛虹; 金永明; 郑赛晶

    2012-01-01

    A fast, simple method for the determination of nicotine and its metabolites in human saliva was developed and validated by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry(LC - MS/MS). Human saliva was collected with Salivette(R) collection kit and the quantification of analytes was a-chieved by using nicotinemethyl-d3, cotinine-methyl-d3 and trons-S'-hydroxycotinine-methyl-ifj as internal standard under atmosphere pressure chemical ionization( APCI) mode. The pretreatment of this method was simple and fast, and all analytes were eluted within 1 min. The relative standard devia-tions (RSDs) for nicotine and its two metabolites were between 0. 29% and 4. 0% and the recovery ranged from 94% to 104% . The linear correlations were above 0. 998. Saliva, plasma and urine samples from 70 volunteers were collected and quantified by the described procedure. The classifica-tion of different smoking amount was also made using ada - boost based on the total concentration of salivary nicotine and its metabolites by a predicting accuracy of 76% . A good correlation of cotinine levels bewteen saliva and plasma ( r = 0. 92), saliva and urine (r = 0. 84) was found. The results showed that the cotinine in saliva has a longer half-life and becomes the most desirable biomarker for the evaluation of smoking exposure and nicotine uptake.%采用Salivette(@)采样管收集人体唾液,以氘代尼古丁、氘代可的宁以及3-羟基-氘代可的宁为内标,在LC - MS/MS的大气压化学电离(APCI)离子化模式下,建立了同时测定吸烟者唾液中尼古丁及其代谢物的分析方法.该法前处理简单,色谱运行时间不足1 min,尼古丁及其代谢产物的加标回收率为94% ~ 104%,相对标准偏差为0.29% ~4.0%,线性相关系数均大于0.998.对不同吸烟量志愿者的唾液样本进行了分析,并根据唾液中尼古丁及其代谢物的含量总和,使用ada - boost算法对不同吸烟量进行分类预测,准确度可达76%.实验结

  18. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Shan; Hui Xu; Zhi-Gang Cai; Li-Ling Wu; Guang-Yan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion;however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands.

  19. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  20. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina;

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...... a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis...... not cause significant NO synthesis. We furthermore found that activating adrenoceptors with NE causes synthesis of cGMP by activating a guanylyl cyclase, and that an enhanced [cGMP] evoked by use of caged cGMP causes Ca2+ release from internal stores. Thus, upon sympathetic stimulation, salivary gland acini...

  1. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  2. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  3. Salivary transforming growth factor alpha in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and reflux laryngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio dos Anjos Corvo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saliva plays a key role in the homeostasis of the digestive tract, through its inorganic components and its protein growth factors. Sjögren's syndrome patients have a higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and laryngopharyngeal reflux. Decreased salivary transforming growth factor alpha levels were observed in dyspeptic patients, but there have been no studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux. Objective: To compare the salivary transforming growth factor alpha levels of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux to those of healthy controls. Methods: This is a prospective controlled study. Twelve patients with Sjögren's syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux and 11 controls were prospectively evaluated. Spontaneous and stimulated saliva samples were obtained to establish salivary transforming growth factor alpha concentrations. Results: The salivary transforming growth factor alpha levels of patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. Five patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux also had erosive esophagitis; their salivary transforming growth factor alpha levels were comparable to controls. Conclusion: Salivary transforming growth factor alpha level was significantly higher in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux when compared to the control group.

  4. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  5. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  6. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  7. The relationship between the presence of autoantibodies, indicators of local and systemic inflammation, the serum concentration of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and the intensity of salivary gland infiltration in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome – a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to find markers related to activation of B cells, which show a correlation with the systemic inflammation markers – erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein and with the intensity of in situ inflammation. Material and methods Forty-one primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients (33 female, 8 male) of the mean age 52.9 ±15 years were included. A group of 20 healthy volunteers was applied as a control. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), concentration of gamma-globulins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured by routine laboratory tests. Titres of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method, while anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies were detected by both the dot-blot method and an enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of BAFF in sera were measured by sandwich ELISA. Biopsies of minor salivary glands were taken and the focus score (FS) was calculated. Correlations between quantitative variables were assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r). Results Serum concentrations of BAFF was significantly higher in the pSS patients than in the control group. The study revealed a statistically significant correlation between ANAs titre and the FS (r = 0.421). Anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies positively correlated with ESR. There was also a positive correlation between the gamma globulin level and the titres of all tested autoantibodies. Conclusions The positive correlation between ANAs and FS confirms the importance of these autoantibodies in the local inflammatory process. The positive correlation between anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies and ESR suggests involvement of these antibodies in generalization of the inflammatory response. In the pSS group serum concentrations of BAFF were statistically significantly higher than healthy volunteers. All presented results confirm the role of activity of B cells in the course of pSS. PMID:27407265

  8. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  9. Current developments in salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig S; Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-02-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  10. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  11. Parotid salivary parameters in bulimic patients – a controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Paszyńska

    2015-08-01

    Erosive-abrasive tooth surface loss seems to be a significant diagnostic tool of bulimia nervosa. The presence of pathological changes in teeth structure indicates the loss of protective properties of saliva, which is proved by pH value and concentration of buffer ions. It is advisable to monitor salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH and the concentration of buffer ions in long-term treatment with SI-5-HT drugs in case of patients with purging-type bulimia. There is also a need for regular dental check-ups of the oral cavity tissues.

  12. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  13. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  14. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  15. Impact of salivary flow and lysozyme content and output on the oral health of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The aim of the study was to examine salivary flow rate, DMF index, lysozyme concentration and its output in two groups of rheumatoid patients and to compare the results with those of healthy controls.Material/Methods:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients were divided into two study groups: with reduced salivary flow rate ≤0.15 ml/min (RA HS, hyposalivation and with normal salivary secretion rate >0.2 ml/min (RA NS, normal salivation. The healthy control group (C was recruited from the Department of Conservative Dentistry. Salivary lysozyme concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion. ANOVA followed by LSD test were used for the statistical analysis.Results:We found that lysozyme concentration was higher and lysozyme output and salivary flow rate were statistically lower in the RA HS group in comparison to the RA NS and C groups. The DMF index was statistically higher in both RA groups in comparison to the control group.Conclusions:RA disease impacts negatively on oral health and salivary parameters. Hyposalivation of RA patients increases the negative influence of RA on oral health. RA patients should receive more stomatological attention.

  16. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  17. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male...

  18. Measuring human salivary amylase copy number variation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Copy number variations represent large scale genomic alterations varying from 1kb to 3Mb and are proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and variation. One such locus exhibiting copy number variation and genome evolution is salivary amylase, which is responsible for the digestion of starch in the human parotid glands. It was reported that since human salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy numbers are correlated positively with protein levels, and also due to the correlation of high gene c...

  19. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Nicotine and Metabolite Cotinine in Urine, Hair and Saliva by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry%尿液和头发及唾液中尼古丁及其代谢物可替宁的气相色谱-质谱同时测定法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何怡; 徐东群

    2011-01-01

    To establish a assay method for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in urine, hair and saliva by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methods The sample (urine, hair and saliva) was alkalized by NaOH, diphenylamine as an internal standard, and nicotine and cotinine were extracted simultaneously with chloroform, and then were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the concentration of nicotine and cotinine in urine would be corrected by creatinine. Results The limits of detection of the method were 6.5 ng/ml and 14.5 ng/ml for nicotine and cotinine respectively.The limits of quantification were 22 ng/ml and 48 ng/ml respectively. The line ranges of the method were 0.022-4 μg/ml and 0.048-4 μg/ml for nicotine and cotinine respectively. The precisions of the method were 1.98%-2.69% and 4.70%-6.65% for nicotine and cotinine in urine, 0.87%-2.89% for nicotine in hair, 4.89%-4.54% for cotinine in saliva respectively. The recoveries of the spiked samples were 82.40%-106.48% and 81.80%-99.55% for nicotine and cotinine respectively in urine, 85.37%103.91% for nicotine in hair, 80.50%-93.00% for cotinine in saliva. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and it is satisfying to evaluate the human tobacco exposure.%目的 建立利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法同时测定人体尿液、头发、唾液中尼古丁及其代谢物可替宁的方法.方法 将样品(消解完全的头发、尿液、唾液)经NaOH碱化后用三氯甲烷萃取,气相色谱分离,质谱检测采用选择离子扫描,并以二苯胺作为内标物进行定量.尿液中尼古丁和可替宁的浓度用尿肌酐校正.结果 该方法的尼古丁和可替宁的检出限为分别为6.5、14.5 ng/ml,测定下限分别为22、48 ng/ml;尼古丁和可替宁的线性范围分别为0.022~4μg/ml、0.048~4μg/ml.尿液中尼古丁和可替宁的精密度分别为2.02%~2.62%、5.27%~7.24%;头发

  1. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  2. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Senthil Eagappan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO, a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC. The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4–5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs score; forty caries-free children (control group, forty children with dmfs 1–5 (ECC group, and forty with dmfs ≥6 (severe ECC group. Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658 was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children.

  3. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children. PMID:27605992

  4. Salivary markers of kidney function - Potentials and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Šebeková, Katarína; Podracká, Ľudmila; Boor, Peter

    2016-01-30

    Saliva can be collected non-invasively, repeatedly and without trained personnel. It is a promising diagnostic body fluid with clinical use in endocrinology and dentistry. For decades, it is known that saliva contains also urea, creatinine and other markers of renal function. Clinical studies have shown that the salivary concentrations of these markers could be useful for the assessment of kidney function without the need of blood collection. This article summarizes the clinical and experimental data on the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in nephrology and points out the advantages, pitfalls, technical requirements and future perspective for the use of saliva as a novel potential diagnostic biofluid. PMID:26633856

  5. Dental mineralization and salivary activity are reduced in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) A mineralização dental e a atividade salivar estão reduzidas em filhotes de ratas espontaneamente hipertensas (SHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Gracieli Prado Elias; Otoniel Antonio Macedo dos Santos; Kikue Takebayashi Sassaki; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Cristina Antoniali

    2006-01-01

    Several pathologies have been diagnosed in children of hypertensive mothers; however, some studies that evaluated the alterations in their oral health are not conclusive. This study analyzed the salivary gland activity and dental mineralization of offsprings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty-day-old SHR males and Wistar rats were studied. The salivary flow was evaluated by injection of pilocarpine, the protein concentration and salivary amylase activity, by the Lowry method and...

  6. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  7. Analysis of [3′,3′-d2]-nicotine and [3′,3′-d2]-cotinine by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Villalta, Peter; Ho, Sing-Wei; von Weymarn, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed for the quantification of d2-nicotine and d2-cotinine in plasma of current and past smokers administered d2-nicotine. After solid phase extraction and liquid liquid extraction, HPLC separation was achieved on a capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography phase column. The analytes were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves were generated for d2-nicotine (0.03 to 6.0 ng/...

  8. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  9. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  10. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min. The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications.

  11. Pathogenesis of salivary gland disease and xerostomia. The conception of Mikulicz's disease based on new knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on two topics of salivary gland diseases regarding xerostomia. First, the pathogenesis and treatment of xerostomia after radiotherapy against head and neck cancer is discussed. It is well known that the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and mucositis depends on the radiation dose and field. Moreover, the balance in the defense system of oropharyngeal cavity alters after radiotherapy. This altered balance may impair the ability to maintain the stable immunological control mechanism. Second, the newly established concept about Mikulicz's disease is discussed. Recently, elevated IgG4 concentration in serum and prominent infiltrating by plasmacytes expressing IgG4 in the salivary glands in Mikulicz's disease were revealed. Mikulicz's disease is different from Sjoegren's syndrome, and may be a systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic disease. (author)

  12. SALIVARY GLYCOCONJUGATES AS BIOMARKERS OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss and is significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Glycoconjugates are expressed on the cell surface as components of glycoproteins, glycosphingo lipids and proteoglycans and plays a vital role in infection and disease. The objective of the study was to assess the changes in salivary glycoconjugates levels in chronic periodontitis (CP and in healthy individuals without periodontitis. This study was undertaken as a preliminary step towards the use of salivary glycoconjugates as reliable markers of CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 subjects took part in the study. 75 patients with CP (aged 30-55 and 75 age and sex matched healthy controls. Salivary glycoconjugates – sialic acid both – free (FSA and protein bound (PBSA, L- Fucose (Fuc and Total protein (Tp were assessed in both cases and in controls by standard methods. RESULTS: The salivary glycoconjugate levels were significantly higher in CP compared to normal healthy controls. Salivary FSA, Fuc and Tp in CP were elevated with mean ± SD values being 25.9±4.02, 46.9±5.65 and 178.4±23.1 mg/L respectively when compared to healthy controls 19.69±4.53, 42.1±3.2, 90.62±15.8 mg/ L respectively which was found to be statistically significant (p<.001. The values of salivary PBSA were significantly lowered when compared to healthy controls. (p <.01 CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that salivary glycoconjugates could be sensitive biochemical markers of chronic periodontitis.

  13. Indications for Salivary Gland Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David J; Slevin, Nick J; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-01-01

    There is an established role for post-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. For benign disease, the addition of radiotherapy improves local tumour control in cases with incomplete excision, involved surgical margins or multi-focal disease recurrence. After capsule rupture or spillage alone, surveillance should usually be advised. For malignant disease, post-operative radiotherapy is recommended for an advanced tumour stage, high-grade tumour, perineural or lympho-vascular invasion, close or positive resection margins, extra-parotid extension or lymph node involvement. The main benefit is increased loco-regional tumour control, although this may translate into a modest improvement in survival. The possible late side effects of parotid bed irradiation include skin changes, chronic otitis externa, sensorineural hearing loss, osteoradionecrosis and secondary malignancy. Severe complications are rare, but patients should be counselled carefully about the risks. Primary radiotherapy is unlikely to be curative and is reserved to cases in which resection would cause unacceptable functional or cosmetic morbidity or would likely result in subtotal resection (R2) or to patients with distant metastases to gain local tumour control. There are provisional data on the use of charged particle radiotherapy in this setting. Some patients may benefit from synchronous chemotherapy with radiotherapy, but this group is not defined, and data from comparative prospective studies are required before routine clinical use of this treatment. PMID:27093301

  14. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence.

  15. Salivary surrogates of plasma nitrite and catecholamines during a 21-week training season in swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mauricio Díaz Gómez

    Full Text Available The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA, chromogranin A (sCgA, and the concentration of total protein (sTP as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2 in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2, respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  17. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  18. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of sali

  19. Surgical Management of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Palate

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Brian A.; Burkey, Brian B.; Netterville, James L.; Butcher, R. Brent; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Minor salivary gland tumors are uncommon, accounting for up to 15% of salivary gland neoplasms. We describe our experience with both benign and malignant tumors of the palatal minor salivary glands, focusing on the extent of resection and options for defect reconstruction.

  20. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  1. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  2. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  3. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

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    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  4. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients.

  5. Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands; Correlation of early changes with irradiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Yoshiaki (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-11-01

    A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and {alpha}-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in {alpha}-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. {alpha}-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs.

  6. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  7. Salivary gland tumors: a diagnostic dilemma!

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    Peravali, Ranjit Kumar; Bhat, H Hari Kishore; Upadya, Varsha H; Agarwal, Anmol; Naag, Sushma

    2015-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors generate considerable interest because of their heterogeneous and variable histology, grade of malignancy, and clinical behavior. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is considered the first diagnostic modality for salivary neoplasms due to its ready availability and ease of performance. However it cannot always be relied upon in isolation, and should be used in conjunction with other investigations like incisional biopsy. We present two cases, which highlight the drawbacks of relying on FNAC alone, which resulted in misdiagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma as pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25848154

  8. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

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    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  9. Industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol in blue collar industrial workers

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    D Behzad Fouladi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1 Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2 assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3 assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  10. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

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    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  11. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    , the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4...... consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate...

  12. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J;

    1994-01-01

    , on the other hand, expressed A, H, and inconstantly sialosyl-T, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn antigens in major salivary glands, whereas serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands expressed H exclusively, Tn and sialosyl-T antigens inconstantly, but never sialosyl-Tn and A antigens. The difference may be related...... to a more simple cytodifferentiation of serous cells of minor (labial) salivary glands as compared with major salivary glands. Duct cells in major salivary glands expressed A, H, and inconstantly T, sialosyl-T, and Tn antigens, whereas minor (labial) salivary glands ducts exclusively expressed H, T...... and sialosyl-T antigens, differences that may be related to dissimilarities in the duct system. Myoepithelial cells and basal cells exclusively expressed T and sialosyl-T antigens, which may prove useful in studies of salivary gland tumors, since these cells are known to play a key role in the histological...

  13. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Christensen, C; Brightman, V

    1992-07-01

    There is considerable difficulty in the making of initial clinical decisions as to whether a given patient has salivary gland hypofunction, and hence requires additional salivary gland evaluation. This study identified a set of four clinical measures that, together, successfully predicted the presence or absence of salivary gland hypofunction. The four measures were: dryness of lips, dryness of buccal mucosa, absence of saliva produced by gland palpation, and total DMFT; they were derived from discriminant analysis of data collected from 71 individuals with normal and low salivary flow rates. These measures are proposed as criteria for clinical decision-making, as well as for classification of patients in studies of salivary gland dysfunction syndromes. This study also identified unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.12-0.16 mL/min as the critical range separating individuals with salivary gland hypofunction from those with normal gland function.

  14. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

  15. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  16. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

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    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  17. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...

  18. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

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    Fouad H. Al-Bayaty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP, and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α≤0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39±5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03±8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05±1.48 and moderate plaque indexes (51.35±11.27 were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9±30.71 ng/dL, haptoglobin (76.04±52.48 mg/dL, and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90±18.40 mg/dL were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.

  19. The influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of haptoglobin and alpha 1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Baharuddin, Noradinar; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Arkilla, Magaji B; ALBayaty, Mustafa F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α ≤ 0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39 ± 5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03 ± 8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05 ± 1.48) and moderate plaque indexes (51.35 ± 11.27) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9 ± 30.71 ng/dL), haptoglobin (76.04 ± 52.48 mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90 ± 18.40 mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers. PMID:24286083

  20. Daily salivary cortisol profile: Insights from the Croatian Late Adolescence Stress Study (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Milas, Goran; Hofman, Irena Drmić; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to examine basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and to determine associations of various covariates (gender, sleep-wake rhythm, demographic, academic, life style and health-related characteristics) with altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. Materials and methods The total analytic sample consisted of 903 Croatian secondary school students aged 18 - 21 years (median 19 years). Salivary cortisol was sampled at home at three time points over the course of one week and its concentrations were measured by using the enzyme immunoassay. Results In comparison to males, female students had a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) (median 4.69, IQR 10.46 and median 3.03, IQR 8.94, respectively; P students who woke-up earlier and were awake longer, had a higher CAR (P students who woke-up later and were awake shorter. Less consistent but still significant predictors of salivary cortisol indexes were age, school behaviour, friendship, diet healthiness and drug abuse. Conclusion Gender and sleep-wake up rhythm were major determinants of the altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. The predictive power of other covariates, although less clear, has a potential for identifying vulnerable subgroups such as male drug users and females without a best friend.

  1. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  2. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamodyová, Natália; Baňasová, Lenka; Janšáková, Katarína; Koborová, Ivana; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Stanko, Peter; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001-10%). Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  3. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects

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    Mahin Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, α-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and α-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used

  5. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

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    Fontaine Albin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density and qualitative (mosquito species immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their

  6. Validation of salivary cortisol and testosterone assays in chimpanzees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Koki; Honma, Seijiro; Teramoto, Migaku; Mori, Yusuke; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Rain; Ishida, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-08-01

    Owing to its high temporal sensitivity, saliva has distinct advantages for measuring steroids, compared with other noninvasive samples such as urine and feces. Here, we report the validity of assaying salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in captive male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. For both the C and T concentrations, we found positive relationships between saliva and plasma. The concentrations of C and T in saliva showed clear patterns of diurnal fluctuation, whereas those in urine and feces did not. These results suggest that the salivary steroid concentrations can be regarded as good indicators of circulating steroid levels. We also developed and validated an efficient method for collecting saliva samples from cotton rope. Although rope includes inherent steroid-like compounds and may affect the accuracy of steroid measurements, our rope-washing procedures effectively removed intrinsic steroidal materials. There was a significant association between the C and T concentrations measured from saliva collected from rope licked by the chimpanzees and those measured from saliva collected directly from the mouth. Salivary T values estimated by LC/MS-MS were similar to those measured by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the usefulness of saliva as a noninvasive steroid measure and that steroids in the saliva of chimpanzees can be accurately measured by LC-MS/MS.

  7. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim to study the incidence of common salivary gland pathologies in our set up and also attempt to analyze the role of FNAC in differentiating between sialadenopathies and lymphadenopathies. METHODS: A retrospecti ve study of 100 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with salivary gland pathologies and referred to Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology, CIMS, Bilaspur for FNAC was conducted from 01.04.2004 to 07.05.2010. Clinically diagnosed lymph node s wellings which subsequently evinced salivary gland cytopathology were also included in this study. The lesions were classified based on cytomorphological diagnostic criteria and different incidental parameters like age, sex, location, presenting symptoms, duration of complaints etc were calculated. RESULTS: The lesions were broadly categorized cytomorphologically into non - neoplastic salivary gland lesions (42.5%, benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions (46.25% and malignant salivary gland lesions (11.25 % after excluding the negative results (aspiration failure, inadequate material, non salivary cytopathology. M : F Ratio was 1.56:1 (61:39. Parotid was the most common salivary gland involved (47.5%. The most common benign salivary neoplasm was pleomorph ic adenoma (38.75% and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5% . CONCLUSION: FNAC is a reliable, safe and simple outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and is also of some value in distinguishing sal ivary lesions from clinically indistinguishable non salivary swellings occurring in

  8. Playing match venue does not affect resting salivary steroids in elite Futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Ademir F S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miloski, Bernardo; Freitas, Camila G; Moura, Nivaldo R; Moreira, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses in elite Futsal players. Twenty-one males (age, 19.3 ± 0.7 years; height, 174.2 ± 4.1cm; body mass, 71.8 ± 7.9 kg) from two Futsal teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Saliva sampling was conducted before (pre) and after (post) each match. The concentration of salivary steroids (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) was assessed by ELISA. Resting concentration of salivary steroid (T and C) hormones was not affected by playing venue (home and away). Both Futsal matches promoted a significant increase in T and C from pre--to post-matches (pfriends may impose a higher level of stress on the players at their own facility. PMID:26683533

  9. THE EFFECT OF SPORT COMPETITION ON SALIVARY STEROIDS IN AMATEUR FEMALE KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of repeated competition on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in amateur women karate athletes. We recruited 20 young elite female karate fighters [height 158 ± 7 cm (mean ± S.D., weight 59.5 ± 10.9 kg, age 21.1 ± 3.0 years], who were placed first till fourth in the Iranian championship tournament. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected 30-min before and 5 - min after first and last match in competition and analyzed for cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations. The results showed that participation in competition resulted in significantly increased saliva cortisol level (p 0.05. Significant differences insalivary steroids were not different between winners and losers (p > 0.05. The results of present study show that salivary cortisol concentration is a suitable index for showing competing stress.

  10. [Salivary gland stem cells : Can they restore radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, N; Schwarz, S; Jakob, M; Brandau, S; Wollenberg, B; Lang, S

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells are actively investigated in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as they exhibit specific characteristics that make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Depending on their tissue of origin these characteristics include long-term proliferation and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. To date adult stem cells have been isolated from a multitude of tissues. Non-embryogenic adult tissues contain only small numbers of such stem cells and the derivation of such tissues can cause comorbidities. Therefore, there is ongoing interest in the identification and characterisation of novel cell sources for stem cell isolation and characterisation.Recently, salivary gland tissue has also been explored as a possible source of stem cells, first in animals and later in humans. Such salivary gland-derived stem cells might be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction, and possibly also in other diseases with loss of acinar cells, such as sequelae of radio iodine treatment or Sjögren's disease.In this paper we review the current status of salivary gland stem cell biology and application and discuss the possible role of stem cells in the development of novel therapies for salivary gland dysfunctions such as postradiogenic xerostomia.

  11. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed. PMID:16158797

  12. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Xerostomia and salivary levels of glucose and urea in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, K; Naumovski, V; Kostadinova, M; Pesevska, S; Drijanska, K; Filipce, V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of the composition of saliva in patients with diabetes may be useful for understanding why oral manifestations occur and how they should be treated. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of severity of xerostomia, salivary concentrations of glucose and urea in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, and to determine the correlation between xerostomia and salivary glucose levels. For the realization of this goal, the study included 60 patients of both sexes aged 30-70 years. The sample was divided into two groups. The first, experimental, group consisted of 30 patients who had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The control group consisted of 30 subjects who were not suffering from diabetes. To determine the degree of severity of xerostomia among all respondents a questionnaire recommended by Carda was used. From all patients in both the control and experimental group, total saliva was collected for 10 minutes for biochemical analysis in accordance with the recommendations of Navazesh. Salivary glucose was determined by using the enzymatic method with a hexokinase (mmol/l), and salivary urea by using the kinetic method with urease and glutamate dehydrogenase (mmol/l). Varying degrees of xerostomia were noticed in 80% of the experimental group and only 10% of the control group. In diabetics, we found significantly higher levels of urea (2.36 mmol/l) and glucose (0.022 mmol/l) in the saliva compared with the values of these parameters (1.48 mmol/l, 0017 mmol/l) in the control group. Based on these results, we concluded that diabetes is a disease that causes xerostomia and there is a significant correlation between the degree of xerostomia and the salivary level of glucose.

  17. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  18. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  19. Relationship between salivary stress biomarker levels and cigarette smoking in healthy young adults: an exploratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Nao; Nakanishi, Kosuke; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relationships among salivary stress biomarkers, cigarette smoking, and mood states. Methods The study population comprised 49 healthy sixth-year dental students at Fukuoka Dental College (39 men, 10 women; age, 23–31 years). Lifetime exposure to smoking was calculated using the Brinkman index (BI). Resting saliva samples were collected, and concentrations of cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necros...

  20. Primary salivary gland lymphomas:A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Sen; Divya Srivastava; Mansi Agarwal; Hemant Yadav; Shilpi Bhargava; Aarzoo Jahan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary lymphoma of the salivary gland is not often encountered in routine practice. About 5–10% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are found in the salivary gland, most frequently involving parotid gland. Henceforth, it is necessary to understand the distinct clinical presentations and course of primary salivary gland lymphomas as this may help guide the proper diagnosis and management of patients with these tumors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed primary NHL di...

  1. Evaluation of Salivary Antibodies to Detect Infection with Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed...

  2. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  3. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  4. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  5. Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Michael D. Cohen; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

  6. Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

  7. Estimation and comparison of salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in human immunodeficiency virus patients and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pushpanshu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The salivary anti-HIV factor, SLPI, is not only preserved in HIV infection but its concentration may even get enhanced in the infection. However, the clinical significance of SLPI levels and disease severity should be investigated further with a larger sample of patients.

  8. Cell therapy for salivary gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, F-H; Chen, C-Y; Huang, C-Y; Hu, F-C; Huang, W-K; Ju, S-S; Chen, M-H

    2011-03-01

    There are still no effective therapies for hyposalivation caused by irradiation. In our previous study, bone marrow stem cells can be transdifferentiated into acinar-like cells in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells may help functional regeneration of salivary glands. Bone marrow stem cells were labeled with nanoparticles and directly co-cultured with acinar cells to obtain labeled acinar-like cells. In total, 140 severely combined immune-deficiency mice were divided into 4 groups for cell therapy experiments: (1) normal mice, (2) mice receiving irradiation around their head-and-neck areas; (3) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled stem cells; and (4) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled acinar-like cells. Our results showed that salivary glands damaged due to irradiation can be rescued by cell therapy with either bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells for recovery of saliva production, body weight, and gland weight. Transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into acinar-like cells in vivo was also noted. This study demonstrated that cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells can help functional regeneration of salivary glands, and that acinar-like cells showed better therapeutic potentials than those of bone marrow stem cells.

  9. Reference values for salivary testosterone in adolescent boys and girls determined using Isotope-Dilution Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttler, Rahel M; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Lentjes, Eef G W; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of testosterone in saliva is an attractive alternative to serum analysis due to the simple and non-invasive sample collection. In children and adolescents salivary testosterone is mainly measured to investigate whether puberty has started or not. This study aimed to establish reference values for salivary testosterone during puberty in boys and girls. We measured salivary testosterone using ID-LC-MS/MS in a cohort of 131 girls and 123 boys of whom each had salivary testosterone measured at two time points during puberty. Salivary testosterone concentrations start to increase with the start of puberty around eight years and continuously increase up to adult concentrations in the following ten years. Reference values were calculated using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS)-curve fitting method and provided per year from 8 to 26 years of age in boys and girls. These reference ranges may help clinicians and researchers to interpret salivary testosterone results in both individual patients and study subjects.

  10. Changes in the salivary glands in patients with Madelung's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parotid submandibular salivary glands were examined in four patients with Madelung's disease. The function of the salivary glands was found unchanged, as was the composition of salivary secretions. Computerized tomography and functional digital subtraction sialography have shown a drastic increase of the parotid and submandibular salivary glands, the characteristic defects of filling of various shapes and sizes against the background of contrast stained parenchyma, changing their site and shape under the effect of adipose tissue growth round the gland and in the capsular space

  11. Galanin: hydrokinetic action on salivary glands in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F E; Ghatei, M A; Zintel, A; Bloom, S R

    1989-12-01

    Galanin was infused intravenously into eight healthy volunteers at a dose of 40 pmol kg-1 min-1 for 1 h to investigate the pharmacological effects of this peptide on the postprandial sialagogical response in man. Galanin significantly increased the salivary volume and the saliva output of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate compared to control saline infusion, but had no effect on the output of potassium and alpha-amylase. An increase in salivary pH was also observed. The increase in salivary volume may indicate a physiological role of galanin in the control of salivary secretion. PMID:2485092

  12. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  13. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower

  14. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  15. Evaluation of the Relationship between Salivary Albumin Level and Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdolsamadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recently, it has been suggested that there might be an association between oral diseases such as dental caries, as well as periodontitis and general health . Re-garding the fact that albumin is an indicator of general health, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of salivary albumin concentration with dental caries. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 108 patients aged 13-19 years old who had teeth caries were placed in 3 groups with mild, moderate and severe dental caries according to their DMFT value (n=36. Five ml of unstimulated saliva were taken from each participant via Navazesh method and their albumin concentrations were assessed by nephelometery method. Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: The mean concentration of salivary albumin in three experimental groups was 84.442±42.915, 97.964±66.717 and 89.850±33.003, respectively. ANOVA showed that the difference among the mean values was not significant (P=0.09 but the relationship between salivary albumins and sex was significant (P=0.009. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study there was no significant relationship between albumin and dental caries in 13-19 year old individuals. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:101-106

  16. Study of total serum amylase, its salivary and pancreatic fraction and the pancreatic to salivary amylase ratio in testicular tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Khanolkar M; Sirsat A; Deshmane V; Kamat M

    1991-01-01

    Serum levels of total amylase, its pancreatic fraction (P), salivary fraction (S), and the ratio of pancreatic to salivary fraction (P/S) were determined in 52 cases of histologically proved testicular germ cell tumours and 33 healthy controls. Total serum amylase remained unchanged, but the salivary fraction had a lower mean value. P/S ratio and the pancreatic fraction were significantly elevated in both seminomatous and non- seminomatous tumours. The ratio was more frequently raised in non-...

  17. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health Status: A Clinico-biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, B; Kannan, N; Patil, RR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Saliva represents an increasingly useful tool of diagnosis. Several factors such as salivary flow rates (SFRs) (unstimulated and stimulated) (U and S), pH, buffering capacity and consistency can be altered due to several disease processes or medications prescribed for various diseases. Alterations of SFRs, pH, buffering capacity and various ion concentrations can influence the pathogenesis of some of the oral diseases. Aim: Evaluation of the effect of diuretics on oral health status with regard to SFRs (U and S), pH, buffering capacity, total protein content, various ion concentrations and oral mucosal lesions. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients were categorized into test group and control group based on usage of diuretics. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and evaluated for flow rates. Salivary pH was measured using pH meter. Buffering capacity was measured using Aranha's technique. Salivary Na+, K+ and Cl− concentrations were measured using electrolyte analyzer CORNLEY ACCULYTE-3P in ion-selective electrode method. Salivary total protein content was measured by spectrophotometric method. Dental Caries and periodontal status were measured by using decayed, missing, filled teeth index and Russell's periodontal index respectively. Oral mucosal examination was carried out to identify the mucosal lesions. Results: The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS), version 16, IBM Company by Chi-square test and unpaired t-test. Highly significant P for alterations of SFR/U (P < 0.001), SFR/S (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), Na+ concentration (P < 0.001), buffering capacity (P < 0.001) and moderate significance for Cl− concentration (P < 0.01) were found. Alterations of total protein (P = 0.14) and K+ (P = 0.65) concentrations were not statistically significant. High prevalence was found for caries (P < 0.01), periodontal status (P < 0.001) and mucosal lesions

  18. Establishing population distribution of drug-metabolizing enzyme activities for the use of salivary caffeine as a dynamic liver function marker in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hazel Yiting; Yau, Wai-Ping; Ho, Han Kiat

    2016-04-01

    The salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio has been proposed as a novel dynamic liver function test to guide dose adjustments of drugs hepatically cleared by CYP1A2. Its usability requires an established population norm as well as the factors influencing the ratio and actual concentrations. To address this knowledge gap, salivary caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations were measured at 4 h post caffeine dose in healthy Chinese individuals who had undergone 24 h of caffeine abstinence. The metabolic ratio was calculated and statistical analysis was performed. From the 52 participants (26 males; 30 regular caffeine consumers) recruited, the salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio was normally distributed with a mean and SD of 0.5 ± 0.2. No statistically significant factors (BMI, body weight, gender and regularity of caffeine intake) affecting the metabolic ratio were found. The caffeine concentration and total caffeine plus paraxanthine concentrations were lower in males than in females, and lower in regular caffeine consumers than in non-regular caffeine consumers. The 4 h salivary metabolic ratio (mean: 0.5) was generally not significantly different from the literature reported salivary, serum and plasma ratios measured at 4-9 h in healthy individuals (mean range 0.4-0.7) but was significantly higher than the literature reported 6 h plasma ratio and salivary ratios measured at 1-6 h in patients with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests (mean range 0.03-0.2). Overall, the population norm of the salivary metabolic ratio in a Singaporean Chinese population established in this study is distinct from individuals with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests and provides the benchmark for dosage adjustments of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26862045

  19. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Franchini, Emerson; de Freitas, Camila Gobo; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol (sC) and the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses to simulated and official Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) matches. Saliva samples were collected from 9 male BJJ athletes before (pre) and after (post) 2 simulated matches (SMs) and 2 official matches (OMs) performed during 2 different competitions. Salivary cortisol and sIgA concentrations (absolute concentration of sIgA [sIgAabs] and the secretion rate of sIgA [sIgArate]) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For sC, there was an effect of condition (SM vs. OM) (p BJJ matches can increase sC levels. Moreover, the higher sC resting levels, observed before OMs, suggest that psychological factors associated with high physical-physiological demands from official BJJ competitions maximize stress hormone responses. In addition, the present findings suggest that the acute effect of BJJ matches on mucosal immunity is minimal, and it seems unlikely that changes in cortisol play a major role in the alterations in sIgA levels in response to BJJ matches. The findings of this study suggest that the use of sC can provide valuable information for coaches regarding athletes' responses to competition. In addition, psychological strategies should be implemented before events, to improve the manner in which BJJ athletes cope with the stress inherent to official matches.

  20. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Tanaka, T.T.; Niden, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma and after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis.

  1. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS...

  2. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  3. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  4. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J. H.; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P.

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/

  5. Stellate Ganglion Block Reduces the Radicular Pain and Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity in Patients with Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Egashira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB on radicular pain associated with cervical spondylosis remain to be clarified. So we measured salivary alpha-amylase which reflects sympathetic nerve activity under psychological stress after SGB block or trigger points injection (TPI. Study Design A randomized, prospective, controlled trial Setting After institutional approval and informed consent, 40 patients who was suffered from neck-shoulder pain associated with cervical radiculopathy were randomly divided into two groups according to nerve block treatment. Group A (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 50±8yr, mean±SD received SGB and group B (n=20, male 10 patients, female 10 patients, 52±6yr received TPI. SGB or TPI was produced by 6 ml of 1% mepivacaine a total of 5 times (twice per week. Visual analogue scale (VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase were measured before (T0 each nerve block and 3 days (T1, 6 days (T2, 9 days (T3, 12 days (T4 and 15days (T5 after each nerve block. The consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID was measured at T0 and T5 in each group. Results In group A, VAS was median 74 (range 60, 78 at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [53 (48, 65, p<0.05], T4 [50 (42, 66, p<0.05] and T5 [48 (26,57, p<0.05]. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was median 116 (range 96, 144 KU/ml at T0 and showed a significant decrease at T3 [86 (79, 105, p<0.05], T4 [79 (68, 88] and T5 [70 (55, 84, p<0.05]. In group B, VAS and the concentration of salivary alpha-amylase showed no change throughout the time course. VAS in group A was significant lower than that in group B at T3, T4 and T5. The concentration of salivary alpha-amylase was significant lower than that in group B at T4 and T5. The consumption of NSAID in group A was significantly lower than that in group B at T5. Limitations Subjects are out patients. Patients include radicular pain due to different pathogenesis, e

  6. Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2013-01-01

    Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

  7. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.G. Gunput; A.J.M. Ligtenberg; B. Terlouw; M. Brouwer; E.C.I. Veerman; D. Wouters

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  8. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne H;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe outcome and prognostic factors, including the effect of radiotherapy, in a consecutive national series of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODS: From the national Danish salivary gland carcinoma database in the structure of DAHANCA, 201 patients diagnosed with adenoid...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  10. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  11. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Hee Choong; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  12. Anticipatory salivary flow to the sight of different foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Navazesh, M

    1984-12-01

    Anticipatory salivary flow was measured to the sight of seven foods that varied in texture, composition and palatability. In one experiment, subjects consumed the test foods that were viewed. This group was tested both during conditions of hunger and satiation. In a second experiment, subjects were instructed that they would not consume the foods that were viewed. Salivary responses were not related to the anticipated palability of the test foods but rather appeared to be related to the physical and chemical properties of the foods. Pizza, chocolate cake and gelatin were rated as highly palatable, but significant salivary increases occurred only with pizza. Of all the test foods, the greatest salivary flow increases were observed to the sight of lemon slices and pizza, and both foods contain sour or pungent ingredients. Hunger state and the expectation of consuming the test foods did not systematically affect the pattern or magnitude of salivary responses.

  13. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety.

  14. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  15. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M;

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Though...

  16. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  17. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Javiera Maya, Pablo Marquez, Luis Peñailillo, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Louise Deldicque, Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2:...

  18. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  19. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  20. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Cytochemical study of Rhodnius neglectus and Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland cells (Hemiptera, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. B. M. Anhê

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines are hematophagous bugs of medical interest in South and Central America, where they may act as invertebrate hosts of the hemoflagellate protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative of Chagas’ disease and Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. Triatomines of Rhodnius genus have salivary gland formed by two close and independent units: the principal and the accessory. This gland secretes saliva that abounds in substances that facilitate and permit feeding. Despite this importance, there are few reports on its cytochemistry. In purpose of amplifying this understanding, in this work it was investigated the nuclear structures (chromatin and nucleolar corpuscles of salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus (Lent, 1954 and Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859. The salivary glands were removed from adult insects, fixed and submitted to different cytochemical methods: lacto-acetic orcein, silver ion impregnation, Feulgen reaction, Toluidine Blue, Variant method of critical electrolyte concentration and C-banding. The results evidenced predominance of binucleated cells, with bulky and polyploid nucleus, decondensed chromatin and a large nucleolar area. In addition, cytoplasmic metachromasy and a clear association between nucleolar and heterochromatic corpuscles were observed. Such characteristics were associated with intense synthesis activity to produce saliva. Besides, the heterochromatic corpuscles observed with C Banding permitted the differentiation of sexes and species.

  2. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greggory R. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328 and B (r=0.615 but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (χ2=5.14 but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.

  3. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  4. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  5. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer, Marlowe S; Reilly, Emma C; Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg) cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  6. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  7. Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available Salivary alpha amylase (sAA is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1, which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition.

  8. Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Verena; Borchers, Claudia; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1), which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a) examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b) assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition. PMID:23613746

  9. Ageing exacerbates damage of systemic and salivary neutrophils from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Vinicius

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly denture wearers. The major etiologic factor involved in this pathology is the infection by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen that causes local and disseminated diseases in immunosuppressed humans. Neutrophils play a critical role in the immune response against C. albicans and are continually present in the salivary fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study was to determine ageing-related changes in salivary and blood neutrophils and their potential implications in Candida-related denture stomatitis. Results Our results showed a lower number of neutrophils in the saliva from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis in comparison to their matched controls. Furthermore, fewer neutrophils were isolated from the saliva of aged control individuals in comparison to matched younger subjects. CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b expression were significantly greater on systemic neutrophils from younger control individuals. Elderly individuals showed more apoptotic salivary neutrophils and lower GM-CSF levels than younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of Candida infection. On the other hand, CXCL-8 concentrations were higher in the saliva from elderly individuals. Besides, TNF-α was detected at elevated levels in the saliva from infected elderly subjects. Salivary neutrophils from elderly and young patients presented impaired phagocytic activity against C. albicans. However, just systemic neutrophils from elderly showed decreased phagocytosis when compared to the younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of infection. In addition, neutrophils from aged individuals and young patients presented low fungicidal activity. Conclusion The data suggests that the Candida

  10. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  11. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula, and the buccal mucosa.

  12. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  13. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6...

  14. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  15. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  16. A COMPARATIVE BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF SOME BRANDS OF OFLOXACIN BY URINE AND SALIVARY ANALYSIS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARMA A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the bioequivalence of randomly selected brands of ofloxacin tablets marketed in India. Bioavailability assessment was conducted by measuring the concentration of drugs in the urine as well as saliva and bioavailability data was presented as cumulative quantity of drugs recovered in urine in 24 hours. Simple and sensitive, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of ofloxacin in urine and saliva samples using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 at 288 nm. Microbiological assay technique was used to analyze urine samples. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 µg/ml for ofloxacin. The two different brands of ofloxacin with the strength of 200mg and 400mg each showed same minimum inhibitory concentration value against the test strain of Staphylococcus aureus of 0.468 µg /ml and 1.388 µg /ml respectively. The salivary ofloxacin concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of ofloxacin concentration in saliva failed to show significant correlation. The two brands of ofloxacin 200mg(X1-X2, 400mg(X3-X4 each in punjab (India exhibited same bioavailability data in vivo and can be said to be bioequivalents.

  17. Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Delpisheh; Y. Kelly; B.J. Brabin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children. Methods: A descriptive, community-based, cross-sectional study of self-reported parental smoking patterns and children's salivary cotinine concentrations in 245 children aged 5-11 years attending 10 prim

  18. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

  19. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias.

  20. Salivary Glands: Stem Cells, Self-duplication, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aure, M H; Arany, S; Ovitt, C E

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intrinsic potential for renewal and regeneration within a tissue is critical for the rational design of reparative strategies. Maintenance of the salivary glands is widely thought to depend on the differentiation of stem cells. However, there is also new evidence that homeostasis of the salivary glands, like that of the liver and pancreas, relies on self-renewal of differentiated cells rather than a stem cell pool. Here, we review the evidence for both modes of turnover and consider the implications for the process of regeneration. We propose that the view of salivary glands as postmitotic and dependent on stem cells for renewal be revised to reflect the proliferative activity of acinar cells and their role in salivary gland homeostasis.

  1. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  2. Biomaterials-based strategies for salivary gland tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-04-22

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as "dry mouth" or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to assemble implantable and secretory tissue modules by combining stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials. PMID:26878077

  3. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V;

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  4. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  5. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  6. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women's Professional Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key pointsIn our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate.Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying.The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  7. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  8. Coordination of murine parotid secretory protein and salivary amylase expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, K; Jakobsen, B K; Mikkelsen, B M; Harmark, K; Nielsen, J T; Hjorth, J P

    1986-01-01

    PSP, parotid secretory protein, and salivary amylase are the major secretory proteins of mouse parotid gland where they appear in a constant ratio. Here we describe the isolation of the PSP gene and show through expression analysis on this and the salivary amylase gene that the two genes are transcribed in a coordinate fashion in adult animals, whereas the activation profiles are different during postnatal development. An explanation is put forward that involves activation of the genes at dif...

  9. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  10. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon d...

  11. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B Moffa

    Full Text Available With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance.

  12. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  13. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with glycosylated salivary proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 enormous progress has been made in determining the pathogenesis of this microbe in gastric disease. While the way of transmission is still under dispute, it is generally accepted that H. pylori must reach the stomach via the oral cavity. During this passage it comes into contact with salivary components. However, there are only few studies about interactions of H. pylori with salivary components and no study about the influence of...

  14. Salivary Nitric Oxide, a Biomarker for Stress and Anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Gammoh, Omar Salem; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Al-Awaida, Wajdy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if salivary nitrate correlates to the daily psychological stress and anxiety in a group of human subjects. Methods The convenient sample recruitment method was employed; data from seventy three subjects were analyzed. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) inventories were used to determine stress and anxiety scores respectively. Salivary nitric oxide was measured through nitrate (NOx) levels using the Griess reaction method. Result...

  15. The evaulation of diagnostic methods used in salivary gland diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Akdağ, Mehmet; Müderris, Suphi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors have got a special significance due to physiologic and embryologic characteristics of its organs and anatomical neighborhoods. Because of this significance, treatment planning should be done carefully and be used to the diagnostic methods with medical history and physical examination. These methods are laboratory, radiologic, sialographic, cytologic and histopathologic methods. Material and Method: In the present study, 50 cases, which had salivary gla...

  16. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  17. The pattern of genomic gains in salivary gland MALT lymphomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y.; Ye, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China); Martin-Subero, J.I. (José Ignacio); Gesk, S.; Hamoudi, R; Y.J. Lu(National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan); R. Wang; Shipley, J; Siebert, R.; Isaacson, P G; Dogan, A.; Du, M. Q.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Salivary gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas typically lack chromosomal translocations and the molecular genetics underlying their development is unknown. The aim of this sudy was to investigate chromosomal changes in these lymphomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed comparative genomic hybridisation using DNA samples extracted from microdissected tumour cells in 19 salivary gland MALT lymphomas. Recurrent chromosomal changes were further verifi...

  18. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  19. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications.

  20. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  1. A comparison of salivary IgA in children with Down syndrome and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Karthika; Milne, Trudy J; Drummond, Bernadette K; Cullinan, Mary P; Coates, Dawn E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The difference in the mean SFR between children with Down syndrome, parents and siblings were not statistically significant. The mean salivary concentration of IgA was higher in children with Down syndrome (95.1 μg/ml) compared with siblings (48.3 μg/ml; p=0.004). When adjusted for SFR children with Down syndrome had mean sIgA levels of 98.8 μg/min and the siblings 48.6 μg/min (p=0.008). The children with Down syndrome had sIgA levels similar to those of the parents (92.5 μg/ml; 93.2 μg/min). There was a positive correlation between age and sIgA concentration in the siblings (p=0.008) but not for children with Down syndrome (p=0.363). This suggests that under similar environmental influences, the levels of sIgA in children with Down syndrome are higher than in the siblings, from a very young age.

  2. Histamine H1 receptor induces cytosolic calcium increase and aquaporin translocation in human salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Seong-Hae; Moon, Young Wha; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Donghoon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Oh, Seog Bae; Kim, Joong Soo; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung Joong; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Kyungpyo

    2009-08-01

    One of the common side effects of antihistamine medicines is xerostomia (dry mouth). The current consensus is that antihistamine-induced xerostomia comes from an antimuscarinic effect. Although the effect of antihistamines on salivary secretion is both obvious and significant, the cellular mechanism whereby this happens is still unclear because of the lack of knowledge of histamine signaling in human salivary glands. Here, we have studied histamine receptors and the effect of antihistamines on human submandibular acinar cells. In primary cultured human submandibular gland and a HSG cell line, histamine increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The histamine-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor-specific antagonists, and the expression of the functional histamine H1 receptor was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, histamine pretreatment did not inhibit a subsequent carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise without "heterologous desensitization." Chlorpheniramine inhibited a carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase at a 100-fold greater concentration than histamine receptor antagonism, whereas astemizole and cetrizine showed more than 1000-fold difference, which in part explains the xerostomia-inducing potency among the antihistamines. Notably, histamine resulted in translocation of aquaporin-5 to the plasma membrane in human submandibular gland cells and green fluorescent protein-tagged aquaporin-5 expressing HSG cells. We found that histidine decarboxylase and the histamine H1 receptor are broadly distributed in submandibular gland cells, whereas choline acetyltransferase is localized only at the parasympathetic terminals. Our results suggest that human salivary gland cells express histamine H1 receptors and histamine-synthesizing enzymes, revealing the cellular mechanism of antihistamine-induced xerostomia. PMID:19443731

  3. A comparison of salivary IgA in children with Down syndrome and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Karthika; Milne, Trudy J; Drummond, Bernadette K; Cullinan, Mary P; Coates, Dawn E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The difference in the mean SFR between children with Down syndrome, parents and siblings were not statistically significant. The mean salivary concentration of IgA was higher in children with Down syndrome (95.1μg/ml) compared with siblings (48.3μg/ml; p=0.004). When adjusted for SFR children with Down syndrome had mean sIgA levels of 98.8μg/min and the siblings 48.6μg/min (p=0.008). The children with Down syndrome had sIgA levels similar to those of the parents (92.5μg/ml; 93.2μg/min). There was a positive correlation between age and sIgA concentration in the siblings (p=0.008) but not for children with Down syndrome (p=0.363). This suggests that under similar environmental influences, the levels of sIgA in children with Down syndrome are higher than in the siblings, from a very young age. PMID:27023400

  4. Primary salivary gland lymphomas:A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary lymphoma of the salivary gland is not often encountered in routine practice. About 5–10% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs are found in the salivary gland, most frequently involving parotid gland. Henceforth, it is necessary to understand the distinct clinical presentations and course of primary salivary gland lymphomas as this may help guide the proper diagnosis and management of patients with these tumors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed primary NHL diagnosed at our medical institute over a period of 2 years. Results: Five cases of primary salivary gland lymphoma were found, two involving parotid gland while other three affecting submandibular gland. None of the cases had a clinical suspicion of lymphoma. However, they were diagnosed as having NHL B-cell type on histopathology. Conclusion: Since primary salivary gland NHL is an uncommon finding, it is often overlooked as the differential diagnosis. Methods of diagnosing and treating lymphoma are different from those of other benign pathologies of the salivary gland. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is warranted to provide a quick and efficient diagnosis and treatment without subjecting the patient to unnecessary tests and procedures.

  5. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  6. On the origin and diagnostic use of salivary RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábryová, H; Celec, P

    2014-03-01

    Saliva as a diagnostic fluid enables non-invasive sampling, which can be performed even by an untrained person. Saliva is, thus, particularly useful for large population screenings, for children, elderly and whenever repeated samplings are needed. Saliva is a plasma filtrate actively modified by the salivary glands. Saliva could replace some routine blood tests in the future. The sources of salivary RNA include oral epithelial cells and oral micro-organisms. Recent developments suggest that using known salivary RNA markers, it is possible to diagnose diseases such as oral carcinoma and other diseases will be added soon. Salivary RNA can be used to identify oral bacteria and to determine the expression of specific genes. On a systemic level, it provides information about the whole oral transcriptome and microbiome. Despite the small amount of salivary RNA, the issues with its isolation have been overcome. Saliva, thus, contains RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for sensitive and specific analyses. Salivary RNA can provide medically relevant information about oral microbiome, oral carcinoma, but also breast and pancreatic cancer and is, thus, a promising tool for future research and clinical diagnostics.

  7. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger;

    2008-01-01

    measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being...... analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary...

  8. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Simcic; Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric; Renata Gržic; Jelena Horvat; Gordana Brumini; Miranda Muhvic-Urek

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS wer...

  9. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly; Gupta,; Bagde; Bharadwaj; Tiwari,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim t...

  10. The effectiveness of the Uchida-Kraepelin test for psychological stress: an analysis of plasma and salivary stress substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Aya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system are the major stress-response pathways. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH represents HPA axis activity, while plasma catecholamines are used as markers of the SAM system. Salivary alpha amylase (AA, chromogranin A (CgA, and immunoglobulin A (IgA are candidate markers of stress activation, although their role has not been established. The Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K test is a questionnaire that requires intense concentration and effort, and has been used as a tool to induce mental stress. However, it is not clear whether or not the test is effective as a psychological/mental stressor. Methods In this study, normal young women took the U-K test and serial measurements of plasma ACTH and catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline (n = 10, as well as salivary AA, CgA, and IgA (n = 16 before, during and after the test. Results We found no changes in any of these parameters at any time point during or after the U-K test. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the U-K test is not a suitable for measuring the psychological/mental stress of young women because the plasma data showed that it did not affect the HPA axis and SAM system. The U-K test should be employed carefully as a psychological/mental stressor due to insufficient scientific evidence of its effectiveness. In addition, salivary AA, CgA, and IgA should not simply be compared with previous reports, because the mechanism of secretion and normal range of each salivary parameter remain unknown. Salivary AA, CgA, and IgA may not be suitable candidate markers of psychological/mental stress.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  12. A pilot study comparing three salivary collection methods in an adult population with salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, R; Navazesh, M; Wood, G J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the reliability of three collection methods (draining, chewing of gum base, and the Saxon test) for whole saliva using a sample of middle-aged and older ambulatory adults (n = 18) with proven salivary gland hypofunction. The results demonstrated high reliability (r values ranging from 0.91 to 0.80, p < 0.001) for all three methods. MANOVA analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in flow rates among the draining, chewing-stimulated, and Saxon methods.

  13. Screening and Functional Analyses of Nilaparvata lugens Salivary Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Bao, Yan-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Most phloem-feeding insects secrete gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. However, the functions of salivary proteins are poorly understood. In this study, our purpose was to reveal the components and functions of saliva in a rice sap-sucking insect pest, Nilaparvata lugens. The accomplishment of the whole genome and transcriptome sequencing in N. lugens would be helpful for elucidating the gene information and expression specificity of the salivary proteins. In this study, we have, for the first time, identified the abundant protein components from gelling and watery saliva in a monophagous sap-sucking insect species through shotgun proteomic detection combined with the genomic and transcriptomic analysis. Eight unknown secreted proteins were limited to N. lugens, indicating species-specific saliva components. A group of annexin-like proteins first identified in the secreted saliva displayed different domain structure and expression specificity with typical insect annexins. Nineteen genes encoding five annexin-like proteins, six salivaps (salivary glands-specific proteins with unknown function), seven putative enzymes, and a mucin-like protein showed salivary gland-specific expression pattern, suggesting their importance in the physiological mechanisms of salivary gland and saliva in this insect species. RNA interference revealed that salivap-3 is a key protein factor in forming the salivary sheath, while annexin-like5 and carbonic anhydrase are indispensable for N. lugens survival. These novel findings will greatly help to clarify the detailed functions of salivary proteins in the physiological process of N. lugens and elucidate the interaction mechanisms between N. lugens and the rice plant, which could provide important targets for the future management of rice pests. PMID:27142481

  14. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  15. High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets. PMID:22492122

  16. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie;

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  17. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS): Subjective symptoms and salivary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.M.; Reibel, J.; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales......autoantibodies, Sjögren's syndrome, saliva flow, labial salivary gland biopsy, rating scales biopsy, rating scales...

  18. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  19. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  20. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  1. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  2. Ectopic ossification presenting as osteoid metaplasia in a salivary mucocele in a Shih Tzu dog

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Thaís R; Grandi Fabrizio; Monteiro Lidianne N; Salgado Breno S; Rocha Rafael M; Rocha Noeme S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Salivary mucocele is an accumulation of saliva in a single or multiloculated cavity lined by connective tissue that is contiguous to a salivary gland-duct complex and is the most common condition affecting the salivary glands in dogs. Occasionally, different types of metaplastic lesions, such as squamous and osseous metaplasia - which are rare lesions in animals - can be observed in association with salivary mucocele. Case presentation A right facial enlargement was sudden...

  3. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  4. Seasonal rhythms of salivary cortisol secretion in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menargues Marcilla, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Rubén

    2012-04-01

    Salivary cortisol has been recently used to assess welfare of captive and free-ranging animals. However, rhythms of cortisol secretion may vary annually and thus, it is necessary to take into account these rhythms when evaluating the physiological significance of fluctuations of this hormone throughout the year as stress indicator in animals. Here, we analyze monthly differences in cortisol secretion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during a year. Saliva samples of eight adult female Asian elephants were collected and analyzed using Radioimmunoassay. Results revealed an overall seasonal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion and significant differences in cortisol concentration among months were found. Overall, the highest cortisol levels were recorded in October, and then decreased until reaching the lowest concentration in April. However, some individual variations were found respect this annual overall trend. The occurrence of this annual pattern of cortisol secretion should be taken into account when using cortisol as a tool to assess animal welfare in captive animal at zoological parks, as well as it opens new questions to further analyze this pattern and its variations, as well as the endogenous mechanisms controlling it. PMID:22366473

  5. Academic stress differentially influences perceived stress, salivary cortisol, and immunoglobulin-A in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lara; Denis, Randy; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2010-07-01

    Academic examination stress is reported to increase physiological and self-report measures of stress and to decrease immune functioning. Here, we investigate biochemical and self-report measures of stress, immune functioning, and academic pressures before and during a midterm examination period. Undergraduate students were asked to complete a measure of global stress, the perceived stress scale (PSS-10), and to indicate their current level of perceived stress. They also answered questions regarding specific academic pressures and provided a saliva sample for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) quantification. Students showed increased salivary cortisol concentrations and also reported greater acute perceived stress during the examination period compared to the non-examination period. Although cortisol concentrations and perceived stress were significantly higher during the examination period, participants reported similar levels of global stress (PSS-10) during both testing sessions. Additional analyses showed a non-significant increase in the level of S-IgA from the non-examination period to the examination period. Specific pressure variables that appeared to contribute to stress regulation during the examination week included the amount of time spent studying and concern about the impact of examinations in the future. By demonstrating measures of chronic examination stress, these findings provide new insight into the complex relationship between examination stress, cortisol, and immune functioning.

  6. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Freitas, Camila G; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Drago, Gustavo; Drago, Murilo; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the session ratings of perceived exertion (Session-RPE) responses and the salivary cortisol (sC) and immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels between a regular season match (RM) and the final championship match (FM) in elite male volleyball players against the same opponent team. Higher importance was assumed for FM because this match would define the championship team. Session-RPE was obtained after 30 minutes of each match using the CR-10 scale. Saliva samples were collected before and after each match and during a rest day (baseline) at the same period of the matches. The SIgA and sC concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Greater Session-RPE was observed for FM as compared with RM (p cortisol concentration, and SIgA prelevel were affected by the match importance. These results indicate that monitoring session-RPE, sC, and SIgA responses, in conjunction, during training and competition, would provide valuable informations regarding how athletes cope with sports induced stress. This study provided knowledge about the effect of match importance on salivary markers related to stress that may help coaches to avoid excessive training loads reducing the likelihood to decrements on mucosal immunity and its consequent risk to upper respiratory tract infections, which in turn might affect the performance.

  7. A paper strip based non-invasive glucose biosensor for salivary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-05-15

    In our present study, we developed an optical biosensor for direct determination of salivary glucose by using immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme on filter paper strip (specific activity 1.4 U/strip) and then reacting it with synthetic glucose samples in presence of co-immobilized color pH indicator. The filter paper changed color based on concentration of glucose in reaction media and hence, by scanning this color change (using RGB profiling) through an office scanner and open source image processing software (GIMP) the concentration of glucose in the reaction medium could be deduced. Once the biosensor was standardized, the synthetic glucose sample was replaced with human saliva from donors. The individual's blood glucose level at the time of obtaining saliva was also measured using an Accuchek(™) active glucometer (Roche Inc.). In this preliminary study, a correlation of nearly 0.64 was found between glucose levels in saliva and blood of healthy individuals and in diabetic patients it was nearly in the order of 0.95, thereby validating the importance of salivary analysis. The RGB profiling method obtained a detection range of 9-1350 mg/dL glucose at a response time of 45 s and LOD of 22.2 mg/dL. PMID:25282078

  8. File list: Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 TFs and others Larvae Salivary glands SRX82633...5,SRX826333,ERX101806,SRX050608,SRX097296,SRX450789,ERX101804,SRX050606,SRX097295,SRX450788 http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  9. Effects of sucrose on salivary flow and composition: Differences between real and sham intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Brattinga, C.; Kekem, K. van; Neyraud, E.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A280, and α

  10. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy o

  11. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: NoD.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of...

  8. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  9. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  10. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl, inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl, magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl, sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L, potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L, and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01 higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001 related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001 negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.

  11. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: behavior and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞光岩; 马大权; 孙开华; 李铁军; 张晔

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological behavior and proper management of myoepithelial carcinomas of salivary glands. Methods Twenty-seven cases of myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands were retrospec tively studied and their detailed clinical and follow-up data were presented. Results The subjects consisted of 17 men and 10 women aged 16 to 73 years (mean age: 51 years). The parotid gland was the most common site (n=14) of cancer. Clinical features included extensive local growth, invasion of the surrounding tissues, infrequent cervical lymph node metastasis but high rates of distant metastasis, f requent/multiple recurrences and poor prognosis. Conclusions Myoepithelial carcinomas of the salivary gland should be classified as high-grade malignancies. Early and radical surgery with close follow-up are essential for achieving favorable outcomes. Radiotherapy appears to be non-sensitive and elective neck dissection is generally unnecessary.

  12. Short sleep duration increases salivary IL-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Érica Lui; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    Morning shift sleep restriction has been associated with higher plasma IL-6 levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep duration on salivary IL-6. Sleep duration of morning shift workers was estimated by actigraphy. Workers with "longer sleep duration" (LSD; N = 6) and "shorter sleep duration" (SSD; N = 15) were then compared regarding salivary IL-6 levels determined at 14:00 h, bed and wake times. SSD workers did not show daily variation of IL-6 and presented higher levels at bedtime and 14:00 h compared to LSD workers. In this study, SSD is associated with an increase in salivary IL-6 content. PMID:27070477

  13. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal...... variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per...... over time. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was considerable variation between subjects, microbial profiles within subjects were stable throughout a 24 hour period and after 1 week. Since there is little or no evidence of diurnal variation of the salivary microbiome, time of sampling of saliva...

  14. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C M Silva-Zacarin; G A Tomaino; M R Brocheto-Braga; S R Taboga; R L M Silva De Moraes

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine, the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin–eosin, bromophenol blue, silver, or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase, as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed. The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and, additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen. The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed. The nuclei were pyknotic, with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form

  15. ALDH2 genotype has no effect on salivary acetaldehyde without the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Helminen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages was recently classified as carcinogenic (Group 1 to humans based on uniform epidemiological and biochemical evidence. ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficient alcohol consumers are exposed to high concentrations of salivary acetaldehyde and have an increased risk of upper digestive tract cancer. However, this interaction is not seen among ALDH2 deficient non-drinkers or rare drinkers, regardless of their smoking status or consumption of edibles containing ethanol or acetaldehyde. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of the ALDH2 genotype on the exposure to locally formed acetaldehyde via the saliva without ethanol ingestion. METHODS: The ALDH2 genotypes of 17 subjects were determined by PCR-RFLP. The subjects rinsed out their mouths with 5 ml of 40 vol% alcohol for 5 seconds. Salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were measured by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Acetaldehyde reached mutagenic levels rapidly and the exposure continued for up to 20 minutes. The mean salivary acetaldehyde concentrations did not differ between ALDH2 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: For ALDH2 deficient subjects, an elevated exposure to endogenously formed acetaldehyde requires the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation. IMPACT: Our findings provide a logical explanation for how there is an increased incidence of upper digestive tract cancers among ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers, but not among those ALDH2 deficient subjects who are locally exposed to acetaldehyde without bloodborne ethanol being delivered to the saliva. Thus, ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers provide a human model for increased local exposure to acetaldehyde derived from the salivary glands.

  16. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  17. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families.

  18. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    ños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at

  19. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunde; A; Olayanju; Sheu; K; Rahamon; Ijeboime; O; Joseph; Olatunbosun; G; Arinola

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.METHODS:Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent.They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20(aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis(S+P);24(40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis(S-P);and 25(53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis(NS+P).An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis.The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed.About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles.Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Student’s t test was used to deter-mine significant differences between the means.Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant.RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes(IgG,IgA,IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P.Mean salivary levels of IgA(520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.000) and IgM(644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group.Salivary IgA(570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.008) and IgM(703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group.Only one(5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.20 IU/mL).Similarly,only one smoker(4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers(9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE(0.24 IU/mL).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  20. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  1. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  2. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  3. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  4. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia

    2010-01-01

    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  5. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  7. Be ready at any time: postprandial synthesis of salivary proteins in salivary gland cells of the haematophagous leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-04-15

    Sanguivorous leeches are ectoparasites having access to body fluids of potential hosts only infrequently. During feeding, salivary proteins are released from unicellular salivary glands into the wound. These substances, among them anti-coagulants, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agents, allow these animals proper feeding and long-term storage of host blood in their crops for several months. Using histological, protein biochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated whether synthesis of salivary proteins and refilling of salivary gland cells occur immediately after feeding or later when stored nutrients in the crop are getting scarce. The results of the histological analyses showed that gland cell area was significantly smaller right after feeding when compared with those in unfed animals. This parameter recovered quickly and reached the control level at 1 week after feeding. 2D gel electrophoresis and analysis of the abundance of individual proteins in extracts of leech tissues revealed that a subset of proteins that had been present in extracts of unfed animals virtually disappeared during feeding, but re-appeared within 1 week of feeding (most probably secretory proteins) while another subset did not change during the experimental period (most probably housekeeping proteins). Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of hirudin cDNA prepared from leech RNA samples revealed that the amount of hirudin transcripts increased immediately after feeding, peaked at 5 days after feeding and declined to control values thereafter. Our results indicate that bloodsucking leeches synthesize salivary proteins and refill their salivary gland cell reservoirs within a week of a blood meal to be prepared for another feeding opportunity. PMID:27103675

  8. Breast Cancer Exosome-like Microvesicles and Salivary Gland Cells Interplay Alters Salivary Gland Cell-Derived Exosome-like Microvesicles In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Chang S.; Wong, David T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles enca...

  9. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirsat, A.V.; Talavdekar, R.V.; Rajpal, R.M. (Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India))

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences.

  10. Studies of the effects of radiation or surgery on the salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase composition in salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total amylase activity and the isoamylase composition of saliva were studied in patients with salivary gland tumours before and after treatment to evaluate the efficiency of treatment in terms of its ability to restore normal or nearly normal salivary function. The material for the study comprised 35 normal subjects, one case of mumps and eight cases of histologically proved salivary gland tumours, three of which received radiation treatment and one was subjected to total parotidectomy. It is observed that there is a marked deviation from normal in the total salivary amylase activity and the isoamylase pattern in mumps and untreated salivary gland tumours and some increase in amylase activity is noticeable after treatment of these tumours, the increase being more marked after surgery. The salivary isoamylase pattern restored to normal in case of mumps after recovery and in salivary gland tumour after surgery but not after irradiation. These findings suggest that in view of the deleterious effects of radiaton on salivary gland function, surgery is preferable to radiation as the treatment of choice. Further studies are underway to assess the utility of the heat labile salivary amylase fraction obseved in these cases in detecting recurrences. (author)

  11. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A.; Giannardi, G.; Cionini, L.; Porciani, S.; Fallai, C.; Pirtoli, L. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia)

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands.

  12. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

  13. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin; Regina L M Silva De Moraes; S R Taboga

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th instar and finishes at the end of the same instar. This process begins in the distal secretory portion of the gland, going towards the proximal secretory portion; and from the periphery to the center of the gland lumen. The silk proteins are released from the secretory cells as a homogeneous substance that polymerizes in the lumen to form compact birefringent tactoids. Secondly, the water absorption from the lumen secretion, carried out by secretory and duct cells, promotes aggregation of the tactoids that form a spiral-shape filament with a zigzag pattern. This pattern is also the results of the silk compression in the gland lumen and represents a high concentration of macromolecularly well-oriented silk proteins.

  14. Salivary levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Khozeymeh

    2016-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with ESRD who were treated with 4 h HD sessions, with low flux membrane were included in this cross-sectional study. Average Kt/V index in patients was 1.19 ΁ 0.1. Twenty age-sex-matched healthy controls with no infectious diseases during 1 month before saliva sampling were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and TNF-α and IL-6, concentrations were measured using human IL-6 and TNF-α ELISA kits. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data using SPSS (α = 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between dialysis and control groups regarding the salivary levels of TNF-α (P = 0.034 and IL-6 (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study and reported role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and oral diseases, measurement of salivary IL-6 and TNF-α in HD patients may help in risk stratification of HD patients and in planning pertinent preventive strategies.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  16. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L⁻¹ (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L⁻¹ (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  17. Collecting Saliva and Measuring Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-amylase in Frail Community Residing Older Adults via Family Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Nancy A.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigator...

  18. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  19. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  20. Comparison of lacrimal and salivary gland involvement in Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; Kalk, WWI; Mansour, K; Spijkervet, FKL; Bootsma, H; Roodenburg, JLN; Kallenberg, CGM; Amerongen, AVN

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the performance of different tear and salivary tests applied in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and to disclose how these tests relate to common serologic tests in SS. Design: In addition to the routine ocular and oral tests for diagnosing SS (Schirmer test, rose bengal score, unsti

  1. Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia

  2. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  3. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  4. Determination of arginine catabolism by salivary pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoogenkamp

    2014-01-01

    Changing from the use of the toxic, environmentally hazardous, mercury containing Nessler's reagent to a colorimetric enzyme assay achieved a safer and greener determination of ammonium concentration.

  5. Evaluation of serum and salivary lipid profile: A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The correlation of serum and salivary lipid profile has been poorly characterized. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic procedures for lipid profile involve analysis of cellular and chemical constituents of blood/plasma. As a diagnostic aid, saliva offers many advantages over serum. Aims: To evaluate and compare the serum and salivary lipid profile levels in healthy individuals and to validate the role of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy study subjects who had no complaint or any major illness in recent past were selected. The parameters assessed included serum and salivary: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC and triglycerides (TGL. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of results and statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: There was a moderate level of correlation between serum and salivary TC, TGL, HDLC and VLDLC and there was a low and quite small correlation between serum and salivary LDLC. For all the five parameters assessed as a part of lipid profile, the correlation coefficients were highly significant statistically and also, with an increase in the serum mean values, corresponding increase in the saliva mean values for all the five parameters was noted. Conclusions: From the present study we conclude that saliva can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile.

  6. Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Ola M; Zeitouni, Anthony; Gologan, Olga; Tran, Simon D

    2011-05-01

    Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogren's syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed α-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of α-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.

  7. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  8. Studies On Quantitative Analysis Of Salivary Gland Using Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the size and CT number of both normal parotid and submandibular gland, and evaluate its relation to sex, age and obesity using computed tomography. The computed tomography was performed parallel to the Frankfurt plane in 46 subjects with healthy salivary gland. The subjects were divided into the three groups (young, middle, old) according to their ages. The size of salivary gland was determined as maximum cross-sectional area and the CT number of salivary gland was determined as the mean CT number of three ROI's. The body mass index was calculated from weight and height. The mean maximum cross-sectional area was 7.79 (+/-1.26) cm2 on parotid gland and 4.12 (+/-0.83) cm2 on submandibular gland. The mean CT number was -4.43 (+/-23.87) HU on parotid gland and 50.01 (+/-15.63) HU on submandibular gland. There were decreasing pattern of the maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland and the CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland according to age (p<0.05). As the body mass index increased, the maximum cross-sectional area of parotid gland increased and CT number of both parotid and submandibular gland decreased (p<0.05). The maximum cross-sectional area of submandibular gland in male was larger than that in female (p<0.05). As the maximum cross-sectional area and CT number of left salivary gland increased, those of right gland increased (p<0.05). Intra-individual differences in salivary gland size and CT number is considered in the age and individual obesity.

  9. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi

    1997-03-01

    After the intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 {+-} 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of {sup 14}C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  10. Functional transcriptomics of wild-caught Lutzomyia intermedia salivary glands: identification of a protective salivary protein against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R de Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11--coding for a 4.5-kDa protein--induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis.

  11. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7), and malignant (n = 7) salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7) salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation

  12. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

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    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke

  13. Evaluation of effects of olfactory and auditory stimulation on separation anxiety by salivary cortisol measurement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2016-06-30

    Separation anxiety (SA) is a serious behavioral problem in dogs. In this study, salivary cortisol was studied to determine if the owner's odor or voice could reduce SA in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs with SA were divided into three groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (with owner's clothes during the separation period; SP) and group 3 (a recording of the owner's voice was played during SP). The dog's saliva was collected after the owner and their dog were in the experimental room for 5 min (PRE). The dog was then separated from the owner for 20 min and saliva collected four times at intervals of 5 min (SP1-4). Finally, the owner was allowed back into the room to calm the dog for 5 min, after which saliva was collected (POST). Evaluation of salivary cortisol concentrations by ELISA revealed that the ratios of SP1 concentration to PRE or POST concentrations were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 or 3. Additionally, the concentrations of SP1-PRE and SP1-POST among groups differed significantly. These findings indicate that the owner's odor or voice may be helpful to managing stress in dogs with SA. PMID:26645334

  14. ANTIMETASTATIC EFFECT OF INTEGRIN IIb/IIIa INHIBITORS ON SALIVARY ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relation between metastatic potential of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and tumor cell-platelet adhesion, and the antimetastatic effect of integrin IIb/IIIa inhibitor on SACC. Methods: Tumor cell-platelet adhesion of highly metastatic SACC-LM, non-highly metastatic SACC-83 and effect of aspirin, arginine-aspartate (RD), magnesium acetylsalicylate on adhesion were studied in vitro. Antimetastafic effect of aspirin, RD, magnesium acetysalicylate on experimental metastasis of SACC was observed in vivo. Results: The tumor cell-platelet adhesion was stronger in SACC-LM than in SACC-83. Aspirin, RD and magnesium acetylsalicylate could inhibit the adhesion of SACC-LM at the concentration of 1, 5 and 25 mg/ml. RD can inhibit experimental metastasis of SACC. Conclusion: Metastasis of SACC is related to platelet-tumor cell adhesion, RD could inhibit metastasis of SACC.

  15. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard;

    2014-01-01

    -term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal...... and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00h, the following day at awakening, and 30min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level...... observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure...

  16. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace...... Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30min after awakening and at 8p.m.). All participants responding...... to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after...

  17. Environmental survey 1998. Vol. 3: Human biomonitoring. Concentrations of substances in blood and urine of the German population; Umwelt-Survey 1998. Bd. 3: Human-Biomonitoring. Stoffgehalte in Blut und Urin der Bevoelkerung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Kaus, S.; Krause, C.; Lepom, P.; Schulz, C.; Seiwert, M.; Seifert, B.

    2002-03-01

    The occurrence of precious metals in the environment is increasing, due primarily to their use in catalytic converters for motor vehicles, and they were therefore integrated into the study programme in 1998. Urine samples of 1080 subjects were analysed for gold, platinum and iridium, resulting in mean concentrations of 46 ng/l, 2.2 ng/l and 0.2 ng/l. The number of dental inlays, crowns and bridge elements has a clear influence on the mean levels of gold and platinum in urine. Road traffic was not found to be a signficant factor. Nicotine and cotinine are common markers for exposure to tobacco smoke. Non-smokers exhibit a mean nicotine level in urine of less than 2 {mu}g/l and a cotinine level of less than 4 {mu}gl. Nicotine and cotinine levels in urine increase as a function of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, reaching values of 1080 {mu}g/l and 2060 {mu}g/l, respectively, when consumption exceeds 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also reflected by nicotine and cotinine levels in urine. The present report provides representative data for environmentally related health monitoring and reporting at national level. The data serve as the basis for the formulation of reference values characterising the population's internal exposure to environmental contaminants. The report shows trends over time and regional differences in pollution, and identifies exposure pathways. The results of the Environmental Survey serve inter alia to achieve nationally harmonised methodologies for assessment, health-related environmental reporting, and the development and monitoring of prevention, intervention and abatement strategies within the scope of health and environmental policy actions. (orig.)

  18. Gramicidin-perforated Patch Recording Revealed the Oscillatory Nature of Secretory Cl− Movements in Salivary Acinar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sugita, Makoto; Hirono, Chikara; Shiba, Yoshiki

    2004-01-01

    Elevations of cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) evoked by cholinergic agonists stimulate isotonic fluid secretion in salivary acinar cells. This process is driven by the apical exit of Cl− through Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, while Cl− enters the cytoplasm against its electrochemical gradient via a loop diuretic-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC) and/or parallel operations of Cl−-HCO3 − and Na+-H+ exchangers, located in the basolateral membrane. To characterize the con...

  19. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  20. Myoepithelial cells: Current perspectives in salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Pramod Redder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells are normal constituent of the salivary acini and smaller ducts, and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopic examination shows that myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and situated between the basement membrane and epithelial cells. Ultrastructurally they possess a number of cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells. They display features of both smooth muscle and epithelium, such as numerous microfilaments with focal densities in the cytoplasmic processes, and desmosomes which attach the myoepithelial to the epithelial cells. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take several forms, including epithelioid, spindle, plasmacytoid, and clear, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis. This review article highlights the role of myoepithelial cells in salivary gland tumors.

  1. Effects of food substrates on reliability of salivary cortisol measures in dogs in training context

    OpenAIRE

    Ligout, S.; Wright, H; van Driel, K.; Gladwell, F.; Mills, D. S.; Cooper, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Salivary cortisol has been widely used as a means of assessing stress in dogs (Beerda et al 1988; Schalke et al 2007), though several authors have questioned whether handling and the use of food/chews can affect measures (Kobelt et al 2003, Dreschel and Granger 2009). We investigated effects of food on salivary cortisol measures in a handling/training context. For the first study 10 dogs were used to investigate if food introduced unpredictable variation in salivary cortisol. For each do...

  2. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

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    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  3. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  4. Suppression of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction by IGF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten H Limesand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation is a primary or secondary therapeutic modality for treatment of head and neck cancer. A common side effect of irradiation to the neck and neck region is xerostomia caused by salivary gland dysfunction. Approximately 40,000 new cases of xerostomia result from radiation treatment in the United States each year. The ensuing salivary gland hypofunction results in significant morbidity and diminishes the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies as well as the quality of life for these patients. Previous studies in a rat model have shown no correlation between induction of apoptosis in the salivary gland and either the immediate or chronic decrease in salivary function following gamma-radiation treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A significant level of apoptosis can be detected in the salivary glands of FVB mice following gamma-radiation treatment of the head and neck and this apoptosis is suppressed in transgenic mice expressing an activated mutant of Akt (myr-Akt1. Importantly, this suppression of apoptosis in myr-Akt1 mice preserves salivary function, as measured by saliva output, three and thirty days after gamma-radiation treatment. In order to translate these studies into a preclinal model we found that intravenous injection of IGF1 stimulated activation of endogenous Akt in the salivary glands in vivo. A single injection of IGF1 prior to exposure to gamma-radiation diminishes salivary acinar cell apoptosis and completely preserves salivary gland function three and thirty days following irradiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies suggest that apoptosis of salivary acinar cells underlies salivary gland hypofunction occurring secondary to radiation of the head and neck region. Targeted delivery of IGF1 to the salivary gland of patients receiving head and neck irradiation may be useful in reducing or eliminating xerostomia and restoring quality of life to these patients.

  5. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2. We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  6. Reirradiation of recurrent salivary gland malignancies with fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Sana D; Snider, James W.; Wang, Hongkun; Wooster, Margaux; Lominska, Christopher; Deeken, John; Newkirk, Kenneth; Davidson, Bruce; Harter, K William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review a single-institution experience with the reirradiation of recurrent salivary gland tumors using fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SBRT). Methods Between 2003 and 2011, 18 patients diagnosed with recurrent, previously irradiated, salivary gland carcinomas were treated with SBRT reirradiation. Median age was 68 for all patients with most tumors being of major salivary gland origin. Most patients did not undergo surgical resection, and among ...

  7. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Lopes Carvalho; Luciana Freitas Gomes e Silva; Fernanda Ferreira Lopes; Ana Emília Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the ...

  8. Salivary gland and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ram, Saravanan; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are two of the most common and significant complications of head and neck cancer therapy in the head and neck region. This article will provide a brief overview of salivary gland hypofunction and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy, mainly in radiation therapy. The discussion will include quality of life issues as well as current advances in cancer therapy to reduce xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

  9. Clincal-histoptahologic agreement in major salivary glands tumors diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Tabares Tonny Alberto; Ramos-Clason Enrique Carlos; Bello-Avena Volney Enrique; Milanés-Pérez Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To estimate diagnostic agreement between clinical features and histopathologicfindings in patients with major salivary glands tumors.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in the Hospital Universitario del Caribe,Cartagena (Colombia), 2006-2010. Data was collected from 64 patients medicalrecords. Data was stored and analyzed using EPI-INFO 3.5.1. A proportions comparisonprocedure was executed to qualitative variables, and mean or median comparison wasperformed to quantitative vari...

  10. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Morgan-Bathke; Harris, Zoey I.; Deborah G Arnett; Klein, Rob R.; Randy Burd; David K. Ann; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, change...

  11. Dispatches from the Interface of Salivary Bioscience and Neonatal Research

    OpenAIRE

    KristinVoegtline; DouglasA.Granger

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system) and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function...

  12. Clinical management of salivary deficiency: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical, chemical and antibacterial properties of saliva provide protection to human dentition against dental diseases, Therefore, salivary deficiency has to be managed carefully. The causes of saliva deficiency are many and varied. It is worth mentioning that saliva flow rate is normally affected by physiologic condition, such as eating, resting, sleeping, cold or hot season etc. In this paper the protective role of saliva, etiologiy of saliva deficiency and its clinical management are discussed. (author

  13. [Measurement of salivary cortisol with four commercial kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahoul, K; Patricot, M C; Bressot, N; Penes, M C; Revol, A

    1996-01-01

    Salivary cortisol was determined with four commercially available immunoassays: one enzyme-immunoassay (Cortisol Biotrol), two fluoro-immunoassays (TDX, Abbott; Stratus, Baxter) and one radioimmunoassay (Coat-A-Count, Behring). In order to improve the sensitivity of these immunoassays, it was necessary to increase sample volumes. Thus an extraction step had to be included in the procedure. It was performed with either methylene chloride or Bond Elut. However, the Coat-A-Count kit may be applied directly on salivary aliquots. The results obtained were compared to those yielded by the reference technique which includes a chromatographic step on Sephadex LH 20. According to the present data (n = 20) no kit appears to be adequate for salivary cortisol measurement at any level, at least in the conditions applied in this study. However, the introduction of a chromatographic step in the procedure improved greatly the specificity. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained with the Coat-A-Count kit. Indeed, they were generally similar to those of the reference technique, but some discrepancies were observed at low levels. PMID:8763630

  14. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  15. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  16. Efficacy of xylitol and fluoride mouthrinses on salivary mutans streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Malee; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Charoenchaikorn, Kesinee

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of salivary Mutans streptococci (MS) after rinsing with xylitol, fluoride, and a combination of xylitol and fluoride solutions, compared with distilled water. Methods Eighty healthy 8-9 years old subjects with high level of MS (> 105 CFU/mL) were equally divided into 4 groups. Subjects rinsed their mouths for 1 min with 10 mL of 0.05% (w/v) sodium fluoride (NaF), 12.5% (w/v) xylitol or 0.05% (w/v) NaF + 12.5% (w/v) xylitol 3 times daily over 10 weeks. Distilled water rinsed group served as a control. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks after rinsing to determine the level of salivary MS by culturing on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests at a significant level of P< 0.05. Results Significant reductions in MS count were observed in subjects using 0.05% NaF + 12.5% xylitol over other groups within 5 weeks and after 10 weeks and 12.5% xylitol alone after 10 weeks compared with baseline. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for the inhibitory effect of xylitol, used in combination with fluoride, delivered in the form of mouthrinse, on salivary MS in the group of schoolchildren. PMID:23569819

  17. Efficacy of xylitol and fluoride mouthrinses on salivary mutans streptococci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sroisiri Thaweboon; Yuwadee Asvanund; Kesinee Charoenchaikorn

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the level of salivary Mutans streptococci (MS) after rinsing with xylitol, fluoride, and a combination of xylitol and fluoride solutions, compared with distilled water. Methods: Eighty healthy 8-9 years old subjects with high level of MS (> 105 CFU/mL) were equally divided into 4 groups. Subjects rinsed their mouths for 1 min with 10 mL of 0.05% (w/v) sodium fluoride (NaF), 12.5% (w/v) xylitol or 0.05% (w/v) NaF + 12.5% (w/v) xylitol 3 times daily over 10 weeks. Distilled water rinsed group served as a control. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks after rinsing to determine the level of salivary MS by culturing on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests at a significant level ofP< 0.05. Results: Significant reductions in MS count were observed in subjects using 0.05% NaF+ 12.5% xylitol over other groups within 5 weeks and after 10 weeks and 12.5% xylitol alone after 10 weeks compared with baseline. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence for the inhibitory effect of xylitol, used in combination with fluoride, delivered in the form of mouthrinse, on salivary MS in the group of schoolchildren.

  18. Evaluation of Salivary Antibodies to Detect Infection with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Loeb

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed using the Helisal Helicobacter pylori (IgG assay kit, and at least four gastric biopsies were obtained. H pylori infection was confirmed by demonstration of the organism on Warthin-Starry silver stain (sensitivity 85%, specificity 55%. The prevalence of infection with H pylori was 30%. When the analysis was redone, excluding those treated with eradication therapy, the results were similar (sensitivity 86%, specificity 58%. The positive predictive value of the assay was 45% and the negative predictive value was 90%. Despite the ease of sampling, the assay used has limited diagnostic utility, lacking the predictive value to indicate which patients referred with dyspeptic symptoms to a tertiary care setting are infected with H pylori.

  19. Neurotrophic factor GDNF promotes survival of salivary stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nan; Lin, Yuan; Cao, Hongbin; Sirjani, Davud; Giaccia, Amato J; Koong, Albert C; Kong, Christina S; Diehn, Maximilian; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-08-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapy is a promising treatment for head and neck cancer patients that suffer from chronic dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary gland injury from radiation therapy. Current xerostomia therapies only provide temporary symptom relief, while permanent restoration of salivary function is not currently feasible. Here, we identified and characterized a stem cell population from adult murine submandibular glands. Of the different cells isolated from the submandibular gland, this specific population, Lin-CD24+c-Kit+Sca1+, possessed the highest capacity for proliferation, self renewal, and differentiation during serial passage in vitro. Serial transplantations of this stem cell population into the submandibular gland of irradiated mice successfully restored saliva secretion and increased the number of functional acini. Gene-expression analysis revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) is highly expressed in Lin-CD24+c-Kit+Sca1+ stem cells. Furthermore, GDNF expression was upregulated upon radiation therapy in submandibular glands of both mice and humans. Administration of GDNF improved saliva production and enriched the number of functional acini in submandibular glands of irradiated animals and enhanced salisphere formation in cultured salivary stem cells, but did not accelerate growth of head and neck cancer cells. These data indicate that modulation of the GDNF pathway may have potential therapeutic benefit for management of radiation-induced xerostomia. PMID:25036711

  20. Evaluation of MYB Promoter Methylation in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chunbo; Bai, Weiliang; Junn, Jacqueline C.; Uemura, Mamoru; Hennessey, Patrick T.; Zaboli, David; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor MYB was recently proposed to be a promising oncogene candidate in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). However, the up-regulation of MYB in ACC could not be explained solely by deletion of its 3′ end. It is widely accepted that the promoter methylation status can regulate the transcription of genes, especially in human cancers. Therefore, it is important to know whether MYB promoter demethylation could explain the over-expression of MYB in ACC. By using the Methprimer program, we identified nine CpG islands in the promoter of MYB. All of these CpG islands were located within the −864 to +2,082 nt region relative to the transcription start site of MYB. We then used bisulfite genomic sequencing to evaluate the methylation levels of the CpG islands of MYB in 18 primary ACC tumors, 13 normal salivary gland tissues and nine cancer cell lines. Using cell lines, we also determined the relative MYB expression levels and correlated these with the methylation levels. With bisulfite genomic sequencing, we found no detectable methylation in the CpG islands of MYB in either ACC or normal salivary gland tissues. There was a variable degree of MYB expression in the cell lines tested, but none of these cell lines demonstrated promoter methylation. Promoter hypomethylation does not appear to explain the differential expression of MYB in ACC. An alternative mechanism needs to be proposed for the transcriptional control of MYB in ACC. PMID:21324728

  1. Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G

    2011-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra eTóthová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis.

  3. SALIVARY CORTISOL CHANGES IN CHILDREN DURING DENTAL EXTRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental environment may be a source of stress for young children. Such stressful conditions may provoke fear and anxiety in children. Therefore stress factor is high in children visiting dentists and this stress may increase or decrease in the subsequent visits that follow dependent upon to what they are exposed to , during these visits especially high anxiety provoki ng procedures like dental extractions. Cortisol , called also “stress hormone” participates in organism’s response to stress situations and enters into complex interactions with the hormonal and immune system of a man. The salivary cortisol levels were inve stigated in 60 children who were divided into study and control groups respectively. The control group was not subjected to any treatment except for collection of saliva. Children belonging to the study group were subjected to dental extraction as indicate d and were performed in three scheduled appointments. Saliva samples were collected from all the children during all the appointments. Salivary cortisol levels were evaluated using the ELISA kit supplied by Salimetrics. The results indicated that the saliv ary cortisol levels increased in the study group when compared to the control groups and within the study group the salivary cortisol levels in the second appointment were on a higher level when compared to the first and third appointments

  4. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I;

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  5. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  6. Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association.

  7. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  8. Salivary Immuno Factors, Cortisol and Testosterone Responses in Athletes of a Competitive 5,000 m Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2015-08-31

    The exercise-stress model can be a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical and psychological stress. It also allows for the study of interactions between the endocrine and the immune systems. This study examined changes in salivary hormonal and immune factors in athletes in response to physical and psychological stress in a 5,000 m running competition. Eighteen endurance-trained runners (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. All participants completed a competitive 5,000 m race. Saliva samples were collected 10 min before (PRE) and 10 min after (POST) the competition. Saliva was analyzed for α-amylase activity, concentrations of salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, cortisol, testosterone and total protein. Although the concentrations of salivary TP, SIgA, lactoferrin, cortisol and α-amylase activity were significantly increased immediately after a competitive 5,000 m race, the secretion rates of these factors were not significantly altered in both male and female groups. Additionally, basal levels of SIgA and α-amylase activity were significantly higher in female runners than in male runners. This gender difference still existed after the race. The secretion rates of testosterone decreased significantly after the race in the male, but not in the female group. Moreover, testosterone-to-cortisol (T/C) ratios were significantly lower post-competition compared to pre-competition in both male and female athletes. The T/C ratio had been used as a performance index for athletes. Whether there are correlations between these changes of their physiological characteristics and better running performance need further investigations.

  9. Roles of salivary components in Streptococcus mutans colonization in a new animal model using NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Ito

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1(-/- mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1(-/-. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1(-/- 4 or 6 mice to determine the roles of several salivary components in S. mutans colonization in vivo. S. mutans colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1(-/- mice was significantly increased when mice were pre-treated with human saliva or commercial salivary components. Interestingly, pre-treatment with secretory IgA (sIgA at physiological concentrations promoted significant colonization of S. mutans compared with sIgA at higher concentrations, or with human saliva or other components. Our data suggest the principal effects of specific sIgA on S. mutans occur during S. mutans colonization, where the appropriate concentration of specific sIgA may serve as an anti-microbial agent, agglutinin, or an adherence receptor to surface antigens. Further, specific sIgA supported biofilm formation when the mice were supplied 1% sucrose water and a non-sucrose diet. The data suggests that there are multiple effects exerted by sIgA in S. mutans colonization, with synergistic effects evident under the condition of sIgA and limited nutrients on colonization in NOD/SCID.e2f1(-/- mice. This is a new animal model that can be used to assess prevention methods for dental biofilm-dependent diseases such as dental caries.

  10. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth, is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2 were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1 have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a

  11. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  12. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  13. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Qayyum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77% and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%. All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14% whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%. Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  14. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  15. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  16. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  17. Individual Differences in AMY1 Gene Copy Number, Salivary α-Amylase Levels, and the Perception of Oral Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail L Mandel; Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Plank, Kimberly L.; Alarcon, Suzanne; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of star...

  18. Study on Salivary Glands α-amylase In Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehrabadi; Ali R. Bandani

    2009-01-01

    α-amylase activity in the salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was determined by biochemical experiments. Some of adult insect was collected and their salivary glands isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from salivary glands of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. α-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure. The activity of α-amylase in salivary glands was 0.050 U/insect. The optimum...

  19. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours compared with control pigs (P tail-biting outbreaks or on tail lesion scores. However, Supplement females had lower skin lesion scores, in particular in the ears and shoulders (P pigs had lower salivary cortisol concentrations (P pigs, and therefore

  20. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  1. [Effect of large doses of vitamin A on the salivary gland secretory elements and their RNA content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys-Uly, M R

    1980-01-01

    The content of RNA in secretory cells of the salivary glands was studied after administration of different doses of vitamin A. The experiments were carried out on 60 male albino mice weighing 20-25 g. The mice were given orally 1000, 3000, 5000 and 8000 IU of a 3.44% oily solution of retinol acetate for 10 days. The control animals received amygdalic oil. RNA content was determined by cytophotometry on a Reichert cytospectrophotometer (single-wave technique) after the sections were stained with gallocyanine-chromine alum. It was demonstrated that vitamin A given in doses that did not provoke that clinical symptoms of hypervitaminosis are capable of increasing RNA concentration in secretory cells of the salivary glands. Higher doses of the vitamin responsible for hypervitaminosis could diminish RNA concentration. In both cases vitamin A exerted a more powerful effect on secretory cells showing more intensive protein metabolism, i. e. on glandulocytes as compared to the effect on the cells of convoluted granular tubes. PMID:6157247

  2. Saliva vs. plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans: validation of class II drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T

    2014-11-01

    To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12 h after 500 mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III.

  3. Cytokine concentrations in stimulated whole saliva among patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, secondary Sjögren's syndrome, and patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome receiving varying doses of interferon for symptomatic treatment of the condition: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfus, C; Bigler, L; Navazesh, M; Al-Hashimi, I

    2001-06-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder which causes diminished salivary flow due to autoimmune sialoadenitis. This decrease in saliva flow is the result of inflammation and atrophy of the salivary glands. Most treatment regimens are palliative in nature, but treatment with interferon (IFN) holds promise for Sjögren's syndrome sufferers. Several studies have investigated cytokine concentrations in the salivary glandular tissues from Sjögren's syndrome patients; however, there is little information concerning cytokine expression in saliva. This is especially true with respect to treatment modalities and their effects on local cytokines. A clinical study was conducted to determine salivary interleukin (IL)-6, IFN, and IL-2, concentrations among subjects diagnosed with primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome and a healthy control group. The primary Sjögren's syndrome showed significantly higher salivary IL-2 and salivary IL-6 than the control and secondary Sjögren's groups. There were no between group differences for salivary IFN concentrations. In addition, the study assessed salivary IL-6, IFN, and IL-2 concentrations among 18 Sjögren's syndrome patients before and after administration of IFN via the oral mucosal route. The results of the study showed that the mean values for the pre- and post-treatment groups for stimulated whole saliva flow rates were 3.15 and 3.74 ml/5 min, respectively. The post-treatment group exhibited a 16.8% increase in stimulated whole saliva flow rates. The salivary IL-6 concentration was 53.3% lower for the post-treatment group (17.79) as compared to the baseline value (33.35). The values for salivary IFN and salivary total protein were virtually unchanged from their baseline values. Salivary IL-2 values, however, were 50% lower in the post-treatment group (3.07) when compared to their respective baseline values (6.10). The results of this study suggest that healthy individuals exhibit lower salivary IL-2 and IL-6 as compared

  4. An epidemiological evaluation of salivary gland cancer in the Netherlands (1989-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Mischa; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Smeele, Ludi E.; Wouters, Michel W. J. M.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relative 5-year survival rate of salivary gland cancer is moderate at best. This study was set up to evaluate whether the improvements in diagnosis and treatment in the last decades impacted the incidence, mortality and survival of salivary gland cancer. Methods: Data on patients wit

  5. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland with Metastatic Spread to the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Geiger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic disease to the pancreas is rare among solid tumors and has not been well described for salivary cancers. We report a patient who developed an isolated metastatic lesion in the pancreas from acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, presenting as acute pancreatitis.

  6. Environmental illness: evaluation of salivary flow, symptoms, diseases, medications, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, J; Bergdahl, M

    2001-04-01

    Patients with symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to dental fillings and/or to electromagnetic fields and other environmental factors frequently report oral complaints. Forty-four consecutive patients with these symptoms were studied. The aim was to investigate whether unstimulated salivary flow rate was associated with Candida, symptoms, disease, medication, age, sex, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, the aim was to compare the level of anxiety, depression, and stress in these patients with an age- and sex-matched control group. Fifty percent had no or low flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Candida pseudohyphae were found in 50% of the patients. Hypothyroidism and/or intake of thyroid hormones, headache, fatigue, and age were negatively associated with unstimulated salivary flow rate, and dizziness was positively associated. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was positively associated with stimulated salivary flow rate and flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Burning mouth and subjective oral dryness were reported by 48%, and 46%, respectively. The patients were more anxious, stressed, and especially more depressed than the control group. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was negatively associated with state anxiety. Measurement of salivary flow rate is important in patients with environmental illness and can be used in combination with other measurements as a diagnostic tool.

  7. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  8. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  9. Enhanced transduction of mouse salivary glands with AAV5-based vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Katano; M.R. Kok; A.P. Cotrim; S. Yamano; M. Schmidt; S. Afione; B.J. Baum; J.A. Chiorini

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) can direct transgene expression in salivary gland cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not known how other rAAV serotypes perform when infused into salivary glands. The capsids of serotypes 4

  10. Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Espana-Tost, Antonio-Jesús; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. Key words:Choristoma, heterotopias, ectopic tissue, salivary gland, buccinator muscle. PMID:26535104

  11. Salivary Creatinine Estimation as an Alternative to Serum Creatinine in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatapathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Sampling blood for serum analysis is an invasive procedure. A noninvasive alternative would be beneficial to patients and health care professionals. Aim. To correlate serum and salivary creatinine levels and evaluate the role of saliva as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease patients. Study Design. Case-control study. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 37 healthy individuals and 105 chronic kidney disease patients. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were estimated using automatic analyser. Statistical Analysis. The serum and salivary creatinine levels between controls and cases were compared using t-test. Correlation between serum and salivary creatinine was obtained in controls and cases using Pearson correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine. Cut-off values were established for salivary creatinine. Results. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than controls. The correlation was negative in controls and positive in cases. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was found to be 0.967. A cut-off value of 0.2 mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 86.5%. Conclusion. Saliva can be used as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pathogenic Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus from Salivary Gland Homogenates of Infected Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongmei; Tamburro, Kristen; Dittmer, Dirk; Cui, Xiaohong; McVoy, Michael A.; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was determined by direct sequencing of salivary gland homogenates obtained following sustained, serial in vivo passage of pathogenic virus in guinea pigs. The 233,501-nucleotide salivary gland (SG) genome was noted to have 11 differences compared to the tissue culture-passaged virus, although no variations were noted in putative protein coding sequences.

  13. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  14. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  15. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  16. Reduction of radiation-induced damage to salivary gland by bone marrow derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands can result in severe side effects that reduce the patient's quality of life. Late damage to the salivary glands is mainly caused by exhaustion of the tissue's stem cells. Post-irradiation replacement of salivary gland stem cells with healthy donor stem cells may reduce complications. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) have been show to be multipotent and engraft in many tissue after injury. In this study we assessed the potential of BMSC to reduce irradiation-induced salivary gland damage. The salivary glands of wild type C57Bl/6 mice were locally irradiated with 20 Gy. Thirty days later, BMSC from transgenic eGFP+ C57Bl/6 mice were transplanted by i.v. injection or by direct injection into the salivary glands. In addition, animals were transplanted with eGFP + bone marrow after 9.5 Gy TBI excluding the salivary glands. Subsequently, the animals were locally irradiated to the salivary gland with 20 Gy. Thirty days later i.v. G-CSF mobilised eGFP + bone marrow derived stem cells to the peripheral blood. Again thirty days after mobilisation, the salivary gland were harvested. eGFP + cells were detected by confocal laser fluorescence scanning microscopy and flow cytometry and H and E histology was performed. eGFP + cells were detected in the salivary gland after all protocols. The number of eGFP + cells in irradiated salivary glands was highest in animals treated with G-CSF. Intraglandular transplantation, in contrast, was successful only in 1 out of 8 attempts. Immuno-histochemistry using a-SM-actin antibodies showed the close vicinity of actin and eGFP within the cells, demonstrating the occurrence of BMSC derived myoepithelial cells in irradiated salivary gland. Further, cell-type specific antibodies will reveal the nature of all eGFP + cells. H and E histology revealed improved gland morphology in animals treated with G-CSF after irradiation when compared to the non-treated animals. These preliminary results indicate that bone

  17. Salivary hormonal responses and performance changes during 15 weeks of mixed aerobic and weight training in elite junior wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Lac, Gérard

    2012-11-01

    To prepare efficiently for competition, wrestlers usually train physically for a period of approximately 12-20 weeks. Numerous physical qualities must be developed during this period of preparation: aerobic fitness, maximal strength, muscular endurance, power, and speed. However, numerous studies have concluded that it is difficult to concurrently develop strength and aerobic fitness for several reasons, in particular antagonistic endocrine variations. The study involved 15 elite junior wrestlers who trained at a sports training school for 15 weeks. To investigate the effects of long-term training and to assess the relationships between hormonal concentrations (salivary testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) and performance changes during simultaneous strength and aerobic fitness training, 6 saliva samples and 3 physical tests and 2 measures of body composition were made during the training period. Wrestlers had a significant increase (+1.5 kg) in body weight without changes in percentage body fat. Apart from the 20-m maximal shuttle speed, all performances increased significantly during the 15 weeks of training: maximum mechanical power output (Pmax: +12.8%), mean power during 30 seconds (Pmean: +10.8%), bench press (+5.7%), squat (+23.1%), power clean (+6.1%), time to 3,000- and 30-m sprints (-3.6, -1.3% respectively). During the period that the C increased, there was no significant variation for the T. The T/C ratio followed a variation pattern contrary to that of the C. We found strong correlations between salivary T, C, and T/C and the variation in explosive strength. Our results suggest that data about subjects' salivary C, T, and T/C may be employed to optimize the training process for sports people who need to develop strength and aerobic fitness simultaneously.

  18. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  19. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  20. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Miguel; Silván, Gema; Carbonell, Maria Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martinez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cáceres, Sara; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7-12 years) and one group of three adult (24-25 years) African elephant females, Loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by EIA. Samples were collected during May, June, and November 2012 (n = 147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr intervals from 20:00 to 20:00 of the next day (seven samples per animal in each trial). The animals are kept under standard zoo management: the herd is maintained in their indoor enclosures until 10:00 and then released into the outdoor enclosures until 21:00-21:30 (May/June) and 18:30-19:00 (November). No adult elephant bull was present at the zoo during this time. The results demonstrate a clear diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion with the lowest concentration observed at 20:00 (2.03 ± 0.08 ng/ml saliva) and the peak concentrations at 08:00 (5.26 ± 0.35 ng/ml saliva). Although the cortisol values were higher in the adult cows compared to the juvenile cows in the May-June period, the differences were not significant. However, the values obtained in November from the juvenile group were significantly higher (P zoo elephants follows a circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle) adapted to daily zoo husbandry routines.