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Sample records for salival vaginosis bacteriana

  1. Higiene intima femenina y vaginosis bacteriana. Encuesta epidemiologica latinoamericana 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuevas, Aura; Celis, Cuauhtemoc; Herron, Santiago; Hernandez, Imelda; Paredes, Osiris; Paradas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    .... Se aplico una encuesta que contenia informacion sociodemografica, informacion sobre actividad sexual e higiene intima y se hizo el diagnostico presuntivo de vaginosis bacteriana basado en criterios...

  2. Actividad sialidasa en mujeres con vaginosis bacteriana Sialidase activity in women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Ombrella

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana (VB es un síndrome caracterizado por el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano de flora endógena Gram negativa, que desplaza a la flora lactobacilar normal. Dentro de las enzimas bacterianas, las sialidasas han sido consideradas factores de virulencia de muchos microorganismos patógenos que colonizan las distintas mucosas. Su presencia en fluidos vaginales puede estar correlacionada con VB. El propósito de este estudio fue comprobar la actividad de dicha enzima en mujeres con este síndrome y sin evidencia clínica de infección genital. Se estudiaron 112 mujeres (51 fueron pacientes con VB y 61 mujeres con flora colonizante habitual. Para la cuantificación de la actividad sialidasa se empleó la técnica basada en la hidrólisis enzimática de un derivado ácido del ácido metoxifenil acetil murámico. En la población estudiada se encontró que ambos grupos mostraron valores comprendidos entre 0.5 a 5.1 nmoles de metoxifenol, mientras que 11 de 52 pacientes con VB (21.17%, registraron valores superiores a 5.1 nmoles. La presencia de actividad sialidasa solamente no es índice de VB, excepto para valores mayores de 5.5 nmoles de metoxifenol, producidos en la reacción enzimática.Bacterial vaginosis (VB is a syndrome characterized by overgrowth of endogenous Gram negative bacterial flora and the lack of the normal flora. Within bacterial enzymes, sialidases have been considered a virulence factor of many pathogenic microorganisms colonizing the different mucous membranes. Their presence in vaginal discharges can be correlated with VB. The aim of this study was to detect the activity of this enzyme in women with this syndrome and without clinical evidence of genital infection. Out of a total 112 women studied, 51 were patients with VB and the other 61 women presented normal vaginal flora. For the quantification of enzyme activity, the technique based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of a derivative acid of the acetyl metoxifenil

  3. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  4. Duchas vaginales y otros riesgos de vaginosis bacteriana

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    Natividad Chávez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana (VB es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, se asocia con resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, que incluyen el VIH. Objetivos. Identificar la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgo con VB. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales y un instituto especializado de Lima, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registró las variables sociodemográficas y las características del estilo de vida de las participantes. La VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR e intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados. La edad promedio fue 25,1 ± 4,7 años, el 23,4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencia de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales (OR: 2,28; IC95%: 1,0- 5,0, que tenían dos o más parejas sexuales (OR: 2,0; IC95%: 1,2-3,5 y que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana (OR: 1,4; IC95%: 1,0 -1,9 tuvieron mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. Conclusiones. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB en mujeres peruanas. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales.

  5. Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers

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    Gloria Venegas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas y relacionar los hallazgos con variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y clínicas. MÉTODO: Se estudió una muestra de 379 trabajadoras sexuales que asistían para control a Unidades de Atención y Control de Salud Sexual de Chile. A todas se las entrevistó para obtener antecedentes sociodemográficos y sexuales, se les realizó evaluación clínica que incluyó características del flujo vaginal, pH y prueba de aminas, y se les tomó una muestra vaginal para tinción de Gram. Para el diagnóstico de VB se empleó el criterio de Nugent. Los datos fueron analizados con EPI-INFO 3.4.1 y BioStat, utilizándose un grado de significación de P OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV in Chilean sex workers and relate the findings to sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical variables. METHODS: A sample of 379 sex workers seen in Chilean Sexual Health Monitoring and Care Units for check-ups was studied. All of them were interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic and sexual history. A clinical examination was performed that included the characteristics of vaginal discharge, pH, and amine test. A vaginal sample was taken for Gram stain. The Nugent criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The data was analyzed with EPI-INFO 3.4.1 and BioStat, using a degree of significance of P < 0.005. RESULTS: BV prevalence was 69.1%. The syndrome was not associated with the sociodemographic variables, age or education. BV was less common in women (married or unmarried who lived with their partners than in single women (P < 0.001. There were no sexual variables associated with BV, whereas use of intrauterine devices was related (P < 0.0001. The presence of vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal pH, and positive amine test were associated with infection (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Like other studies conducted in different countries, this study

  6. Vaginosis bacteriana por Gardnerella vaginalis: Nuevas enseñanzas desde la ecología molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Zúñiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana (VB, es la afección vaginal más frecuente en las mujeres en edad reproductiva generada por un desbalance en el ecosistema vaginal que ocasiona complicaciones severas para la salud reproductiva. Existen hipótesis de origen biológico que relacionan la presencia de organismos como Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella sp, Atopobium vaginae como la causa más frecuente relacionada con la vaginosis, los cuales logran desplazar poblacionalmente microorganismos con capacidad protectora del epitelio vaginal como Lactobacillus crispatus y Lactobacillus jensenii. En la actualidad y de acuerdo a la OMS, la vaginosis bacteriana estaría implicada en alteraciones durante el embarazo como parto pre termino, bajo peso al nacer, corioamnionitis, ruptura prematura de membranas (RPM, endometritis post parto, entre otras. En los últimos años, con base estudios apoyados en datos de patrones moleculares, así como tecnología de análisis de genomas, surge una visión mucho más completa de condiciones ecológicas y agentes participantes en la vaginosis bacteriana.

  7. Prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal anormal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDINA, Ruth; RECHKEMMER PRIETO, Adolfo; GARCIA-HJARLES, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal y su asociación con características clínicas y de laboratorio. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. Se estudiaron 370 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza de enero a marzo de 1998. A todas las pacientes se les tomó muestras de flujo vaginal para la medición del pH, del test de amina y la identificación microscópica d...

  8. Prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal anormal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza

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    Ruth Medina

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal y su asociación con características clínicas y de laboratorio. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. Se estudiaron 370 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza de enero a marzo de 1998. A todas las pacientes se les tomó muestras de flujo vaginal para la medición del pH, del test de amina y la identificación microscópica de "células clave", Trichomonas vaginalis, levaduras e hifas. Resultados: La prevalencia de infección vaginal fue de 42.2%; siendo vaginosis bacteriana la infección más frecuente (23.24%, seguido de candidiasis vaginal (16.2% y tricomoniasis vaginal (7.8%. Vaginosis bacteriana estuvo asociada a mal olor postcoital, ausencia de signos inflamatorios en vagina, flujo vaginal blanquecino, lechoso, homogéneo y fétido. La candidiasis vaginal estuvo asociada a prurito, ardor vulvovaginal, eritema vulvar y vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillento, grumoso sin olor, test de amina negativo; así como ausencia de relaciones sexuales, ningún compañero sexual en el último año, ninguna gestación, una vida sexual menor de dos años y paridad de ninguno a un hijo. La tricomoniasis vaginal estuvo asociada a eritema vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillo verdoso, espumoso, homogéneo y fétido y test de amina positivo. Conclusión: Un diagnóstico correcto y oportuno de las infecciones vaginales no debe basarse sólo en las características clínicas sino en la confirmación con métodos sencillos de laboratorio. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:144-150 .

  9. Validación de la prueba de Papanicolaou en el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana. Antioquia, Colombia

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    María Elena Vásquez Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive cross sectional study was carry out in 423 women in seven rural communities of the municipality of Amagá, Antioquia. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the sensibility and specificity and predictive values of the test of Papanicolaou in relation to the Gram exam, for the diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV. In the 423 studied women the results showed a prevalence of BV for the bacteriological exam Gram of 20.8 % (88 cases and for Papanicolaou of 21% (89 cases. The sensitivity was 87.5%, the specificity was 96.4%. The value predictive positive was 86,5% and the value predictive negative was 96.7%. The high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Papanicolaou test reported in this study make it a good screening method, since it is an exam that is carried out commonly and no additional testa are required. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte en 423 mujeres de la población rural del municipio de Amagá, Antioquia, cuyas edades estaban comprendidas entre los 15 y 65 años, a quienes se les tomó muestras cérvicovaginales para estudio citológico de Papanicolau y coloración de Gram. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou frente al Gram, para el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana (vb. La prevalencia de vb por el Gram, en las 423 mujeres estudiadas, fue de 20.8% (88 casos y la prevalencia de vb por Papanicolaou, fue del 21 % (89 casos. La sensibilidad fue 87.5%, la especificidad 96.4%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP 86,5% y valor predictivo negativo (VPN 96.7%. La alta sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba de Papanicolaou, reportados en este estudio hacen de ésta un buen método de tamizaje, dado que es un examen que se realiza de rutina y no se requiere una prueba adicional para hacer el diagnóstico; lo que a su vez permite disminuir costos porque se omite el estudio de la flora vaginal

  10. Associação da Vaginose Bacteriana com o Parto Prematuro Espontâneo Association of Bacterial Vaginosis with Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

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    Mário Henrique Burlacchini de Carvalho

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: relacionar a presença de vaginose bacteriana em gestantes com a ocorrência de parto prematuro espontâneo. Método: foram estudadas 611 gestantes do serviço pré-natal da Clínica Obstétrica do HCFMUSP. Foram incluídas gestantes com idade gestacional confirmada por ultra-sonografia no primeiro trimestre de gestação ou duas ultra-sonografias até a 20ª semana quando havia discordância da idade gestacional no primeiro exame. Os partos prematuros eletivos foram excluídos. A pesquisa da vaginose foi realizada na 23ª ou 24ª semana de gestação por meio da técnica de coloração de Gram. O pH vaginal foi pesquisado utilizando-se fita de pH Universal 0-14 produzida pela Merck. O conteúdo vaginal foi coletado com a paciente em posição ginecológica, utilizando-se espéculo não-lubrificado. O pH foi medido na parede lateral da vagina e o conteúdo para Gram foi coletado do fundo de saco vaginal utilizando-se de cotonete estéril. Resultado: das 611 gestantes envolvidas inicialmente no estudo, foram obtidos os resultados do parto em 541. A vaginose bacteriana foi diagnosticada por bacterioscopia em 19% dos casos. No grupo de gestantes com vaginose, 9,7% (10/103 evoluíram com parto prematuro, contra apenas 3,2% (14/438 no grupo negativo (p=0,008. A sensibilidade da bacterioscopia positiva para vaginose bacteriana para predição do parto prematuro foi de 41,7%, a especificidade de 82%, a acurácia de 80,2%, com taxa de falso-positivos de 18% e risco relativo de 1,8. Conclusão: a vaginose bacteriana diagnosticada pelo Gram do conteúdo vaginal representa fator de risco para o parto prematuro, com risco relativo de 1,8.Purpose: to evaluate the relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV and spontaneous preterm delivery. Method: a total of 611 pregnant women from the general antenatal clinic of the "Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo" were enrolled in this study. All pregnancies were

  11. EFECTO DE LA RECOLONIZACIÓN VAGINAL POR LACTOBACILLUS SP. PROBIÓTICO POTENCIAL EN MUJERES CON VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    HURTADO ESCAMILO, STEVE TONY

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microflora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species, which prevent the growth and invasion of pathogenic bacteria and their decrease is associated with increased incidence of vaginal infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vaginal re-colonization by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus sp. BMP9, in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methods: Women categorized by Nugent criteria: 16 with bacterial vaginosis (Nugent: 7-10 points) ...

  12. Vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales que acuden a un centro especializado de referencias de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y SIDA.

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    Jorge Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB en trabajadoras sexuales (TS que acuden a un centro especializado de referencias de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y SIDA (CERETSS en Lima, Perú; y su asociación con características gineco-obstétricas. Material y Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 322 TS que acudieron a la consulta médica en un CERETSS de diciembre del 2008 a enero del 2009. Se obtuvieron muestras de flujo vaginal y se emplearon los métodos de Amsel y Nugent para el diagnóstico de VB. Resultados: La frecuencia de VB fue 26,1%. La VB estuvo asociada con el conocimiento de VB, antecedentes de VB y Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual (ETS, número de partos, número de abortos y número de parejas sexuales por día. Conclusiones: La frecuencia de VB en esta población es elevada, siendo necesaria la implementación de medidas que conduzcan a su control. (Rev Med Hered 2010;21:32-38.

  13. Perfil clínico e microbiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana Clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis

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    Sonia Regina Ribeiro de Figueiredo Leite

    2010-02-01

    ,2%, Cocos Gram-positivos (98,2%, além de bacilos Gram-positivos (99,3% e negativos (91,0%. As colpocitologias oncóticas mostraram presença muito escassa de lactobacilos, que estiveram presentes em apenas 8 citologias (2,9% do total de 273 exames realizados. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados do estudo não mostraram diferença em relação à literatura quanto aos sintomas referidos pelas mulheres, os critérios clínicos mais observados no diagnóstico, ou as espécies bacterianas demonstradas nas culturas de conteúdo vaginal. Os achados demonstram serem necessários novos estudos que melhor elucidem as inter-relações entre os achados microbiológicos e a expressão clínica da vaginose bacteriana. Registro do ensaio clínico: ISRCTN18987156PURPOSE: to study the clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis participating in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, which compared the vaginal use of preparations from red pepper tree and metronidazole for the treatment of genital discharge. METHODS: the study was conducted on a series of 277 women with bacterial vaginosis concomitantly diagnosed by the criteria of Amsel and Nugent, selected from a total of 462 recruited patients using the information obtained before intervention. Data were analyzed with the Epi-Info 3.32 software. In order to compare the outcomes frequencies between the intervention groups, the χ2 test was used and the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. The intention to treat analysis was performed. In addition to the determination of diagnostic parameters, the culture of vaginal content and a Papanicolaou cytology test were also performed. RESULTS: the most frequent clinical complaints were genital discharge, observed in 206 participants (74.4% and the fish odor of the vaginal secretion, which occurred in 68.6% of the cases (190 patients. Among the diagnostic clinical criteria, the presence of clue-cells was positive in 275 women (99.3%, the Whiff test, in 266

  14. Tratamento da vaginose bacteriana com gel vaginal de Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: ensaio clínico randomizado Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi vaginal gel: a randomized controlled trial

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    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: testar a eficácia e a tolerância do gel de aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi para tratamento da vaginose bacteriana. MÉTODOS: quarenta e oito mulheres com vaginose bacteriana sintomática (de acordo com os critérios de Amsel foram incluídas em ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, controlado, comparando-se o uso do gel vaginal de aroeira (25 casos com placebo (23 casos. Os principais desfechos avaliados foram: taxa de cura, presença de lactobacilos na colpocitologia depois do tratamento e efeitos colaterais. Realizou-se análise estatística usando os testes chi2 e exato de Fisher, ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: adotando-se os parâmetros clínicos de Amsel para vaginose bacteriana, a taxa de cura foi de 84% no grupo da aroeira e 47,8% no grupo placebo (p = 0,008. Observou-se freqüência significativamente maior de lactobacilos na colpocitologia entre as pacientes tratadas com aroeira (43,5% em relação ao placebo (4,3% (p = 0,002. Efeitos adversos relacionados ao tratamento não foram freqüentes em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: o presente estudo indica que o gel vaginal de aroeira é efetivo e seguro para o tratamento da vaginose bacteriana. Além disso, sugerem-se potenciais efeitos benéficos na flora vaginal.PURPOSE: to test the efficacy of and tolerance to Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi gel in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: forty-eight women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (according to Amsel's criteria were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi gel (25 cases with placebo (23 cases. The main outcome parameters were: rate of cure, presence of lactobacilli in Pap smear after treatment and side effects. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi2 and the Fisher exact test at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: using Amsel's clinical parameters of bacterial vaginosis, the cure rate was 84% in the Schinus group and

  15. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  16. Perfil epidemiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em São Paulo, SP Epidemiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

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    Vanessa d´Andretta Tanaka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A vaginose bacteriana é doença de grande relevância devido à sua alta prevalência e suas complicações obstétricas e ginecológicas. OBJETIVO - Descrever o perfil epidemiológico das pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de São Paulo, segundo variáveis de interesse social, demográfico e clínico. MÉTODOS - Estudo transversal descritivo, baseado nos prontuários de 658 mulheres atendidas de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2004. Foram coletadas as seguintes informações: idade, cor, estado civil, procedência, grau de escolaridade, preferência sexual, número de parceiros e presença de doença sexualmente transmissível associada. RESULTADOS - A prevalência encontrada foi de 29%. Com relação ao perfil da mulher com vaginose bacteriana, observou-se maior ocorrência em jovens entre 10 e 19 anos (40%, negras (37,1%, viúvas (62,5%, com segundo grau incompleto (39,5%, heterossexuais (29,5%, com dois ou mais parceiros sexuais nos últimos 30 dias (50% e nos últimos cinco anos (32,3%. A associação com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, concomitante, foi encontrada em 31,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO - A distribuição dos casos segundo faixa etária, raça, número de parceiros sexuais e associação com outras doenças encontradas nas pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana foi semelhante aos dados encontrados na literatura. A ocorrência está dentro dos limites descritos (10 e 36%.BACKGROUND- Bacterial vaginosis is an important disease on account of its high prevalence as well as the obstetrical and gynecological complications. OBJECTIVE- To present an epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis seen at an outpatient clinic in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, described according to socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS- A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by collecting data from the medical records of 658

  17. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

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    ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy ...

  18. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, Mike; Aarts, Henk; Vermeent, Stefan; Häfner, Michael; Papies, Esther K

    2016-01-01

    Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food

  19. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues.

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    Mike Keesman

    Full Text Available Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues. As stimuli, both experiments used an attractive, a neutral, and a sour food, as well as a non-food control object. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to simulate eating every object they would be exposed to. We then exposed them to each object separately. Salivation was assessed by having participants spit their saliva into a cup after one minute of exposure. In Experiment 2, we instructed half of participants to simulate eating each object, and half to merely look at them, while measuring salivation as in Experiment 1. Afterwards, participants rated their simulations and desire to eat for each object separately. As predicted, foods increased salivation compared to the non-food control object, especially when they were attractive or sour (Exp. 1 and 2. Importantly, attractive and sour foods especially increased salivation when instructed to simulate (Exp. 2. These findings suggest that consumption simulations play an important role in inducing salivary responses to food cues. We discuss directions for future research as well as the role of simulations for other appetitive processes.

  20. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

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    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  1. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  2. Pavlov's cockroach: classical conditioning of salivation in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2007-06-13

    Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.

  3. Pavlov's cockroach: classical conditioning of salivation in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Watanabe

    Full Text Available Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.

  4. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  5. Pavlov's Cockroach: Classical Conditioning of Salivation in an Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiro Watanabe; Makoto Mizunami

    2007-01-01

    Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control...

  6. Meningitis bacteriana aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodrigo Blamey, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La Meningitis Bacteriana Aguda (MBA de adquisición comunitaria es una enfermedad prevalente en todo el mundo; constituye siempre una emergencia médica y se asocia a una alta morbimortalidad. Su epidemiología es variable y los principales agentes en adultos son S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae y L. monocitogenes. En Chile existe un sistema de vigilancia recientemente implementado que permitirá un mejor diagnóstico epidemiológico. Las manifestaciones clínicas clásicas no siempre están presentes principalmente en adultos mayores. El diagnóstico requiere del estudio de líquido cefalorraquídeo, y las técnicas de biología molecular han significado un aporte relevante en los últimos años. El tratamiento antibiótico debe ser instaurado rápidamente para mejorar el pronóstico, mientras que la terapia coadyuvante con corticoides en adultos tiene sólo beneficios en etiología neumocócica. Se requieren mejores estrategias de prevención frente a una entidad que no ha cambiado su mortalidad a pesar del progreso de la medicina moderna.

  7. Use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum intimate liquid soap for external hygiene in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis recurrence after metronidazole oral treatment Uso do ácido láctico com lactoserum em sabonete líquido íntimo para higiene externa na prevenção da recorrência de vaginose bacteriana após tratamento oral com metronidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valeria Bahamondes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV after the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap starting immediately after the treatment with oral metronidazole and the quality of life of the participants. METHODS: A total of 123 women with diagnosis of BV with at least three of the following criteria: 1 homogeneous vaginal discharge without inflammation of the vagina or vulva; 2 vaginal pH ≥ 4.5; 3 positive Whiff test; and 4 "clue cells" in more than 20% of the epithelial cells in the vagina. A Nugent score ≥ 4 in the vaginal bacterioscopy was also used. After BV diagnosis, metronidazole 500 mg was administered orally bid during 7 days. Patients cured of BV were then instructed to use 7.5 to 10 mL of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap once-a-day for hygiene of the external genital region. Three subsequent control visits after starting the hygiene treatment (30, 60, and 90 days; ± 5 days were scheduled. A questionnaire was applied in the form of visual analogue scale (VAS in all the visits regarding: 1 level of comfort at the genital region; 2 malodorous external genitalia; 3 comfort in sexual intercourse; 4 satisfaction with intimate hygiene; and 5 self-esteem. RESULTS: Ninety two (74.8% women initiated the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap at visit 1. At visit 2, 3, and 4 there were 84, 62 and 42 women available for evaluation, respectively. The rate of recurrence of BV was 19.0%, 24.2% and 7.1%, respectively in the three visits and vaginal candidiasis was observed in five treated women. Quality of life was evaluated in the 42 women who completed the four visits schedule and there were significant improvement in the five domains assessed. CONCLUSION: A lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap for external intimate hygiene may be an option for the prevention of BV recurrence after treatment and cure with oral metronidazoleOBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de vaginose bacteriana (VB após o

  8. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

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    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  9. Bacterial Vaginosis: More Questions than Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirotta, Marie; Fethers, Kath A; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age and is associated with serious pregnancy related sequelae and increased transmission of sexually...

  10. THE ETIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition. PMID:21332897

  11. Recent progress in understanding the epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Osbak, Kara

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis epidemiology has been transformed by new theoretical insights and methodologies, such as molecular sequencing. We summarize the progress made in these domains. The vaginal microbiome can be classified in five to eight clusters. Bacterial vaginosis-type clusters typically constitute one of these clusters, but in higher risk women, it can constitute up to three clusters. The vaginal microbiomes may be fairly stable or be subject to rapid changes in their constitutive makeup. Bacterial vaginosis does not appear to be a single entity. Certain bacterial communities are associated with particular symptoms of bacterial vaginosis that are paired with unique adverse outcomes. Biofilm-producing Gardnerella vaginalis are likely to play an important role in initiating the structured polymicrobial biofilm that is a hallmark of bacterial vaginosis. Longitudinal studies currently underway should help elucidate how to best define bacterial vaginosis and its subtypes. Risk factors and outcomes associated with particular bacterial vaginosis subtypes should also be further clarified through these studies.

  12. PRETERM LABOUR - IS BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INVOLVED?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INVOLVED? HJ Odendaal, I Popov, J Schoeman, M Smith, D Grove. Objective. To assess the efficacy of treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metronidazole to reduce preterm labour in primigravidae and multigravidae with previous midtrimester abortion or preterm labour. Design. Randomised controlled trial. Setting.

  13. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P; Chawla, Rohit; Garg, S; Singh, M M; Raina, U; Bhalla, Ruchira; Sodhanit, Pushpa

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women in reproductive age. Surveillance studies on bacterial vaginosis are mostly based on specialist clinic settings. As few population-based prevalence surveys of bacterial vaginosis have been conducted, we studied the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the urban and rural communities in Delhi, and to associate the presence of bacterial vaginosis with demographic profile, risk factors and presence of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs)/ sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal specimens for Gram-stain evaluation of vaginal flora for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and culture of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida spp, blood samples for HIV and syphilis serology, and urine for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were collected from women (15-49 yr) from rural and urban areas. Information on demographic characteristics, risk factors and clinical symptoms was obtained. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 70 (32.8%) subjects. A high percentage though asymptomatic (31.2%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis. Highest prevalence was seen in urban slum (38.6%) followed by rural (28.8%) and urban middle class community (25.4%). All women with vaginal trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis while 50 per cent of subjects having syphilis also had bacterial vaginosis.. The study showed high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The asymptomatic women having bacterial vaginosis are less likely to seek treatment for the morbidity and thus are more likely to acquire other STIs. Women attending various healthcare facilities should be screened and treated for bacterial vaginosis to reduce the risk of acquisition of other STIs.

  14. HELICOBACTER PYLORI EN LA FLORA BACTERIANA ORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Departamento Académico Ciencias Básicas Estomatológicas. Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    No hay duda de la relación existente entre enfermedades orales con otras enfermedades sistémicas. En tal contexto, las bacterias de la flora bacteriana oral, que alcanzan alrededor de 350 especies, para la mayoría de tales bacterias no se ha demostrado un rol específico, conociéndose sí una clara relación entre los Estreptococos orales (Streptococcus sanguis, Strecoccus mutans, Streptococcus sobri nus) y Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans, entre otros, con la endocarditis bacteriana; así co...

  15. [Effects on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elders after oral function improvement exercises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Park, Kyung Min

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elderly people. The participants in the study were 48 female community-dwelling elders in D city. The Oral Function Improvement Exercises were given 3 times a week, for a total of 24 times from August to October 2011. Spitting method, Visual Analogue Scale, and halimeter (mBA-21) were used to evaluate the effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia, and halitosis. The data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly better salivation, and less xerostomia and halitosis than the control group. The results indicate that Oral Function Improvement Exercises were effective for salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in the elders. Therefore, it was suggested that Oral Function Improvement Exercise are applicable in a community nursing intervention program to improve the quality of life for elders.

  16. Epidemilogical and microbiological correlates of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Female population comprised of 544 with vaginitis and 258 asymptomatic were screened for presence of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis. Bacterial vaginosis, diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria and gram′s stained vaginal smear findings, was present in 50 percent of symptomatic cases and 21.8 percent of asymptomatic women. G. vaginalis, M. hominis and T. vaginalis were significantly associated with a diagnosis of BV. BV showed a positive correlation with lower socio-economic status and parity of more than 2. Prevalence of G. vaginalis was significantly higher among women who were ? 33 years of age, had been married for a shorter duration, gave history of intercourse in the preceding 48 hours and were of lower socio-economic status.

  17. Tinidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R Armstrong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola R Armstrong1, Janet D Wilson21Department of Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health, Trinity Centre, Bradford, UK; 2The Centre for Sexual Health, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Oral metronidazole has long been established as an effective therapy in the treatment of BV. However, adverse effects due to metronidazole are frequent and this may lead to problems with adherence to a 7-day course of treatment and subsequently result in treatment failure. Oral tinidazole has been used to treat bacterial vaginosis for over 25 years but in a number of different dosage regimens. Placebo controlled trials have consistently shown increases in cure rate with tinidazole. Longer courses of treatment (eg, 1 g daily for 5 days appear to be more effective than a 2 g oral single dose. Comparative studies suggest that oral tinidazole is equivalent to oral metronidazole, intravaginal clindamycin cream, and intravaginal metronidazole tablets, in efficacy in treating BV. However, tinidazole has a more favorable side effect profile than oral metronidazole notably with better gastrointestinal tolerability and less metallic taste. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with high rates of recurrence and appropriate management of such recurrences can prove difficult. Recurrent BV has been linked with persistence of Gardnerella vaginalis after treatment; however the clinical implications of the possible greater activity of tinidazole against G. vaginalis are not yet clear. Repeated courses of oral metronidazole may be poorly tolerated and an alternative but equally effective treatment that is better tolerated may be preferable. In comparison to oral metronidazole, cost is clearly an issue as oral metronidazole is considerably cheaper and available in generic form. However where avoidance of oral metronidazole is necessary because of side effects, oral

  18. Peritonite bacteriana espontânea

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    Strauss Edna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A peritonite bacteriana espontânea ocorre em 30% dos cirróticos com ascite e, neste grupo, apresenta altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Os fatores predisponentes incluem a diminuição da defesa imunológica encontrada no homem nas fases avançadas da cirrose, o supercrescimento da flora intestinal e a translocação bacteriana da luz dos intestinos aos linfonodos mesentéricos. As manifestações clínicas variam de graves a leves ou ausentes, sendo sempre necessária a análise do líquido ascítico. O diagnóstico de peritonite bacteriana espontânea se faz pela contagem de neutrófilos > 250/mm³ no líquido ascítico associado ou não ao crescimento de bactéria na cultura. As enterobactérias predominam como causa da infecção, sendo a Echerichia coli a bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada. O diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado provocaram a queda das taxas de mortalidade nas duas últimas décadas. O uso endovenoso de cefalosporinas de terceira geração mostra-se eficaz em 70% a 95% dos casos. A recorrência de peritonite bacteriana espontânea é comum e pode ser prevenida com norfloxacina oral, de uso contínuo. O surgimento de resistência bacteriana tem estimulado a procura de novas opções para a profilaxia da peritonite bacteriana espontânea; os probióticos constituem nova abordagem promissora, mas que necessita melhor avaliação. Recomenda-se a profilaxia primária de curta duração aos cirróticos com ascite que apresentem episódio de hemorragia digestiva alta.

  19. Lactic Acid Bacterial Vaginosis among Outpatients in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis may contribute to adverse reproductive outcomes. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in this study compares well with other African studies. The species richness and relative abundance of vaginal lactic acid bacteria in this study may be considered to design better probiotic products as ...

  20. The Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the conditions which leads to pregnancy complications such as abortions, preterm delivery and chorioamnionitis. Objective: To determined the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated risk factors among pregnant women seen in the antenatal clinic of the hospital in Jos. Methods: This ...

  1. Prevalence Of Bacterial Vaginosis In Women With Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost half of patients with trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis (P<0.05). The demonstration Clue cells in wet mount was found in significantly higher numbers (90.5%) in women with bacterial vaginosis (P<0.001, positive predictive value 90.4%) while low sensitivity and positive predictive value were seen ...

  2. 1 Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaginosis in female facility workers in north-western Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 85, 370-375. Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R. & Meier, A.S. (2006) Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among. Kenyan women and their male partners. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 33, 361–367. Cherpes, T.L. ...

  3. Gustatory Salivation Is Associated with Body Mass Index, Daytime Sleepiness, and Snoring in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Satoshi; Hong, Guang; Iwasaki, Koh; Izumi, Masayuki; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Chiba, Mirei; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-10-01

    The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26.0 ± 4.3 years). We also measured the saliva flow rate (SFR) that was induced by gum-chewing or each of three prototypical tastants (acetic acid, sucrose, and NaCl). Further, the SFR was induced by fatty acid, provided as oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk. All participants showed normal rates of salivation during resting and gum-chewing states. The increase in the SFR induced by OA, but not by each of the three tastants, was associated with BMI. Moreover, both daytime sleepiness level and frequency of snoring were associated with the increase in the SFR induced by NaCl. These results suggest that BMI is associated with salivation induced by oral fatty acid exposure. Additionally, the regulatory mechanism for the NaCl-induced salivation reflex may have a relationship with impairments of the respiratory control system that are related to snoring during sleep and lead to daytime sleepiness because of insufficient sleep. Thus, measurement of gustatory salivation might contribute to the evaluation and prevention of obesity and sleep-related breathing disorders.

  4. Central muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in pilocarpine-induced salivation, hypertension and water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, T L; De Luca, L A; Colombari, D S A; Menani, J V

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent evidence has suggested that pilocarpine (ACh receptor agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally producing salivation and hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effects of specific M1 (pirenzepine), M2/M4 (methoctramine), M1/M3 (4-DAMP) and M4 (tropicamide) muscarinic receptor subtype antagonists injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV) on salivation, water intake and pressor responses to peripheral pilocarpine. Experimental approach: Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulae implanted in the LV were used. Salivation was measured in rats anaesthetized with ketamine (100 mg per kg body weight) and arterial pressure was recorded in unanaesthetized rats. Key results: Salivation induced by i.p. pilocarpine (4 μmol per kg body weight) was reduced only by 4-DAMP (25–250 nmol) injected into the LV, not by pirenzepine, methoctramine or tropicamide at the dose of 500 nmol. Pirenzepine (0.1 and 1 nmol) and 4-DAMP (5 and 10 nmol) injected into the LV reduced i.p. pilocarpine-induced water intake, whereas metoctramine (50 nmol) produced nonspecific effects on ingestive behaviours. Injection of pirenzepine (100 nmol) or 4-DAMP (25 and 50 nmol) into the LV reduced i.v. pilocarpine-induced pressor responses. Tropicamide (500 nmol) injected into the LV had no effect on pilocarpine-induced salivation, pressor responses or water intake. Conclusions and implications: The results suggest that central M3 receptors are involved in peripheral pilocarpine-induced salivation and M1 receptors in water intake and pressor responses. The involvement of M3 receptors in water intake and pressor responses is not clear because 4-DAMP blocks both M1 and M3 receptors. PMID:18820713

  5. [Condition of periodontal tissue in women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Shul'zhenko, A D; Krutikova, E I

    2014-12-01

    Cross colonization of open cavities of human body has little been studied in contemporary medicine. There in no practical recommendations as for management of dental patients with urogenital tract microflora disorder. The paper presents the findings of clinical features of periodontium tissues in women with bacterial vaginosis correlated with bacteriological estimation of oral cavity and vagina, number of sexual partners. Interpretation of amine test of oral and vaginal fluids has been provided for the first time. Chronic generalized inflammatory and inflammatory-dystrophic periodontal diseases of different severity have been detected in all female patients with gynecological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is atypical representative of oral cavity microflora, has been detected by the PCR method in bacterial vaginosis both in vagina and oral cavity. The major markers of bacterial vaginosis have been also detected in oral cavity in women with this pathology.

  6. Organisms Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis in Nigerian Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOMCS2

    2007-06-02

    Jun 2, 2007 ... Abstract. Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition with diverse etiology. This condition .... Agarose (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) gels at 100 volts for 45 min ... discarded and the spin column was placed in a clean.

  7. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated factors among pregnant women attending at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. Prosper A. Shayo, Albert Kihunrwa, Anthony N. Massinde, Miriam Mirambo, Richard N. Rumanyika, Nnhandi Ngwalida, Balthazar Gumodoka, Jeremiah Kidola, Moke Magoma ...

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  9. Bacterial vaginosis among women with tubal factor infertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durugbo, Innocent I; Nyengidiki, Tamunomie K; Bassey, Goddy; Wariso, Kennedy T

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women with tubal factor infertility. A cross-sectional prospective study of women with tubal factor infertility was conducted at a Nigerian teaching hospital between March and September 2014. An equal number of fertile women attending the family planning clinic were recruited as controls. Interviews were conducted to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, history and characteristics of vaginal discharge, knowledge, and practices. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using the Amsel criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine predisposing factors. Overall, 178 women with tubal factor infertility were recruited. Bacterial vaginosis was noted in 50 (28.1%) of these women, compared with 14 (7.9%) of 178 fertile women (P infertility had an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis when they were of low socioeconomic class (OR 11.89; 95% CI 5.20-27.69), practiced vaginal douching (OR 19.15; 95% CI 7.26-47.75), used vaginal drying agents (OR 17.04; 95% CI 6.91-43.24), had an early sexual debut (OR 32.08; 95% CI 12.02-88.89), and had a history of sexually transmitted infections (OR 12.42; 95% CI 5.36-29.35). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high among patients with tubal factor infertility. Socioeconomic and cultural factors contribute to the risk of the condition. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sialic acid feeding aged rats rejuvenates stimulated salivation and colon enteric neuron chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Norbert; Julita, Monique; Donnicola, Dominique; Jann, Alfred

    2009-12-01

    Old age is linked to numerous changes of body functions such as salivation, gastrointestinal motility, and permeability all linked to central and enteric nervous system decline. Thus, gut motility and barrier functions suffer. Sialic acid plays a key role in the nervous system at large and for many receptor functions specifically. Decreased sialylation in the elderly suggests an endogenous sialic acid deficit. We used a rat model of aging, to ask whether sialic acid feeding would affect (i) stimulated salivation, (ii) gut functions, and (iii) sialic acid levels and neuronal markers in brain and gut. We observed reduced levels of pilocarpine-stimulated salivation in old versus young rats and restored this function by sialic acid feeding. Brain ganglioside bound sialic acid levels were found lower in aged versus young rats, and sialic acid feeding partly restored the levels. The hypothalamic expression of cholinergic and panneuronal markers was reduced in aged rats. The expression of the nitrergic marker nNOS was increased upon sialic acid feeding in aged rats. Neither fecal output nor gut permeability was different between young and aged rats studied here, and sialic acid feeding did not alter these parameters. However, the colonic expression of specific nervous system markers nNOS and Uchl1 and the key enzyme for sialic acid synthesis GNE were differentially affected in young and aged rats by sialic acid feeding indicating that regulatory mechanisms change with age. Investigation of sialic acid supplementation as a functional nutrient in the elderly may help those who suffer from disorders of reduced salivation. Further research is needed to understand the differential effects of sialic acid feeding in young and aged rats.

  11. Potencial erosivo (ph salival asociado con el consumo de naranja, manzana y yogurt en niños y niñas de siete a nueve años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Marcelo Cevallos González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El marketing industrial, ha llevado a que las grandes empresas influencien con fuerza en el consumo e ingesta de alimentos y bebidas carbonatadas de alto contenido ácido en su composición, lo que ha provocado el inevitable incrementó de lesiones cariosas y no cariosas con consecuencias irreversibles para el esmalte dental. Así entonces, el presente estudio pretendió determinar mediante la variación del pH salival, los cambios producidos tras la ingesta de tres alimentos de alto contenido ácido (naranja, manzana y yogurt de frutilla, asociándolos con su potencial de erosión dental. La investigación se realizó en un grupo de 163 individuos de 7 a 9 años de edad divididos en cuatro grupos: control, naranja, yogurt y manzana, sin presencia de caries ni placa bacteriana; la medición de pH salival en los grupos de intervención se realizó previo y posterior a la ingesta de dichos alimentos a los 20 y 40 minutos. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron mediante pruebas estadísticas, Friedman, Anova y test de Schefe que revelaron descensos más significativos de pH salival a los 20 minutos post consumo especialmente en el grupo naranja pH (5,4 probablemente por su asociación con el ácido cítrico, observándose estabilización del pH de forma más acelerada en la manzana aparentemente relacionada con la presencia de ácido málico que obtuvo un pH de (6,1. El ácido láctico presente en el yogurt mantuvo valores de pH neutros (6,2 en todo el proceso, pudiendo a este considerarlo como sustancia de menos potencial erosivo.

  12. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian J. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account, or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation.

  13. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian J; Knoeferle, Klemens; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people's evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account), or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions - a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobritskaya L. A.,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an integrated circuit - inflammatory treatment of infectious diseases , including bacterial vaginosis.

  15. Gardnerella vaginalis population dynamics in bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, D W; Schuyler, J A; Adelson, M E; Mordechai, E; Sobel, J D; Gygax, S E

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the leading cause of vaginal discharge and is associated with the facultative Gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis, whose population structure consists of four clades. Our goal was to determine if these clades differ with regard to abundance during BV. We performed a short-term longitudinal study of BV. Patients were evaluated according to the Amsel criteria and Nugent scoring at initial diagnosis, immediately after treatment and at a 40- to 45-day follow-up visit. G. vaginalis clade abundance was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs). Among all specimens, the abundance of clades 1 and 4 were higher than that of clades 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). In general, the abundance of each clade increased with the degree of vaginal dysbiosis, as determined by the Nugent score and was greater in women with Amsel 4 compared with those with Amsel 0. Only clade 1 abundance was greater when Amsel 0 or 1 specimens were compared with Amsel 2 or 3 specimens (P < 0.01). Following antimicrobial treatment, abundance of clades 1 (P < 0.001) and 4 (P < 0.05) decreased regardless of the clinical and microbiological outcome, whereas clade 2 only decreased in women who had a sustained treatment response for 40-45 days (P < 0.01). Recurrent BV was characterized by post-treatment increases of clade 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). Clades 1 and 4 predominate in vaginal specimens. Clade abundance differs with regard to the Nugent score, the Amsel criteria, and response to therapy and BV recurrence.

  16. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Objective: This study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women ... abnormal vaginal discharge in order to give appropriate treatment and avoid complications associated with it. Key words: ..... Use text/rtf/doc/pdf files. Do not zip the ...

  17. Organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition with diverse etiology.This condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and preterm birth.The diagnostic methods currently adopted in the evaluation of patient samples ...

  18. Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Using Nugent Criteria and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and obstetric complications. The etiology of BV is diverse and the diagnostic methods currently adopted include Amsel criteria, and Nugent ...

  19. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among sexually active women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection involving a reduction in the amount of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. Common symptoms include increased fishy smelling vaginal discharge which is usually white or gray in color.

  20. Bacterial Vaginosis in Antenatal Patients in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (92.5%) did not have BV. The antenatal complications observed among these 80 participants include: malaria, epistaxis, mumps, polyhydramnios and pregnancy induced hypertension. Table 3 shows the distribution of these complications among those with and those without bacterial vaginosis. It can be seen that one out of ...

  1. Resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Crispín Pérez, Victor

    2014-01-01

    El descubrimiento de la antibiosis "in vitro" y el desarrollo de los antibióticos generó la ilusión del control de las enfermedades infecciosas bacterianas. Sin embargo, tan pronto como estas moléculas maravillosas fuero introducidas en la clínica, casi de inmediato surgieron las cepas bacterianas con resistencia adquirida, como se ha comprobado en las colecciones de cepas aisladas en las décadas del 50 del siglo pasado. Las moléculas de antibióticos inhiben o matan a las cepas sensibles, inh...

  2. Antibióticos vs. resistencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial que se encuentra en constante evolución. De manera frecuente se reportan nuevos mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, tanto en bacterias gram negativas como en gram positivas. La presencia de resistencia en una bacteria causante de infección disminuye las posibilidades de obtener la curación clínica y la erradicación bacteriológica e incrementa los costos del tratamiento, la morbilidad y la mortalidad; por lo que es importante seleccionar el tratamiento adecuado. Uno de los aspectos que más preocupa a los médicos en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de una infección es la llamada resistencia adquirida, la cual ocurre en una bacteria inicialmente sensible a los antibióticos, por cambios, mutaciones o la adquisición de genes de resistencia durante el fenómeno de transferencia genética lateral, proceso por medio del cual un organismo transfiere material genético a otra célula que no es descendiente. La resistencia bacteriana adquirida a los antibióticos puede ser de distintos tipos, dependiendo de la presión selectiva, las mutaciones o la transferencia de genes de resistencia. Las definiciones de resistencia se clasifican según el número y clase de antibióticos afectados. La multirresistencia (Multiple Drug Resistance, MDR se define como la ausencia de sensibilidad a, por lo menos, un fármaco en tres o más de las categorías de antibióticos; la resistencia extrema (Extensively Drug-Resistant, XDR se refiere a la ausencia de sensibilidad a, por lo menos, un agente en todas las categorías de antimicrobianos, excepto en dos de ellas o menos, y la resistencia a todos los antimicrobianos se define como resistencia a todas las categorías de antibióticos. (1 Los mecanismos de resistencia dependen del tipo de bacteria que los desarrollen. Las bacterias gram positivas que producen con más frecuencias infecciones en humanos y que por

  3. The burden of bacterial vaginosis: women's experience of the physical, emotional, sexual and social impact of living with recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade E Bilardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women's experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women. METHODS: A social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women with male and/or female partners participated in semi-structured interviews face-to-face or by telephone about their experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Recurrent bacterial vaginosis impacted on women to varying degrees, with some women reporting it had little impact on their lives but most reporting it had a moderate to severe impact. The degree to which it impacted on women physically, emotionally, sexually and socially often depended on the frequency of episodes and severity of symptoms. Women commonly reported that symptoms of bacterial vaginosis made them feel embarrassed, ashamed, 'dirty' and very concerned others may detect their malodour and abnormal discharge. The biggest impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis was on women's self-esteem and sex lives, with women regularly avoiding sexual activity, in particular oral sex, as they were too embarrassed and self-conscious of their symptoms to engage in these activities. Women often felt confused about why they were experiencing recurrent bacterial vaginosis and frustrated at their lack of control over recurrence. CONCLUSION: Women's experience of recurrent bacterial vaginosis varied broadly and significantly in this study. Some women reported little impact on their lives but most reported a moderate to severe impact, mainly on their self-esteem and sex life. Further support and acknowledgement of these impacts are required when

  4. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Molsted, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , and sociodemographic factors) were computed. Results. At enrolment, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 13.7% of Danish pregnant women. Significant risk factors for bacterial vaginosis were: daily coitus (adjusted relative risk 2.09 [1.43-3.04]), being single (1.76 [1.21-2.56]), smoking more than 10 cigarettes daily......, with a previous sexually transmitted disease, or with high alcohol consumption in pregnancy are at increased risk for bacterial vaginosis. Information on these risk factors may be important when planning preventive and treatment strategies of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy....

  5. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism.

  6. The impact of mastication, salivation and food bolus formation on salt release during bread consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Carole; Grass, Manon; Septier, Chantal; Bertrand, Dominique; Salles, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Health authorities recommend higher fibre and lower salt content in bread products. However, these basic ingredients of bread composition are multifunctional, and important changes in their content influence the texture, flavour and acceptability of the product. This study was designed to investigate the link between oral processing, bolus formation and sodium release during the consumption of four different breads that varied in composition and structure. Chewing behaviour was determined by surface electromyography, and salivation was quantified from the water content of the boluses collected. The kinetics of bread degradation during food bolus formation was characterised by measuring the bolus heterogeneity by texture image analysis, and sodium release into the saliva was quantified. Mastication and salivation varied between products and between subjects, thus highlighting different bolus formation strategies. In vivo salt release was mainly explained by mastication parameters. The initial slope of sodium release increased when the chewing muscles' activity increased, and the maximum sodium concentration was reached later when more masticatory cycles were required to reach the swallowing point.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Hay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. It can have a major impact on quality of life and psychological wellbeing if frequently recurrent and strongly symptomatic. The use of molecular techniques to study the vaginal microbiome is increasing our understanding of the dynamic changes in flora that occur in health and disease. It might soon be possible to separate Gardnerella into different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Many groups are studying compounds that can disrupt the biofilm which is dominated by Gardnerella and Atopobium vaginae. Several studies in the last decade support the concept of bacterial vaginosis as a sexually transmitted infection.

  8. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, P

    2008-01-01

    Fifty strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from 321 high vaginal swabs over a period of five months were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Sixty eight per cent of all isolates were resistant to metronidazole while 76% were sensitive to clindamycin. All the strains isolated from cases with recurrence of infection were resistant to metronidazole. Clindamycin therapy has a better clinical efficacy than metronidazole in cases of recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis in recurrent bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from 321 high vaginal swabs over a period of five months were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Sixty eight per cent of all isolates were resistant to metronidazole while 76% were sensitive to clindamycin. All the strains isolated from cases with recurrence of infection were resistant to metronidazole. Clindamycin therapy has a better clinical efficacy than metronidazole in cases of recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Guidelines for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: focus on tinidazole

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey , Laura

    2009-01-01

    Laura J Dickey1, Michael D Nailor2,3, Jack D Sobel41Department of Pharmacy Services, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; 2University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy, Storrs, CT, USA; 3Hartford Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Hartford, CT, USA; 4Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex vaginal infection most commonly associated with women of child-bearing age. Risk factors for BV are numerous. There are currently...

  11. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Guidelines for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: focus on tinidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Dickey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura J Dickey1, Michael D Nailor2,3, Jack D Sobel41Department of Pharmacy Services, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; 2University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy, Storrs, CT, USA; 3Hartford Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Hartford, CT, USA; 4Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a complex vaginal infection most commonly associated with women of child-bearing age. Risk factors for BV are numerous. There are currently multiple clinical and laboratory tests for diagnosis of BV, including the most commonly used diagnostic methods: Amsel’s criteria or Nugent’s Gram stain scale. The mainstay of BV therapy is metronidazole, but tinidazole as well as a few other agents have also been used successfully. Tinidazole is the second nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent and a structural derivative of metronidazole. With a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and reduced side effects, tinidazole is an alternative agent for BV treatment. There are minimal head-to-head comparative data to establish tinidazole’s superiority to metronidazole or other therapeutic agents. Available data suggest tinidazole has a role in special populations particularly for refractory or relapsing BV.Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, vaginosis, tinidazole, Gardnerella

  13. Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate associations between common vaginal infections and human papillomavirus (HPV. Study Design. Data from up to 15 visits on 756 HIV-infected women and 380 high-risk HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS were evaluated for associations of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal Candida colonization with prevalent HPV, incident HPV, and clearance of HPV in multivariate analysis. Results. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was associated with increased odds for prevalent (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26 and incident (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47 HPV and with delayed clearance of infection (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97. Whereas BV at the preceding or current visit was associated with incident HPV, in an alternate model for the outcome of incident BV, HPV at the current, but not preceding, visit was associated with incident BV. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

  14. Bacterial vaginosis presence in sexually active women in Tuzla Canton area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Hukić, Mirsada; Gegić, Merima; Nukić, Mahmud; Delibegović, Zineta; Pasić, Selma; Cicko, Elsada

    2008-11-01

    The goal of our research was to determine the presence of bacterial vaginosis in sexually active women in Tuzla Canton area. Diagnosis determination for bacterial vaginosis was conducted on the basis of three out of four internationally accepted criteria according to Amsel and isolation and identification of Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) by standard microbiological procedures. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 20,5 % (41/200) women who asked for gynaecologist's help due to their personal discomfort, since significantly higher percentage of diagnosed bacterial vaginosis of 48,80% (41/84) was determined in women with personal discomfort typical for this disease. All relevant factors, according to available literature, for genesis of bacterial vaginosis were processed in this research. In respect to the obtained outputs, bacterial vaginosis is significantly more frequent occurrence in women who are not married, since the number of sexual partners, the time of the first sexual intercourse, the use of intrauterine contraceptive device and smoking do not cause the genesis of bacterial vaginosis. According to Nugent, an increased vaginal discharge with unpleasant odour after sexual discourse, its pH>4,5, a positive amino odour test, an occurrence of clue cells in a direct microscopic concoction of vaginal discharge and assessment of the state of vaginal flora for bacterial vaginosis are significantly more frequent occurrences in women with individual discomforts. It was proved that G. vaginalis is a dominant micro organism in 95% of women with clinical signs of vaginosis although it was isolated from vaginal discharge in 40 to 50% of healthy women. In our research, G. vaginalis was isolated in 63,41% of examined women with all signs of bacterial vaginosis, in 36,59% of examined women with one or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis and in 2,58% of examined women of control group without clinical signs.

  15. Microbiological and bioinformatics analysis of primary Sjogren's syndrome patients with normal salivation§

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Siddiqui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS. Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. Objective: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation. Methods: Bacteria of whole unstimulated saliva from nine pSS patients with normal salivation flow and from nine healthy controls were examined by high throughput sequencing of the hypervariable region V1V2 of 16S rRNA using the 454 GS Junior system. Raw sequence reads were subjected to a species-level, reference-based taxonomy assignment pipeline specially designed for studying the human oral microbial community. Each of the sequence reads was BLASTN-searched against a database consisting of reference sequences representing 1,156 oral and 12,013 non-oral species. Unassigned reads were then screened for high-quality non-chimeras and subjected to de novo species-level operational taxonomy unit (OTU calling for potential novel species. Downstream analyses, including alpha and beta diversities, were analyzed using the Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME pipeline. To reveal significant differences between the microbiota of control saliva and Sjögren's saliva, a statistical method introduced in Metastats www.metastats.cbcb.umd.edu was used. Results: Saliva of pSS patients with normal salivation had a significantly higher frequency of Firmicutes compared with controls (p=0.004. Two other major phyla, Synergistetes and Spirochaetes, were significantly depleted in pSS (p=0.001 for both. In addition, we saw a nearly 17% decrease in the number of genera in pSS (25 vs. 30. While Prevotella was almost equally abundant in both

  16. NaCl and sugar release, salivation and taste during mastication of salted chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyraud, Eric; Prinz, Jon; Dransfield, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Salt perception impacts on food acceptability and nutrition and depends upon salt release from foods that was determined in situ during mastication of chewing gum with up to 10% (1800 mmol/kg) added NaCl. The mechanical action of chewing increased salivation, which was further increased by the presence of salt, particularly above 180 mmol NaCl/kg gum or above 100 mM NaCl in saliva. The average resting salivary flow rate was 1 ml/min, increasing to 4 and 6 ml/min with gums containing low and high salt, respectively. Thus, stimulation of salivation by salt occurred at a concentration well above the taste threshold of 20 mM NaCl. NaCl concentration in nonstimulated saliva was about 10 mM and increased to 500 mM after 30 s chewing of the 10% NaCl gum and returned to near nonstimulated levels after 4 min chewing. Changes in pH of saliva were more gradual, increasing to a maximum at about 2 min and remaining elevated after 4 min. Salty taste was related to the free chloride ion concentration in saliva irrespective of the initial salt concentration in the gum with an indication of adaptation after 3 min chewing. During chewing, salty taste increased ahead of the increase in salivary conductivity and the salt concentration in the sublingual saliva varied in a cyclic fashion about every 20 s. This is consistent with a cyclic swallowing of saliva and replacement with newly secreted saliva of low salt content and mastication releasing further salt from the gum.

  17. Presence of a Polymicrobial Endometrial Biofilm in Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Mendling, Werner; Halwani, Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the bacterial vaginosis biofilm extends into the upper female genital tract. Study Design Endometrial samples obtained during curettage and fallopian tube samples obtained during salpingectomy were collected. Endometrial and fallopian tube samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria with fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation (FISH) analysis with probes targeting bacterial vaginosis-associated and other bacteria. Results A structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm could be detected in part of the endometrial and fallopian tube specimens. Women with bacterial vaginosis had a 50.0% (95% CI 24.0–76.0) risk of presenting with an endometrial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Pregnancy (AOR  = 41.5, 95% CI 5.0–341.9, pbacterial vaginosis (AOR  = 23.2, 95% CI 2.6–205.9, pbacterial colonisation when compared to non-pregnant women without bacterial vaginosis. Conclusion Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the presence of a structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm attached to the endometrium. This may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcome in association with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:23320114

  18. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  19. Presence of a polymicrobial endometrial biofilm in patients with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swidsinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the bacterial vaginosis biofilm extends into the upper female genital tract. STUDY DESIGN: Endometrial samples obtained during curettage and fallopian tube samples obtained during salpingectomy were collected. Endometrial and fallopian tube samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria with fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation (FISH analysis with probes targeting bacterial vaginosis-associated and other bacteria. RESULTS: A structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm could be detected in part of the endometrial and fallopian tube specimens. Women with bacterial vaginosis had a 50.0% (95% CI 24.0-76.0 risk of presenting with an endometrial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Pregnancy (AOR  = 41.5, 95% CI 5.0-341.9, p<0.001 and the presence of bacterial vaginosis (AOR  = 23.2, 95% CI 2.6-205.9, p<0.001 were highly predictive of the presence of uterine or fallopian bacterial colonisation when compared to non-pregnant women without bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the presence of a structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm attached to the endometrium. This may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcome in association with bacterial vaginosis.

  20. Role of Gardnerella vaginalis as an etiological agent of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Frincy Khandelwal; Sharma, Ajanta; Das, Chanakya; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Hussain, Jasmin Halim

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a risk factor for obstetric infections, various adverse outcomes of pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department (O.P.D) and sexually transmitted disease (S.T.D.) clinic and to assess the role of Gardnerella vaginalis as an etiological agent of bacterial vaginosis. Two hundred women attending Gynaecology O.P.D and S.T.D. clinic with symptoms suggesting lower genital tract infection were included in the study. pH of the vaginal discharge was measured and three high vaginal swabs were collected. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using Amsel's criteria and Nugent's method. Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated and identified by standard methods. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis using Amsel's criteria and Gram stain scoring method was found to be 51.5% and 49% respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated in only 8.7% cases of bacterial vaginosis. Our study showed a relatively high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the population under study. Women attending various healthcare facilities should be screened and treated properly to prevent recurrence. Low isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis may be attributed to factors like poor viability and fastidiousness of the organism to grow in various media.

  1. Flujo y capacidad amortiguadora salival en dos grupos de sujetos de 6 a 11 anos de edad con bajo y alto indice de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorena Maeda de Dios, Elba; de Jesus Verdugo-Diaz, Roberto; Manuel Sanchez, Ricardo; Armando Sanchez, Raul; Carlos Llodra Calvo, Juan; Searcy Bernal, Roberto; Carrillo, Rubio

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: comprobar la relacion entre el flujo y la capacidad amortiguadora salival con la experiencia de caries, en ninos con bajo y alto indice de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD), Metodo...

  2. THE ASSOCIATION OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS WITH ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalagadugula Venkata Narasimha Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bacterial Vaginosis (BV is a vaginal disease in which lactobacilli-dominated vaginal flora is exchanged with an abundant complex flora dominated by strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria. It has been associated with significant obstetric complications such as preterm delivery, Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM, chorioamnionitis and postpartum endometritis. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of BV and evaluate its correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS An observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from February 2015 to January 2017. Seven hundred and fifty antenatal patients admitted or attending antenatal outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. Appropriate clinical evaluation of BV was made and gram-stained vaginal smears were examined by application of Nugent’s criteria. Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with BV was evaluated. RESULTS Among the 750 women evaluated, 542 (72.26% women had normal vaginal microflora, 64 (8.53% had intermediate flora and 144 (19.2% had BV. The study of BV associated adverse pregnancy outcomes revealed 72% preterm cases, 90% of PROM and 100% of postpartum endometritis cases were associated with BV. CONCLUSION Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with preterm labour, PROM and postpartum endometritis. Therefore, the screening of antenatal cases for BV and maintaining a high index of suspicion for the obstetric complications is a must in antenatal BV cases.

  3. Potato aphid salivary proteome: enhanced salivation using resorcinol and identification of aphid phosphoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2015-04-03

    Aphids deliver saliva into plants and acquire plant sap for their nourishment using a specialized mouthpart or stylets. Aphid saliva is of great importance because it contains effectors that are involved in modulating host defense and metabolism. Although profiling aphid salivary glands and identifying secreted proteins have been successfully used, success in direct profiling of aphid saliva have been limited due to scarcity of saliva collected in artificial diets. Here we present the use of a neurostimulant, resorcinol, for inducing aphid salivation. Saliva of potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), maintained on tomato, was collected in resorcinol diet. Salivary proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with the existing M. euphorbiae salivary proteome collected in water. Comparative analysis was also performed with existing salivary proteomes from additional aphid species. Most of the proteins identified in the resorcinol diet were also present in the water diet and represented proteins with a plethora of functions in addition to a large number of unknowns. About half of the salivary proteins were not predicted for secretion or had canonical secretion signal peptides. We also analyzed the phosphorylation states of M. euphorbiae salivary proteins and identified three known aphid effectors, Me_WB01635/Mp1, Me10/Mp58, and Me23 that carry phosphorylation marks. In addition to insect proteins, tomato host proteins were also identified in aphid saliva. Our results indicate that aphid saliva is complex and provides a rich resource for functional characterization of effectors.

  4. Making inroads into improving treatment of bacterial vaginosis - striving for long-term cure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradshaw, Catriona S; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the great enigmas in women's health, a common condition of unknown aetiology, which is associated with significant morbidity and unacceptably high recurrence rates...

  5. Presence of a polymicrobial endometrial biofilm in patients with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Verstraelen, Hans; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Mendling, Werner; Halwani, Zaher

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether the bacterial vaginosis biofilm extends into the upper female genital tract. Endometrial samples obtained during curettage and fallopian tube samples obtained during salpingectomy were collected. Endometrial and fallopian tube samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria with fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation (FISH) analysis with probes targeting bacterial vaginosis-associated and other bacteria. A structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm could be detected in part of the endometrial and fallopian tube specimens. Women with bacterial vaginosis had a 50.0% (95% CI 24.0-76.0) risk of presenting with an endometrial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Pregnancy (AOR  = 41.5, 95% CI 5.0-341.9, pGardnerella vaginalis biofilm attached to the endometrium. This may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcome in association with bacterial vaginosis.

  6. Bacterial vaginosis (clue cell-positive discharge) : diagnostic, ultra-structural and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. van der Meijden (Willem)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of (abnormal) vaginal discharge, focusing especially on clue cell-positive discharge (bacterial vaginosis, nonspecific vaginitis). It reports data on epidemiology and clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of this vaginal disease entity,

  7. Treatment of male partners and recurrence of bacterial vaginosis: a randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Colli, E.; Landoni, M.; Parazzini, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of treatment with clindamycin of a partner on the recurrence rate of bacterial vaginosis in women within 3 months from diagnosis. SUBJECTS: Eligible for the study were sexually active women with one current sexual partner, who were aged 18-45 years, with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and whose partner agreed to be treated. METHODS: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial was conducted comparing the effect of treating the partner with either c...

  8. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  9. Complicações perinatais em gestantes com e sem vaginose bacteriana Perinatal complications in pregnant women with and without bacterial vaginosis

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    José Antônio Simões

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos:comparar a freqüência de trabalho de parto prematuro (TPP, prematuridade, rotura prematura de membranas (RPM e RN de baixo peso (Purpose:to compare the incidence of preterm labor and birth, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and low birth-weight newborns (< 2,500 g between two groups of pregnant women (with or without BV. To verify the adequacy of including a regular prenatal BV investigation. Methods:a total of 217 women between 28 and 32 weeks of pregnancy (35 with BV and 182 without BV were studied. The diagnosis of BV was established according to Amsel's criteria. The data were analyzed by the chi² test, Fisher's test, Mann-Whitney test and the relative risk. Results:the incidence of preterm labor, preterm birth, PROM and low birth-weight was statistically higher in the group of women with BV than in the control group (29.4% vs. 3.8%; 28.6% vs. 3.3%; 22.9% vs. 10.4%; 20.0% vs. 3.3%; respectively. The means of gestational age and birth-weight were significantly lower in the newborns from mothers with BV (265.8 days vs. 279.9 days; 2,958 g vs. 3,294 g, respectively. Conclusion:all perinatal complications studied were significantly associated with the presence of untreated BV during pregnancy. Therefore, the diagnosis and adequate treatment should be included in the routine prenatal assistance at Brazilian Obstetrics Services. Such measure may be effective in the reduction of these perinatal complications.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From Women With Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Eslami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods Ninety-six samples were obtained from vaginal discharge of women with bacterial vaginosis by a gynecologist with a Dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth. Then were immediately sent to the laboratory in cold chain for further assessment. Afterward, culture was transferred on blood agar, EMB, Palcam and differential diagnosis environments. Then cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Lactobacillus reuteri strains were cultured in MRS environment and transferred to laboratory. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and antibiogram. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software v.16. Results The results of this study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of most Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use, contraceptive methods and douching were 61%, 55%, 42% and 13%, respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial. Conclusions Our findings indicated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria that

  11. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

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    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  12. Prevención de la Endocarditis Bacteriana :: Revisión de la Literatura

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzmán H, Patricia R; Corte F, Sonia M; Delgado O, Mónica P

    2000-01-01

    .... La endocarditis bacteriana se refiere específicamente a la infección por agentes bacterianos. La mayoría de las personas que desarrollan la endocarditis han padecido una enfermedad cardíaca previa...

  13. Tecnicas de fermentacion y aplicaciones de la celulosa bacteriana: una revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreno Pineda, Luz Dary; Caicedo Mesa, Luis Alfonso; Martinez Riascos, Carlos Arturo

    2012-01-01

    La celulosa bacteriana es un polimero obtenido por fermentacion con microrganismos de los generos Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium y Sarcina, de las cuales la especie mas eficiente es la Acetobacter Xylinum...

  14. Efectos de controlabilidad y magnitud de ruido en comportamiento de evitación, cortisol salival y temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Gutiérrez, Everardo; Vega-Michel, Claudia; González, Julián

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto entre magnitud y control de ruido en comportamiento de evitación, cortisol salival y temperatura. Participaron doce hombres entre 18 y 30 años, asignados aleatoriamente a condiciones controlables e incontrolables. Se usó el método ELISA para analizar muestras salivales. Los participantes iniciaron con sesión de pre-mediciones con toma de dos muestras de saliva con 40 minutos de intervalo entre ambas. Posteriormente tuvieron cinco sesiones en que fueron informados que para ...

  15. Niveles de cortisol salival y tipos de personalidad de Grossarth-Maticek y Eysenck: un estudio transcultural

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Gutiérrez, Everardo; Vega-Michel, Claudia; Orejudo-Hernández, Santos

    2012-01-01

    Basándonos en la tipología de personalidad de Grossarth-Maticek y Eysenck que relaciona ciertos tipos de personalidad con el padecimiento de enfermedades, en esta investigación se analiza en dos muestras de estudiantes universitarios mexicanos y españoles la relación entre el tipo de personalidad de propensión al cáncer y el de propensión a las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el consumo de tabaco y los niveles de cortisol salival. Un total de 190 estudiantes mexicanos y españoles respondieron...

  16. Las enfermedades periodontales como infecciones bacterianas Periodontal diseases as bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bascones Martínez; E. Figuero Ruiz

    2005-01-01

    Las infecciones periodontales son un conjunto de enfermedades localizadas en las encías y estructuras de soporte del diente. Están producidas por ciertas bacterias provenientes de la placa bacteriana. Estas bacterias son esenciales para el inicio de la enfermedad, pero existen factores predisponentes del hospedador y microbianos que influyen en la patogénesis de la enfermedad. La microbiota bacteriana periodontopatógena es necesaria pero no suficiente para que exista enfermedad, siendo necesa...

  17. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Eslami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis, respectively.Materials and Methods: 96 samples from women with bacterial vaginosis discharge referred to health centers dependent Shahid Beheshti University in 91-92 were taken by a gynecologist with a dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth and were immediately sent to the lab location in cold chain for the next stages of investigation. From Thioglycollate and TSB medium was cultured on blood agar and EMB and Palkam and Differential diagnosis environments, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were cultured in MRSA environment and were transfered to the lab. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, MIC methods and antibiogram, Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria is checked. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software v.16.Results: The results of this study show the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E.Coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of the large number of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use means of preventing pregnancy and douching, respectively, 61%, 55%, 42% and 13% respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial vaginosis infection

  18. Genome Sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis Strains Isolated from the Vaginas of Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lloyd S; Perry, Justin; Lek, Sai; Wollam, Aye; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-09-29

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant species in bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vagina that is associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis strains (now available through BEI Resources) isolated from women with and without bacterial vaginosis. Copyright © 2016 Robinson et al.

  19. Bacterial vaginosis is not important in the etiology of cervical neoplasia: a survey on women with dyskaryotic smears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, N.; van Leeuwen, A. M.; Pieters, W. J.; Hollema, H.; Quint, W. G.; Burger, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that bacterial vaginosis may play a role in the etiology of cervical neoplasia. The authors analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and impact on histologic changes of bacterial vaginosis in women with cytological abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

  20. BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IS NOT IMPORTANT IN THE ETIOLOGY OF CERVICAL NEOPLASIA - A SURVEY ON WOMEN WITH DYSKARYOTIC SMEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, AM; PIETERS, WJLM; HOLLEMA, H; QUINT, WGV; BURGER, MPM

    1995-01-01

    Background and Objectives: It has been suggested that bacterial vaginosis may play a role in the etiology of cervical neoplasia. The authors analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and impact on histologic changes of bacterial vaginosis in women with cytological abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

  1. The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence supports the view that bacterial vaginosis presents as a polymicrobial biofilm infection. This has far-reaching implications for the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginalis is presumably the first species to adhere to the vaginal epithelium and then becomes the scaffolding to which other species adhere. Not all G. vaginalis strains do form biofilms: G. vaginalis can be present in the vagina in a planktonic or in a biofilm mode of growth. The presence of planktonic (dispersed) or biofilm-associated (cohesive) G. vaginalis can be reliably shown in urine sediments in both women and men, and there is an absolute concordance in the carriage of biofilm-associated (cohesive) G. vaginalis between women with bacterial vaginosis and their partners. In-vitro data suggest that selected probiotic lactobacilli might be an effective means to conquer the biofilm. Future epidemiological research may benefit from biofilm-based urine diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis to a significant extent. The search for novel therapeutic agents can now be more directed towards the biofilm-breaking agents, but is at present hampered by the lack of a proper in-vitro model of the bacterial vaginosis biofilm.

  2. Bacterial vaginosis biofilms: challenges to current therapies and emerging solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eMachado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common genital tract infection in women during their reproductive years and it has been associated with serious health complications, such as preterm delivery and acquisition or transmission of several sexually transmitted agents. BV is characterized by a reduction of beneficial lactobacilli and a significant increase in number of anaerobic bacteria, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp.. Being polymicrobial in nature, BV aetiology remains unclear. However, it is certain that BV involves the presence of a thick vaginal multi-species biofilm, where G. vaginalis is the predominant species. Similar to what happens in many other biofilm-related infections, standard antibiotics, like metronidazole, are unable to fully eradicate the vaginal biofilm, which can explain the high recurrence rates of BV. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy can also cause a negative impact on the healthy vaginal microflora. These issues sparked the interest in developing alternative therapeutic strategies. This review provides a quick synopsis of the currently approved and available antibiotics for BV treatment while presenting an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of this disorder, with special focus on natural compounds that are able to overcome biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance.

  3. Bacterial Vaginosis Biofilms: Challenges to Current Therapies and Emerging Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniela; Castro, Joana; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Cerca, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common genital tract infection in women during their reproductive years and it has been associated with serious health complications, such as preterm delivery and acquisition or transmission of several sexually transmitted agents. BV is characterized by a reduction of beneficial lactobacilli and a significant increase in number of anaerobic bacteria, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp.. Being polymicrobial in nature, BV etiology remains unclear. However, it is certain that BV involves the presence of a thick vaginal multi-species biofilm, where G. vaginalis is the predominant species. Similar to what happens in many other biofilm-related infections, standard antibiotics, like metronidazole, are unable to fully eradicate the vaginal biofilm, which can explain the high recurrence rates of BV. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy can also cause a negative impact on the healthy vaginal microflora. These issues sparked the interest in developing alternative therapeutic strategies. This review provides a quick synopsis of the currently approved and available antibiotics for BV treatment while presenting an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of this disorder, with special focus on natural compounds that are able to overcome biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance. PMID:26834706

  4. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in patients with koilocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Camargo Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Empirical discussion regarding an association between koilocytosis and vulvovaginitis often occurs. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginitis in women with and without koilocytosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study including two cohorts of women (with and without koilocytosis who attended a cancer hospital in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás. METHODS: A total of 102 patients entered the study. The whiff test, Gram and Papanicolaou staining and bacterial and fungal culturing were performed. The results were observed using univariate analysis. The odds ratio and confidence interval (CI of the variables were calculated; P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of bacterial colonization was similar in patients with and without koilocytosis. The odds ratio for candidiasis was 1.43 (CI 1.05-1.95 and the odds ratio for trichomoniasis was 1.78 (CI 1.49-2.12, in patients with koilocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis seems to be higher in patients with koilocytosis.

  5. Importance of isolation and biotypization of Gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Hukić, Mirsada; Nurkić, Mahmud; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Imamović, Alma; Pasić, Selma

    2008-08-01

    The natural habitat of Gardnerella vaginalis is a vagina since it could be located among 69% of women who have no signs of vaginal infection and in the vagina of as many as 13.5% girls. G. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. The increase in prevalence and concentration of G. vaginalis among patients diagnosed with this syndrome confirms that G. vaginalis plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In our research, based on Amsel criteria for three or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, it was diagnosed in 20.5% of women with subjective problems of vaginal infection, and in 48.80% of women with subjective symptoms characteristic of this disease. G. vaginalis was isolated from vaginal secretion of women without clinical signs characteristic of bacterial vaginosis. In 2.58% of cases it was solitary, while in 1.28% it was found in combination with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and, in 1.28% women combined with Candida albicans. The isolation of G. vaginalis was significantly increased (pvaginalis, different from a source biotype or as a consequence of wrong treatment. Following Piot biotype scheme, biotypes 2., 3. and 7. G. vaginalis are significantly more often isolated from women who suffer from bacterial vaginosis. Biotype 7. G. vaginalis, isolated from the group of women without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, accounted for 2.58% cases. Following Benit biotype scheme, biotypes IVa, IVc and IIc were identified in 12.90% cases, while biotypes IIIa, IIa, Ia, IVb, IIb were found in 6.45% cases. Lipase-positive isolates of G. vaginalis were significantly more frequently accompanied by the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis.

  6. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayalaxmi, J; Bhat, G K; Kotigadde, S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%). We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  7. Few microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis may constitute the pathologic core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Inge Panum; Jeune, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks......) between the microorganisms isolated from the lower genital tract in pregnant women with and without clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred ninety-six (3596) pregnant women were asked to participate. Of the 3596 pregnant women 3174 (88.4%) agreed to participate...

  8. Dermatopatías bacterianas de importancia en medicina equina.

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    Christian Tuemmers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La dermatología representa una parte importante en la práctica equina. Las dermatopatías bacterianas comúnmente son causadas por patógenos oportunistas que son parte de la flora normal de la piel, que ingresan mediante disrupciones de la piel provocando el desarrollo de enfermedades; existen también patógenos que pueden provocar enfermedad sistémica que tienen manifestaciones cutáneas. Para el diagnóstico de las patologías cutáneas provocadas por bacterias es necesario realizar el examen clínico general y luego hacer un examen específico de la piel describiendo las características de la piel y las lesiones que se presentan. Hay numerosos métodos complementarios que ayudan a la identificación del agente etiológico; con el fin de instaurar el tratamiento adecuado. En nuestro país se han realizado pocos reportes y publicaciones respecto de las patologías cutáneas que afectan a los equinos, a su vez también es poca la variedad de antimicrobianos de uso en la clínica equina lo que impide el correcto tratamiento de las diferentes dermatopatías.

  9. Early sexual experiences and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethers, Katherine A; Fairley, Christopher K; Morton, Anna; Hocking, Jane S; Hopkins, Carol; Kennedy, Lisa J; Fehler, Glenda; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2009-12-01

    We have undertaken a cross-sectional study that investigates the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexual practices in sexually experienced and inexperienced women. Participants were 17-21-year-old females who attend Melbourne University, Australia. Study kits that contained an information and consent form, questionnaire, swab, and slide were distributed. Information regarding demographic characteristics and a broad range of sexual practices were collected. Gram-stained, self-collected vaginal smears were scored with the Nugent method. Associations between BV and behaviors were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis. BV was diagnosed in 25 (4.7%) of 528 women (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-6.9%). Importantly, BV was not detected in women (n = 83) without a history of coital or noncoital sexual contact (0%; 95% CI, 0%-4.3%). BV was detected in 3 (3.8%) of 78 women (95% CI, 0.8%-10.8%) with noncoital sexual experience only and in 22 (6.0%) of 367 women (95% CI, 3.8%-8.9%) who reported penile-vaginal sex. BV was associated with a history of any genital contact with a sexual partner (P=.02). BV was strongly associated with >3 penile-vaginal sex partners in the prior year (adjusted odds ratio, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.7-18.4) by multivariable analysis. This study shows a strong association between BV and penile-vaginal sex with multiple partners but found no BV in sexually inexperienced women, once a history of noncoital sexual practices was elicited. Our findings indicate that BV is not present in truly sexually inexperienced women.

  10. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women

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    Raina T. Gergova

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. METHODS: Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for G. vaginalis. RESULTS: The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57% whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14% were detected. G. vaginalisassociated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90% between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalisassociated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes.

  11. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Raina T; Strateva, Tanya V; Mitov, Ivan G

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms) and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively) were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for G. vaginalis. The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57%) whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14%) were detected. G. vaginalis-associated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90%) between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalis-associated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years) is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The salivary gland salivation stimulating peptide from Locusta migratoria (Lom-SG-SASP is not a typical neuropeptide

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    Jan A. Veenstra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland salivation stimulating peptide was identified from the salivary glands of the migratory locust by its ability to stimulate cAMP production in the same tissue. The gene coding for this peptide has recently been identified and been shown to code for a precursor consisting of a signal peptide, several copies of the peptide separated by Lys–Arg doublets and a few other peptides. These data are consistent with it being a neuropeptide. However, antiserum raised to this peptide labels the acini of the salivary glands while RT-PCR only gives positive results in the salivary gland, but not in any ganglion of the central nervous system. Thus, this peptide is not a typical neuropeptide as previously assumed.

  13. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by analysis of first-void-urine specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datcu, Raluca; Gesink, Dionne; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    . The FVU and vaginal swabs were analyzed by quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) for selected vaginal bacteria (Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 2, Eggerthella-like bacterium, "Leptotrichia amnionii," Megasphaera type 1), and all had an area under...

  14. [Epidemiological factors and vaginal flora changes in vaginal bacteriosis (bacterial vaginosis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Bellido, J L; García Sánchez, J E; García-Rodríguez, J A

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the modifications of the vaginal bacterial flora that occurs in bacterial vaginosis and to know the involvement of these microorganisms and the influence of several epidemiologic factors in the etiology of this disease. We studied, by using semiquantitative cultures and GLC, vaginal washings from 50 healthy women and 50 women with bacterial vaginosis. The most remarkable results were the high sensitivity of Amsel's criteria and their good correlation with GLC. Women with bacterial vaginosis showed a great increase of CFUs/ml of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and several species of anaerobic bacteria, and an important decrease of the amounts of aerobic lactobacilli. The main epidemiologic factor among those that were studied was the use of IUDs. The appearance of bacterial vaginosis is associated with the increase of the amounts of G. vaginalis, Bacteroides or related genera (Prevotella, Porphyromonas), and probably M. hominis and U. urealyticum, also being associated to a decrease of the amounts of aerobic lactobacilli. These facts are probably related with alteration in the ecologic relationship lactobacilli/G. vaginalis/anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Microarray-based identification of clinically relevant vaginal bacteria in relation to bacterial vaginosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Smit, P.W.; Kort, R.; Reid, G.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Tempelman, H.; Bontekoe, T.R.; Korporaal, H.; Boon, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to examine the use of a tailor-made DNA microarray containing probes representing the vaginal microbiota to examine bacterial vaginosis. Study Design: One hundred one women attending a health center for HIV testing in South Africa were enrolled. Stained, liquid-based

  16. Quantitative analysis of initial adhesion of bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobes to ME-180 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, António; Salgueiro, Débora; Harwich, Michael; Jefferson, Kimberly Kay; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the leading vaginal disorder but the transition from health to this dysbiotic condition remains poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantify the ability of BV-associated anaerobes to adhere to epithelial cells in the presence of lactobacilli. Gardnerella vaginalis outcompeted Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners actually enhanced its adherence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gardnerella vaginalis: Still a Prime Suspect in the Pathogenesis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, C A; Schwebke, J R

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal infection, yet its pathogenesis remains controversial. Although it has never been proven to be a sexually transmitted diseases the epidemiological evidence favoring this is quite robust. Although BV is characterized by its polymicrobial nature, it is highly likely that the inciting organism is Gardnerella vaginalis.

  18. Molecular assessment of bacterial vaginosis by Lactobacillus abundance and species diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Molenaar, D.; Helm, J.J. van der; Caspers, M.P.M.; Kat Angelino-Bart, A. de; Schuren, F.H.J.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Richardus, J.H.; Boon, M. E.; Reid, G.; Vries, H.J.C de; Kort, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known BV-associated composition profiles and evaluate

  19. Molecular assessment of bacterial vaginosis by Lactobacillus abundance and species diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Molenaar, D.; van der Helm, J.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; de Kat Angelino-Bart, A.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Richardus, J.H.; Boon, M.E.; Reid, G.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Kort, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known BV-associated composition profiles and evaluate

  20. Molecular assessment of bacterial vaginosis by Lactobacillus abundance and species diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Dols (Joke); D. Molenaar (Douwe); van der Helm, J.J. (Jannie J.); Caspers, M.P.M. (Martien P.M.); Angelino-Bart, A.K. (Alie de Kat); F.H.J. Schuren (Frank); Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. (Adrianus G.C.L.); Westerhoff, H.V. (Hans V.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); Boon, M.E. (Mathilde E.); G. Reid (Gregor); de Vries, H.J.C. (Henry J.C.); R. Kort (Remco)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known BV-associated composition

  1. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for routine diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, J. G.; Reuland, E. A.; Bouter, S.; Koenig, P.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    A semi-quantitative multiplex PCR assay for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) was evaluated in a prospective study in a population of Dutch women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge. The PCR targets Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Megasphaera phylotype 1, Lactobacillus

  2. The Role of Bacterial Vaginosis in Infection After Major Gynecologic Surgery

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    L. Lin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies have reported an association between bacterial vaginosis (BV and postoperative fever and infection. This prospective study investigated whether the intermediate or definite stages of BV are risk factors for postoperative infection after major gynecologic surgery.

  3. Association between Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria, and bacterial vaginosis scores in pregnant Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Hideto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV, the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, including many newly recognized bacterial species in non-pregnant women. Methods To examine whether these bacteria are also involved in BV in pregnant Japanese women, vaginal fluid samples were taken from 132 women, classified as normal (n = 98, intermediate (n = 21, or BV (n = 13 using the Nugent gram stain criteria, and studied. DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed for bacterial sequences of any Lactobacillus, four Lactobacillus species, and four BV-related bacteria by PCR with primers for 16S ribosomal DNA including a universal Lactobacillus primer, Lactobacillus species-specific primers for L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and L. iners, and BV-related bacterium-specific primers for BVAB2, Megasphaera, Leptotrichia, and Eggerthella-like bacterium. Results The prevalences of L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were significantly higher, while those of BVAB2, Megasphaera, Leptotrichia, and Eggerthella-like bacterium were significantly lower in the normal group than in the BV group. Unlike other Lactobacillus species, the prevalence of L. iners did not differ between the three groups and women with L. iners were significantly more likely to have BVAB2, Megasphaera, Leptotrichia, and Eggerthella-like bacterium. Linear regression analysis revealed associations of BVAB2 and Megasphaera with Nugent score, and multivariate regression analyses suggested a close relationship between Eggerthella-like bacterium and BV. Conclusion The BV-related bacteria, including BVAB2, Megasphaera, Leptotrichia, and Eggerthella-like bacterium, are common in the vagina of pregnant Japanese women with BV. The presence of L. iners may be correlated with vaginal colonization by these BV-related bacteria.

  4. La placa bacteriana: conceptos básicos para el higienista bucodental

    OpenAIRE

    Poyato Ferrera, Manuel María; Segura-Egea, Juan J; Ríos-Santos, J.V.; Bullon, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    La placa bacteriana es el factor etiológico principal de las dos enfermedades bucodentales de mayor prevalencia, la caries y la enfermedad periodontal. El higienista bucodental y colaborador del odontoestomatólogo en la aplicación del programa de control de placa, debe conocer en profundidad la microbiología de la placa bacteriana dental, así como los mecanismos implicados en su patogenicidad cariogénica y periodontal, aspectos que se revisan a continuación. Dental plaque is the main etiol...

  5. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

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    Temmerman Marleen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs. It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1 in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2 in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar

  6. First trimester bacterial vaginosis, individual microorganism levels, and risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Deborah B; Bellamy, Scarlett; Nachamkin, Irving; Ness, Roberta B; Macones, George A; Allen-Taylor, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of first trimester bacterial vaginosis (BV) and level of BV-associated microorganisms, diagnosed using the Nugent gram stain criteria and the risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women...

  7. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Hassem Sobrinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso.La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso.Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the economic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

  8. Manejo hospitalario de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana por S. Neumoniae

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    Roberto Álvarez Fumero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La actitud terapéutica ante la meningitis bacteriana (MEB es uno de los retos más importantes a los que se enfrenta el pediatra, pues de su oportuno y adecuado manejo depende el pronóstico. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos bacterianos observados en Cuba a partir del año 2000, promovieron la implementación de modificaciones al régimen terapéutico antibiótico convencional. En este artículo, sin olvidar que el tratamiento ideal es el preventivo, se expone una revisión actualizada del manejo hospitalario de las MEB por S.pneumoniae, que incluye: adopción de medidas generales, instauración temprana de acciones dirigidas a atenuar los efectos perjudiciales de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, conducta específica contra el agente (antibioticoterapia y finalmente la identificación precoz e inicio de la rehabilitación de secuelas. Se hace énfasis en las modificaciones al esquema antibiótico adoptadas recientemente por la Comisión Nacional de SNI. Se exponen consideraciones sobre la introducción de la vancomicina en esquema antimicrobiano de las MEB por S.pneumoniae.The therapeutic attitude to face bacterial meningitis (BME is one of the most important challenges for pediatricians, since the prognosis depends on its timely and adequate management The changes in the epidemiology of the bacterial infectious neurological syndromes ocurred in Cuba from 2000 on, promoted the implementation of modifications in the conventional therapeutical antibiotic regimen. In this article, without forgetting that the ideal treatment is the preventive one, it is exposed an updated review of the hospital management of BME due to S.Pneumoniae that includes: adoption of general measures, early establishment of actions directed to alleviate the harmful effects of the systemic inflammatory reponse, specific conduct against the agent (antibiotic therapy and, finally, the identification and beginning of the

  9. Asociación entre la disminución de los niveles de flujo salival y xerostomía en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica hemodializados de la unidad renal nefrología ltda, de la ciudad de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Espitia Nieto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (IRC, es la pérdida lenta y progresiva de la función renal, la cual trae consigo manifestaciones orales que están directamente relacionadas con ella, siendo una de estas la xerostomía (boca seca que acompañada de hiposialia (disminución del flujo salival trae complicaciones en el estado de la salud oral, como enfermedades periodontales, infecciones micóticas, bacterianas, dificultad para hablar, deglutir y aumento en la ingesta de líquidos, viéndose afectada la calidad de vida del paciente e incluso la enfermedad sistémica; sin embargo no se han realizado estudios que demuestren asociación entre xerostomía e hiposialia en estos pacientes.Lo anterior motivó el estudio de casos y controles de base hospitalaria en 62 pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (IRC en terapia de hemodiálisis de la unidad renal Nefrología Limitada en la ciudad de Santa Marta. El estudio arrojó como resultado que el 72.6% de los pacientes manifestaron xerostomia, a través de un muestreo proporcional se seleccionaron 17 casos (de los pacientes que manifestaron xerostomía y 17 controles (de los pacientes que no manifestaron xerostomía; a todos los pacientes se le realizó sialometría encontrándose que el flujo salival en estado de reposo y estimulado se halló disminuido en un 52.9% y 88.2% de los pacientes que manifestaron xerostomía, Al comparar los casos y controles en estado de reposo se encontró una razón de momios pareada (RMp igual a 5 y a 2, con un nivel de confianza del 95%, lo que indicó una probable asociación clínico-epidemiológica entre la disminución del flujo salival y la xerostomía tanto en estado de reposo como estimulado respectivamente. Por lo tanto se concluye que la xerostomía presente en pacientes con IRC Hemodializados se relaciona con hiposialia. (Duazary 2007; 2: 100 - 111AbstractChronic renal insufficiency is defined as the slow and progressive loss of the kidney function. It

  10. Prevención de la endocarditis bacteriana en odontología infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Boj Quesada, Juan Ramón; Molina Morales, V.; Jiménez Ruiz, Alfonso

    1994-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de la prevención de la endocarditis bacteriana en odontología infantil. Consideramos que se trata de una patología grave que no se tiene en cuenta todo lo que desearíamos.

  11. La evolución de la resistencia bacteriana en México, 1973-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial. Las investigaciones relacionadas con este problema emergente son indispensables para reconocer y desarrollar programas para su vigilancia y control. Objetivo. Revisar y comentar las contribuciones de los investigadores mexicanos en el área de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura científica relacionada con la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos producida por investigadores mexicanos y registrada en Medline-PubMed entre 1973 y julio de 2013. Resultados. En 66 publicaciones, las contribuciones de investigadores mexicanos incluyeron datos sobre la resistencia de agentes patógenos entéricos como Salmonella Typhi, múltiples contribuciones sobre la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido, de metalobetalactamasas y de carbapenemasas, los mecanismos de resistencia en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y la evolución de la resistencia en cocos Gram positivos como Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus y Enterococcus spp., entre otros. Conclusiones. Los datos publicados en los últimos 40 años son fuente adecuada para entender la evolución de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos y desarrollar programas para su control.

  12. Cumplimiento de las recomendaciones internacionales en la lucha contra las resistencias bacterianas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Jose Rabanaque, Mara; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en España y Dinamarca, en cuanto al uso ambulatoriode Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA), así como analizarla relación entre éste y las resistencias bacterianas a ellos. Material y métodos: Los sistemas...

  13. Infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez; María Teresa Fernández de la Paz; Olimpo Moreno Vázquez; Rubén Piloto Sendín; María Isabel Arango; Jorge Díaz Alvarez

    1995-01-01

    Este estudio estuvo dirigido a conocer la frecuencia de infección bacteriana severa, entre recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización inicial, e identificar los datos clínicos y de laboratorio que se relacionan con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa. Se estudió un grupo de 211 recién nacidos febriles ingresados y que no hubieran mostrado signos de focalización en la evaluación inicial. La incidencia de infección bacteriana severa fue de 17,5 %, del cual hubo 22 sepsis urinari...

  14. INFLUENCIA DEL TABAQUISMO EN LA MICROFLORA AEROBIA SALIVAL Y DE LA PLACA SUPRAGINGIVAL EN PACIENTES, DEL SERVICIO DE ODONTOLOGÍA DEL CENTRO DE SALUD DE TIABAYA. AREQUIPA. 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    PORTILLO VALDIVIA, VERONICA CECILIA

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene por objeto investigar la influencia del tabaquismo en la microflora aerobia salival y de la placa supragingival. Corresponde a una investigación observacional, comparativa y a su vez relacional. Con tal objeto se conformaron 2 grupos de estudio: fumadores y no fumadores, constituido cada grupo por 18 pacientes, elegidos acorde a los criterios de inclusión. Las variables dependientes (microflora aerobia salival y de la placa supragingival) fuer...

  15. Hormonal contraception decreases bacterial vaginosis but oral contraception may increase candidiasis: implications for HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Verwijs, Marijn C; Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S

    2013-08-24

    A 2012 WHO consultation concluded that combined oral contraception (COC) does not increase HIV acquisition in women, but the evidence for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is conflicting. We evaluated the effect of COC and DMPA use on the vaginal microbiome because current evidence suggests that any deviation from a 'healthy' vaginal microbiome increases women's susceptibility to HIV. We conducted a systematic review and reanalysed the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Acquisition (HC-HIV) study. Vaginal microbiome outcomes included bacterial vaginosis by Nugent scoring, vaginal candidiasis by culture or KOH wet mount and microbiome compositions as characterized by molecular techniques. Our review of 36 eligible studies found that COC and DMPA use reduce bacterial vaginosis by 10-20 and 18-30%, respectively. The HC-HIV data showed that COC and DMPA use also reduce intermediate microbiota (Nugent score of 4-6) by 11% each. In contrast, COC use (but not DMPA use) may increase vaginal candidiasis. Molecular vaginal microbiome studies (n=4) confirm that high oestrogen levels favour a vaginal microbiome composition dominated by 'healthy' Lactobacillus species; the effects of progesterone are less clear and not well studied. DMPA use does not increase HIV risk by increasing bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. COC use may predispose for vaginal candidiasis, but is not believed to be associated with increased HIV acquisition. However, the potential role of Candida species, and vaginal microbiome imbalances other than bacterial vaginosis or Candida species, in HIV transmission cannot yet be ruled out. Further in-depth molecular studies are needed.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Gardnerella vaginalis Strain ATCC 49145 Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Destaalem T; Arivett, Brock A; Crigler, Jacob; Vick, Eric J; Farone, Anthony L; Farone, Mary B

    2017-05-04

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a Gram-variable bacterium associated with bacterial vaginosis, a common vaginal inflammation in women of reproductive age. This study reports the whole-genome sequencing for the clinical isolate strain ATCC 49145. The draft genome is composed of 21 contigs containing 1,325 protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs and a single tmRNA (SsrA). Copyright © 2017 Kidane et al.

  17. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis among HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatski, Megan; Martin, David H; Clark, Rebecca A; Harville, Emily; Schmidt, Norine; Kissinger, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) were examined among human immunodeficiency virus+ women. The prevalence rates were 28.0% for TV, 51.4% for BV, and 17.5% for TV/BV co-infection. Among human immunodeficiency virus+/TV+ women, the rate of BV was 61.0%. Research is needed to examine how BV affects the clinical course and treatment of T. vaginalis.

  18. All-trans-configuration in Zanthoxylum alkylamides swaps the tingling with a numbing sensation and diminishes salivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Matthias; Stark, Timo D; Dawid, Corinna; Lösch, Sofie; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    The methanol soluble prepared from a supercritical fluid extract of Szechuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum) was screened for its key tingling and numbing chemosensates by application of taste dilution analysis. Further separation of fractions perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS, and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the structure determination of the known alkylamides hydroxy-γ-sanshool (1), hydroxy-α-sanshool (2), hydroxy-β-sanshool (3), bungeanool (4), isobungeanool (5), and hydroxy-γ-isosanshool (6), as well as hydroxy-ε-sanshool (7), the structure of which has not yet been confirmed by NMR, and hydroxy-ζ-sanshool (8), which has not been previously reported in the literature. Psychophysical half-tongue experiments using filter paper rectangles (1 × 2 cm) as the vehicle revealed amides 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, showing at least one cis-configured double bond, elicited the well-known tingling and paresthetic orosensation above threshold levels of 3.5-8.3 nmol/cm(2). In contrast, the all-trans-configured amides 3 and 6 induced a numbing and anesthetic sensation above thresholds of 3.9 and 7.1 nmol/cm(2), respectively. Interestingly, the mono-cis-configured major amide 2 was found to induce massive salivation, whereas the all-trans-configuration of 3 did not.

  19. Relación entre la Salud Bucal y la Concentración de Inmunoglobulina A Salival en Adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elena Martínez

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la posible relación entre la salud bucal de adolescentes y la concentración de IgA en saliva. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal. La población estuvo constituida por individuos de ambos sexos, sin patologías sistémicas. A todos los pacientes seleccionados se les realizó historia clínica completa, índice de caries, índice de placa y gingival. Para el dosaje de IgA en saliva se recolectó la muestra de cada paciente involucrado en la investigación. La técnica utilizada para la determinación de IgA en saliva, fue la inmunodifusión radial (IDR. Resultados: El 86% de la muestra presentó un índice de caries de 13.17 y el 54% mostró un índice gingival y de placa de 1.34 y 40.15%, respectivamente. Se observó una correlación inversa significativa entre los valores de IgA salival y caries. Conclusión: la saliva podría tener una influencia moduladora sobre los microorganismos involucrados con la caries, por medio de la secreción de IgA

  20. [Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological aspects of Mobiluncus sp. in bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, A; Nieves, B; Velazco, E; Rivero, N; Calderas, Z

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, our goal was to determine the optimal isolation conditions, biochemical characterization, and preservation of species of the genus Mobiluncus, associated with bacterial vaginosis in patients attending the family planning clinic. Also, we tried to relate its presence with demographic variables and criteria used in the clinical diagnosis of bacterial diagnosis. The specimen from the posterior fornix were collected and transported to the laboratory in a Stuart medium, one at room temperature and the other at 4 degrees C. These samples were inoculated in anaerobic culture media. Of a total of 92 patients studied, 61 (66.3%) were normal, 28 (30.4%) bacterial vaginosis, and 3 (3.3%) had intermediate vaginosis. There was statistically significant relationship only with intrauterine device use (p = 0.00499). The presence of curved rod, using Gram's method, was significantly related with pH (p = 0.00000) positive amines test (p = 0.00000), and the presence of clue cells (p = 0.00000). Mobiluncus was observed in 23 samples (82%), and the majority (15) using RLK agar (cold enrichment technique). With conventional techniques, we identified 12 strains as Mobiluncus curtisii and 3 strains as Mobiluncus mulieris. The strains of Mobiluncus sp. grew better from litmus milk conserved at -30 degrees C. Isolating Mobiluncus sp. is fairly easy, if the right media and the techniques are used.

  1. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  2. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Malaguti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%, and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  3. [Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr Bogumił

    2011-12-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the dominant etiological factors related to bacterial vaginosis. Literature offers a growing number of reports revealing there appear Gardnerella vaginalis strains increasingly resistant to metronidazole. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis to metronidazole, clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The investigation was performed on collection of 67 Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from the group of 604 women participating in the study Antibiotic sensitivity of strains was verified by E-test method (BioMerieux). Interpretation of results was performed in accordance with EUCAST criteria. All tested strains, apart from one, were sensitive to clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The results of susceptibility test to metronidazole indicated that 68.7% (46 out of 67 strains) were resistant to this antibiotic, while all of them were sensitive to both clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Near future may bring the need to change the treatment regimen of bacterial vaginosis.

  4. Onicolisis exudativa y paroniquia bacteriana aguda en relacion con BIBF-1120 y paclitaxel: respuesta a la terapia topica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freites-Martinez, Azael; Martinez-Sanchez, Diego; Puente de Pablo, Nieves; Calderon-Komaromy, Angelica; Cordoba, Susana; Burbujo, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    .... A la semana de iniciar la terapia topica, se observo una paroniquia bacteriana con la perdida de la una del quinto dedo de la mano izquierda, con cultivos positivos para Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina...

  5. Evaluation and subsequent optimizations of the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Shipitsyna, Elena; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2016-12-01

    Traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurate BV diagnosis. This study evaluated the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR (Florocenosis-BV) assay. Vaginal samples from a previous study including unselected female subjects (n = 163) and using Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for BV diagnosis were examined with the Florocenosis-BV test and additionally tested for the presence and quantity of Gardnerella vaginalis clades 3 and 4. The Florocenosis-BV assay demonstrated 100% and 98% sensitivity compared with the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing, respectively, with 91% specificity. The modified Florocenosis-BV assay (detecting also G. vaginalis clades 3 and 4) resulted in 100% sensitivity vs the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing with specificity of 86% and 88%, respectively. Further optimizations of thresholds for the quantitative parameters used in the kit resulted in 99-100% accuracy vs Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for selected parameters. The Florocenosis-BV assay is an objective, accurate, sensitive, and specific method for BV diagnosis; however, the performance of the test can be further improved with some minor optimizations. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Efecto de las cargas articulares sobre el flujo y pH salival Effect of TMJ loading on salivary flow and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Una alteración del flujo salival es clave en el desarrollo de caries, enfermedad periodontal e infecciones oportunistas. El flujo salival está determinado por diversos estímulos que actúan sobre receptores de distinta naturaleza, entre ellos mecanoreceptores articulares. Algunos estudios demuestran que las cargas articulares actúan sobre estos receptores, modificando cualitativa y cuantitativamente la secreción salival. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe una relación entre la aplicación controlada de cargas articulares y cambios en el flujo y pH salival. 30 voluntarios fueron seleccionados según criterios de inclusión establecidos. Se elaboró un dispositivo interoclusal que en relación a piezas 1.5 y 2.5, tenía botones acrílicos de 1 mm de espesor, los que al ejercer fuerzas sobre ellos provocan cargas reversibles sobre la ATM. Antes de usar el dispositivo, en cada individuo se midió flujo salival no estimulado (FSNE el flujo salival estimulado (FSE y el pH de ambos. Tras un periodo de adaptación diaria por una semana, cada participante usó el dispositivo durante 1 hora, ejerciendo fuerza masticatoria sostenida. Luego se midieron ambos flujos y el pH correspondiente. El procedimiento fue repetido por 7 días, bajo supervisión. No se observó una relación aparente entre la aplicación controlada de cargas articulares y cambios volumétricos de flujo salival. Las mujeres tuvieron un FSE y FSNE menor al de los hombres. La aplicación de sobrecargas articulares por un breve período de tiempo provoca una caída del pH del FSE luego de 3 días de aplicación.Altered salivary flow is key for the onset of dental caries, periodontal disease and opportunistic infections. Salivary flow is determined by various stimuli on several receptors, including joint mechanoreceptors. Some studies show that loads on the TMJ affect these receptors causing changes on the quality and quantity of saliva secretion. The aim of this

  7. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Julia Rovira; Jennifer Orozco Páez; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar e...

  8. Oftalmoplegia internuclear achado clínico inicial e único em endocardite bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Werneck,Antonio L. dos Santos; Gonçalves,Adrelírio J. Rios; Bezerra,José Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Oftalmoplegia internuclear unilateral traduz-se por paralisia homolateral da adução ocular e nistagmo contralateral. As principais causas são a esclerose múltipla e a insuficiência vértebro-basilar. Apresentamos um caso secundário a endocardite bacteriana, em que este sinal iniciou o quadro e foi o único achado neurológico.

  9. Infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio estuvo dirigido a conocer la frecuencia de infección bacteriana severa, entre recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización inicial, e identificar los datos clínicos y de laboratorio que se relacionan con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa. Se estudió un grupo de 211 recién nacidos febriles ingresados y que no hubieran mostrado signos de focalización en la evaluación inicial. La incidencia de infección bacteriana severa fue de 17,5 %, del cual hubo 22 sepsis urinaria (10,4 %, 6 bacteriemias aisladas (2,8 % y 5 meningoencefalitis bacteriana (2,3 %. De los 37 recién nacidos con infección bacteriana severa se aisló germen causal en 36 (97,3 % de los cuales 26 fueron bacterias gramnegativa y 10 grampositiva. Por tipo de infección bacteriana severa se observó que predominó en la sepsis urinaria la Escherichia coli en 15/22 de los pacientes, en la meningoencefalitis el Streptococcus grupo B en 3/5 de los enfermos y en la bacteriemia aislada el Staphylococcus aureus en 3/6. Se encontró relación significativa con la presencia de infección bacteriana severa de los siguientes datos clínicos y de laboratorio: fiebre ³ 39 &oC, fiebre persistente o recurrente, impresión médica de niño con estado tóxico-infeccioso, antecedentes patológicos, sexo masculino, conteo de leucocitos sanguíneos ³ 20 000/mm3, eritrosedimentación ³ 20 mm/h y leucocituria 10 000/L en la orina no centrifugada.

  10. Bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized trial of the effect of treatment of the sexual partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Bollerup, A C; Vejtorp, L

    1988-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled trial we assessed the effect of metronidazole treatment of the male partner on the recurrence rate of bacterial vaginosis. Women who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis were treated with metronidazole given in single doses of 2 g on days...... 1 and 3. The sexual partners were randomized to receive either the same dosage of metronidazole or a placebo. A total of 107 pairs completed the study. One week after the start of treatment 89% of the women considered themselves improved or cured and 93% no longer had the diagnostic criteria...

  11. Vulvovaginitis: screening for and management of trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Julie; Yudin, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. OUTCOMES evaluated include the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, cure rates for simple and complicated infections, and the implications of these conditions in pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., vaginitis, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis) and key words (bacterial vaginosis, yeast, candidiasis, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, vaginitis, treatment). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits, but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects 75% of women at least once. Topical and oral antifungal azole medications are equally effective. (I) 2. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is defined as 4 or more episodes per year. (II-2) 3. Trichomonas vaginalis is a common non-viral sexually transmitted infection that is best detected by antigen testing using vaginal swabs collected and evaluated by immunoassay or nucleic acid amplification test. (II-2) 4. Cure rates are equal at up to 88% for trichomoniasis treated with oral metronidazole 2 g once or 500 mg twice daily for 7 days. Partner treatment, even without

  12. Prevalencia de erosión dental en escolares de Tampico, Madero, Altamira y su relación con el pH salival

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Monserrat-Gutiérrez-Oviedo; Hilda-Isassi-Hernández; Rogelio-Oliver-Parra

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La erosión dental es la pérdida de la superficie del diente causada por el ataque ácido y es un problema de salud dental en el mundo moderno; determinar su etiología y factores de riesgo permitirán tratarla y prevenirla correctamente antes de que se presente un daño más severo. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de erosión dental en escolares de Tampico, Madero, Altamira y su relación con el pH salival. Material y Métodos: Fue un estudio observacional y transversal, se examina...

  13. Nivel del PH salival en niños de 6 meses a 18 meses de edad con ingesta de leche evaporada modificada y leche materna

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Concha, Paulita

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar el nivel del pH salival en niños de 6 meses a 18 meses de edad con ingesta de leche evaporada modificada y leche materna, en el Programa Nacional Wawa Wasi del distrito de Villa María del Triunfo, según el tiempo transcurrido. Material y método: La muestra estuvo conformada por 40 niños de 6 meses a 18 meses de edad, distribuidos en dos grupos: 20 que consumieron leche materna y 20 que ingirieron leche evaporada modificada. Se les dio a tomar la leche ...

  14. Multiplex Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA-FISH) for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method used to identify and quantify microorganisms in a wide range of samples. This technique combines the simplicity of microscopic observation and the specificity of DNA/rRNA hybridization, allowing detection of selected bacterial species and morphologic visualization. Here, we describe a quantitative molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, based on the classical Nugent score. Our probes are able to differentiate Lactobacillus spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis from the other undefined bacterial species considered in the Nugent score.

  15. The role of the midwife when the pathology report states your pregnant client has bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annells, M F

    2001-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with preterm labour, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes and preterm birth. Organisms in high concentrations in BV may ascend from the vagina into the uterine cavity causing infection. Many factors may change the vaginal pH and microflora increasing the risk of BV, and midwives need to recognise signs and symptoms of BV. The vaginal pH is a useful tool for BV screening. Midwives may play a future role in pH testing, especially in pregnant women at high risk, for example, those with a previous preterm birth.

  16. Presentación de un caso de tejido salival heterotópico cervical asociado con un quiste branquial A case of salivary heterotopic tissue associated with branchial cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mileydis Viñas García; Yudit Algozaín Acosta; Eliseo Capote Leyva; Joaquín Urbizo Vélez; Isis Contreras Rojas; Rafael Delgado Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Las masas cervicales en los adultos jóvenes responden a adenopatías inflamatorias, malformaciones congénitas o menos frecuentemente a neoplasias. El tejido salival heterotópico es la presencia de tejido salival en un lugar anormal. Cuando tiene ubicación cervical puede encontrarse asociado con anomalías branquiales, al parecer por la relación que tienen ambos durante su embriogénesis. Por lo poco frecuente de esta asociación y no encontrarse publicado ningún caso en la literatura nacional, se...

  17. Microbial Composition Predicts Genital Tract Inflammation and Persistent Bacterial Vaginosis in South African Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B

    2018-01-01

    Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Correlation of Trichomonas vaginalis to bacterial vaginosis: a laboratory-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Raafat, Douaa; El Emshaty, Wafaa; Azab, Manar Sobh; Goda, Hossam

    2010-03-29

    This study aimed to define the occurrence of different organisms causing vulvovaginitis; to evaluate different laboratory methods used for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis); and to evaluate the direct score system and clue cell method compared with culture for diagnosis of bacterial and T. vaginalis vaginosis. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed for 110 patients. Laboratory methods used for bacteriological diagnosis were direct Gram staining for clue cells and scoring by Nugent score system and bacterial culture. T. vaginalis was identified by wet mount microscopic examination, culture, direct Gram, Giemsa staining and acridine orange (AO). The Nugent score method revealed that the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of vaginal discharge by direct rapid microscopic methods were 30% and 80% and for clue cells sensitivity and specificity were 37% and 75% respectively for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis compared to culture. For diagnosis of T. vaginalis, the Nugent score method revealed that the sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 90% respectively, and for clue cells 75% and 80% respectively. For microcopic methods used for T. vaginalis only, the Gram stain and Giemsa stain sensitivities were poor (15.2% and 48.5%, respectively). Wet mount showed reasonable sensitivity of 75.8%. Acridine orange sensitivity was 93.9% and specificity was 97.5%, Prevalent pathogens associated with vaginitis were (Gardnerella vaginalis) G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis). Wet mount microscopic examination, acridine orange, and high Nugent score were found as rapid and sensitive methods for diagnosis of T. vaginalis.

  19. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Tânia Berbert Ferreira; Eurides,Duvaldo; Rezende,Renata Junqueira; Milken,Vanessa Martins Fayad; Silva,Luiz Antonio Franco da; Fioravanti,Maria Clorinda Soares

    2004-01-01

    A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05) entre a utilização da escova dental e ...

  20. Estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em solo de cerrado sob diferentes manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Moraes de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em Latossolo de cerrado sob vegetação nativa ou cultivado em sistema de rotação soja/milho sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram utilizadas microplacas EcoPlate para determinar o perfil e a diversidade metabólica das comunidades bacterianas, e eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE para avaliar a estrutura genética. O teste estatístico de Mantel foi utilizado para avaliar a relação entre a estrutura metabólica e a genética. A comunidade bacteriana sob vegetação nativa apresentou perfil metabólico diferente do encontrado em solos cultivados. No solo cultivado com soja sob preparo convencional, o padrão de utilização das fontes de carbono diferenciou-se dos demais tratamentos. Com base nos resultados de DGGE, a comunidade bacteriana sob vegetação nativa apresentou 35% de similaridade com as de áreas cultivadas. Foram formados grupos distintos de comunidades bacterianas do solo entre as áreas sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. Houve correlação significativa de 62% entre as matrizes geradas pelas microplacas EcoPlate e pela DGGE. Variações no perfil metabólico estão relacionadas às variações na estrutura genética das comunidades bacterianas do solo.

  1. Neumonías bacterianas bacteriémicas post-influenza (NBBPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Sparo, Mónica; Delpech, Gastón; Schell, Celia María; De Luca, María Marta; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Influenza es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda, altamente transmisible, de distribución mundial y de ocurrencia estacional, causada por alguno de los 3 tipos de virus de la influenza que se conocen: A, B o C. Se caracteriza por la súbita aparición de signos y síntomas como fiebre (38-40ºC), mialgias, cefalea, escalofríos, decaimiento, tos no productiva, faringitis y rinitis. Una de las complicaciones frecuentes durante la convalecencia del cuadro viral es la neumonía bacteriana secundaria, so...

  2. Mancha bacteriana em Ruscus sp. causada por Burkholderia andropogonis no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Irene M.G; Beriam, Luís O.S; Sannazzaro, Ana M; Rodrigues Neto, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Em abril de 2008 foram recebidas folhas de Ruscus sp. originárias de plantios localizados na região de Santo Antonio de Posse SP com sintomas de manchas arredondadas, com 5 a 8 mm de diâmetro, de coloração marrom escura, com centro necrótico e circundadas por halo clorótico. Dos isolamentos realizados, foram obtidas colônias bacterianas de cor creme, de crescimento lento, com células Gram-negativas, oxidativas e não fluorescentes. Inoculações artificiais em Ruscus sp. reproduziram os sintomas...

  3. Oftalmoplegia internuclear achado clínico inicial e único em endocardite bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Werneck, Antonio L. dos Santos; Gonçalves, Adrelírio J. Rios; Bezerra, José Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Oftalmoplegia internuclear unilateral traduz-se por paralisia homolateral da adução ocular e nistagmo contralateral. As principais causas são a esclerose múltipla e a insuficiência vértebro-basilar. Apresentamos um caso secundário a endocardite bacteriana, em que este sinal iniciou o quadro e foi o único achado neurológico. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia become manifest by homolateral paralysis of ocular adduction and contralateral nystagmus. Principal causes are multiple sclerosi...

  4. Estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em solo de cerrado sob diferentes manejos

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Moraes de Souza; Franciele Schlemmer; Priscila Martins Alencar; André Alves de Castro Lopes; Samuel Ribeiro Passos; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Ieda de Carvalho Mendes; Fábio Bueno dos Reis Junior

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estrutura metabólica e genética de comunidades bacterianas em Latossolo de cerrado sob vegetação nativa ou cultivado em sistema de rotação soja/milho sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram utilizadas microplacas EcoPlate para determinar o perfil e a diversidade metabólica das comunidades bacterianas, e eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE) para avaliar a estrutura genética. O teste estatístico de Mantel foi utilizado para avali...

  5. A orbifloxacina no tratamento das cistites bacterianas em gatos domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reche Junior Archivaldo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos, avaliar o uso da orbifloxacina nas cistites bacterianas de felinos, e seus possíveis efeitos colaterais, mormente a nefro e/ou hepatotoxicidade. Para tanto, foram colhidas amostras de urina de 53 gatos com históricos variados, mas com predisposição à infecção urinária. A cistite bacteriana foi comprovada, através de exame microbiológico, em 13 pacientes. No entanto, apenas 10 apresentaram infecção por agentes sensíveis a orbifloxacina. Esses 10 pacientes foram então submetidos ao tratamento com orbifloxacina na dose de 2,5mg kg-1 a cada 24 horas por 10 dias. Não houve crescimento bacteriano nas amostras de urina submetidas à cultura, 72 horas após a interrupção do tratamento. Não foram observados sinais de nefro e/ou hepatotoxicidade nesses pacientes, uma vez que os níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA, albumina, uréia e creatinina não tiveram variação significativa após o uso do fármaco. Portanto, os resultados apresentados sugerem que a orbifloxacina pode ser usada como agente antimicrobiano nas infecções urinárias de felinos.

  6. Using an in-vitro biofilm model to assess the virulence potential of bacterial vaginosis or non-bacterial vaginosis Gardnerella vaginalis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joana; Alves, Patrícia; Sousa, Cármen; Cereija, Tatiana; França, Ângela; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-06-26

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the most common species found in bacterial vaginosis (BV). However, it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women and G. vaginalis vaginal colonization does not always lead to BV. In an effort to better understand the differences between G. vaginalis isolated from women with a positive (BV) versus a negative (non-BV) diagnosis of BV, we compared the virulence potential of 7 BV and 7 non-BV G. vaginalis isolates and assessed the virulence factors related to biofilm formation, namely: initial adhesion and cytotoxic effect, biofilm accumulation, susceptibility to antibiotics, and transcript levels of the known vaginolysin, and sialidase genes. Furthermore, we also determined the ability of G. vaginalis to displace lactobacilli previously adhered to HeLa cells. Our results showed that non-BV strains were less virulent than BV strains, as suggested by the lower cytotoxicity and initial adhesion to Hela cells. Significant differences in expression of known virulence genes were also detected, further suggesting a higher virulence potential of the BV associated G. vaginalis. Importantly, we demonstrated that BV associated G. vaginalis were able to displace pre-coated vaginal protective lactobacilli and we hypothesize this to be a trigger for BV development.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  8. 103. Reparación valvular mitral en un caso de endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana

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    R. Manrique

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La reparación valvular mitral es un procedimiento eficaz y seguro en la insuficiencia mitral aguda en pacientes con endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana. Permite evitar un riesgo adicional asociado al uso de prótesis mecánicas en pacientes con riesgo tromboembólico elevado.

  9. Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, J. M.; Fresia, A.; Berger, B.; McCormack, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV. 




 PMID:10616362

  10. [Evaluation of Nugent and Amsel criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, P; Domínguez, M; Castro, E; Zemelman, R

    2000-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disease in reproductive-age women and is associated to important gynecologic and obstetric complications. To study the occurrence of BV in apparently healthy women attending family planning clinics, using Amsel and Nugent diagnostic criteria. Two hundred thirty nine women consulting for symptoms associated to cervicovaginitis, were studied. A sample from the lateral walls of the vagina was obtained with a sterile swab for microscopic analysis, Gram stain and amine test. According to Amsel and Nugent criteria a 31.1% and 31.8% BV prevalence was observed. The sensitivity and specificity of Nugent criteria, compared with Amsel criteria were 83.3% and 92.1%, respectively. The high prevalence of BV found in this study suggests that this vaginal infection should be diagnosed with standardized methods. Nugent criteria are economic easy to perform and sensitive and we propose that they should be used in local health centers.

  11. Pilot Study to Evaluate the Appropriate Management of Patients With Coexistent Bacterial Vaginosis and Cervicitis

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    Jane R. Schwebke

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was performed to obtain preliminary data regarding the need for targeted therapy of bacterial vaginosis (BV when it accompanies clinically defined cervicitis. Specifically, women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic with clinically defined BV and cervicitis were treated in the first phase of the study with doxycycline alone. In phase II, the patients received doxycycline and concomitant intravaginal metronidazole gel. All patients were reexamined 3–4 weeks after therapy. Persistence of BV occurred in 18/19 (95% of women in phase I vs. 1/7 (14% of women in phase II (P < 0.001. We concluded that, in women with coexistent clinically defined cervicitis and BV, the treatment of cervicitis does not result in a normalization of the vaginal flora.

  12. Temporal Shifts in Microbial Communities in Nonpregnant African-American Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis

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    John Wertz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been described as an increase in the number of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria relative to lactobacilli in the vaginal tract. Several undesirable consequences of this community shift can include irritation, white discharge, an elevated pH, and increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections. While the etiology of the condition remains ill defined, BV has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. In order to describe the structure of vaginal communities over time we determined the phylogenetic composition of vaginal communities from seven women sampled at multiple points using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that women with no evidence of BV had communities dominated by lactobacilli that appeared stable over our sampling periods while those with BV had greater diversity and decreased stability overtime. In addition, only Lactobacillus iners was found in BV positive communities.

  13. Utilization of molecular methods to identify prognostic markers for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, David W; Smith, William L; Paulish-Miller, Teresa E; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E; Sobel, Jack D; Gygax, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    Recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) after antimicrobial therapy is a major problem, affecting >50% of patients within 1 year. The objective of this study was to determine if prospective identification of patients at risk for recurrence using molecular methods is feasible. Women were evaluated for BV by Amsel criteria and Nugent score. Vaginal specimens were analyzed using a panel of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) at three times: pre-treatment, 7-10days post-treatment and 40-45days post-treatment. The PCRs quantified DNA of the following organisms: Gardnerella vaginalis; Atopobium vaginae; Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria-1 (BVAB1), -2 (BVAB2) and -3 (BVAB3); Leptotrichia/Sneathia; Megasphaera Phylotypes 1 and 2; and Lactobacillus spp. (L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners and L. jensenii). Out of 84 women diagnosed with BV (Amsel ≥3 and Nugent ≥4), 77 (91.7%) were successfully treated after 7-10days (asymptomatic and Amsel of either 0 or 1 with elevated vaginal pH and Nugent ≤6). Of these 77 women, 46 (59.7%) remained cured after 40-45days and 31 (40.3%) developed recurrent BV. In univariate analysis, we found that women who would have recurrent BV during the study had greater concentrations of Megasphaera Phylotype 2 (P=0.001) and BVAB2 (P=0.015) at initial diagnosis and greater vaginal pH (P=0.030), higher Nugent score (P=0.043) and a greater concentration of G. vaginalis (P=0.012) post-treatment, when compared to women who were cured during the study. These differences largely remained when cure was defined as Nugent ≤3 or when only women treated with intravaginal metronidazole were evaluated. Molecular analysis of BV is a useful adjunct to clinical and microscopic analysis to prospectively identify patients at high risk for recurrent BV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalencia de erosión dental en escolares de Tampico, Madero, Altamira y su relación con el pH salival

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    Diana Monserrat-Gutiérrez-Oviedo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La erosión dental es la pérdida de la superficie del diente causada por el ataque ácido y es un problema de salud dental en el mundo moderno; determinar su etiología y factores de riesgo permitirán tratarla y prevenirla correctamente antes de que se presente un daño más severo. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de erosión dental en escolares de Tampico, Madero, Altamira y su relación con el pH salival. Material y Métodos: Fue un estudio observacional y transversal, se examinaron a 510 escolares de Tampico, Madero y Altamira. Se utilizó el índice de erosión de Aine. Resultados: De los 510 escolares, 63 presentaron una frecuencia de erosión dental del 12.35%, de los cuales 35 (13.67% fueron niñas y 28 (11.02% niños. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre niños y niñas (p=.36. En relación con el pH salival no se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas. (p=.11. El órgano dental más afectado fue el 46 (7.20% y el 63 (4.93%. El grado que más prevaleció fue grado 1 (8.03%. En cuanto a la superficie más afectada fue la vestibular. Conclusiones: Es importante para el odontopediatra detectar los signos de erosión en etapas iníciales, identificar la causa y vigilar la nutrición de los niños que presentan erosión para prevenirla oportunamente.

  15. Estudo da incidência de vaginose bacteriana em parturientes pré-termo ou gestantes com amniorrexe prematura

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    Raquel G. A. Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: relacionar a incidência de vaginose bacteriana entre parturientes com diagnóstico de trabalho de parto prematuro ou gestantes com amniorexe prematura em Sorocaba/SP. Metodologia: estudamos, de setembro/2003 a junho/2004, 30 pacientes internadas com diagnóstico clínico de trabalho de parto prematuro e/ou amniorexe prematura com idade gestacional inferior a 37 semanas. Como grupo controle tivemos 30 gestantes internadas para tratamento de outras intercorrências clínicas e/ou obstétricas, pareadas com o grupo de estudo pela idade cronológica e idade gestacional. A vaginose bacteriana foi diagnosticada pelo pH vaginal superior a 4.5, liberação de odor de “peixe podre” ao adicionar KOH (10% ao conteúdo vaginal, presença de “clue-cell” nesse material, e a caracterização de esfregaço sugestivo de vaginose bacteriana pelo método de Gram. Resultados: a vaginose bacteriana foi encontrada em 10.0% das pacientes do grupo de estudo e em 13.3% das pacientes do grupo controle. Encontramos também a presença de processos infecciosos vaginais, especialmente causados por leveduras, ambos achados não apresentaram significância estatística. Conclusão: a vaginose bacteriana não se associou de maneira significante com a ocorrência de trabalho de parto prematuro e/ou amniorexe prematura. Trabalho subsidiado por bolsa PIBIC-CNPq.

  16. Placa bacteriana dentária em cães Dental bacterial plaque in dogs

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    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a incidência de placa bacteriana dentária, foram utilizados 30 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos em três grupos iguais, de acordo com a faixa etária, sendo o grupo I de 0 a 2 anos, o grupo II de 3 a 5 anos e o grupo III acima de 6 anos. Os animais foram submetidos a anestesia geral e sobre os dentes foi aplicado cloreto de metilrosanilina, para evidenciar acúmulos bacterianos. As placas encontravam-se distribuídas em 80,99% no grupo I, 71,45% no grupo II e 83,96% no grupo III. Os grupos dentários foram considerados separadamente, apresentando índices de 64,84% nos dentes incisivos, 84,80% nos caninos, 87,23% nos pré-molares e 78,34% nos molares. Nos três grupos de cães observou-se índices semelhantes de placa bacteriana nos diferentes grupos dentários. Os animais do grupo II e o grupo de dentes incisivos apresentaram menores índices de placa bacteriana.To avaliate the incidence of bacterial plaque 30 mogreal dogs were utilizated, distributed among three equal groups. According to age, group I was composed of 0 to 2 years-old dogs, group II was 3 to 5 years-old, and group III over 6 years-old. The animals underwent a general anesthesia and metilrosanilin cloret was applied over the tooth, to evidence the bacterial mass. The plaques were distributed to 80.99% in group I, 71.42% in group II and 83.96% in group III. The dental groups were considerated apart, showing index of 64.84% on the incisar tooth, 84.80% on the canine tooth, 87.23% on the premolar tooth, and 78.34% on the molar tooth. At the dogs groups, similar Índex of bacterial plaque were observed on the diffèrent dental groups. The dogs from group II and the incisive tooth group showed minar bacterial plaque index.

  17. Meningoencefalitis bacteriana en niños menores de 15 años

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    Niuvis Chávez González

    Full Text Available Introducción: la meningoencefalitis bacteriana es una enfermedad de distribución universal que afecta individuos de todas las edades, pero especialmente a los niños. Objetivo: identificar las características clínicas y microbiológicas de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo en niños menores de 15 años ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico "Luis Ángel Milanés Tamayo", de Bayamo, Granma, en el periodo comprendido desde el 1ro. de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2012. El universo estuvo conformado por 22 pacientes egresados con el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana, y la muestra por 18 casos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: predominó el grupo de edad de 1 a 4 años con el 50 %; la desnutrición se presentó en 5 de los casos estudiados. La media del tiempo transcurrido entre el inicio de los síntomas hasta el diagnóstico, y al inicio del tratamiento médico fue de ±3 días (DS: 1,129; los síntomas inespecíficos y la hipertensión endocraneana se presentaron en un 38,9 % y 88,8 % respectivamente. El Streptococcus pneumoniae fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado en el estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo, y el edema cerebral la complicación más frecuente de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la enfermedad estudiada afectó las edades más tempranas, con predominio de los síntomas de hipertensión endocraneana, y una celularidad elevada, y el tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas al diagnóstico y al tratamiento médico fue corto.

  18. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... most common vaginal infection in sexually active teenaged girls . It appears to be caused by a bacterial ...

  19. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ... t Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ...

  20. Adhesion of Human Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to Cervical and Vaginal Cells and Interaction with Vaginosis-Associated Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Coudeyras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35 to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Methods. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Coculture experiments were performed to count viable pathogens cells in the presence of Lcr35. Results. Lcr35 was able to specifically and rapidly adhere to the three cell lines. In coculture assays, a decrease in pathogen cell division rate was observed as from 4 hours of incubation and bactericidal activity after a longer period of incubation, mostly with P. bivia. Conclusion. The ability of Lcr35 to adhere to cervicovaginal cells and its antagonist activities against vaginosis-associated pathogens suggest that this probiotic strain is a promising candidate for use in therapy.

  1. Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Romero-González, Roberto; Albani-Campanario, Mario; Figueroa-Damián, Ricardo; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions. PMID:21960733

  2. Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hernández-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (=64 of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78% followed by L. iners (54%, L. gasseri (20%, and L. delbrueckii (6%. 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21% followed by BVAB1 (17% and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%. Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time PCR assay versus clinical and Gram stain identification of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J-P; Mazouni, C; Fenollar, F; Raoult, D; Boubli, L; Bretelle, F

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis versus the standard methods, the Amsel criteria and the Nugent score. The Amsel criteria, the Nugent score, and results from the molecular tool were obtained independently from vaginal samples of 163 pregnant women who reported abnormal vaginal symptoms before 20 weeks gestation. To determine the performance of the molecular tool, we calculated the kappa value, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Either or both of the Amsel criteria (≥3 criteria) and the Nugent score (score ≥7) indicated that 25 women (15%) had bacterial vaginosis, and the remaining 138 women did not. DNA levels of Gardnerella vaginalis or Atopobium vaginae exceeded 10(9) copies/mL or 10(8) copies/mL, respectively, in 34 (21%) of the 163 samples. Complete agreement between both reference methods and high concentrations of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae was found in 94.5% of women (154/163 samples, kappa value = 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.81). The nine samples with discordant results were categorized as intermediate flora by the Nugent score. The molecular tool predicted bacterial vaginosis with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 73%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The quantitative real-time PCR assay shows excellent agreement with the results of both reference methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

  4. Acceptability of a self-sampling technique to collect vaginal smears for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Atherly-Trim, Shelly A; O'Campo, Patricia J; Strobino, Donna M; Misra, Dawn P; Misra, P

    2004-01-01

    To diagnose asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV), self-sampled vaginal smears were collected during a study of risk factors for preterm birth in African American women. More than 90% of those women who were willing to participate in the interview portion of the study were also willing to provide a self-sampled vaginal smear. The smears are an acceptable and efficient way of detecting BV in an urban minority population.

  5. ACCEPTABILITY OF A SELF-SAMPLING TECHNIQUE TO COLLECT VAGINAL SMEARS FOR GRAM STAIN DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Boskey, Elizabeth R.; Atherly-Trim, Shelly A.; O?Campo, Patricia J; Strobino, Donna M.; Misra, Dawn P.

    2004-01-01

    To diagnose asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV), self-sampled vaginal smears were collected during a study of risk factors for preterm birth in African American women. More than 90% of those women who were willing to participate in the interview portion of the study were also willing to provide a self-sampled vaginal smear. The smears are an acceptable and efficient way of detecting BV in an urban minority population.

  6. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and impact of genital hygiene practices in non-pregnant women in zanjan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahram, Amini; Hamid, Baghchesaraie; Zohre, Torabi

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract infection (RTI), it's prevalence is influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and impact of sexual and genital hygienie practices and socio-demographic characteristics in non pregnant women of Zanjan province in Iran. 500 non-pregnant, married women were randomly selected for this study. This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted among non-pregnant referred to primry healthcare centres in Zanjan between May to August 2006. Following gynecological examination and vaginal sample collection by physicians, bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by Nugent criteria, tricomoniasis by direct microscopy and candidiasis by direct microscopic observation and evaluation of presenting clinical signs of vulvovaginitis. The prevalence of RTI was 27.6%. Out of which 16.2% was devoted to bacterial vaginosis (BV), 6.6% to trichomoniasis and 4.8% to Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). In contrast to coital hygiene, there was a significant correlation between menstrual and individual vaginal hygiene and BV (p<0.01 and p<0.001) respectively. There was a significant correlation between BV and education (p<0.025), number of pregnancy (p<0.05) and method of contraception (p<0.005). No significant correlation was observed between age, age of marriage and abortion. The data obtained suggests that the prevalence rate of BV is relatively high and could be affected by hygiene behaviors and certain socio-demographic characteristics, which indicate the need for comprehensive, scheduled programs of healthcare educations, aimed at reducing BV prevalence.

  7. Placa bacteriana dentária em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Eurides,Duvaldo; Gonçalves,Gentil Ferreira; Mazzanti,Alexandre; Buso,Antônio Mário

    1996-01-01

    Com objetivo de avaliar a incidência de placa bacteriana dentária, foram utilizados 30 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos em três grupos iguais, de acordo com a faixa etária, sendo o grupo I de 0 a 2 anos, o grupo II de 3 a 5 anos e o grupo III acima de 6 anos. Os animais foram submetidos a anestesia geral e sobre os dentes foi aplicado cloreto de metilrosanilina, para evidenciar acúmulos bacterianos. As placas encontravam-se distribuídas em 80,99% no grupo I, 71,45% no grupo II e 83,96% n...

  8. Translocação bacteriana para o rim na icterícia obstrutiva experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Aldo da Cunha; Ramos,Ana Maria de Oliveira; Carvalho,Maria Goretti Freire de; Silva,Marli Pinheiro da; Dantas Filho,Antônio Medeiros; Dantas Júnior,José Hipólito; Freitas,Fernando César M

    1997-01-01

    Estudo com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade de ocorrência de translocação bacteriana para os rins de ratos, após ligadura de colédoco. Foram utilizados 29 ratos Wistar com peso médio de 171 ± 12,6g. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo I (n=14) e grupo II (n=15). Com técnica asséptica, nos ratos no grupo I foi feita ligadura de colédoco com fio de seda nº 3 zeros e no grupo II foi simulada a ligadura com a simples manipulação do colédoco com pinça de Adson ("sham operatio...

  9. Celulosa bacteriana en gluconacetobacter xylinum: biosíntesis y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Chávez- Pacheco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La celulosa es la molécula orgánica más abundante en la naturaleza y posee gran importancia a nivel industrial; es sintetizada por una variedad de organismos, incluyendo plantas, algas, hongos, bacterias y animales. Gluconacetobacter xylinum es la bacteria con mayor capacidad productora de celulosa y es el organismo modelo en la investigación sobre los procesos que regulan la biosíntesis del polímero. El presente documento ofrece una revisión de los progresos en la comprensión del proceso de síntesis de celulosa, las características particulares de la celulosa bacteriana como fuente alterna a la celulosa vegetal y sus aplicaciones biotecnológicas

  10. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente: Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio R Bastidas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferenciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipifi cación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico defi nitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos.

  11. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente. Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio R. Bastidas, MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferenciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipificación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico definitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos.

  12. Efeitos do algodão Bt (Bollgard evento 531) na comunidade bacteriana da rizosfera.

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Aparecida Avila

    2008-01-01

    O algodão transgênico Bollgard® (algodão Bt) contém o gene cry1Ac da bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis, que confere a planta resistência a Lepidopteros. A expressão deste gene na planta pode acarretar efeitos ecológicos adversos à microbiota do solo e da rizosfera. Em casa-de-vegetação, a comunidade bacteriana associada ao algodão Bt foi comparada a do algodão convencional, em dois tipos de solos e quatro estádios fenológicos. Amostras de rizosfera foram avaliadas por técnicas dependentes e ind...

  13. Suero autólogo al 50 % en las queratitis bacterianas

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    Arelys Ariocha Cambas Andreu

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el comportamiento de las queratitis bacterianas con el tratamiento coadyuvante de suero autólogo tópico al 50 %. Métodos: estudio comparativo, longitudinal y prospectivo. La muestra estuvo constituida por 60 pacientes, divididos de forma aleatoria en dos grupos: A utilizó tratamiento antibiótico convencional y suero autólogo y B utilizó solo tratamiento antibiótico convencional (cefazolina y amikacina. Los datos almacenados se procesaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 15. Las variables se expresaron según sus respectivas medidas de resumen y para la comparación de las terapias se aplicaron pruebas de hipótesis, con un nivel de confianza del 95 % y de error inferior al 0,05 %. Resultados: predominaron en los aislamientos microbiológicos Staphylococcus y Pseudomonas; seguidas por los Streptococcus, gonococos y enterobacterias. En cuanto al tiempo de aparición de los signos que favorecen la cicatrización corneal y la respuesta terapéutica, encontramos que con la aplicación tópica del suero autólogo, en casi dos tercios de los pacientes, estos se manifestaron a partir de la segunda semana de tratamiento y se obtuvo una respuesta terapéutica favorable. Conclusiones: El suero autólogo al 50 % resulta ser un complemento terapéutico efectivo en el manejo de las queratitis infecciosas de etiología bacteriana.

  14. Nuevos métodos bacteriológicos para detectar y evitar la resistencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ordoñez-Smith de Danies

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    DEFINICIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA

    De acuerdo al COC (Centro de Control de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos, la resistencia se da cuando un medicamento deja de inhibir el crecimiento o matar un microorganismo. 

    Hay dos tipos de resistencia la adquirida y la clínica. La adquirida se realiza en el laboratorio a través de las mutaciones o por transferencia de genes, sistemas de conjugación, transducción y transformación.

    La resistencia clínica es la observada en la práctica médica, donde no todos los organismos son igualmente sensibles o resistentes a cierto antibiótico y que requiere la ayuda de técnicas de laboratorio para medir cuantitativamente o cualitativamente dicho proceso.

    MECANISMOS DE LA RESISTENCIA BACTERIANA

    En la detección de la Resistencia Bacteriana se han identificado diferentes mecanismos utilizados por las bacterias: destrucción o inactivación enzimática, cambios en la permeabilidad de la membrana interna, alteraciones de los precursores de la pared celular, de la membrana y de los ribosomas.

    Para los años 90 se dispuso de una serie de antimicrobianos como betalactámicos, aminoglucósidos, macrólidos, sulfonamidas, trimetoprim, cloranfenicol, glicopéptidos, rifampicina, quinolonas, tetraciclinas....

     

  15. Correlación entre pH salival y caries dental en pacientes con Síndrome de Down que acuden a la Fundación Asistencial Armada Nacional, Guayaquil, Ecuador-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Contero Mejia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca determinar la correlación entre pH salival y caries dental en pacientes con Síndrome de Down que acuden a la Fundación Asistencial Armada Nacional (FASAN-Guayaquil. Materiales y métodos: Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en pacientes Síndrome de Down con una muestra de 58 individuos entre las edades de 4 a 25 años de ambos géneros. Se realizó la medición del pH salival a través de tiras indicadoras de pH colocadas sublingualmente, diagnóstico de caries dental, índice de placa dental y encuestas de hábitos dietéticos a padres. Se observó que los pacientes con síndrome de Down, tuvieron un pH salival inicial neutro con un 50% pero sin gran diferencia al pH salival ácido con un 43%, al contrario el pH salival que se tomó después de 10 minutos de la ingesta de bebidas azucaradas, prevaleció el pH ácido con un 83% teniendo relación con la cantidad de caries encontradas en la muestra dentro de los rangos (bajo riesgo de caries 57% y moderado 22% y placa dental presente en un 59% con nivel 2 de placa dental. Encontramos más frecuente el riesgo de caries en el sexo masculino con 59% y el rango de edad más afectado fue de 12 a 18 años. Existe una estrecha relación entre el pH salival ácido y la caries presentes en boca ya que se encontró que todos los pacientes padecían de caries dental con una prevalencia entre los rangos bajo y moderado riego de caries, con un alto nivel de placa dental (nivel 2 de placa dental debiéndose principalmente a la poca higiene bucal por parte de ellos y sus familiares.

  16. Association between Folic Acid and Zinc Concentration with Incidence of Bacterial Vaginosis in The First Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroyono Wibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV in pregnancy is associated with the increase of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor. One of the multifactorial causes of BV is thechange in vaginal immunity. Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiency, increases the vulnerability toinfections. This study aim to investigate the association between folic acid and zinc concentration with theincidence of bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional studyinvolved 139 mothers with first trimester pregnancy, aged between 17-39 years old. The study was conductedat dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from September 2013 until August 2014. Vaginal secretions was sampledto diagnose BV under nugent criteria. Folic acid and zinc in the serum were measured. From 139 subject,18.7% (n=26 were found to be BV positive (nugent score =7. No deficiency of folic acid (<7 ng/mL and40.3% (n=56 of zinc deficiency (<60  µg/dL were found. Bivariate analysis used Kruskal-Wallis test betweenfolic acid and zinc concentration with BV incidence gives p value of 0.668 and 0.478 respectively. Prevalenceof BV in this study was 18.7%. The relation between the maternal statuses of folic acid with BV in the firsttrimester of pregnancy was not found. Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, folic acid, zinc, pregnancy.   Hubungan antara Kadar Asam Folat dan Seng terhadap KejadianVaginosis Bakteri pada Trimester Pertama Kehamilan Abstrak Bakterial vaginosis (BV pada kehamilan dihubungkan dengan meningkatnya luaran maternal yang buruk seperti ketuban pecah dini dan persalinan prematur. Penyebab BV multifaktor salah satunya adalahperubahan imunitas di vagina. Malnutrisi termasuk defisiensi mikronutrien meningkatkan kerentananterhadap infeksi. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar asam folat dan seng terhadapkejadian vaginosis bakteri pada trimester pertama kehamilan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi

  17. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Low

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I(2 values 0.0%-16.1%. Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.83, insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.71, and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47. Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001 or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001, respectively.This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase

  18. Risk of bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection among new users of combined hormonal contraception vs LNG-IUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Mohamed; Sayyed, Tarek; Masood, Alaa; Dawood, Ragab

    2017-10-01

    The study assessed the risk of bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection among new users of either a combined oral contraceptive pill (COC) or the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). This prospective observational study included 430 women, without active vaginitis at inclusion, who were divided into two groups according to their chosen method of contraception: COC group (n = 236) and LNG-IUS group (n = 194). Participants were examined for bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis and C. albicans infection initially and then at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the start of contraceptive use. Data were collected and statistically analysed. The rates of acquisition of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis and C. albicans infection during follow-up were significantly increased and comparable between the groups (p 25 kg/m2, history of bacterial vaginosis, history of sexually transmitted infection, vaginal douching more than five times per week and coital frequency more than five times per week were strong risk factors for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis during the follow-up period (p vaginalis and C. albicans infections, which is greatest during initial use of the method but which improves over time.

  19. Cuerpos de inclusión, células bacterianas y composiciones que los contienen y sus usos

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde Corrales, Antonio Pedro; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; Díez Gil, César; García Fruitós, Elena; Ratera Bastardas, Inmaculada; Veciana Miró, Jaume

    2008-01-01

    Cuerpos de inclusión, células bacterianas y composiciones que los contienen y sus usos. La presente invención se refiere a un cuerpo de inclusión aislado que comprende un polipéptido caracterizado porque el cuerpo da inclusión está en forma particulada. La presente invención también se refiere a una célula bacteriana que comprenda dicho cuerpo de inclusión. La presente invención se refiere además a una composición que comprende dicho cuerpo de inclusión y una célula eu...

  20. Administração endovenosa de antibióticos e resistência bacteriana: responsabilidade da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso da terapêutica com antibióticos e o desenvolvimento da resistência bacteriana dependem de diversos fatores, sendo que os relacionados ao cuidado de enfermagem são o seu preparo e a sua administração. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre falhas na administração de antibióticos analisando sua possível influência na resistência bacteriana. Delineamento: realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica das fontes do LILACS e Medline. Métodos: realizada revisão bibliográfica sistematizada com pesquisa de artigos de 1994 a 2005 na Internet usando-se os seguintes descritores juntamente com enfermagem: resistência bacteriana, controle de antibióticos, infecções hospitalares, administração de medicamentos, erros de medicações e eventos adversos. Foram selecionados 58 artigos que apresentaram correlação com a enfermagem e/ou eram básicos na fundamentação brasileira ou internacional. Resultados: Foram descritos aspectos gerais sobre a resistência bacteriana, antibióticos e custos incluindo estratégias para prevenção da resistência e classificações de erros utilizadas internacionalmente. Conclusões: Baseado nesse conhecimento são recomendadas intervenções para implementação do cuidado de enfermagem prático e seguro.

  1. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

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    Charlene W. J. Africa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, António; Castro, Joana; Cereija, Tatiana; Almeida, Carina; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 64.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6-99.4%]), demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis.

  3. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Machado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI, from 64.3 to 95.0% and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6–99.4%], demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis.

  5. Mycoplasma hominis and Gardnerella vaginalis display a significant synergistic relationship in bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Watt, A P; McKenna, J P; Coyle, P V

    2016-03-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis plays an important role in bacterial vaginosis (BV,) while the role of genital Mollicutes is less obvious. The diagnosis of BV by use of the current Gram stain Nugent score is also suboptimal for defining the role of Mollicutes that lack a cell wall. Since bacterial load and diversity is an important prerequisite for BV, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays enable these to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to define the role of genital Mollicutes and potential patterns of synergy with G. vaginalis in women with BV. Vaginal swabs from 130 women categorised by Nugent score as BV (n = 28), intermediate (n = 22) and non-BV (n = 80) were tested against four qPCR TaqMan assays targeting G. vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum. Statistical analyses were used to compare bacterial prevalence and load between the three groups of women. Mycoplasma hominis and G. vaginalis co-infection was significantly more common in BV (60.7 %) compared to intermediate (36.4 %) and non-BV (8.8 %) Nugent scores (p vaginalis (p vaginalis co-infections displayed a significant positive correlation (p vaginalis. This synergy could be an important trigger of the condition and sexual contact the conduit for the transmission of an otherwise commensal bacterium that could initiate it.

  6. Antagonism and synergism in Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G S; Soares-Brandão, K L K; Branco, K M G R; Sampaio, J L M; Nardi, R M D; Mendonça, M; Almeida, R B; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R; Nicoli, J R

    2010-08-01

    Antagonistic and synergistic substances are important for interactions between micro-organisms associated with human body surfaces, either in healthy or in diseased conditions. In the present study, such compounds produced by Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) were detected in vitro and the antagonistic ones were partially characterized. Among 11 G. vaginalis strains tested, all showed antagonistic activity against at least one of the 22 indicator bacteria assayed. Interestingly, for some of these strains, antagonism reverted to synergism, favouring one of the indicator strains (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius) when the growth medium was changed. Partial characterization of antagonistic substances suggested a bacteriocin-like chemical nature. Depending on growth conditions, G. vaginalis isolated from women with BV produced antagonistic or synergistic compounds for other bacterial components of the vaginal ecosystem. This is the first report to our knowledge of the production of antagonistic and/or synergistic substances by G. vaginalis. This ability may be a pivotal factor in understanding BV and the ecological role of this bacterium in the vaginal environment.

  7. Rapid and Profound Shifts in the Vaginal Microbiota Following Antibiotic Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fiedler, Tina L; Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Fredricks, David N; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common polymicrobial disease associated with numerous negative reproductive health outcomes, including an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. BV is treatable with antibiotics, but relapse is common. A more detailed understanding of bacterial dynamics during antibiotic therapy for BV could identify conditions that favor establishment, maintenance, and eradication of BV-associated bacterial species, thereby improving treatment outcomes. We used mathematical models to analyze daily quantitative measurements of 11 key bacterial species during metronidazole treatment for 15 cases of BV. We identified complete reorganization of vaginal bacterial composition within a day of initiating therapy. Although baseline bacterial levels predicted a longer time to clearance, all anaerobic species were eliminated rapidly within a median of 3 days. However, reemergence of BV-associated species was common following treatment cessation. Gardnerella vaginalis, a facultative anaerobe, was cleared more slowly than anaerobic BV-associated species, and levels of G. vaginalis often rebounded during treatment. We observed gradual Lactobacillus species growth, indicating that untargeted microbes fill the transient vacuum formed during treatment. Under antibiotic pressure, the human microbiome can undergo rapid shifts on a scale of hours. When treatment is stopped, BV-associated bacteria quickly reemerge, suggesting a possible role for intermittent prophylactic treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Temporal Variability of Human Vaginal Bacteria and Relationship with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Liu, Congzhou; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fredricks, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about short-term bacterial fluctuations in the human vagina. This study used PCR to assess the variability in concentrations of key vaginal bacteria in healthy women and the immediate response to antibiotic treatment in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-two women assessed for BV using Amsel's criteria were evaluated daily for 7 or 14 days, then at 2, 3 and 4 weeks, using a panel of 11 bacterium-specific quantitative PCR assays. Participants with BV were treated with 5 days of intravaginal metronidazole. Participants without BV had vaginal biotas dominated by lactobacilli, whose levels fluctuated with menses. With onset of menstruation, quantities of Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus crispatus decreased and were found to be inversely related to Gardnerella vaginalis concentrations (pvaginalis were observed during menses. Participants with BV have diverse communities of fastidious bacteria that are depleted by vaginal metronidazole therapy. Women with recurrent BV initially respond to antibiotic treatment with steep declines in bacterial concentrations, but these bacteria later reemerge, suggesting that antibiotic resistance in these bacteria is not an important factor mediating BV recurrence. PMID:20419168

  9. Role of Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebke, Jane R; Muzny, Christina A; Josey, William E

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge and is associated with important public health complications such as preterm birth and acquisition or transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections. Continued controversy concerning the pathogenesis of BV has led to a lack of progress in prevention and management of this infection. Development of a conceptual model for the pathogenesis of BV based on review of past and current research. Our model suggests that BV is initiated by the sexual transmission of Gardnerella vaginalis, which has the appropriate virulence factors to adhere to host epithelium, create a biofilm community, and successfully compete with lactobacilli for dominance in the vaginal environment. The genetic diversity of G. vaginalis may result in virulent and avirulent strains. Symbiotic relationships with normally dormant vaginal anaerobes lead to increases in the latter which contribute to the symptoms of BV. G. vaginalis is the pathogen responsible for the initiation of BV. Future research should focus on preventing its transmission and improved therapeutics for the biofilm infection that is caused by this pathogen and host anaerobes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Extravaginal Reservoirs of Vaginal Bacteria as Risk Factors for Incident Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Thomas, Katherine K.; Liu, Congzhou; Ko, Daisy; Xie, Hu; Saracino, Misty; Fredricks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. Although antibiotics relieve symptoms and temporarily eradicate BV-associated bacteria (BVAB), BV usually recurs. We investigated the role of extravaginal BVAB reservoirs in recurrence. Methods Risks for BV acquisition over the course of 1 year were defined. DNA in vaginal, anal, and oral swab samples from enrollment was subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Gardnerella vaginalis, Lactobacillus crispatus, BVAB1, BVAB2, BVAB3, Megasphaera spp., Lactobacillus jensenii, and Leptotrichia/Sneathia spp. A case-control approach analyzed BVAB detection at enrollment for case patients (BV acquisition) versus controls (none). Results Of 239 women enrolled without BV, 199 were seen in follow-up, and 40 experienced BV; 15 had all samples for analysis. Detection of G. vaginalis in oral cavity or anal samples and Leptotrichia/Sneathia spp. in anal samples was more common at enrollment among case patients, who also had higher concentrations of these bacteria and Megasphaera relative to 30 controls at each site. In contrast, L. crispatus was detected more frequently in anal samples among controls. Conclusions Women who acquire BV are more likely have previous colonization of extravaginal reservoirs with some BVAB, and less likely to have L. crispatus, suggesting that BVAB may be acquired vaginally from extravaginal reservoirs. PMID:22448002

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and vaginolysin in Gardnerella vaginalis from healthy and bacterial vaginosis diagnosed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp de Souza, Daniele Maria; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo; Filho, Didier Silveira Castellano; Andrade de Oliveira, Laura Maria; Coelho, Débora Martins; Talha, Luciana De Souza; Nascimento, Thiago César do; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra Barbosa; Silva, Vânia Lúcia da

    2016-09-30

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a syndrome related to Gardnerella vaginalis and is characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota. This work focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the occurrence of the vaginolysin (vly) gene in G. vaginalis isolated from BV and non-BV patients. The vaginal secretions were collected randomly and processed for G. vaginalis isolation. The isolates were presumptively identified by β-hemolysis and oxidase and catalase tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm bacterial identity and to detect the vly gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined. Of 89 patients, G. vaginalis was isolated from 42 (37 BV and 5 non-BV), and 204 isolates were selected (179 from BV and 25 non-BV). The vly gene was detected in all G. vaginalis isolated from non-BV women and in 98.3% of the bacteria from BV patients. High resistance was observed for ampicillin (54.4%), metronidazole (59.8%), tinidazole (60.3%) and secnidazole (71.6%). Further studies are needed to better address the role of G. vaginalis and the vly gene in BV pathogenesis.

  12. Influence of Biofilm Formation by Gardnerella vaginalis and Other Anaerobes on Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, António; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-12-15

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the worldwide leading vaginal disorder among women of reproductive age. BV is characterized by the replacement of beneficial lactobacilli and the augmentation of anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant bacterial species, but BV is also associated with other numerous anaerobes, such as Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptoniphilus species. Currently, the role of G. vaginalis in the etiology of BV remains a matter of controversy. However, it is known that, in patients with BV, a biofilm is usually formed on the vaginal epithelium and that G. vaginalis is typically the predominant species. So, the current paradigm is that the establishment of a biofilm plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BV. This review provides background on the influence of biofilm formation by G. vaginalis and other anaerobes, from the time of their initial adhesion until biofilm formation, in the polymicrobial etiology of BV and discusses the commensal and synergic interactions established between them to understand the phenotypic shift of G. vaginalis biofilm formation to BV establishment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Janulaitiene, Migle; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is considered a substantial player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We analysed 17 G. vaginalis strains isolated from the genital tract of women diagnosed with BV to establish a potential link between genotypes/biotypes and the expression of virulence factors, vaginolysin (VLY) and sialidase, which are assumed to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BV. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed two G. vaginalis genotypes. Gardnerella vaginalis isolates of genotype 2 appeared more complex than genotype 1 and were subdivided into three subtypes. Biochemical typing allowed us to distinguish four different biotypes. A great diversity of the level of VLY production among the isolates of G. vaginalis may be related to a different cytotoxicity level of the strains. We did not find any correlation between VLY production level and G. vaginalis genotype/biotype. In contrast, a link between G. vaginalis genotype and sialidase production was established. Our findings on the diversity of VLY expression level in different clinical isolates and linking sialidase activity with the genotype of G. vaginalis could help to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different G. vaginalis strains. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and bacterial vaginosis presence in cervical samples from Paraguayan indigenous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelos, Pamela; Mendoza, Laura Patricia; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Gimenez, Graciela; Araujo, Patricia; Paez, Malvina; Castro, Wilberto; Basiletti, Jorge; González, Joaquín; Echagüe, Gloria; Diaz, Valentina; Laspina, Florentina; Ever, Santiago; Marecos, Ramón; Deluca, Gerardo; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    To determine the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and to assess bacterial vaginosis (BV) possible associations with cervical infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. HPV typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with primers PGMY 09/11 followed by reverse line hybridization. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent criteria using the results from a Gram stain smear. Sixteen percent of women were positive for at least one high risk HPV type (HR-HPV). The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (4.4%), followed by HPV 58 (3.3%), HPV 45 (3.3%), HPV 53 (2.8%) and HPV 11 (2.8%). A significant association between HR-HPV and BV was observed (p=0.01). In addition, women with BV had a higher frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (p=0.0007), Trichomonas vaginalis (p=0.00009), Mycoplasma hominis (p=0.001). A large variety of HPV genotypes was detected and showed a slightly different pattern from previous studies on urban women in Paraguay, with the predominance of HR-HPV. Furthermore, the information of co-infections involved in BV could be useful for the improvement of national prevention programs, as well as for laboratory surveillance of these genital infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Segmentation, Splitting, and Classification of Overlapping Bacteria in Microscope Images for Automatic Bacterial Vaginosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youyi; He, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Siping; Ni, Dong; Lei, Baiying; Wang, Tianfu

    2017-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of bacterial morphotypes in the microscope images plays a vital role in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on the Nugent score criterion. However, there are two main challenges for this task: 1) It is quite difficult to identify the bacterial regions due to various appearance, faint boundaries, heterogeneous shapes, low contrast with the background, and small bacteria sizes with regards to the image. 2) There are numerous bacteria overlapping each other, which hinder us to conduct accurate analysis on individual bacterium. To overcome these challenges, we propose an automatic method in this paper to diagnose BV by quantitative analysis of bacterial morphotypes, which consists of a three-step approach, i.e., bacteria regions segmentation, overlapping bacteria splitting, and bacterial morphotypes classification. Specifically, we first segment the bacteria regions via saliency cut, which simultaneously evaluates the global contrast and spatial weighted coherence. And then Markov random field model is applied for high-quality unsupervised segmentation of small object. We then decompose overlapping bacteria clumps into markers, and associate a pixel with markers to identify evidence for eventual individual bacterium splitting. Next, we extract morphotype features from each bacterium to learn the descriptors and to characterize the types of bacteria using an Adaptive Boosting machine learning framework. Finally, BV diagnosis is implemented based on the Nugent score criterion. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed method achieves high accuracy and efficiency in computation for BV diagnosis.

  16. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Gözde; Demirezen, Şayeste; Dönmez, Hanife Güler; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5%) of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30) and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31). BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P recurrent pregnancy losses (P > 0.05). These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77%) of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks) and 14 (23%) of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks). There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05). BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.

  17. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5% of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30 and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31. BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P 0.05. These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77% of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks and 14 (23% of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks. There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05. Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.

  18. Eficacia de cinco desinfectantes para la reducción bacteriana doméstica

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    Julián Stambullian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso adecuado de hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán ha demostrado ser eficaz para eliminar gérmenes dentro del hogar. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia inmediata, a la semana y al mes del uso controlado de cinco productos con estos componentes, comparados con otros productos de uso habitual. Se incluyeron 32 hogares de clase media de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la periferia en un estudio con intervención, abierto, aleatorizado, y de grupos paralelos, durante 6 meses. La mitad de los hogares fue seleccionada para usar hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán en la cocina y el baño durante un mes. El grupo control mantuvo prácticas habituales de limpieza doméstica. Se tomaron muestras para recuento y tipificación bacteriana de los sitios estudiados: muestras basales (sin discriminación de grupo en cocina, que presentaron recuento bacteriano promedio de 66.0 UFC/cm²; baño: 40.1 UFC/cm². Las muestras inmediatas a la limpieza (sin discriminación de grupo: en cocina: 0.8 UFC/cm²; baño: <1 UFC/cm². A la semana (grupo intervenido vs. grupo control: cocina 18.0 vs. 32.5 UFC/cm²; baño 12.7 vs. 7.7 UFC/cm². Al mes (intervenido vs. control: cocina: 60.1 vs. 62.1 UFC/cm²; baño: 37.0 vs. 42.0 UFC/cm². Se observó una notable disminución de la carga bacteriana en ambos grupos, lo que sugiere que no sólo la calidad de los productos sino también la educación en el uso desempeñan un papel clave en la desinfección del hogar. Este enfoque podría ser una herramienta importante para prevenir infecciones transmitidas por alimentos, dado que los coliformes fecales predominaron ampliamente en todas las muestras tipificadas.

  19. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO

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    EDINSON ANDRÉS ACOSTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y so- cioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como "vulnerable" y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 106 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >105 ufc mL-1 . El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia.

  20. Few microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis may constitute the pathologic core: a population-based microbiologic study among 3596 pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, P; Jensen, I P; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks......) between the microorganisms isolated from the lower genital tract in pregnant women with and without clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred ninety-six (3596) pregnant women were asked to participate. Of the 3596 pregnant women 3174 (88.4%) agreed to participate...

  1. Infecções bacterianas tratadas com Ro 6-2580

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. A. Lopes

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available Nova combinação medicamentosa composta de sulfametoxazól e trimetoprim ("Bactrim", com efeito bactericida sobre germes Gram negativos e Gram positivos, foi ensaiada no tratamento de 15 casos de salmonelose e 9 casos de infecções bacterianas. Os resultados foram favoráveis, tanto nas salmoneloses, como em infecções por estafilococos, shigelas, pneumococos e coliformes. A remissão do estado tóxico nos casos de febre tifóide foi observada dentro de 48 horas, e o tempo médio para desaparecimento da febre e demais sintomas, nessa infecção, foi de 3 dias. Foram constatados efeitos secundários em alguns pacientes, tais como hipertermia medicamentosa, farmacodermia, vômitos, linfomonocitose e eosinofilia, possivelmente relacionados a posologia excessiva, e todos remissíveis. Os autores concluem pela utilidade do novo medicamento na terapêutica de salmoneloses, estafilococcias e outras infecções.

  2. A RIFAMPICINA NA DESCONTAMINAÇÃO BACTERIANA DE EXPLANTES DE MAMOEIRO PROVENIENTES DO CAMPO

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    GIOVANNI RODRIGUES VIANNA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se alta contaminação bacteriana nos explantes de mamoeiro introduzidos in vitro, a partir de plantas matrizes desenvolvidas no campo, independentemente da época do ano em que se realizaram as coletas. O uso de desinfestantes superficiais, como álcool e hipoclorito de sódio, garantiram níveis aceitáveis de controle apenas para fungos, não para bactérias. A rifampicina, por tratamento de imersão ou introdução em meio de cultura, controlou satisfatoriamente as contaminações de caráter endofítico, obtendo-se 70% de explantes sadios, sem sinais de fitotoxicidade.High contamination by bacteria was observed in papaya tissue cuttings introduced in vitro from plants grown in the field, independent of the period of the year that samples were collected. The use of alcohol and sodium hypoclorite did not guarantee good bacteria control. Rifampicin, added as an immersion solution treatment or in the culture media, controlled the internal contamination of explants, without damaging the cuttings. Up to 70% of healthy tissue explants were obtained by the use of rifampicin.

  3. Women's Management of Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis and Experiences of Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study.

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    Jade Bilardi

    Full Text Available Few data are available on how women manage recurring bacterial vaginosis (BV and their experiences of the clinical care of this condition. This study aimed to explore women's recurrent BV management approaches and clinical care experiences, with a view to informing and improving the clinical management of BV.A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty-five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past 5 years took part in semi-structured interviews.The majority of women reported frustration and dissatisfaction with current treatment regimens and low levels of satisfaction with the clinical management of BV. Overall, women disliked taking antibiotics regularly, commonly experienced adverse side effects from treatment and felt frustrated at having symptoms recur quite quickly after treatment. Issues in clinical care included inconsistency in advice, misdiagnosis and inappropriate diagnostic approaches and insensitive or dismissive attitudes. Women were more inclined to report positive clinical experiences with sexual health physicians than primary care providers. Women's frustrations led most to try their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications in an attempt to treat symptoms and prevent recurrences, including well-known risk practices such as douching.In the face of considerable uncertainty about the cause of BV, high rates of recurrence, unacceptable treatment options and often insensitive and inconsistent clinical management, women are trying their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications to prevent recurrences, often with little effect. Clinical management of BV could be improved through the use of standardised diagnostic approaches, increased sensitivity and understanding of the impact of BV, and the provision of evidence based advice about known BV related risk factors.

  4. Diaphragm Used with Replens Gel and Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Craig R. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been linked to female HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the effect of providing a latex diaphragm with Replens and condoms compared to condom only on BV prevalence among participants enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Methods. We enrolled HIV-seronegative women and obtained a vaginal swab for diagnosis of BV using Nugent’s criteria; women with BV (score 7–10 were compared to those with intermediate (score 4–6 and normal flora (score 0–3. During quarterly follow-up visits over 12–24 months a vaginal Gram stain was obtained. The primary outcome was serial point prevalence of BV during followup. Results. 528 participants were enrolled; 213 (40% had BV at enrollment. Overall, BV prevalence declined after enrollment in women with BV at baseline (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.29–.56 but did not differ by intervention group. In the intention-to-treat analysis BV prevalence did not differ between the intervention and control groups for women who had BV (OR=1.01, 95% CI 0.52–1.94 or for those who did not have BV (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.65–2.27 at enrollment. Only 2.1% of participants were treated for symptomatic BV and few women (5–16% were reported using anything else but water to cleanse the vagina over the course of the trial. Conclusions. Provision of the diaphragm, Replens, and condoms did not change the risk of BV in comparison to the provision of condoms alone.

  5. Findings associated with recurrence of bacterial vaginosis among adolescents attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics

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    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Erbelding, Emily J.; Jamshidi, Roxanne M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection and has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and acquisition and transmission of HIV. There are limited data on recurrent BV in adolescents. A relationship between the frequency of BV recurrence and specific risk factors might shed light on the pathophysiology of BV and lead to targeted interventions. Methods Design: Record-based historical clinic study. Setting: Adolescent visits to two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics between 1990-2002. Participants: 254 girls who had ≥ 2 episodes of BV and at least 3 clinical visits, matched on clinic attendance frequency to 254 girls with only 1 documented BV episode and 254 girls with no history of BV. Main outcome measure: Risk factor differences between groups. Analysis: Multinomial logistic regression with robust estimator of the standard errors, accounting for repeated measures. Results 5,977 adolescent girls visited the clinics. 1509 (25%) had at least one episode of BV; of those, 303 (19.9%) had 2 or more BV episodes. Girls with a history of 1 BV episode and girls with a history of 2 or more BV episodes were more likely to be infected with Trichomonas vaginalis [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.17-2.67, OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34] and be diagnosed with PID [OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22, OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.41-2.98] compared to girls with no BV history, respectively. Girls with a history of BV were also more likely to report active oral sex and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusion Adolescent girls who attend STD clinics have a high prevalence of BV. Although the association between BV and PID is not clearly causal, when one condition is diagnosed, evaluation and counseling for the other may reduce recurrence and sequelae. PMID:17673134

  6. The complex vaginal flora of West African women with bacterial vaginosis.

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    Jacques Pépin

    Full Text Available The spectrum of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV has recently expanded through taxonomic changes and the use of molecular methods. These methods have yet to be used in large-scale epidemiological studies in Africa where BV is highly prevalent.An analysis of samples obtained during a clinical trial of the management of vaginal discharge in four West African countries. Samples were available from 1555 participants; 843 (54% had BV. Nucleic acids of 13 bacterial genera or species potentially associated with BV were detected through the polymerase chain reaction.The associations between various components of the vaginal flora were complex. Excluding Lactobacillus, the other 12 micro-organisms were all associated with each other at the p≤0.001 level. The prevalence of various bacterial genera or species varied according to age, sexual activity and HIV status. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera elsdenii, Dialister, Mycoplasma hominis, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella were independently associated with BV as was the absence of Lactobacillus and Peptoniphilus. However, Mobiluncus, Atopobium vaginae, Anaerococcus, and Eggerthella were not independently associated with BV. Unexpectedly, after treatment with a regimen that included either metronidazole or tinidazole, the proportion of patients with a complete resolution of symptoms by day 14 increased with the number of bacterial genera or species present at enrolment.Numerous bacterial genera or species were strongly associated with each other in a pattern that suggested a symbiotic relationship. BV cases with a simpler flora were less likely to respond to treatment. Overall, the vaginal flora of West African women with BV was reminiscent of that of their counterparts in industrialized countries.

  7. Temporal variability of human vaginal bacteria and relationship with bacterial vaginosis.

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    Sujatha Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Little is known about short-term bacterial fluctuations in the human vagina. This study used PCR to assess the variability in concentrations of key vaginal bacteria in healthy women and the immediate response to antibiotic treatment in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV.Twenty-two women assessed for BV using Amsel's criteria were evaluated daily for 7 or 14 days, then at 2, 3 and 4 weeks, using a panel of 11 bacterium-specific quantitative PCR assays. Participants with BV were treated with 5 days of intravaginal metronidazole. Participants without BV had vaginal biotas dominated by lactobacilli, whose levels fluctuated with menses. With onset of menstruation, quantities of Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus crispatus decreased and were found to be inversely related to Gardnerella vaginalis concentrations (p<0.001. Women with BV had a variety of fastidious bacteria whose concentrations dropped below detection thresholds 1-5 days after starting metronidazole. Recurrent BV was characterized by initial profound decreases of BV-associated bacteria after treatment followed by subsequent increases at relapse.The microbiota of the human vagina can be highly dynamic. Healthy women are colonized with Lactobacillus species, but levels can change dramatically over a month. Marked increases in G. vaginalis were observed during menses. Participants with BV have diverse communities of fastidious bacteria that are depleted by vaginal metronidazole therapy. Women with recurrent BV initially respond to antibiotic treatment with steep declines in bacterial concentrations, but these bacteria later reemerge, suggesting that antibiotic resistance in these bacteria is not an important factor mediating BV recurrence.

  8. Women's satisfaction with an intravaginal Lactobacillus capsule for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

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    Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Cook, Robert L; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Murray, Pamela J; Busse, Barbara; Krohn, Marijane; Hillier, Sharon L

    2006-11-01

    To assess women's satisfaction with a vaginal capsule containing human-derived, H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus crispatus at completion of a randomized, placebo-controlled study for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Women aged 14-35 years with BV were randomized to Lactobacillus or placebo intravaginal capsule twice daily for 3 days monthly for 3 months. Attitudes were assessed with a standardized scale at the final follow-up visit, and associations of satisfaction with clinical and gram stain cure of BV were determined. Four hundred twenty-four women were randomized at enrollment, and 232 (55%) provided data on satisfaction at the final visit. Overall, satisfaction with the capsule was high and was independent of subjects' race, age, and prior history of BV. Report of satisfaction with the capsule, belief that it contained healthy bacteria, and belief that its use improved vaginal health were directly related to clinical cure and to improved Nugent score. Except for women who had BV at the final follow-up visit, most subjects believed that the capsule contained healthy bacteria independent of any outcome reflecting cure. Willingness to use the capsule again was not significantly related to whether subjects experienced clinical cure or normalization of Nugent score at either visit. Adverse effects were rare and were largely related to a perceived difference in vaginal discharge. Satisfaction with an intravaginal capsule and positive beliefs about its use for BV treatment were prevalent, especially among women with a clinical and microbiological response to BV therapy. However, most women expressed willingness to use the product again regardless of clinical response. Acceptability of and interest in alternative BV treatments, such as L. crispatus intravaginal applications, are high.

  9. Association of Bacterial Vaginosis With Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Among Women in the U.S. Army.

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    Bautista, Christian T; Wurapa, Eyako K; Sateren, Warren B; Morris, Sara M; Hollingsworth, Bruce P; Sanchez, Jose L

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal condition in women of reproductive age, which has been associated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among commercial sex workers and women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics. Pathogen-specific associations between BV and other sexually transmitted infections among U.S. military women have not been investigated. A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted of all incident chlamydia and gonorrhea cases reported to the Defense Medical Surveillance System during 2006-2012. Using a density sampling approach, for each chlamydia or gonorrhea case, 10 age-matched (±1 year) controls were randomly selected from those women who were never diagnosed with these infections. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Statistical analysis was carried out in December 2015. A total of 37,149 chlamydia cases and 4,987 gonorrhea cases were identified during the study period. Antecedent BV was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chlamydia (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.51; 95% CI=1.47, 1.55) and gonorrhea (adjusted incidence rate ratio=2.42; 95% CI=2.27, 2.57) infections. For every one additional episode of BV, the risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea infections increased by 13% and 26%, respectively. A monotonic dose-response relationship was also noted between antecedent BV and subsequent chlamydia and gonorrhea infection. In addition, an effect modification on the additive scale was found between BV and African-American race for gonorrhea, but not for chlamydia. Among U.S. Army women, antecedent BV is associated with an increased risk of subsequent chlamydia and gonorrhea infection. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical features of bacterial vaginosis in a murine model of vaginal infection with Gardnerella vaginalis.

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    Gilbert, Nicole M; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications.

  11. [Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis - a 3-year study in four medical centers].

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    Gergova, R; Tosheva, K; Shtereva, M; Iordanova, Tz; Konsulova, V; Petrova-Jerova, A; Mitov, I; Ilieva, T; Strateva, T

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common infection of the lower genital tract among women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV and the important etiological agent Gardnerella vaginalis in Bulgarian patients of different age groups, as well as, the risk factors forBV METHODS: One thousand five hundred and twenty-three (1523) women aged 16 to 45 years without previous antimicrobial therapy were included in this study. The methods used were: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for G. vaginalis. Positive for BV according to the microscopic examination criteria were 47.80% from the 1523 tested women. In 88.87% from the positive samples G. vaginalis was detected using PCR, thus demonstrating high comparability of the both methods and the leading role of G. vaginalis. The most affected with BV is the age group of 21-25 years (33.21% of all subjects with BV). The most important detected risk factors were: smoking (more than 55% with BV), single marital status (only 15% with BV are married), more than I sexual partner (more than 36% had changed the sexual partner), early onset of sexual activity (75% of B V asocciated subjects started their sexual activity by the age 15-18 years). The established early age for aquiring BV among Bulgarian women is very important and alarming sign. This is the first study on the etiological role of G. vaginalis and on the risk factors for BV in Bulgaria.

  12. Clinical features of bacterial vaginosis in a murine model of vaginal infection with Gardnerella vaginalis.

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    Nicole M Gilbert

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells. G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and

  13. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Daniela Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33–5.78], during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80–20.85] and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50–153.60]. Discussion Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  14. Molecular quantification of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae loads to predict bacterial vaginosis.

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    Menard, Jean-Pierre; Fenollar, Florence; Henry, Mireille; Bretelle, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2008-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a poorly detected public health problem that is associated with preterm delivery and for which no reliable diagnostic tool exists. Molecular analysis of 231 vaginal samples, classified by Gram stain-based Nugent score, was used to propose molecular criteria for BV; these criteria were prospectively applied to 56 new samples. A quantitative molecular tool targeting 8 BV-related microorganisms and a human gene was developed using a specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and serial dilutions of a plasmid suspension. The targeted microorganisms were Gardnerella vaginalis, Lactobacillus species, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, and Candida albicans (which can be identified by Gram staining), as well as Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum (which cannot be detected by Gram staining). With use of the Nugent score, 167 samples were classified as normal, 20 were classified as BV, and 44 were classified as intermediate. Except for U. urealyticum, M. mulieris, and Lactobacillus species, DNA of the tested bacteria was detected more frequently in samples demonstrating BV, but the predictive value of such detection was low. The molecular quantification of A. vaginae (DNA level, > or = 10(8) copies/mL) and G. vaginalis (DNA level, > or = 10(9) copies/mL) had the highest predictive value for the diagnosis of BV, with excellent sensitivity (95%), specificity (99%), and positive (95%) and negative (99%) predictive values; 25 (57%) of the samples demonstrating intermediate flora had a BV profile. When applied prospectively, our molecular criteria had total positive and negative predictive values of 96% and 99%, respectively. We report a highly reproducible, quantitative tool to objectively analyze vaginal flora that uses cutoff values for the concentrations of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis to establish the molecular diagnosis of BV.

  15. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniela; Castro, Joana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33-5.78]), during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80-20.85]) and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50-153.60]). Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  16. Factors Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis among Women Who Have Sex with Women: A Systematic Review.

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    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available Women who have sex with women (WSW have a higher burden of bacterial vaginosis (BV than heterosexual women; studies of risk factors specific to this population are limited. We summarised current knowledge regarding risk factors for BV among WSW by systematic review.This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were searched to 31st December, 2014.1 WSW included in the study population; 2 accepted BV diagnostic method; 3 investigated or could extrapolate factors(s associated with BV acquisition, persistence or transmission in WSW specifically by comparing BV positive to BV negative women. Search was limited to English-language publications.A limited number of studies have investigated BV in WSW. Of 71 unique references, 18 full-text articles were assessed and 14 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. BV was positively associated with higher numbers of female partners, both lifetime and in the three months prior to diagnosis, and confirmed BV in a female partner, but inconsistently associated with partners' BV history or symptoms. BV was not associated with ethnicity, vaginal douching or hormonal contraception. The impact of specific sexual activities, male sexual contact, smoking and the menstrual cycle varied considerably between study populations.BV in WSW is associated with increased numbers of recent and past female partners and confirmed BV in a female partner. There are limited studies of BV in WSW populations, and research is needed to further elucidate risk factors for BV among WSW. However these data provide epidemiological evidence that BV risk in women is directly related to exposure to other female partners and a partner with BV, providing support for the concept that BV is likely to be transmitted between women.CRD42014009536 (PROSPERO.

  17. Women view key sexual behaviours as the trigger for the onset and recurrence of bacterial vaginosis.

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    Jade E Bilardi

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence.Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV.103 women completed the questionnaire. Women were significantly more likely to report sexual than lifestyle factors triggered BV onset and recurrence (p<0.001. The top 3 factors women attributed to both BV onset and recurrence were identical-and all sexual. They included, in order: 1 unprotected sex; 2 sex with a new male partner; and 3 sex in general. The main lifestyle factors nominated included stress, diet, menstruation and the use of feminine hygiene products. While many women felt their BV had been transmitted through sexual contact (54% and developed as a result of sexual activity (59%, few considered BV a sexually transmitted infection (STI (10%. Despite this 57% felt partners should also be treated for BV.These data concur with our earlier qualitative findings that women believe BV is triggered by sexual activity. While many women felt BV was sexually transmitted and supported partner treatment, they did not consider BV an STI. This contradiction is likely due to information conveyed to women based on current guidelines. In the absence of highly effective BV treatments, this study highlights the need for guidelines to indicate there is scientific uncertainty around the pathogenesis of BV and to contain clear health messages regarding the evidence for practices shown to be associated with a reduced risk of BV (i.e. consistent condom use.

  18. Antiseptics and disinfectants for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: A systematic review

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    Verstraelen Hans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the available data on efficacy and tolerability of antiseptics and disinfectants in treating bacterial vaginosis (BV. Methods A systematic search was conducted by consulting PubMed (1966-2010, CINAHL (1982-2010, IPA (1970-2010, and the Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Clinical trials were searched for by the generic names of all antiseptics and disinfectants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC Classification System under the code D08A. Clinical trials were considered eligible if the efficacy of antiseptics and disinfectants in the treatment of BV was assessed in comparison to placebo or standard antibiotic treatment with metronidazole or clindamycin and if diagnosis of BV relied on standard criteria such as Amsel’s and Nugent’s criteria. Results A total of 262 articles were found, of which 15 reports on clinical trials were assessed. Of these, four randomised controlled trials (RCTs were withheld from analysis. Reasons for exclusion were primarily the lack of standard criteria to diagnose BV or to assess cure, and control treatment not involving placebo or standard antibiotic treatment. Risk of bias for the included studies was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Three studies showed non-inferiority of chlorhexidine and polyhexamethylene biguanide compared to metronidazole or clindamycin. One RCT found that a single vaginal douche with hydrogen peroxide was slightly, though significantly less effective than a single oral dose of metronidazole. Conclusion The use of antiseptics and disinfectants for the treatment of BV has been poorly studied and most studies are somehow methodologically flawed. There is insufficient evidence at present to advocate the use of these agents, although some studies suggest that some antiseptics may have equal efficacy compared to clindamycin or metronidazole. Further study is warranted with special regard to

  19. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (<50 copies/mL) vaginal viral load to determine if women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  20. Relación entre pH salival y caries dental en pacientes con síndrome de Down

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    Carolina Elizabet Barrios

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realiza con el propósito de conocer la relación entre la presencia de caries y pH salival en personas con Síndrome de Down. La muestra estuvo comprendida por dos grupos, un grupo incluyó pacientes con Síndrome de Down que asisten al Instituto Privado de Educación Especial Corrientes (IPEEC y un grupo control no portadores del síndrome, con edades comprendidas de entre 13 y 26 años, (ambos con similar distribución de edad y sexo. Los resultados obtenidos en relación al Índice Gingival arrojaron en los pacientes con síndrome de Down un valor de 2 y un 56% en el índice de O’Leary; en el grupo control el 64% obtuvo valores mayores a 1 en el Índice Gingival y un 49% en el de placa, ambos resultados no compatibles con salud. Respecto de la condición de salud bucal, en los dos grupos se obtuvieron valores del índice de caries (CPOD superiores a 4.5 considerándose elevado según la OMS. El pH en los pacientes con síndrome de Down varió entre 5 y 7, siendo el intervalo de referencia normal 6,5. Los resultados del estudio están orientados a la prevención y promoción de la Salud con la Educación y concientización de este grupo vulnerable.

  1. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis].

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    Tosun, Ilknur; Alpay Karaoğlu, Sengül; Ciftçi, Hasan; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Aydin, Faruk; Kiliç, Ali Osman; Ertürk, Murat

    2007-01-01

    As Gardnerella vaginalis is accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate, biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of G.vaginalis from the vaginal swab samples of 408 women who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Family Planning Center. Hippurate hydrolysis, lipase and beta-galactosidase tests were performed for biotyping the isolates, and agar dilution (for metronidazole) and disk diffusion (for clindamycin) tests were used for the detection of antibiotic resistance patterns. As a result, by Nugent's BV scoring protocol, 122 (29.9%), 20 (29.4%), 137 (33.6%), and 18 (4.4%) of the women were diagnosed as BV, intermediate form, normal vaginal flora (NVF) and mycotic vaginosis, respectively. The overall isolation rate of G.vaginalis was found as 23% (94/408). Of them, 56.4% (53/94) and 8.5% (8/94) were isolated from samples of BV cases and subjects with NVF, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p or =128 microg/ml in 57% of resistant strains. The data of this study has emphasized that the metronidazole resistance is very high in our population, and the large scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BV and G.vaginalis biotypes, which can be found in the normal vaginal flora.

  2. Evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (FemExam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Beryl; Morison, Linda; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Gooding, Euphemia; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Demba, Edward; Mayaud, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test. The goal was to determine the prevalence of BV and to evaluate the performance of a new commercial diagnostic test kit

  3. The effects of lactobacillus suppositories in the recovery and recur-rence of bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Soror Roozafzay

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The protective effects of lactobacillus in dealing with anaerobic patho-gens as well as the negative impact of metronidazole on lactobacillus of vaginal flora, use of lactobacillus along with metronidazole especially in patients with recurrent infec-tions is recommended. In other words, using lactobacillus with metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis is more effective than metronidazole alone.

  4. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO

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    ROMERO MAGALLY

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y socioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como “vulnerable” y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 106 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >105 ufc mL-1 . El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia.

    Palabras clave: Strombus gigas, Caracol pala, Bacteria, Región intergénica 16S-23S, rDNA 16S.

    ABSTRACT

    The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, is a species of great ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean area of Colombia

  5. BASIC study: is intravaginal boric acid non-inferior to metronidazole in symptomatic bacterial vaginosis? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeron Mullins, Melinda; Trouton, Konia M

    2015-07-26

    Bacterial vaginosis is associated with increased transmission of sexually transmitted infections, preterm labor, post-surgical infections, and endometritis. Current treatment for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis includes antibiotics, such as metronidazole, which are 70-80 % effective at one month after treatment and result in high recurrence rates and secondary candida infections. Intravaginal boric acid has been used for over a hundred years to treat vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginosis. Boric acid is inexpensive, accessible, and has shown to be an effective treatment for other infections, such as vaginal candidiasis. To date, there has been no clinical trial evaluation of boric acid effectiveness to treat bacterial vaginosis. The BASIC (Boric Acid, Alternate Solution for Intravaginal Colonization) trial is a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter study. The study will enroll a minimum of 240 women of 16-50 years of age who are symptomatic with bacterial vaginosis. Eligible participants will have Amsel and Nugent scores confirming bacterial vaginosis. Women who are pregnant or menopausal or have other active co-infections will be excluded. Consenting participants who meet exclusion and inclusion criteria will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: boric acid, metronidazole, or an inert placebo. Self-administration of treatment intravaginally for 10 days will be followed by clinical assessment at 7 and 30 days (days 17 and 40, respectively) after the end of the treatment phase. Primary outcome is a non-inferiority, per-protocol comparison of the effectiveness of boric acid with that of metronidazole at day 17, as measured by the Nugent score in 16-50 year olds. Secondary outcomes include: non-inferiority, intention-to-treat comparison of effectiveness of boric acid with that of metronidazole at day 17, analysis for both per-protocol and intention-to-treat at day 40, and safety considerations, including adverse effects requiring patient

  6. Sobre la resistencia bacteriana hacia antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática

    OpenAIRE

    Jhoana P. Romero L.; Eduardo Ibargüen Mondragón

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se formula un modelo matemático simple que describe la interacción entre bacterias sensibles y resistentes a múltiples antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática de forma simultánea, en el supuesto de que la adquisición de resistencia bacteriana se da a través de mutaciones espontáneas y adquiridas por la exposición a diferentes antibióticos. El análisis cualitativo revela la existencia de un equilibrio libre de bacterias, un equilibrio solo con ba...

  7. Expressão do gene que codifica a alanina desidrogenase bacteriana em células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Moreira Basílio, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Uma das alternativas para suprir o aumento pela demanda por etanol combustível é a engenharia metabólica de linhagens industriais de Saccharomyces cerevisiae visando o aumento do rendimento em etanol. Portanto, a deleção ou superexpressão de algumas desidrogenases pode contribuir para se alcançar este objetivo. Nesse contexto, a expressão epissomal do gene que codifica para a alanina desidrogenase bacteriana em linhagem laboratorial de S. cerevisiae resultou na diminuição da pr...

  8. Estudo prospectivo dos fatores de risco para complicações neurológicas na meningite bacteriana infantil

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    Sadie Namani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Análise prospectiva de fatores de prognóstico para complicações neurológicas da meningite bacteriana infantil. MÉTODOS: Este estudo prospectivo recrutou 77 crianças de um mês a 16 anos de idade tratadas de meningite bacteriana durante o período de 1/1/2009 a 31/12/2010. Foram escolhidos 16 preditores relevantes para analisar sua associação com a incidência de complicações neurológicas. Valores P abaixo de 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. RESULTADOS: Das 77 crianças tratadas para meningite bacteriana, desenvolveram-se complicações neurológicas em 33 pacientes (43%, e duas crianças morreram (2,6%. A etiologia dos casos de meningite bacteriana foi comprovada em 57/77 (74% dos casos: foram encontrados 32 isolados de meningococos; 8 de pneumococos; 6 de bacilos gram-negativos; 5 de H. influenzae; 5 de estafilococos e 1 de S. viridans. Os fatores que se mostraram associados a aumento do risco de desenvolvimento de complicações neurológicas foram idade 5.000 células/mm³, pleiocitose > 5.000 células/mm³ depois de 48 horas, baixa relação da glicose no LCS/sangue 48 horas, presença de comorbidade e foco primário de infecção não se associaram a aumento do risco para o desenvolvimento de complicações neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: Idade inferior a 12 meses e gravidade da apresentação clínica na admissão foram identificadas como os preditores mais fortes de complicações neurológicas e podem ter valor para selecionar pacientes para tratamento mais intensivo.

  9. Diversity of Vaginal Lactic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in 15 Algerian Pregnant Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis by using Culture Independent Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioua, Souad; Abdi, Akila; Fhoula, Imène; Bringel, Françoise; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Imene Hadda

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common lower genital tract disorder among women of reproductive age (pregnant and non-pregnant) and a better knowledge of Lactobacillus species richness in healthy and infected vaginal microbiota is needed to efficiently design better probiotic products to promote the maintenance of normal flora which will help prevent bacterial vaginosis. To evaluate and compare the diversity of lactic acid bacterial species in pregnant women with and without BV. A pilot study was carried out during November-2014 to March-2015 in University Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, Algeria. Vaginal swabs were collected from 15 pregnant women aged between 19 and 35 years (mean 27.6 years; n=15) living in the East of Algeria visiting Gynecology service, hospital Abdallah Nouaouria- El bouni, Annaba. Vaginal samples were gram-stained, and scored by the Nugent method. The cohort included cases of women with healthy "normal" vaginal flora, infected flora with bacterial vaginosis and women with "intermediate" flora. The vaginal LAB community from pregnant women was identified by culture independent method based on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), with the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A majority of LAB affiliated to the genus Lactobacillus was found in "normal" and "intermediate" flora (87.5% and 43.75% respectively), while a majority of LAB affiliated to the genus Enterococcus was identified in women with bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora (60% and 46.75% respectively). Our results showed that the presence of Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus delbruekii promotes stability of the vaginal microbiota. This result confirms the findings of previous studies suggesting that the occurrence of predominant Lactobacillus negatively correlates with bacterial vaginosis incidence and their current use as probiotics. Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus delbruekii can be defined as critical for defense of the vagina. In addition, Enterococcus feacalis can be

  10. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on gestational week of the completion of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum

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    Jakovljević Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Preterm delivery is one of the most common complications in pregnancy, and it is the major cause (75- 80% of all neonatal deaths. Bacterial vaginosis predisposes to an increased risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membrane and miscarriage. In this syndrome normal vaginal lactobacilli, which produce protective H2O2, are reduced and replaced with anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on the week of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum. Methods. A total of 186 pregnant women were included into this study, between the week 16 and 19 of pregnancy. In the study group there were 76 pregnant women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis by the criteria based on vaginal Gram-stain Nugent score and Amsel criteria. In the control group there were 110 healthy women with normal vaginal flora. Ultrasound examination was performed in both groups. Vaginal fluid and blood samples were taken to determine biochemical markers with colorimetric methods. Results. The week of delivery was statistically significantly shorter in the study group and the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the serum were statistically significantly higher in women with bacterial vaginosis comparing to the control group. Also the levels of uric acid and white blood cells in the serum were higher in the study group compared to the control one. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the pregnancy complicated with bacterial vaginosis ends much earlier than the pregnancy without it. Also, higher levels of biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum in the study group, similarly to results of other studies, suggest that pathophysiological processes responsible for preterm delivery can begin very early in pregnancy.

  11. O uso de antibióticos e as resistências bacterianas: breves notas sobre a sua evolução

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Rui João; Roque, Fátima; Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Ramalheira, Elmano

    2016-01-01

    A resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos é atualmente um dos problemas de saúde pública mais relevantes a nível global, dado que apresenta consequências clínicas e económicas preocupantes, estando associada ao uso inadequado de antibióticos. Portugal é, no contexto europeu, um país com um elevado consumo de antibióticos, apesar de uma diminuic¸ão no consumo destes fármacos nos últimos anos. A resistência bacteriana tem crescido acentuadamente, sendo que as bactérias Gram-posit...

  12. Compuestos útiles para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas, composiciones farmaceúticas que los contienen, procedimiento de identificación de los mismos y sus aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Pozueta Romero, Javier; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz Pérez, Francisco José; Rahimpour, Mehdi; Montero, Manuel; Almagro, Goizeder

    2012-01-01

    La presente invención describe una serie de compuestos útiles para reducir o anular procesos determinantes de la patogenicidad y virulencia bacterianas y de la adherencia bacteriana a superficies inertes o células tales como la producción de adhesinas, la motilidad flagelar y la formación de EPSs y biofilms bacterianos. Estos compuestos pueden usarse para la elaboración de composiciones farmacéuticas antibacterianas o de composiciones antisépticas para el tratamient...

  13. Implementación de una práctica virtual de biotecnología: la transformación bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Roque Gamarra, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    En este documento se realiza la implementación de la fase "Transformación Bacteriana" en el "Laboratorio Virtual de Biotecnología Agroforestal" de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Esta fase representa una continuación de un trabajo previo, en el que se implementó el laboratorio virtual y se diseñó una arquitectura para el desarrollo de las fases posteriores. La Transformación Bacteriana es la tercera fase del proceso de modificación genética de un chopo para dotarle de resistencia frente...

  14. Evaluación del efecto de la ozonoterapia en perros con problemas de dermatitis bacteriana en la ciudad de Cuenca provincia del Azuay

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Ramírez, Max Roberto

    2014-01-01

    La aplicación de la ozonoterapia fue utilizada para el tratamiento de dermatitis bacteriana; la investigación se realizó a 24 caninos a los cuales se les aplico ozono en una concentración de 40 ug de ozono/ml de oxígeno en periodos de 15 minutos cada 24 horas por 8 días vía cutánea. Los resultados obtenidos fueron totalmente positivos ya que tuvimos una considerable disminución de la carga bacteriana. The application of ozone therapy was used to treat bacterial dermatitits; the research wa...

  15. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

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    Christina A Muzny

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW. The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM, and women who have sex with men (WSM with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV.Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively.33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54 and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93 were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86, and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88 was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa.The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies

  16. Prevalence and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis subgroups in women with and without bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulaitiene, Migle; Paliulyte, Virginija; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Zakareviciene, Jolita; Vladisauskiene, Alma; Marcinkute, Agne; Pleckaityte, Milda

    2017-06-05

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the leading causes of vaginal complaints among women of childbearing age. The role of Gardnerella vaginalis remains controversial due to its presence in healthy and BV-type vaginal microflora. The phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of G. vaginalis suggested the existence of strain variants linked with different health conditions. We sought to analyze prevalence and distribution of G. vaginalis subgroups (clades) in BV-positive (n = 29), partial BV (n = 27), and BV-negative (n = 53) vaginal samples from Lithuanian women. Vaginal samples were characterized by Amsel criteria and the Nugent method. Bacterial signatures characteristic of BV and concomitant infections were identified by culture and PCR. Using singleplex PCR assays, G. vaginalis subgroups were identified in 109 noncultured vaginal specimens by targeting clade-specific genes. Isolated G. vaginalis clinical strains were subtyped and the presence of the sialidase coding gene was detected by PCR. Data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism statistical software. G. vaginalis was found in 87% of women without BV. Clade 4 was most frequently detected (79.4%), followed by clade 1 (63.7%), clade 2 (42.2%), and clade 3 (15.7%). Multi-clade G. vaginalis communities showed a positive association with Nugent score (NS) ≥ 4 (OR 3.64; 95% CI 1.48-8.91; p = 0.005). Clade 1 and clade 2 were statistically significantly more common in samples with NS 7-10 (OR 4.69; 95% CI 1.38-15.88; p = 0.01 and OR 6.26; 95% CI 2.20-17.81; p ≤ 0.001, respectively). Clade 3 and clade 4 showed no association with high NS (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.26-3.04; p = 1.00 and OR 1.31; 95% CI 0.39-4.41; p = 0.767, respectively). The gene coding for sialidase was detected in all isolates of clade 1 and clade 2, but not in clade 4 isolates. We showed an association between the microbial state of vaginal microflora and specific subgroups of G. vaginalis, the distribution of which may determine the clinical

  17. Molecular assessment of bacterial vaginosis by Lactobacillus abundance and species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Joke A M; Molenaar, Douwe; van der Helm, Jannie J; Caspers, Martien P M; de Kat Angelino-Bart, Alie; Schuren, Frank H J; Speksnijder, Adrianus G C L; Westerhoff, Hans V; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Boon, Mathilde E; Reid, Gregor; de Vries, Henry J C; Kort, Remco

    2016-04-23

    To date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using microscopy based Nugent scoring or Amsel criteria. However, the accuracy is less than optimal. The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known BV-associated composition profiles and evaluate indicators for BV using three molecular methods. Evaluation of indicators for BV was carried out by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V5-V7 region, a tailor-made 16S rRNA oligonucleotide-based microarray, and a PCR-based profiling technique termed IS-profiling, which is based on fragment variability of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. An inventory of vaginal bacterial species was obtained from 40 females attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection outpatient clinic, of which 20 diagnosed with BV (Nugent score 7-10), and 20 BV negative (Nugent score 0-3). Analysis of the bacterial communities by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed two clusters in the BV negative women, dominated by either Lactobacillus iners or Lactobacillus crispatus and three distinct clusters in the BV positive women. In the former, there was a virtually complete, negative correlation between L. crispatus and L. iners. BV positive subjects showed cluster profiles that were relatively high in bacterial species diversity and dominated by anaerobic species, including Gardnerella vaginalis, and those belonging to the Families of Lachnospiraceae and Leptotrichiaceae. Accordingly, the Gini-Simpson index of species diversity, and the relative abundance Lactobacillus species appeared consistent indicators for BV. Under the conditions used, only the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing method was suitable to assess species diversity, while all three molecular composition profiling methods were able to indicate Lactobacillus abundance in the vaginal microbiota. An affordable and simple molecular test showing a depletion of the genus Lactobacillus in combination with an increased species diversity of vaginal

  18. Prevalent and incident bacterial vaginosis are associated with sexual and contraceptive behaviours in young Australian women.

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    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine prevalence and incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and risk factors in young sexually-active Australian women. METHODS: 1093 women aged 16-25 years were recruited from primary-care clinics. Participants completed 3-monthly questionnaires and self-collected vaginal smears 6-monthly for 12-months. The primary endpoint was a Nugent Score = 7-10 (BV and the secondary endpoint was a NS = 4-10 (abnormal flora [AF]. BV and AF prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were derived, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR calculated to explore epidemiological associations with prevalent BV and AF. Proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with incident BV and AF. RESULTS: At baseline 129 women had BV [11.8% (95%CI: 9.4-14.2] and 188 AF (17.2%; 15.1-19.5. Prevalent BV was associated with having a recent female partner [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.4] and lack of tertiary-education [AOR = 1.9; 1.2-3.0]; use of an oestrogen-containing contraceptive (OCC was associated with reduced risk [AOR = 0.6; 0.4-0.9]. Prevalent AF was associated with the same factors, and additionally with >5 male partners (MSP in 12-months [AOR = 1.8; 1.2-2.5], and detection of C.trachomatis or M.genitalium [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.5]. There were 82 cases of incident BV (9.4%;7.7-11.7/100 person-years and 129 with incident AF (14.8%; 12.5-17.6/100 person-years. Incident BV and AF were associated with a new MSP [adjusted rate ratio (ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.2 and ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.0], respectively. OCC-use was associated with reduced risk of incident AF [ARR = 0.7; 0.5-1.0]. CONCLUSION: This paper presents BV and AF prevalence and incidence estimates from a large prospective cohort of young Australian women predominantly recruited from primary-care clinics. These data support the concept that sexual activity is strongly associated with the development of BV and AF and that use of an OCC is associated with

  19. Comparison of oral and vaginal metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: impact on fastidious bacteria

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    Agnew Kathy J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a common condition that is associated with preterm birth and acquisition of complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include several fastidious species. Treatment of BV in pregnancy has mixed effects on the risk of preterm delivery, which some hypothesize is due to variable antibiotic efficacy for the fastidious bacteria. Both oral and intravaginal metronidazole can be used to treat bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy, but little is known about the impact of different routes of antibiotic administration on concentrations of fastidious vaginal bacteria. Methods This was a sub-study of a larger randomized trial of oral versus vaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in pregnancy. Fifty-three women were evaluated, including 30 women who received oral metronidazole and 23 who received intravaginal metronidazole. Bacterial taxon-specific quantitative PCR assays were used to measure concentrations of bacterial vaginosis associated bacterium (BVAB 1, 2, and 3, Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium species, Leptotrichia/Sneathia species, Megasphaera species, and Lactobacillus crispatus before and after antibiotic treatment. Results Concentrations of Leptotrichia and Sneathia spp. and the fastidious Clostridia-like bacterium designated BVAB1 decreased significantly with oral (p = .002, p = .02 but not vaginal therapy (p = .141, p = .126. The fastidious bacterium BVAB3 did not significantly decrease with either treatment. Concentrations of Atopobium spp., reportedly resistant to metronidazole in vitro, dropped significantly with oral (p = .002 and vaginal (p = .001 treatment. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of change in bacterial concentrations between oral and vaginal treatment arms for any of the bacterial species. Lactobacillus crispatus concentrations did not change. Conclusion Both oral and vaginal metronidazole therapy in pregnant women result in a significant decrease in

  20. Infecciones por bacterias poco comunes y oncogénesis bacteriana

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    Horacio A. Lopardo

    Full Text Available La recuperación de algunos microorganismos de aislamiento esporádico en el laboratorio de microbiología clínica podría significar la existencia de algún defecto inmunitarioespecial en el paciente. Por ejemplo, se ha descrito una importante correlación entre Clostridium septicum y carcinoma de colon, y se han visto relacionadas con leucemias y linfomas a especies que aparecen casi siempre como contaminantes (Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp. y a otras raramente aisladas en otros contextos (Capnocytophaga spp.. Hay bacterias que se aíslan casi exclusivamente de pacientes con sida (Rhodococcus equi. Se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de infecciones por Campylobacter spp., Aeromonas spp. y estreptococos del grupo G y del grupo mitis en individuos con algún tipo de cáncer que en el resto de los pacientes. También hay bacterias que son marcadoras de algún cáncer no detectado o que afectan más a pacientes neutropénicos que a individuos normoinmunes. La alteración de la reacción inflamatoria, la linfoproliferación mediada por antígenos bacterianos y la inducción de hormonas que aumentan la proliferación de las células epiteliales podrían ser causas de la oncogénesis bacteriana. Los ejemplos clásicos son el adenocarcinoma gástrico inducido por Helicobacter pylori, la asociación de la bacteriemia por estreptococos del grupo bovis y el cáncer de colon y los linfomas de tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas (MALT en vinculación con especies de Helicobacter (MALT gástricos y con Chlamydophila spp. (MALT oculares. El aislamiento de alguno de estos patógenos debería ser un llamado de atención para inducir al estudio de alguna enfermedad maligna.

  1. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Julia Rovira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar en muchos casos que se presente un exagerado aumento de volumen gingival. Se presenta un caso de agrandamiento gingival en paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, bajo tratamiento antiepiléptico con fenitoína. Al examen clínico se observó aumento del volumen gingival de forma generalizada, en maxilar superior e inferior, predominante en sector anterior, produciendo ardor y sangrado durante el cepillado y la ingestión de alimentos. Al sondaje presenta múltiples pseudobolsas en los diferentes cuadrantes. La radiografía panorámica reveló pérdida ósea moderada horizontal, predominante en el sector posterosuperior, posteroinferior y anteroinferior. El plan de tratamiento consistió en fase higiénica, instrucción y motivación en higiene oral a la madre, gingivectomía y gingivoplastía en ambos maxilares. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 226 - 231Abstract The importance of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete filling and sealing of the root canal to prevent the transport of contaminants to and from root canal, with materials compatible with the surrounding tissues. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement. This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures (orbital pain, inferior alveolar nerve injury, headache, etc., and infections

  2. Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en la población infantil cubana: 1998-2000

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    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas (MEB en Cuba entre 1998 y el año 2000, según los datos de la Vigilancia Nacional de las MEB (VNMEB disponibles. Se reportaron un total de 530 casos en menores de 15 años en todo el país durante el período. El grupo de edad más afectado resultó el de menos de 5 años. Los agentes más frecuentemente identificados fueron Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn y Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. La incidencia de Hib disminuyó 4 veces por el efecto de la vacunación masiva, especialmente en los menores de 5 años, a partir del año 2000 Spn es el principal agente causante de MEB y el más letal en Cuba. La letalidad general se incrementó de 10,6 a 20,4 %, y fue el grupo de los de menos de 1 año uno de los más afectados. Futuros estudios permitirán profundizar en la epidemiología de estas infecciones y monitorear los cambios que ocurran como consecuencia de intervenciones.Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from 1998-2000 are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of 530 cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time. The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year 2000 on. Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from 10.6 to 20.4% and the under one-year old age group was the most affected. Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a

  3. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  5. Vector salivation and parasite transmission

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    José M. C. Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains substances that counteract the host's hemostatic and inflammatory reactions, allowing the arthropod to locate blood and keep it flowing during the blood meal. Parasites may manipulate this system in order to achieve increased transmission, both to vertebrate and to invertebrate hosts. Additionally, salivary pharmacological substances may locally immunosupress the delivery site, allowing initial colonization of the vertebrate host by the parasite.

  6. Tiempo libre de enfermedad en infecciones urinarias recurrentes según profilaxis con antibiótico o con vacuna bacteriana

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    Santo Bueno, Pedro José

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Estudio comparativo de dos tipos de tratamientos profilacticos, antibioterapia supresiva y vacuna bacteriana, en infecciones urinarias de repetición, para determinar el tiempo libre de enfermedad, entendida como el tiempo transcurrido entre la finalización de la profilaxis y la aparición de un episodio de infeccion urinario.

  7. Effect of oral supplementation of the probiotic capsule UB-01BV in the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M Ratna; Maurya, A K

    2012-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition affecting millions of women annually and is characterised by a reduction in native lactobacilli. Antimicrobial therapy used to cure the disease is often found to be ineffective. We postulate that the potential probiotic capsule UB-01BV might be efficient in the treatment of BV. In the present study, 30 Indian women diagnosed with BV presenting symptoms such as white discharge, pH greater than 4.7, increased discharge, odour, colour of discharge and pruritus were included. All subjects were assigned to receive two potential probiotic capsules UB-01BV a day for 7 days. At the end of the treatment all subjects showed significant (Pcapsule UB-01BV can exert a significant reduction in vaginal infection.

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

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    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  9. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

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    A. O. Ponedilok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 % and Escherichia coli (30.2 %, and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 % and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 % are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains of E. coli are often found in patients of 1–12 years (47.3 % and in women of 43–66 years old (36.0 %, but C. albicans – in patients of 18–42 years (39.0 %. High levels of the resistance to penicilline, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in selected clinical isolates of opportunistic microorganisms are determined.

  10. Preparation and characterization of novel carbopol based bigels for topical delivery of metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay K; Anis, Arfat; Banerjee, Indranil; Pramanik, Krishna; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-01

    The current study reports the development of bigels using sorbitan monostearate-sesame oil organogel and carbopol 934 hydrogel. The microstructures and physicochemical properties were investigated by microscopy, viscosity measurement, mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the formation of oil-in-water type of emulsion gel. There was an increase in the strength of the bigels as the proportion of the organogel was increased in the bigels. The developed bigels showed shear-thinning flow behavior. The stress relaxation study suggested viscoelastic nature of the bigels. The developed bigels were biocompatible. Metronidazole, drug of choice for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, loaded bigels showed diffusion-mediated drug release. The drug loaded gels showed good antimicrobial efficiency against Escherichia coli. In gist, the developed bigels may be used as delivery vehicles for the vaginal delivery of the drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis, 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  12. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response showed association with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Sobrinho, Juçara Maria; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Fugueiredo-Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luis Otávio Z; Pitta, Denise R; Campos, Elisabete A; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal infections may affect susceptibility to and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and chronic inflammation has been linked to carcinogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory response (IR) with the severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-infected women. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09/11 primers and genotyping was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay in 211 cervical samples from women submitted to excision of the transformation zone. The bacterial flora was assessed in Papanicolaou stained smears, and positivity for BV was defined as ≥ 20% of clue cells. Present inflammatory response was defined as ≥ 30 neutrophils per field at 1000× magnification. Age higher than 29 years (OR:1.91 95% CI 1.06-3.45), infections by the types 16 and/or 18 (OR:1.92 95% CI 1.06-3.47), single or multiple infections associated with types 16 and/or 18 (OR: 1.92 CI 95% 1.06-3.47), BV (OR: 3.54 95% CI 1.62-7.73) and IR (OR: 6.33 95% CI 3.06-13.07) were associated with severity of cervical neoplasia (CIN 2 or worse diagnoses), while not smoking showed a protective effect (OR: 0.51 95% CI 0.26-0.98). After controlling for confounding factors, BV(OR: 3.90 95% CI 1.64-9.29) and IR (OR: 6.43 95% CI 2.92-14.15) maintained their association with the severity of cervical neoplasia. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response were independently associated with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women, which seems to suggest that the microenvironment would relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 Attenuate Gardnerella vaginalis-Infected Bacterial Vaginosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Choi, Su-Young; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-23

    Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression (p < 0.05). Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line) and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 Attenuate Gardnerella vaginalis-Infected Bacterial Vaginosis in Mice

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    Se-Eun Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta® consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2, and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV. BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV. Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression (p < 0.05. Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina.

  15. Risks associated with bacterial vaginosis in infertility patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrum, Noortje; De Sutter, Petra; Meys, Joris; Verstraelen, Hans

    2013-07-01

    Is bacterial vaginosis (BV) associated with the cause of infertility and does BV impinge on conception rates and early pregnancy loss following IVF? The incidence of BV is significantly higher among patients with tubal infertility when compared with patients with non-tubal infertility. BV does not impinge on conception rates but is significantly associated with preclinical pregnancy loss, though not with first trimester abortion. BV is prevalent in patients with infertility, as evident from studies across the world. This study is a meta-analysis of data on the prevalence of BV in women with infertility, the association between BV and the cause of infertility, and the associations between BV and conception rates and early pregnancy loss following IVF. The meta-analyses of the various topics involved different numbers of studies: prevalence of BV with infertility--12 studies, association with tubal infertility--3 studies and associations with conception rates--6 studies, with early preclinical pregnancy loss--2 studies and with clinical pregnancy loss--4 studies. Systematic literature searches of the electronic databases, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Knowledge were performed up to September 2012. Studies were included if they reported on, at least, one of the following: prevalence of BV in infertility patients, association between BV and the cause of infertility, association between BV and conception rates with IVF or association between BV and early pregnancy loss. Studies were considered eligible if BV was diagnosed through standardized criteria like Nugent's criteria or Hay-Ison's criteria. In none of the studies, infertility as such was defined, but patients were described as unselected patients undergoing IVF. The estimated prevalence of BV (Nugent score >6) in infertile women is 19% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14-25%]. Abnormal microflora including BV and intermediate microflora (Nugent scores 4-10) occurs in 39% of the

  16. Lactobacillus johnsonii HY7042 ameliorates Gardnerella vaginalis-induced vaginosis by killing Gardnerella vaginalis and inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun-Min; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Myoung, Kil-Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Huh, Chul-Sung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from women's vaginas and their anti-inflammatory effects against Gardnerella vaginalis-induced vaginosis were examined in β-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice. Oral and intravaginal treatment with five LABs significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis numbers in vaginal cavities and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues. Of the LABs examined, Lactobacillus johnsonii HY7042 (LJ) most potently inhibited G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis. This LAB also inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS, and the activation of NF-κB in vaginal tissues, but increased IL-10 expression. Orally administered LJ (0.2×10(8) CFU/mouse) also inhibited the expression of TNF-α by 91.7% in β-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice intraperitoneally injected with LPS. However, it increased IL-10 expression by 63.3% in these mice. Furthermore, LJ inhibited the expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and the activation of NF-κB in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. LJ also killed G. vaginalis attached with and without HeLa cells. These findings suggest that LJ inhibits bacterial vaginosis by inhibiting the expressions of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α by regulating NF-κB activation and by killing G. vaginalis, and that LJ could ameliorate bacterial vaginosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cuerpos de inclusión, células bacterianas y composiciones que los contienen y sus usos

    OpenAIRE

    Veciana Miró, Jaume; Ratera Bastardas, Inmaculada; Díez Gil, César; Villaverde Corrales, Antonio Pedro; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; García Fruitós, Elena

    2008-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a un cuerpo de inclusión aislado que comprende un polipéptido caracterizado porque el cuerpo de inclusión está en forma particulada. La presente invención también se refiere a una célula bacteriana que comprende dicho cuerpo de inclusión. La presente invención se refiere además a una composición que comprende dicho cuerpo de inclusión y una célula eucariota. La presente invención se refiere también a una composición que comprende dicho cuerpo de ...

  18. Meningite bacteriana aguda na infância: fatores de risco para complicações agudas e sequelas

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    Sérgio A. Antoniuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo que visa avaliar as complicações neurológicas agudas e sequelas neurológicas das meningites bacterianas agudas na infância, a fim de determinar possíveis sinais de alerta. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas crianças (entre 1 mês e 14 anos internadas entre 2003 e 2006, com meningite bacteriana aguda. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 pacientes incluídos, 17 (38,6% apresentaram complicações neurológicas agudas, sendo crise convulsiva a mais frequente (31,8%. Os pacientes com complicações neurológicas agudas apresentaram com mais frequência: menor contagem de neutrófilos (p = 0,03, crise convulsiva na admissão (p 200 mg/dL (p < 0,01 e menor relação glicorraquia/glicemia (p < 0,01 foram identificadas como variáveis de risco para sequelas. CONCLUSÃO: Contagem de neutrófilos < 60%, crise convulsiva na admissão e S. pneumoniae como agente etiológico foram identificados como sinais de alerta para a ocorrência de complicação neurológica aguda, enquanto que proteinorraquia, menor relação glicorraquia/glicemia e crise convulsiva na internação foram observados como fatores de risco para a ocorrência de sequelas neurológicas.

  19. Estimation of the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections and its consequences on maternal/fetal outcome in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

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    Lata Indu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other vaginal infections during pregnancy and its association with urinary tract infections (UTI and its consequences on pregnancy outcome, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: The present prospective cohort study was conducted on 200 women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC of a tertiary hospital. All pertinent obstetric and neonatal data covering antenatal events during the course of pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and condition of each newborn at the time of birth were collected. BV was detected by both Gram stain and gold standard clinical criteria (Amsel′s composite criteria. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 9. Fischer′s exact test, chi square tests and Student′s′ test has been used for analysis. The probability of 5% was considered as significant for continuous variables such as age, period of gestation and birth weight. Odds ratio (OR and confidence interval (CI with 95% probability were determined. Results: The incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 41 in 200 patients. Adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, PROM and fetal complications were found more in pregnant women who had bacterial vaginosis (N=41, bacterial vaginosis with UTI (N=14 as compared to those without bacterial vaginosis (N=118. Conclusions: The incidence of poor pregnancy outcome was higher in bacterial vaginosis with UTI. Prevention of BV and UTI is cost effective to minimize the pregnancy-related complications and preterm labor to decrease in perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity. We recommend all antenatal patients should be screened for the presence of bacterial vaginosis, other infections and UTI.

  20. Presentación de un caso de tejido salival heterotópico cervical asociado con un quiste branquial A case of salivary heterotopic tissue associated with branchial cyst

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    Mileydis Viñas García

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las masas cervicales en los adultos jóvenes responden a adenopatías inflamatorias, malformaciones congénitas o menos frecuentemente a neoplasias. El tejido salival heterotópico es la presencia de tejido salival en un lugar anormal. Cuando tiene ubicación cervical puede encontrarse asociado con anomalías branquiales, al parecer por la relación que tienen ambos durante su embriogénesis. Por lo poco frecuente de esta asociación y no encontrarse publicado ningún caso en la literatura nacional, se decide la presentación del caso de una paciente joven con una masa cervical, con diagnóstico presuntivo de quiste branquial, que al intervenirla quirúrgicamente, se constata formación de aspecto glandular asociado con la lesión quística, con confirmación histopatológica de tejido salival heterotópico cervical asociado con quiste branquial. Se exponen además las posibles teorías de esta asociación según autores revisados en la literatura mundial y se confirma la importancia de tener en cuenta este diagnóstico ante una tumoración cervical para poder planear el tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado.In adult people cervical masses account for inflammatory adenopathies, congenital malformations or in a lesser degree to neoplasms. Heterotopic salivary tissue is the presence of salivary tissue in an abnormal place. When it has a cervical location may to be associated with branchial anomalies apparently by its relation (both during the embryogeny. Due to the non-frequent of this association and the no publication of any case in national literature, we decide a case presentation of the case of a young patient with a cervical mass presumptively diagnosed with branchial cyst and in surgical intervention we noted a glandular development associated with the cystic lesion with histopathology confirmation of cervical heterotopic salivary tissue linked to branchial cyst. We showed also the potential theories of this association according the authors

  1. Estudio transversal de la microbiología salival mediante pirosecuenciación en escolares de la Comunitat Valenciana y su relación con la caries dental

    OpenAIRE

    Gomar Vercher, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    La salud oral, que está fuertemente influenciada por la microbiota oral, ejerce un papel significativo en la salud general. Las comunidades bacterianas orales contienen especies que promueven estados de salud, mientras que otras contribuyen a la enfermedad. Conocer qué especies están presentes y cómo se componen las comunidades microbianas en estados de salud es el primer paso para comprender qué cambios pueden llevar a la enfermedad. El tipo de muestras a utilizar para este tipo de estudios,...

  2. Resistência genética à mancha-bacteriana em genótipos de pimentão

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Roberto Alexandre; Rodrigues Rosana; Sudré Cláudia Pombo

    2002-01-01

    A mancha-bacteriana, principal doença bacteriana do pimentão causa desfolha intensa quando em condições favoráveis, deixando os frutos expostos ao sol, depreciando-os e diminuindo a produção. Para estimar, nas condições de Campos dos Goytacazes, os efeitos genéticos da reação do hospedeiro ao patógeno, tanto em folhas como em frutos, foram obtidos híbridos F1, sem recíprocos, a partir de cruzamentos dialélicos entre cinco genótipos de pimentão, sendo três suscetíveis ('UENF 1420', 'UENF 1421'...

  3. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

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    Orlando C. Mantese

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar o perfil etiológico e alguns aspectos epidemiológicos das crianças com meningite bacteriana, internadas em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: foram seguidas, prospectivamente, as crianças internadas com meningite bacteriana, diagnosticada segundo os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais habituais. Foram excluídos os casos de meningite pós-trauma, de meningite na vigência de derivação liquórica, ou de defeitos congênitos do tubo neural, e de meningite tuberculosa. Resultados: foram analisadas 415 crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana, no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de 01/01/1987 a 31/01/2001. O agente etiológico foi identificado em 315 pacientes (75,9%, sendo de modo definitivo em 289 (69,3% e presuntivo, por intermédio da bacterioscopia, em outros 26 (6,6%. Os agentes mais comumente identificados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b (54,2%, o meningococo (20,6% e o pneumococo (18,1% dos 315 pacientes. O tratamento antimicrobiano prévio, detectado em 47,2% dos casos, causou uma diminuição significante no rendimento das culturas de sangue (de 50,8% para 38,7% e de liquor (71,7% para 57,6%. Houve um predomínio do acometimento de crianças com idade até 48 meses pelo Haemophilus influenzae b, particularmente em relação ao meningococo. A letalidade geral foi de 10,1%, com diferença significante entre a letalidade do pneumococo, de 17,5%, e a do meningococo, de 4,6%. Conclusões: as crianças afetadas por Haemophilus influenzae b e por pneumococo foram mais jovens que aquelas com meningite por meningococo. A hemocultura e a cultura de liquor continuam sendo importantes recursos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico etiológico da meningite bacteriana, apesar do impacto negativo causado em seu rendimento pelo tratamento antibiótico prévio. Os agentes mais comumente isolados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b, o meningococo e o pneumococo. A

  4. Validación del método LAL para determinar endotoxinas bacterianas en el inyectable heparina sódica

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    Nancy Burguet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del control de la calidad de los productos farmacéuticos, la United State Pharmacopeia establece la cuantificación de endotoxinas bacterianas por el método de lisado de amebocito de Limulus , como monitor de pirógenos para más del 90% de los parenterales que regula. Este método se aplicó de forma específica a vacunas bacterianas y virales, agentes antineoplásicos, radiofármacos y parenterales que se producen en la industria médico farmacéutica. En el presente trabajo se mostró la metodología a seguir para realizar la validación de la técnica de determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas por el método de gelificación. Para ello se confirmó la sensibilidad del reactivo utilizado (0,03125 UE/mL y la validez de los analistas para poder obtener resultados confiables. Las pruebas preliminares para el producto ensayado, heparina sódica 5000 UI/mL, demostraron que este producto no potencia ni inhibe la reacción del reactivo. Se escogió la dilución de trabajo (1/128 para la validación del método. De esta manera quedaron estandarizadas las condiciones para la validación del test de lisado de amebocito de Limulus por gelificación en este producto parenteral, método que se hace extensivo a la determinación de endotoxinas bacterianas en vacunas y en otros medicamentos por vía de administración intravenosa.

  5. Liberação intraocular de ofloxacina associada a lente de contato biossintética em ceratite bacteriana experimental em cães

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    D.N. Cremonini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a concentração de ofloxacina liberada por uma lente de contato de membrana de celulose biossintética, para tratamento de ceratite bacteriana experimental em cães, pela inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus intraestromal. Comparou-se o tratamento com a lente de contato biossintética impregnada com ofloxacina à terapia tópica convencional. Realizou-se avaliação microbiológica e dosagem de ofloxacina no humor aquoso por meio do método de cromatografia líquida de alto rendimento (HPLC. Houve diferença estatística na contagem de colônias bacterianas entre os olhos com ceratite e os demais grupos, no primeiro dia de coleta. O biomaterial, impregnado com ofloxacina, promoveu liberação gradual durante o período de avaliação, aos três e sete dias; no terceiro dia, o grupo tratado com a lente de contato obteve mediana de 3,72μg/mL, enquanto o grupo tratado com colírio resultou em 49,56μg/mL. Apesar do valor inferior, o grupo com lente de contato atingiu a concentração inibitória mínima, sendo eficaz no controle da infecção bacteriana.

  6. Bacterial communities in penile skin, male urethra, and vaginas of heterosexual couples with and without bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozaya, Marcela; Ferris, Michael J; Siren, Julia D; Lillis, Rebecca; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M Jacques; Eren, A Murat; Brown, Jonathan; Taylor, Christopher M; Martin, David H

    2016-04-19

    The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) suggests it is sexually transmissible, yet no transmissible agent has been identified. It is probable that BV-associated bacterial communities are transferred from male to female partners during intercourse; however, the microbiota of sexual partners has not been well-studied. Pyrosequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA was used to examine BV-associated bacteria in monogamous couples with and without BV using vaginal, male urethral, and penile skin specimens. The penile skin and urethral microbiota of male partners of women with BV was significantly more similar to the vaginal microbiota of their female partner compared to the vaginal microbiota of non-partner women with BV. This was not the case for male partners of women with normal vaginal microbiota. Specific BV-associated species were concordant in women with BV and their male partners. In monogamous heterosexual couples in which the woman has BV, the significantly higher similarity between the vaginal microbiota and the penile skin and urethral microbiota of the male partner, supports the hypothesis that sexual exchange of BV-associated bacterial taxa is common.

  7. The presence of the putative Gardnerella vaginalis sialidase A gene in vaginal specimens is associated with bacterial vaginosis biofilm.

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    Liselotte Hardy

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a difficult-to-treat recurrent condition in which health-associated lactobacilli are outnumbered by other anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis. Certain genotypes of G. vaginalis can produce sialidase, while others cannot. Sialidase is known to facilitate the destruction of the protective mucus layer on the vaginal epithelium by hydrolysis of sialic acid on the glycans of mucous membranes. This process possibly facilitates adhesion of bacterial cells on the epithelium since it has been linked with the development of biofilm in other pathogenic conditions. Although it has not been demonstrated yet, it is probable that G. vaginalis benefits from this mechanism by attaching to the vaginal epithelium to initiate biofilm development. In this study, using vaginal specimens of 120 women enrolled in the Ring Plus study, we assessed the association between the putative G. vaginalis sialidase A gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, the diagnosis of BV according to Nugent score, and the occurrence of a BV-associated biofilm dominated by G. vaginalis by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH. We detected the putative sialidase A gene in 75% of the G. vaginalis-positive vaginal specimens and found a strong association (p<0.001 between the presence of a G. vaginalis biofilm, the diagnosis of BV according to Nugent and the detection of high loads of the G. vaginalis sialidase A gene in the vaginal specimens. These results could redefine diagnosis of BV, and in addition might guide research for new treatment.

  8. Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Wang; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2010-08-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention. One hundred twenty healthy Chinese women with a history of recurrent BV were assigned randomly to daily vaginal prophylaxis with 1 capsule (Probaclac Vaginal; Nicar Laboratories, Inc, Blainville, Quebec, Canada) that contained 8 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (n = 58 women) or 1 placebo capsule (n = 62 women) for 7 days on, 7 days off, and 7 days on. Probiotic prophylaxis resulted in lower recurrence rates for BV (15.8% [9/57 women] vs 45.0% [27/60 women]; P < .001) and Gardnerella vaginalis incidence through 2 months (3.5% [2/57 women] vs 18.3% [11/60 women]; P = .02). Between the 2- and 11-month follow-up period, women who received probiotics reported a lower incidence of BV and G vaginalis. Aside from vaginal discharge and malodor, no adverse events were reported in either study group. Short-term probiotic prophylaxis is well tolerated and reduces BV recurrence and G vaginalis risk through 11 months after treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Slight Pro-Inflammatory Immunomodulation Properties of Dendritic Cells by Gardnerella vaginalis: The “Invisible Man” of Bacterial Vaginosis?

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    Thomas Bertran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, the most common genital infection in reproductive-aged women, is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Its etiology remains unclear, especially the role of Gardnerella (G. vaginalis, an anaerobic bacterium characteristic of the BV-alteration of the vaginal ecosystem. In the genital mucosa, dendritic cells (DCs sense bacteria of the microenvironment via receptors and then orchestrate the immune response by induction of different T cell subtypes. We investigated the interactions between G. vaginalis and human monocyte-derived DCs using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection from 0.01 to 100, and the effects of this pathogen on PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation. As observed by electron microscopy and cytometry, G. vaginalis reduced the internalization ability of DCs by forming extracellular clusters and induced neither DC maturation, nor DC secretion of cytokines, except at the highest dose with a very early DC maturation state. The same profile was observed on lymphocytes with significant increases of proliferation and cytokine secretion only at the highest bacterial concentration. Our findings indicate that G. vaginalis possesses slight immune-stimulating activities against DCs and T cells, reflecting thus a defective inflammatory response and giving rise to the atypical, non- or low-grade, inflammatory clinical disease profile.

  10. The presence of the putative Gardnerella vaginalis sialidase A gene in vaginal specimens is associated with bacterial vaginosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liselotte; Jespers, Vicky; Van den Bulck, Magelien; Buyze, Jozefien; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Crucitti, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a difficult-to-treat recurrent condition in which health-associated lactobacilli are outnumbered by other anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis. Certain genotypes of G. vaginalis can produce sialidase, while others cannot. Sialidase is known to facilitate the destruction of the protective mucus layer on the vaginal epithelium by hydrolysis of sialic acid on the glycans of mucous membranes. This process possibly facilitates adhesion of bacterial cells on the epithelium since it has been linked with the development of biofilm in other pathogenic conditions. Although it has not been demonstrated yet, it is probable that G. vaginalis benefits from this mechanism by attaching to the vaginal epithelium to initiate biofilm development. In this study, using vaginal specimens of 120 women enrolled in the Ring Plus study, we assessed the association between the putative G. vaginalis sialidase A gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the diagnosis of BV according to Nugent score, and the occurrence of a BV-associated biofilm dominated by G. vaginalis by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We detected the putative sialidase A gene in 75% of the G. vaginalis-positive vaginal specimens and found a strong association (pvaginalis biofilm, the diagnosis of BV according to Nugent and the detection of high loads of the G. vaginalis sialidase A gene in the vaginal specimens. These results could redefine diagnosis of BV, and in addition might guide research for new treatment.

  11. Slight Pro-Inflammatory Immunomodulation Properties of Dendritic Cells by Gardnerella vaginalis: The “Invisible Man” of Bacterial Vaginosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Thomas; Brachet, Patrick; Vareille-Delarbre, Marjolaine; Falenta, Julie; Dosgilbert, Annie; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Forestier, Christiane; Tridon, Arlette; Evrard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common genital infection in reproductive-aged women, is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Its etiology remains unclear, especially the role of Gardnerella (G.) vaginalis, an anaerobic bacterium characteristic of the BV-alteration of the vaginal ecosystem. In the genital mucosa, dendritic cells (DCs) sense bacteria of the microenvironment via receptors and then orchestrate the immune response by induction of different T cell subtypes. We investigated the interactions between G. vaginalis and human monocyte-derived DCs using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection from 0.01 to 100), and the effects of this pathogen on PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation. As observed by electron microscopy and cytometry, G. vaginalis reduced the internalization ability of DCs by forming extracellular clusters and induced neither DC maturation, nor DC secretion of cytokines, except at the highest dose with a very early DC maturation state. The same profile was observed on lymphocytes with significant increases of proliferation and cytokine secretion only at the highest bacterial concentration. Our findings indicate that G. vaginalis possesses slight immune-stimulating activities against DCs and T cells, reflecting thus a defective inflammatory response and giving rise to the atypical, non- or low-grade, inflammatory clinical disease profile. PMID:26989700

  12. Evidence for Gardnerella vaginalis uptake and internalization by squamous vaginal epithelial cells: implications for the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Christy N; Knobel, Susan M; Zhu, Wen Qin; Sweet, Stephanie D; Chaudhry, Ahsen R; Alcendor, Donald J

    2012-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common condition seen in premenopausal women, is associated with preterm labor, pelvic inflammatory disease, and delivery of low birth weight infants. Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant bacterial species associated with BV, although its exact role in the pathology of BV is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and transmission electron microscopy, we found that VK2 vaginal epithelial cells take up G. vaginalis after exposure to the bacteria. Confocal microscopy also indicated the presence of internalized G. vaginalis within vaginal epithelial cells obtained from a subject with BV. Using VK2 cells and (35)S labeled bacteria in an invasion assay, we found that a 1 h uptake of G. vaginalis was 21.8-fold higher than heat-killed G. vaginalis, 84-fold compared to Lactobacillus acidophilus and 6.6-fold compared to Lactobacillus crispatus. Internalization was inhibited by pre-exposure of cells to cytochalasin-D. In addition, the cytoskeletal protein vimentin was upregulated in VK2 cells exposed to G. vaginalis, but there was no change in actin cytoskeletal polymerization/rearrangements or vimentin subcellular relocalization post exposure. Cytoskeletal protein modifications could represent a potential mechanism for G. vaginalis mediated internalization by vaginal epithelial cells. Finally, understanding vaginal bacteria/host interactions will allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of BV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Slight Pro-Inflammatory Immunomodulation Properties of Dendritic Cells by Gardnerella vaginalis: The "Invisible Man" of Bacterial Vaginosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Thomas; Brachet, Patrick; Vareille-Delarbre, Marjolaine; Falenta, Julie; Dosgilbert, Annie; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Forestier, Christiane; Tridon, Arlette; Evrard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common genital infection in reproductive-aged women, is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Its etiology remains unclear, especially the role of Gardnerella (G.) vaginalis, an anaerobic bacterium characteristic of the BV-alteration of the vaginal ecosystem. In the genital mucosa, dendritic cells (DCs) sense bacteria of the microenvironment via receptors and then orchestrate the immune response by induction of different T cell subtypes. We investigated the interactions between G. vaginalis and human monocyte-derived DCs using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection from 0.01 to 100), and the effects of this pathogen on PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation. As observed by electron microscopy and cytometry, G. vaginalis reduced the internalization ability of DCs by forming extracellular clusters and induced neither DC maturation, nor DC secretion of cytokines, except at the highest dose with a very early DC maturation state. The same profile was observed on lymphocytes with significant increases of proliferation and cytokine secretion only at the highest bacterial concentration. Our findings indicate that G. vaginalis possesses slight immune-stimulating activities against DCs and T cells, reflecting thus a defective inflammatory response and giving rise to the atypical, non- or low-grade, inflammatory clinical disease profile.

  14. Interactions between Lactobacillus crispatus and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV-Associated Bacterial Species in Initial Attachment and Biofilm Formation

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    Kimberly Kay Jefferson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain anaerobic bacterial species tend to predominate the vaginal flora during bacterial vaginosis (BV, with Gardnerella vaginalis being the most common. However, the exact role of G. vaginalis in BV has not yet been determined. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that G. vaginalis is an early colonizer, paving the way for intermediate (e.g., Fusobacterium nucleatum and late colonizers (e.g., Prevotella bivia. Theoretically, in order to function as an early colonizer, species would need to be able to adhere to vaginal epithelium, even in the presence of vaginal lactobacilli. Therefore, we quantified adherence of G. vaginalis and other BV-associated bacteria to an inert surface pre-coated with Lactobacillus crispatus using a new Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH methodology. We found that G. vaginalis had the greatest capacity to adhere in the presence of L. crispatus. Theoretically, an early colonizer would contribute to the adherence and/or growth of additional species, so we next quantified the effect of G. vaginalis biofilms on the adherence and growth of other BV-associated species by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique. Interestingly, G. vaginalis derived a growth benefit from the addition of a second species, regardless of the species. Conversely, G. vaginalis biofilms enhanced the growth of P. bivia, and to a minor extent of F. nucleatum. These results contribute to our understanding of BV biofilm formation and the progression of the disorder.

  15. Interactions between Lactobacillus crispatus and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)-Associated Bacterial Species in Initial Attachment and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, António; Jefferson, Kimberly Kay; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Certain anaerobic bacterial species tend to predominate the vaginal flora during bacterial vaginosis (BV), with Gardnerella vaginalis being the most common. However, the exact role of G. vaginalis in BV has not yet been determined. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that G. vaginalis is an early colonizer, paving the way for intermediate (e.g., Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (e.g., Prevotella bivia). Theoretically, in order to function as an early colonizer, species would need to be able to adhere to vaginal epithelium, even in the presence of vaginal lactobacilli. Therefore, we quantified adherence of G. vaginalis and other BV-associated bacteria to an inert surface pre-coated with Lactobacillus crispatus using a new Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. We found that G. vaginalis had the greatest capacity to adhere in the presence of L. crispatus. Theoretically, an early colonizer would contribute to the adherence and/or growth of additional species, so we next quantified the effect of G. vaginalis biofilms on the adherence and growth of other BV-associated species by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique. Interestingly, G. vaginalis derived a growth benefit from the addition of a second species, regardless of the species. Conversely, G. vaginalis biofilms enhanced the growth of P. bivia, and to a minor extent of F. nucleatum. These results contribute to our understanding of BV biofilm formation and the progression of the disorder. PMID:23739678

  16. Ability of chitosan gels to disrupt bacterial biofilms and their applications in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Karunya K; Borden, Emma; Omtri, Rajesh S; Boyapati, Siva Prasad; Smith, Michael; Lebby, Kimberly; Mulpuru, Maanavi; Gadde, Mounika

    2013-07-01

    Recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is attributed to the inability of various formulations to disrupt bacterial biofilms. A negatively charged polysaccharide matrix coats the bacterial communities in the biofilm and restricts the penetration of antibiotics. Therefore, bacteria in the deeper segments of the biofilm persist and perpetuate the infection. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of two bioadhesive polymers, cationic chitosan and anionic polycarbophil, to disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in the Center for Disease Control bioreactor as well as on the 96-well plates. The biofilms were treated with various concentrations of polycarbophil and chitosan at pH 4 or 6. Biofilm integrity following various treatments was evaluated by crystal violet stain and laser confocal microscopy employing Syto9 (live-cell stain) and propidium iodide (dead-cell stain). These studies demonstrated that chitosan gel disrupts the P. aeruginosa biofilm more effectively than does polycarbophil; and this effect is independent of the pH and charge densities on either polymers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. First trimester bacterial vaginosis, individual microorganism levels, and risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah B; Bellamy, Scarlett; Nachamkin, Irving; Ness, Roberta B; Macones, George A; Allen-Taylor, Lynne

    2007-11-01

    To examine the role of first trimester bacterial vaginosis (BV) and level of BV-associated microorganisms, diagnosed using the Nugent gram stain criteria and the risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women. Prospective cohort study. Urban prenatal care clinics. Women presenting for their first prenatal care visit who had completed 12 weeks gestation or less and resided within Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Pregnancy loss. Of 1948 women enrolled at a mean gestational age of 10 weeks (range 7.4 to 12.6 weeks), those with the highest level of BV-related vaginal flora alteration compared with women with normal vaginal flora had over a twofold increased risk of second trimester pregnancy loss after adjustment for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13 to 5.48). Low Lactobacillus spp. and the absence of Lactobacillus spp. were also significantly related to the risk of second trimester pregnancy loss (aHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.64; aHR 2.30, 95% CI 1.09-4.85; respectively). Overall BV positivity was not related to second trimester pregnancy loss. Comparing the highest to lowest tertile of BV positivity in early pregnancy conferred a two-fold increased risk of second trimester pregnancy loss and low amounts or the absence of Lactobacillus spp. in the first trimester also significantly increased the risk of second trimester pregnancy loss.

  18. Efficacy and safety of oral tinidazole and metronidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized control trial

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    Zahra Abbaspoor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for one week is currently the treatment of choice for bacterial vaginosis (BV. Complete treatment by this regimen takes time and occurs less often. This drug has significant side effects too. Using a drug in the shortest treatment course may increases the success of treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral tinidazole compare to metronidazole in treatment of BV.Methods: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind, comparative, clinical trial, 110 non-pregnant women aged between 15-45 years with confirmed diagnosis of BV by Amsels criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g tinidazole tablet once daily for 2 days (n=55 or 500 mg metronidazole table twice daily for 7 days (n=55.The cure and recurrence rate were evaluated in both groups after 2 and 4 weeks follow up visits. For statistical analysis t-test,   test, fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used.Results: The results showed that cure rate after 2 weeks in tinidazole tablet group was 84.6٪ and in metronidazole group was 85.4٪ (p=0.9, and after 4 weeks recurrence rate in tinidazole and metronidazole groups was 6.9٪and 12.1٪respectively (P=0.3.Conclusions: Tinidazole table 2 g once daily for 2 days is as effective as metronidazole tablet 500 mg twice a day for 7 days in treatment of BV.

  19. Identification and characterization of bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogens using a comprehensive cervical-vaginal epithelial coculture assay.

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    Colleen R Eade

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most commonly treated female reproductive tract affliction, characterized by the displacement of healthy lactobacilli by an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. BV can contribute to pathogenic inflammation, preterm birth, and susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections. As the bacteria responsible for BV pathogenicity and their interactions with host immunity are not understood, we sought to evaluate the effects of BV-associated bacteria on reproductive epithelia. Here we have characterized the interaction between BV-associated bacteria and the female reproductive tract by measuring cytokine and defensin induction in three types of FRT epithelial cells following bacterial inoculation. Four BV-associated bacteria were evaluated alongside six lactobacilli for a comparative assessment. While responses differed between epithelial cell types, our model showed good agreement with clinical BV trends. We observed a distinct cytokine and human β-defensin 2 response to BV-associated bacteria, especially Atopobium vaginae, compared to most lactobacilli. One lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus vaginalis, induced an immune response similar to that elicited by BV-associated bacteria, stimulating significantly higher levels of cytokines and human β-defensin 2 than other lactobacilli. These data provide an important prioritization of BV-associated bacteria and support further characterization of reproductive bacteria and their interactions with host epithelia. Additionally, they demonstrate the distinct immune response potentials of epithelial cells from different locations along the female reproductive tract.

  20. Infección bacteriana severa en niños febriles: Parámetros predictivos

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    Alicia Álvarez Rodríguez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigadores han realizado estudios sobre el manejo del niño febril y plantean que es un dilema al que se enfrenta a diario el médico que atiende niños. Motivados por este tema se efectuó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los niños febriles, sin causa aparente en su valoración inicial, que asistieron al servicio de urgencias en un período de 9 meses, con el objetivo de identificar el diagnóstico definitivo al egreso y se precisó el tipo de infección bacteriana severa y relacionó la presencia de éstos con parámetros clínicos y de laboratorios. El mayor número de niños febriles valorados e ingresados mostraron edades desde 91 días hasta 36 meses. El menor porcenaje de ellos ingresaron y desarrollaron alguna infección bacteriana severa principalmente neumonía, y fue mayor el porcentaje de niños con esta patología a menos edad con predominio del aspecto tóxico y de la temperatura 39 EC. Resultó el manejo ambulatorio del niño febril mayor de 90 días y bajo riesgo de infección bacteriana severa un ahorro en vidas y dinero, por lo que se recomienda generalizar el flujograma propuesto para la evaluación y manejo del niño febril de 3 a 36 meses de edad.Different researches have performed studies on the management of the febrile infant and they point out that this is a dilemma faced by every physician who takes care of children. Motivated by this subject, a descriptive and retrospective study of febrile infants was conducted. The study was carried out to evaluate febrile infants without evident cause at the baseline evaluation who attended the emergency service during a period of 9 months with the objective of identifying the definite diagnosis at admission. The type of bacterial infection was accurately assessed and the presence of this was related to clinical and laboratory parameters. The greatest number of febrile infants evaluated and admitted to hospital were 91 days-36 months old. The lowest percentage

  1. Categorías de riesgo de meningitis bacteriana y tratamiento con antibióticos en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: recientemente se desarrolló y validó el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo cual provee de una herramienta efectiva en la toma de decisiones médicas para la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: conocer cómo se procedió retrospectivamente con la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, antes de desarrollar el modelo mencionado, y fortalecer y fundamentar una estrategia del tratamiento antibiótico, basados en nuestro Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y aplicado, que incluyó 290 neonatos evaluados por probable infección, 44 con meningitis bacteriana y 246 con meningitis aséptica, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", entre febrero/1992 y diciembre/2009. Se verificó la efectividad del Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo que permitió clasificar los pacientes en alto o bajo riesgo de meningitis bacteriana. Se determinó retrospectivamente la indicación y los motivos de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, así como análisis de asociación para distintas circunstancias clínicas, entre ellas, la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Resultados: se precisó que el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal tuvo una sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo de 100 % para meningitis bacteriana. Hubo concordancia estadísticamente significativa entre la predicción por el modelo y la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Se comprobó un uso racional del tratamiento antibiótico, pues se utilizó de inmediato al diagnóstico de meningitis bacteriana en 100 % de los casos, y solo en

  2. Sensibilidade a cobre, estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina em Xanthomonas spp. associadas à mancha-bacteriana do tomate para processamento industrial

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    Quezado-Duval Alice Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de amplamente empregados em lavouras de tomate para processamento industrial no Brasil, fungicidas cúpricos e antibióticos registrados para uso agrícola nem sempre resultam em controle eficiente das bacterioses que afetam a cultura. O aparecimento de estirpes resistentes é uma das causas dessa baixa eficiência. Avaliou-se, in vitro, a sensibilidade a cobre, estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina de 389 isolados de Xanthomonas spp. associadas à mancha-bacteriana do tomateiro, sendo 92 de X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (60 do grupo "A"/raça T1 e 32 do "C"/raça T3, 93 de X. vesicatoria (grupo "B"/raça T2 e 204 de X. gardneri (grupo "D"/raça T2. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas doentes em campos comerciais de tomate para processamento industrial nos estados de Goiás, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco e Bahia, nos anos de 1995 a 1998 e em 2000. Alíquotas de 5 ml de suspensões bacterianas foram depositadas em meio Nutriente-Ágar suplementado com sulfato de cobre, nas concentrações de 50 e 200 µg/ml; sulfato de estreptomicina, a 25 e 200 µg/ml e cloridrato de oxitetraciclina, a 25 µg/ml. Nenhum isolado foi resistente a oxitetraciclina, como também nenhum foi resistente ao cobre na concentração de 200 µg/ml do sulfato de cobre. No entanto, houve diferença entre isolados quanto à sensibilidade ao sulfato de cobre na concentração de 50 µg/ml e ao sulfato de estreptomicina nas duas concentrações empregadas. As freqüências de isolados de X. gardneri, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (grupos "A" e "C" e X. vesicatoria resistentes à estreptomicina (25 µg/ml do produto usado foram, respectivamente, 98%, 38% e 2%, ao passo que, ao cobre, foram, respectivamente, 48%, 4% e 74%. Todos os isolados do grupo "C" foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e 97% sensíveis ao cobre.

  3. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis

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    De Ganck Catharine

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains largely elusive, although some microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis, are suspected of playing a role in the etiology of this disorder. Recently culture-independent analysis of microbial ecosystems has proven its efficacy in characterizing the diversity of bacterial populations. Here, we report on the results obtained by combining culture and PCR-based methods to characterize the normal and disturbed vaginal microflora. Results A total of 150 vaginal swab samples from healthy women (115 pregnant and 35 non-pregnant were categorized on the basis of Gram stain of direct smear as grade I (n = 112, grade II (n = 26, grade III (n = 9 or grade IV (n = 3. The composition of the vaginal microbial community of eight of these vaginal swabs (three grade I, two grade II and three grade III, all from non-pregnant women, were studied by culture and by cloning of the 16S rRNA genes obtained after direct amplification. Forty-six cultured isolates were identified by tDNA-PCR, 854 cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments were analysed of which 156 by sequencing, yielding a total of 38 species, including 9 presumptively novel species with at least five species that have not been isolated previously from vaginal samples. Interestingly, cloning revealed that Atopobium vaginae was abundant in four out of the five non-grade I specimens. Finally, species specific PCR for A. vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis pointed to a statistically significant co-occurrence of both species in the bacterial vaginosis samples. Conclusions Although historically the literature regarding bacterial vaginosis has largely focused on G. vaginalis in particular, several findings of this study – like the abundance of A. vaginae in disturbed vaginal microflora and the presence of several novel species – indicate that much is to be learned about the composition of the vaginal microflora and its relation to the etiology of BV.

  4. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Claeys, Geert; Verschraegen, Gerda; Delanghe, Joris; Van Simaey, Leen; De Ganck, Catharine; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2004-04-21

    The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains largely elusive, although some microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis, are suspected of playing a role in the etiology of this disorder. Recently culture-independent analysis of microbial ecosystems has proven its efficacy in characterizing the diversity of bacterial populations. Here, we report on the results obtained by combining culture and PCR-based methods to characterize the normal and disturbed vaginal microflora. A total of 150 vaginal swab samples from healthy women (115 pregnant and 35 non-pregnant) were categorized on the basis of Gram stain of direct smear as grade I (n = 112), grade II (n = 26), grade III (n = 9) or grade IV (n = 3). The composition of the vaginal microbial community of eight of these vaginal swabs (three grade I, two grade II and three grade III), all from non-pregnant women, were studied by culture and by cloning of the 16S rRNA genes obtained after direct amplification. Forty-six cultured isolates were identified by tDNA-PCR, 854 cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments were analysed of which 156 by sequencing, yielding a total of 38 species, including 9 presumptively novel species with at least five species that have not been isolated previously from vaginal samples. Interestingly, cloning revealed that Atopobium vaginae was abundant in four out of the five non-grade I specimens. Finally, species specific PCR for A. vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis pointed to a statistically significant co-occurrence of both species in the bacterial vaginosis samples. Although historically the literature regarding bacterial vaginosis has largely focused on G. vaginalis in particular, several findings of this study--like the abundance of A. vaginae in disturbed vaginal microflora and the presence of several novel species--indicate that much is to be learned about the composition of the vaginal microflora and its relation to the etiology of BV.

  5. Sialoadenitis bacteriana crónica recurrente de la infancia. Caracterización clínica

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    Carlos Ávila-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La sialoadenitis recurrente es el segundo cuadro inflamatorio más frecuente que afecta a la glándula parótida, precedida por la parotiditis viral. Esta afección tiene un cuadro clínico muy similar a la sialoadenitis, motivo por el cual se debe considerar dentro de los  iagnósticos diferenciales. La sialoadenitis recurrente se caracteriza por episodios periódicos de inflamación y aumento de volumen de la glándula parótida acompañados de fiebre y malestar general que alternan con intervalos de remisión en los que la glándula es clínicamente asintomática. En el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría consideramos al concepto Sialoadenitis bacteriana crónica recurrente de la infancia como la definición más específica y completa para referirse a esta enfermedad. Debido a su recurrencia decidimos escribir este artículo para señalar sus características clínicas.

  6. Produção e degradação in vitro de estruturas tubulares de celulose bacteriana

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    Vanessa A. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de novos recursos em cardiologia tem direcionado a Engenharia de Tecidos ao desenvolvimento de vasos sanguíneos artificiais que atendam aos requisitos do organismo. Neste trabalho, estruturas tubulares de celulose bacteriana (CB foram produzidas e sua degradação in vitro foi avaliada. Através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura constatou-se que não houve alterações significativas na microestrutura e morfologia das fibras de CB após ensaios de degradação. Os ensaios de degradação em soluções fisiológicas PBS e salina revelaram uma degradação substancialmente baixa após 20 semanas. A baixa velocidade de degradação dos vasos é de grande importância, visto que o processo para a formação de novos vasos (angiogênese demanda tempo.

  7. Detección precoz de afectación neurosensorial en niños convalecientes de meningitis bacteriana

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    Eric Martínez Torres

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 100 pacientes entre 2 meses y 2 años de edad que sufrieron meningitis bacteriana aguda. Se les realizó examen neuropediátrico, pruebas psicométricas y potenciales evocados auditivos de tallo cerebral. Treinta y siete niños tuvieron resultados anormales. Se encontró pérdida auditiva sensorineural en 15, conductiva en 11 y otra afectación neurológica (retardo psicomotor, espasticidad, paresias en 11. La incidencia de exámenes anormales fue significativamente más allá en el grupo de convalecientes de meningitis, con respecto a otros egresados de terapia intensiva. La edad menor de 6 meses fue el factor (considerado en forma aislada que se asoció con mayor frecuencia a afectación residual. El germen causal, el sexo y las complicaciones durante la meningitis no fueron significativas. La combinación de métodos clínicos con métodos de laboratorio de neurofisiología permitió identificar a un grupo de niños en riesgo de secuela neurosensorial, mucho mayor que el obtenido por cada uno por separado.

  8. Sobre la resistencia bacteriana hacia antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática

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    Jhoana P. Romero L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se formula un modelo matemático simple que describe la interacción entre bacterias sensibles y resistentes a múltiples antibióticos de acción bactericida y bacteriostática de forma simultánea, en el supuesto de que la adquisición de resistencia bacteriana se da a través de mutaciones espontáneas y adquiridas por la exposición a diferentes antibióticos. El análisis cualitativo revela la existencia de un equilibrio libre de bacterias, un equilibrio solo con bacterias resistentes y un equilibrio endémico donde coexisten ambas poblaciones de bacterias. Abstract. In this work we formulate a simple mathematical model that describes the population dynamics of bacteria exposed simultaneously to multiple bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics, assuming that resistance is acquired through mutations due to antibiotic exposure. Qualitative analysis reveals the existence of a free-bacteria equilibrium, resistant-bacteria equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium where both bacteria coexist.

  9. Uso controlado de antibióticos ayuda en la disminución de la resistencia bacteriana en una institución de cuarto nivel de complejidad (2004-2012

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    Rubén Darío Camargo Rubio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El uso excesivo o indiscriminado de antibióticos va de la mano con la aparición de resistencia bacteriana. Objetivo: Confirmar si el control de la prescripción diaria de antibióticos contribuye a disminuir la resistencia bacteriana. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, trasversal, del control de la prescripción diaria de antibióticos. Durante los años 2004 a 2007 (primer periodo y 2008 a 2011 (segundo periodo. Diariamente se evaluó la prescripción de antibióticos de control institucional y se compararon semestralmente cada año sus resultados, con el reporte de resistencia en bacterias bajo vigilancia epidemiológica. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos con el control diario de las prescripciones de antibióticos durante el estudio evidencian que controlar antibióticos ayuda a disminuir la resistencia bacteriana, en el periodo 2004-2007. La falta de adherencia a las políticas institucionales de control de las prescripciones de antibióticos, evidenció en el estudio aumento de la resistencia bacteriana, en el periodo 2008-2010. Comentario: Controlar institucionalmente antibióticos contribuye a disminuir la resistencia bacteriana o aumentarla sino se controlan.

  10. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis.

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    Hemmerling, Anke; Harrison, William; Schroeder, Adrienne; Park, Jeanna; Korn, Abner; Shiboski, Stephen; Foster-Rosales, Anne; Cohen, Craig R

    2010-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment. A phase 2a study assessed colonization efficiency, safety, tolerability, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 (LACTIN-V) administered by a vaginal applicator. Twenty-four women with BV were randomized in a 3:1 ratio of active product to placebo. Participants used LACTIN-V at 2 × 10 colony-forming units (cfu)/dose or placebo for 5 initial consecutive days, followed by a weekly application over 2 weeks. They returned for follow-up on Days 10 and 28. Sixty-one percent of the 18 women randomized to the LACTIN-V group were colonized with L. crispatus CTV-05 at Day 10 or Day 28. Among LACTIN-V users with complete adherence to the study regimen, 78% were colonized at Day 10 or Day 28. Of the 120 adverse events (AEs) that occurred, 108 (90%) and 12 (10%) were of mild and moderate severity, respectively. AEs were evenly distributed between the LACTIN-V and placebo group. Of the total AEs, 93 (78%) were genitourinary in origin. The most common genitourinary AEs included vaginal discharge (46%), abdominal pain (46%), dysuria (21%), pollakiuria (21%), vaginal odor (21%), and genital pruritus (17%). No grade 3 or 4 AEs or serious AEs occurred and no deep epithelial disruption was seen during colposcopic evaluation. The product was well tolerated and accepted. LACTIN-V colonized well, and was safe and acceptable in women treated for BV.

  11. The association of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy.

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    Bradshaw, C S; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Morton, A N; Rudland, E; Garland, S M

    2006-09-15

    We investigated associations between Atopobium vaginae and bacterial vaginosis (BV) and the role that A. vaginae plays in recurrent BV after oral metronidazole therapy. Women with abnormal vaginal discharge or odor were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n=358); the proportion of those infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and A. vaginae was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Women with BV (Nugent score [NS] 7-10 or 4-6 with > or =3 Amsel criteria; n=139) were treated with oral metronidazole (400 mg twice a day for 7 days) and examined at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months or until they reached an NS of 7-10 and recurrence of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis infection was established. A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were highly sensitive for BV--96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-98%) and 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%), respectively. However, A. vaginalis was more specific for BV (77% [95% CI, 71%-82%]) than was G. vaginalis (35% [95% CI, 29%-42%]). G. vaginalis was detected in 100% and A. vaginae in 75% of women with recurrent BV; higher organism loads were present in women with recurrent BV. A. vaginae was rarely detected without G. vaginalis, and women in whom both organisms were detected had higher rates of recurrent BV (83%) than women infected with G. vaginalis only (38%) (Pvaginalis. The higher recurrence rates in women in whom both A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were detected suggest that A. vaginae makes a significant contribution to BV. However, its etiological role remains unclear.

  12. Characteristics of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis from women with or without bacterial vaginosis and their relationships in gnotobiotic mice.

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    Teixeira, G S; Carvalho, F P; Arantes, R M E; Nunes, A C; Moreira, J L S; Mendonça, M; Almeida, R B; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R; Nicoli, J R

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate in vitro the production of antagonistic compounds against Gardnerella vaginalis by Lactobacillus strains isolated from women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to select one of the better Lactobacillus producers of such a substance to be tested in vivo using a gnotobiotic animal model challenged with one of the more sensitive G. vaginalis isolates. A total of 24 isolates from women with and without BV were identified as G. vaginalis. A higher frequency (Pvaginalis were isolated with an intermediate frequency in the two groups. In vitro antagonism assays were performed using as indicators 17 reference strains and the G. vaginalis strains isolated from women with BV and from healthy women. Lactobacillus isolated from healthy women showed the higher antagonistic activity against all the indicator strains when compared with isolates from women with BV. Concerning the indicator strains, G. vaginalis found in women with BV was more resistant to the antagonism, particularly when Lactobacillus isolates from women with BV were used as producer strains. A high vaginal population level of G. vaginalis was obtained by intravaginal inoculation of germ-free mice, and this colonization was accompanied by vaginal histopathological lesions. A tenfold decrease in vaginal population level of G. vaginalis and a reduction of histological lesions were observed when the pathogenic challenge was performed in mice previously monoassociated with an L. johnsonii strain. Concluding, results of the present study suggest that progression of G. vaginalis-associated BV depends in part on a simultaneous presence of Lactobacillus populations with a low antagonistic capacity and of a G. vaginalis strain with a high resistance to this antagonism. The results could also explain why G. vaginalis is frequently found in the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women.

  13. New assay for Gardnerella vaginalis loads correlates with Nugent scores and has potential in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

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    Cox, Ciara; McKenna, James P; Watt, Alison P; Coyle, Peter V

    2015-09-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a Gram-variable anaerobic bacterium present in 100% of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV is a complex polymicrobial condition with no single causative agent. The current laboratory detection method for BV relies on a Gram-stain Nugent score to estimate the quantity of different bacterial morphotypes in the vaginal micro flora. Whilst the Nugent score can distinguish between women with and without BV, a significant proportion are categorized as intermediate, which fails to differentiate a normal from an abnormal vaginal micro flora. A singleplex G. vaginalis TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed and compared with the 'gold standard' Nugent score. Detection and quantification of G. vaginalis was performed on vaginal specimens with positive, negative and intermediate Nugent scores. The G. vaginalis qPCR assay demonstrated high analytical specificity against a broad microbial panel and analytical sensitivity down to 3.1 × 10(4) copies ml(-1). There was a significantly higher G. vaginalis load in women with BV compared with intermediate and non-BV women (P value = 5.1 × 10(-14)). All Nugent scores in keeping with BV had qPCR loads of ≥ 10(7) copies ml(-1). Among the 24 undefined women (11.8%) in the study with an intermediate flora, 14 (58.3%) had a G. vaginalis load of ≥ 10(7) copies ml(-1). In this study a threshold of 107 copies ml(-1) had positive and negative predictive values of 57.1 and 100% for BV; the high qPCR loads among the intermediate Nugent scores suggest the need for a new approach in classifying BV and the potential for qPCR to play a role.

  14. Treatment failure of bacterial vaginosis is not associated with higher loads of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis.

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    Ferreira, Carolina Sanitá Tafner; Donders, Gilbert Gerard; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Tristão, Andrea da Rocha; Fernandes, Thaiz; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Marconi, Camila

    2017-08-01

    Cervicovaginal Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and are the main components of vaginal biofilms. The low efficacy of BV treatment with metronidazole may be due to the presence of such biofilms. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the pretreatment cervicovaginal loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis for women who restored normal flora and those who persisted with BV after a full course of oral metronidazole. In this cross-sectional study, 309 reproductive-aged women were recruited in a primary health care service in Botucatu, Brazil. Cervicovaginal samples were tested for genital tract infections, microscopic classification of local microbiota and molecular quantification of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis. All the participants with concurrent cervicovaginal infections (n=64) were excluded. A total of 84 out of 245 (34.3 %) women had BV at enrolment and 43 (51.2 %) of them completed the treatment and returned for follow-up. Evaluation of the vaginal microbiota at follow-up showed that 29 (67.4 %) women restored normal vaginal flora, while 14 (32.6 %) still had BV. The pretreatment loads of G. vaginalis were lower in women with treatment failure (P=0.001) compared to those who successfully restored normal flora. The loads of A. vaginae did not differ between the groups. Although G. vaginalis produces several virulence factors and its loads correlate positively with those of A. vaginae, higher cervicovaginal quantities of these bacteria are not associated with treatment failure of BV after oral metronidazole.

  15. The villain team-up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichorova, Raina N; Buck, Olivia R; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fashemi, Titilayo; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Bisiayo; Hayes, Gary R; Beach, David H; Takagi, Yuko; Delaney, Mary L; Nibert, Max L; Singh, Bibhuti N; Onderdonk, Andrew B

    2013-09-01

    Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and viral infections, largely attributable to inflammation. To investigate the causative relationships among inflammation, BV and trichomoniasis, we established a model of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells colonised by vaginal Lactobacillus isolates, dominant in healthy women, and common BV species (Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia). Colonised epithelia were infected with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or exposed to purified TV virulence factors (membrane lipophosphoglycan (LPG), its ceramide-phosphoinositol-glycan core (CPI-GC) or the endosymbiont Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV)), followed by assessment of bacterial colony-forming units, the mucosal anti-inflammatory microbicide secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and chemokines that drive pro-inflammatory, antigen-presenting and T cells. TV reduced colonisation by Lactobacillus but not by BV species, which were found inside epithelial cells. TV increased interleukin (IL)-8 and suppressed SLPI, likely via LPG/CPI-GC, and upregulated IL-8 and RANTES, likely via TVV as suggested by use of purified pathogenic determinants. BV species A vaginae and G vaginalis induced IL-8 and RANTES, and also amplified the pro-inflammatory responses to both LPG/CPI-GC and TVV, whereas P bivia suppressed the TV/TVV-induced chemokines. These molecular host-parasite-endosymbiont-bacteria interactions explain epidemiological associations and suggest a revised paradigm for restoring vaginal immunity and preventing BV/TV-attributable inflammatory sequelae in women.

  16. A fruitful alliance: the synergy between Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis in bacterial vaginosis-associated biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liselotte; Jespers, Vicky; Abdellati, Said; De Baetselier, Irith; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Crucitti, Tania

    2016-03-10

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by a change in the microbial composition of the vagina. The BV-associated organisms outnumber the health-associated Lactobacillus species and form a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, possibly explaining the difficulties with antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of vaginal biofilm with emphasis on Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis may contribute to a better diagnosis and treatment of BV. To this purpose, we evaluated the association between the presence of both bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and BV by Nugent scoring in 463 vaginal slides of 120 participants participating in a clinical trial in Rwanda. A bacterial biofilm was detected in half of the samples using a universal bacterial probe. The biofilm contained A. vaginae in 54.1% and G. vaginalis in 82.0% of the samples. A. vaginae was accompanied by G. vaginalis in 99.5% of samples. The odds of having a Nugent score above 4 were increased for samples with dispersed G. vaginalis and/or A. vaginae present (OR 4.5; CI 2 to 10.3). The probability of having a high Nugent score was even higher when a combination of adherent G. vaginalis and dispersed A. vaginae was visualised (OR 75.6; CI 13.3 to 429.5) and highest when both bacteria were part of the biofilm (OR 119; CI 39.9 to 360.8). Our study, although not comprehensive at studying the polymicrobial biofilm in BV, provided a strong indication towards the importance of A. vaginae and the symbiosis of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis in this biofilm. NCT01796613. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Women's Views and Experiences of the Triggers for Onset of Bacterial Vaginosis and Exacerbating Factors Associated with Recurrence.

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    Jade Bilardi

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal infection affecting women of childbearing age. While the aetiology and transmissibility of BV remain unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest an association between BV and sexual activity. This study explored women's views and experiences of the triggers for BV onset and factors associated with recurrence.A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past five years took part in semi-structured interviews.The majority of women predominantly reported sexual contact triggered the onset of BV and sexual and non-sexual factors precipitated recurrence. Recurrence was most commonly referred to in terms of a 'flare-up' of symptoms. The majority of women did not think BV was a sexually transmitted infection however many reported being informed this by their clinician. Single women who attributed BV onset to sex with casual partners were most likely to display self-blame tendencies and to consider changing their future sexual behaviour. Women who have sex with women (WSW were more inclined to believe their partner was responsible for the transmission of or reinfection with BV and seek partner treatment or change their sexual practices.Findings from this study strongly suggest women believe that BV onset is associated with sexual activity, concurring with epidemiological data which increasingly suggest BV may be sexually transmitted. Exacerbating factors associated with recurrence were largely heterogeneous and may reflect the fact it is difficult to determine whether recurrence is due to persistent BV or a new infection in women. There was however evidence to suggest possible transmission and reinfection among WSW, reinforcing the need for new approaches to treatment and management strategies including male and female partner treatment trials.

  18. Longitudinal analysis of vaginal microbiome dynamics in women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis: recognition of the conversion process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A Lambert

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects ∼ 30% of women of reproductive age, has a high rate of recurrence, and is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV-1. Little is known of the daily changes in the vaginal bacterial composition as it progresses from treatment to recurrence, or whether any of these might be useful in its prediction or an understanding of its causes. We used phylogenetic branch-inclusive quantitative PCR (PB-qPCR and Lactobacillus blocked/unblocked qPCR (Lb-qPCR to characterize longitudinal changes in the vaginal microbiota in sequential vaginal self-swabs from five women with recurrent BV, from diagnosis through remission to recurrence. Both patients with acute BV samples dominated by G. vaginalis recurred during the study with similar profiles, whereas the three patients with acute BV samples dominated by other anaerobes did not recur or recurred to an intermediate Nugent score. L. iners dominated remission phases, with intermittent days of abnormal microbial profiles typically associated with menses. The exception was a newly discovered phenomenon, a sustained period of abnormal profiles, termed conversion, which preceded symptomatic acute BV. Species known to have antagonistic activity towards Lactobacillus were detected in pre-conversion samples, possibly contributing to the decline in Lactobacillus. Lb-qPCR scores define two categories of response in the initial post-treatment visit samples; scores 8 may predict delayed or no recurrence. Amsel criteria or Nugent scores did not have this potential predictive capability. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic potential of detecting conversion and poor Lb-qPCR scores at the post-treatment visit of recurrent BV patients.

  19. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pazhohideh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40 or metronidazole (n = 40. Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH> 4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination. For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01. One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.

  20. The effect ofCalendula officinalisversus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis ( n = 40) or metronidazole ( n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.

  1. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319

  2. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  3. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on the response to Trichomonas vaginalis treatment among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatski, Megan; Martin, David H; Levison, Judy; Mena, Leandro; Clark, Rebecca A; Murphy, Mary; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Kissinger, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is common in HIV+ women, and host factors may play a role in TV treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) on the response to TV treatment among HIV+ women. A secondary analysis was conducted of a clinical trial which randomised HIV+/TV+ women to metronidazole (MTZ) treatment: 2 g (single-dose) versus 7 day 500 mg twice daily (multidose). BV was classified using Nugent scores from baseline Gram stains. Women were recultured for TV at test-of-cure (TOC) and again at 3 months if TV-negative at TOC. Repeat TV infection rates were compared for women with a baseline TV/BV coinfection versus baseline TV infection only, and stratified by treatment arm. Among 244 HIV+/TV+ women (mean age=40.3, ±9.5; 92.2% African-American), the rate of BV was 66.8%. Women with BV were more likely to report douching and ≥1 recent sex partners. HIV+ women with baseline TV/BV coinfection were more likely to be TV-positive at TOC than women with baseline TV infection only (RR 2.42 (95% CI 0.96 to 6.07; p=0.05)). When stratified by treatment arm, the association was only found in the single-dose arm (p=0.02) and not in the multidose arm (p=0.92). This interaction did not persist at 3 months. For HIV+/TV+ women, the rate of BV was high, and BV was associated with early failure of the MTZ single-dose treatment for TV. Biological explanations require further investigation.

  4. Unravelling the Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Biofilm: A Multiplex Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Hardy

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA probes targeting these bacteria. For this purpose, we developed three new PNA probes for A. vaginae. The most specific A. vaginae probe, AtoITM1, was selected and then used in an assay with two existing probes, Gard162 and BacUni-1, to evaluate multiplex FISH on clinical samples. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR as the gold standard, we demonstrated a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval: 54.5% - 77.1% and a specificity of 89.4% (95% confidence interval: 76.1% - 96% of the new AtoITM1 probe. FISH enabled us to show the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm in bacterial vaginosis, in which Atopobium vaginae is part of a Gardnerella vaginalis-dominated biofilm. We showed that the presence of this biofilm is associated with high bacterial loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis.

  5. Unravelling the Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Biofilm: A Multiplex Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liselotte; Jespers, Vicky; Dahchour, Nassira; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes targeting these bacteria. For this purpose, we developed three new PNA probes for A. vaginae. The most specific A. vaginae probe, AtoITM1, was selected and then used in an assay with two existing probes, Gard162 and BacUni-1, to evaluate multiplex FISH on clinical samples. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as the gold standard, we demonstrated a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval: 54.5% - 77.1%) and a specificity of 89.4% (95% confidence interval: 76.1% - 96%) of the new AtoITM1 probe. FISH enabled us to show the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm in bacterial vaginosis, in which Atopobium vaginae is part of a Gardnerella vaginalis-dominated biofilm. We showed that the presence of this biofilm is associated with high bacterial loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis.

  6. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small for gestational age, but not with spontaneous preterm birth: A population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early pregnancy and preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a Danish population. Methods. A geographically defined population-based prospective study of Danish-speaking pregnant women over...

  7. Nuevos criterios de bajo riesgo de infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 229 recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización en su evaluación inicial, en los cuales se consideraron una serie de datos clínicos y de laboratorio, con el objetivo de valorar la efectividad de éstos como medio de predicción negativa de infección bacteriana severa (IBS, y así poder calificar un grupo como de bajo riesgo de IBS; y estos criterios se compararon con los de Rochester aplicados a este mismo grupo de pacientes. La evaluación diagnóstica dio un valor predictivo negativo de 98,9 %. Con estos mismos datos se conforma un test de evaluación que permite calificar eficazmente a un grupo de pacientes como de bajo riesgo de IBS al presentarse dentro de estos sólo un caso con IBS, a diferencia de 40 casos en el grupo calificado como de alto riesgo. La comparación de los criterios de Rochester con los del presente trabajo demuestra un saldo superior para los nuestros.229 febrile newborns with no signs of focalization during their initial evaluation were studied. A series of clinical and laboratory data were considered in order to evaluate their effectiveness as a means of negative prediction of serious bacterial infection (SBI and, this way, to qualify a group as low risk SBI. These criteria were compared to those of Rochester applied to the same group of patients. Diagnostic evaluation showed a negative predictive value of 98.9 %. An evaluation test is made with these data, making possible an efficient qualification of a group of patients as low risk serious bacterial infection on presenting only one case with SBI among them, compared to 40 cases in the high risk group. Comparison between Rochester's criteria and the present paper's ones had a higher balance favorable to ours.

  8. Síntesis intratecal de C3c e inmunoglobulinas en niños con meningoencefalitis bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Padilla-Docal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una fuente importante de morbilidad, mortalidad y discapacidad en diferentes regiones del mundo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer si el sistema de complemento puede estar involucrado en la lisis de las bacterias productoras de meningoencefalitis a través de la liberación de C3c al líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se estudiaron siete pacientes con edad promedio de 3 años, que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, a los que se les realizó una punción lumbar diagnóstica y se les aislaron los gérmenes siguientes: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae. La cuantificación de los niveles de C3c, albúmina e inmunoglobulinas mayores en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo se realizó en placas de inmunodifusión radial. Los resultados obtenidos fueron recogidos en un reibergrama. El total de los pacientes estudiados mostraron síntesis intratecal del componente C3c del sistema de complemento. Este hecho evidenció la activación de este sistema en alguna de sus vías y que una vez cumplidas sus funciones biológicas, ha sufrido un proceso de degradación y liberación al LCR en forma de C3c.

  9. Resistencia bacteriana de cultivos de orina en un hospital oncológico:seguimiento a diez años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir los patrones de resistencia bacteriana en cultivos de orina de pacientes de un hospital oncológico en la Ciudad de México, de 2004 a 2013. Material y métodos. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de susceptibilidad para diferentes antibióticos, describiendo por separado las bacterias multidrogorresistentes (MDR. Se analizaron por separado las cepas obtenidas de pacientes hospitalizados de las de la comunidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 51 202 cultivos, de los cuales se identificaron 14 480 bacterias (28.3%. De éstas, se reportaron 11 427 Gram negativos (78.9%; 2 080 Gram positivos (14.4%; y 973 (6.6% levaduras. Escherichia coli fue el principal microorganismo aislado (56.1%; 24% de las cepas de la comunidad y 66% de las nosocomiales fueron productoras de beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Klebsiella pneumoniae se identificó en 705 cultivos (4.8%, 115 de los cuales fueron BLEE (16%: 13.1% de la comunidad y 29.8% nosocomiales. Pseudomonas aeruginosa se identificó en 593 cultivos (4.1%: 9% de la comunidad y 51% nosocomiales. Conclusiones. Las cepas MDR son mucho más frecuentes en muestras de origen nosocomial. Es prioritario intensificar el uso racional de antibióticos en la comunidad y el programa de desescalamiento de antimicrobianos en el hospital.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i4.8025

  10. Flora bacteriana aeróbica del tracto digestivo del vampiro común, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriana Chaverri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la flora bacteriana del vampiro común (Desmodus rotundus primordialmente debido a que los datos al respecto están desactualizados, y además por la gran importancia económica de esta especie de murciélago. Veintiún murciélagos fueron recolectados y su flora bacteriana identificada separadamente a nivel de estómago e intestino. Las bacterias fueron identificadas con el Analytical Profile Index (API, y los resultados analizados con el paquete APILAB. Un total de treinta especies fueron aisladas en 16 hembras y cinco machos. Las especies más comunes fueron Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, aunque otras especies, como Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus y S. xylosus también se aislaron con frecuencia. El número de especies identificadas en el estómago y el intestino fue significativamente diferente, siendo el intestino más diverso. Esto ha sido encontrado anteriormente en otros mamíferos, y se atribuye probablemente a la reducción en acidez. Asimismo, la mayoría de las especies identificadas en este estudio forman parte de la flora bacteriana normal del tracto digestivo de mamíferos, aunque también se encontraron otras bacterias comunes en la piel de mamíferos y en ambientes acuáticos Las bacterias de la piel podrían estar colonizando el estómago y/o intestino del vampiro cuando éste tiene contacto con sus presas, lo que sugiere que el hábito alimentario de esta especie facilita su colonización por microorganismos que no se encontrarían comúnmente en su tracto digestivo. Ya que también se identificaron bacterias comunes en ambientes acuáticos, es probable que D. rotundus consuma agua cuando esté disponible, lo que respalda los resultados de otros investigadores, y sugiere que esta podría ser una fuente adicional de invasión microbiana.Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat

  11. Estudio de comunidades bacterianas naturales: diferenciación de las actinobacterias mediante electroforesis en doble gel en gradiente de desnaturalización (DDGGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    El primer objetivo, en esta Tesis, es la optimización de las condiciones a emplear para el estudio de comunidades bacterianas naturales. Esto se conseguirá mejorando los gradientes empleados en los geles en condiciones desnaturalizantes. En lo referente a la optimización de los gradientes, hay que tener en cuenta que en las muestras naturales las comunidades presentes son heterogéneas, lo que hace necesaria una optimización de los gradientes de desnaturalización, con el fin de mejorar la sepa...

  12. Análise in vitro da infiltração bacteriana na interface de pilares protéticos e implantes com plataforma cone morse

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Carlos Magno dos

    2009-01-01

    A existência de microfenda entre o implante e o pilar protético possibilita o acúmulo de biofilme. A presença de bactérias nesta região tem sido descrita como fator etiológico de processos inflamatórios, tendo como consequência a desorganização dos tecidos interferindo na saúde perimplantar em longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a existência de infiltração bacteriana entre implantes com plataforma Cone Morse e pilares protéticos. A amostra foi dividida em 3 grupos ...

  13. Determinación de la declinación Bacteriana (T-90) en la bahía de Chimbote

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián, Carlos; Maghella, Gerardo; Mamani, Enoc; Maguiña, José

    2002-01-01

    El trabajo consistió en calibrar un modelo teórico de inactivación para determinación de T-90, mediante la utilización de trazadores Rodamina B y Iodo-131, inyectados conjuntamente de manera continua en un punto cercano a las descargas actuales de aguas residuales. Así, la influencia de los principales factores ecológicos implicados en la declinación bacteriana (muerte o inactivación), se pueden chequear para la determinación de T-90, siguiendo igualmente la nube de trazador y determinando lo...

  14. Tireoidite bacteriana supurativa: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Acute suppurative thyroiditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vieira Pedreira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um caso de tireoidite bacteriana aguda em um criança lúpica de nove anos de idade, em que o diagnóstico precoce foi imprescindível pela gravidade do quadro. Em seguida é apresentada uma revisão da literatura sobre o assunto.We present the case of a 9-year-old girl with acute suppurative thyroiditis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Early diagnosis was crucial for the outcome of the patient due to the severity of the disease. A review of the literature is also presented.

  15. Evaluación de la eficacia de dos prescripciones de cepillos dentales en la remoción de placa bacteriana en pacientes ortodóncicos

    OpenAIRE

    D Zúñiga García; Pastén Castro, E.J.; Araya-Díaz, P.A.; H. Palomino Montenegro

    2012-01-01

    La aparatología empleada en los tratamientos de ortodoncia, favorece la retención de placa bacteriana y dificulta su eliminación por parte del paciente, aumentando el riesgo de desarrollar caries, manchas blancas y enfermedad periodontal. Diferentes cepillos dentales se han desarrollado para facilitar la mantención de una adecuada higiene oral en estos pacientes, sin embargo, se ha observado que los cepillos comunmente indicados (cepillo ortodóncico mas cepillo unipenacho), no siempre son bie...

  16. Cuatro métodos de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave en recién nacidos febriles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; Heidy González Trujillo; Humberto Martínez Canalejo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue contrastar la efectividad de 4 métodos de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave (IBG) en recién nacidos (RN) febriles, uno de los cuales fue desarrollado por los autores del trabajo y los otros son los utilizados en la práctica internacional. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y aplicado de 1358 RN febriles sin signos de focalización evaluados y clasificados por riesgo de IBG. Fue aplicado el método propue...

  17. Amigdalitis aguda recurrente bacteriana: Estudio prospectivo, comparativo y controlado de sus características clínicas y microbiológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Der M,Carolina; Iñiguez C,Rodrigo; Guzman D,Ana Maria; Jofré P,David; Iñiguez C,Armando; Labarca L,Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: La amigdalitis aguda recurrente es una patología de frecuente consulta, es una de las indicaciones de amigdalectomía. No se sabe con exactitud el origen de esta patología. Objetivo: Identificar la microbiología y patrones de susceptibilidad de las bacterias en la amigdalitis aguda recurrente bacteriana (AARB) a los antimicrobianos más comúnmente en el medio nacional, usados en su tratamiento. Material y método: Se planificó un estudio prospectivo, controlado y ciego. Se evaluaro...

  18. Inoculación bacteriana en el crecimiento y calidad del fruto de cinco variedades de fresa en suelos con pH contrastante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ortiz Texon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En un primer experimento se determinó el crecimiento de cinco variedades de fresa en dos suelos con pH contrastante (4.4 y 8.8. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea, área foliar, volumen radical y concentración de N, P, K en la parte aérea se determinaron 125 días después del trasplante (ddt. Las plantas de todas las variedades cultivadas en pH 4.4 superaron a las cultivadas en pH 8.8 en todas las variables. Las variedades CP-06-15 y Festival fueron las que mejor se adaptaron a las condiciones de pH alcalino. En un segundo experimento se determinó la función de la inoculación con rizobacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos en la reducción de los efectos negativos del pH alcalino en las variedades de fresa. Dos tipos de inoculación al momento del trasplante fueron comparadas: aplicación con pipeta de precisión e inmersión de las raíces en la suspensión bacteriana; además del testigo (sin inoculación. Se determinó crecimiento de las plantas y la producción y calidad de los frutos. La inoculación bacteriana no tuvo efecto en el crecimiento de la parte aérea y la raíz de las plantas, excepto en la variedad más sensible al pH alcalino (CP-LE-07 inoculada por inmersión de la raíz. También, esta fue la única variedad en la que la inoculación bacteriana aumentó el número de frutos producidos. De acuerdo al promedio de todas las variedades, la inoculación bacteriana, en ambas de sus formas, redujo el número y peso de los frutos producidos.

  19. Estratégias para prevenção da resistência bacteriana: contribuições para a segurança do paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Soldatelli Pagno Paim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A resistência bacteriana tem como consequências, o aumento da morbidade, mortalidade e da internação hospitalar, o prolongamento das doenças, a perda da produtividade, o aumento dos custos e maior risco de complicações. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, na perspectiva de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada em janeiro de 2014. Resultados e Discussão: Foram selecionados oito artigos que relatavam estratégias de prevenção da resistência bacteriana em um recorte temporal de 2008 a 2014. O uso racional de antimicrobianos, a higienização adequada das mãos, a cultura de vigilância microbiológica, a educação continuada, a desinfecção de superfícies, uso de testes de suscetibilidade, o isolamento de contato, quando indicado e a manutenção de um banco de dados, são alguns dos métodos encontrados neste trabalho para prevenir a seleção de micro-organismos resistentes. Conclusões: A diminuição do lançamento de novos antimicrobianos pela indústria farmacêutica e a necessidade de novos antibióticos reforça ainda mais a importância da conscientização de toda a equipe multidisciplinar no processo de prevenção de resistência antimicrobiana.            Palavras chave: Farmacorresistência Bacteriana, Antibacterianos, Programa de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, Infecção Hospitalar, Segurança do Paciente. (Fonte: DeCS BIREME.Cómo citar este artículo: Paim R, Lorenzini E. Estrategias para prevenção da resistência bacteriana. Rev Cuid. 2014; 5(2:757-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v5i2.88

  20. Utilidad de Streptotest en la farmacia comunitaria para la discriminación rápida de faringitis bacteriana y vírica en pacientes adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Bonafonte Jimeno, María Ángeles; Boleda Relats, Xavier; Ricote Belinchón, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN La faringoamigdalitis es la patología infecciosa más frecuente en consultas médicas, tanto en población infantil como adulta. Los signos y síntomas de la faringitis viral o bacteriana son inespecíficos, dificultando su diagnóstico.OBJETIVO Determinar la utilidad en la farmacia comunitaria del Streptotest para la discriminación rápida de los dos tipos de faringitis en pacientes adultos.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS Diseño observacional no postautorización (No-EPA), prospectivo, multicéntrico...

  1. Caracterización de las propiedades térmicas y dieléctricas de composites de celulosa bacteriana/carboximetilcelulosa/óxido de grafeno oxidado

    OpenAIRE

    RADOSELOVICS LAHOZ, ÁNGEL

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En este TFG se va a abordar el análisis del efecto del cambio de composición en las propiedades térmicas y dieléctricas de composites de celulosa bacteriana/carboximetilcelulosa/óxido de grafeno oxidado. Para ello el alumno deberá familiarizarse con el uso de diferentes técnicas experimentales principalmente con la calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC) y con la espectroscopia de relajación dieléctrica (DRS). Las muestras a analizar han sido proporcionadas por investigadores de Perú, ...

  2. In vaginal fluid, bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis can be suppressed with lactic acid but not hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Deirdre E; Moench, Thomas R; Cone, Richard A

    2011-07-19

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being developed as vaginal probiotics. However, evidence that led to this belief was based in part on non-physiological conditions, antioxidant-free aerobic conditions selected to maximize both production and microbicidal activity of H2O2. Here we used conditions more like those in vivo to compare the effects of physiologically plausible concentrations of H2O2 and lactic acid on a broad range of BV-associated bacteria and vaginal lactobacilli. Anaerobic cultures of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria and four species of vaginal lactobacilli were exposed to H2O2, lactic acid, or acetic acid at pH 7.0 and pH 4.5. After two hours, the remaining viable bacteria were enumerated by growth on agar media plates. The effect of vaginal fluid (VF) on the microbicidal activities of H2O2 and lactic acid was also measured. Physiological concentrations of H2O2 (bacteria tested, even in the presence of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) that increases the microbicidal activity of H2O2. At 10 mM, H2O2 inactivated all four species of vaginal lactobacilli but only one of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria. Moreover, the addition of just 1% vaginal fluid (VF) blocked the microbicidal activity of 1 M H2O2. In contrast, lactic acid at physiological concentrations (55-111 mM) and pH (4.5) inactivated all the BV-associated bacteria tested, and had no detectable effect on the vaginal lactobacilli. Also, the addition of 10% VF did not block the microbicidal activity of lactic acid. Under optimal, anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated BV-associated bacteria without affecting vaginal lactobacilli, whereas physiological concentrations of H2O2 produced no detectable inactivation of either BV-associated bacteria or vaginal lactobacilli

  3. In vaginal fluid, bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis can be suppressed with lactic acid but not hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cone Richard A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being developed as vaginal probiotics. However, evidence that led to this belief was based in part on non-physiological conditions, antioxidant-free aerobic conditions selected to maximize both production and microbicidal activity of H2O2. Here we used conditions more like those in vivo to compare the effects of physiologically plausible concentrations of H2O2 and lactic acid on a broad range of BV-associated bacteria and vaginal lactobacilli. Methods Anaerobic cultures of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria and four species of vaginal lactobacilli were exposed to H2O2, lactic acid, or acetic acid at pH 7.0 and pH 4.5. After two hours, the remaining viable bacteria were enumerated by growth on agar media plates. The effect of vaginal fluid (VF on the microbicidal activities of H2O2 and lactic acid was also measured. Results Physiological concentrations of H2O2 (2O2. At 10 mM, H2O2 inactivated all four species of vaginal lactobacilli but only one of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria. Moreover, the addition of just 1% vaginal fluid (VF blocked the microbicidal activity of 1 M H2O2. In contrast, lactic acid at physiological concentrations (55-111 mM and pH (4.5 inactivated all the BV-associated bacteria tested, and had no detectable effect on the vaginal lactobacilli. Also, the addition of 10% VF did not block the microbicidal activity of lactic acid. Conclusions Under optimal, anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated BV-associated bacteria without affecting vaginal lactobacilli, whereas physiological concentrations of H2O2 produced no detectable inactivation of either BV-associated bacteria or vaginal lactobacilli. Moreover, at very high concentrations, H2O2 was more

  4. Bacterial vaginosis (BV candidate bacteria: associations with BV and behavioural practices in sexually-experienced and inexperienced women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fethers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs. METHODS: We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS. We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting

  5. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Candidate Bacteria: Associations with BV and Behavioural Practices in Sexually-Experienced and Inexperienced Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fehler, Glenda; Morton, Anna M.; Hocking, Jane S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs). Methods We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS). We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Results On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis) were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW) and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting for the presence of

  6. A blinded, randomized controlled trial of high-dose vitamin D supplementation to reduce recurrence of bacterial vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURNER, Abigail Norris; REESE, Patricia CARR; FIELDS, Karen S.; ANDERSON, Julie; ERVIN, Melissa; DAVIS, John A.; FICHOROVA, Raina N.; ROBERTS, Mysheika Williams; KLEBANOFF, Mark A.; JACKSON, Rebecca D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with increased prevalence of the reproductive tract condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on BV recurrence. Study design This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled 118 women with symptomatic BV from an urban STD clinic (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01450462). All participants received 500mg oral metronidazole twice daily for seven days. Intervention participants (n=59) also received nine doses of 50,000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) over 24 weeks; control women (n=59) received matching placebo. Recurrent BV was assessed via Nugent scoring after 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat approach, fitting Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate recurrent BV over the follow-up period. Results Most participants (74%) were black, with a median age of 26 years. Median presupplementation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was similar across randomization arms: 16.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D arm and 15.8 ng/mL in the control arm. At trial completion, median 25(OH)D among women receiving vitamin D was 30.5 ng/mL, vs 17.8 ng/mL in control women; 16% of women receiving vitamin D and 57% receiving placebo remained vitamin D deficient (vitamin D was very similar to those randomized to placebo at the 4- and 12-week visits, but by the 24-week visit, BV prevalence was 65% among women in the vitamin D arm and 48% among control women. BV recurrence was not reduced by vitamin D supplementation (intention-to-treat hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.81). Among women experiencing recurrent BV, median time to recurrence was 13.7 weeks in the vitamin D arm and 14.3 weeks in the control arm. Conclusions Women receiving vitamin D experienced significant increases in serum 25(OH)D, but this increase was not associated with

  7. Hormonal contraception is associated with a reduced risk of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka A Vodstrcil

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between hormonal contraception (HC and bacterial vaginosis (BV by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched to 24/1/13 and duplicate references removed. Inclusion criteria 1 >20 BV cases; 2 accepted BV diagnostic method; 3 measure of HC-use either as combined oestrogen-progesterone HC (combined, progesterone-only contraception (POC or unspecified HC (u-HC; 4 ≥ 10% of women using HC; 5 analysis of the association between BV and HC-use presented; 6 appropriate control group. Data extracted included: type of HC, BV diagnostic method and outcome (prevalent, incident, recurrent, and geographical and clinic-setting. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate pooled effect sizes (ES, stratified by HC-type and BV outcome. This systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013003699. RESULTS: Of 1713 unique references identified, 502 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 studies met inclusion criteria. Hormonal contraceptive use was associated with a significant reduction in the odds of prevalent BV (pooled effect size by random-effects [reES] = 0.68, 95%CI0.63-0.73, and in the relative risk (RR of incident (reES = 0.82, 95%CI:0.72-0.92, and recurrent (reES = 0.69, 95%CI:0.59-0.91 BV. When stratified by HC-type, combined-HC and POC were both associated with decreased prevalence of BV and risk of incident BV. In the pooled analysis of the effect of HC-use on the composite outcome of prevalent/incident/recurrent BV, HC-use was associated with a reduced risk of any BV (reES = 0.78, 95%CI:0.74-0.82. CONCLUSION: HC-use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of BV. This negative association was robust and present regardless of HC-type and evident across all three BV outcome measures. When stratified by HC-type, combined-HC and POC were both individually associated with a reduction in the prevalence and incidence of BV. This

  8. Bacteriana en el suelo en ecosistemas oligotróficos: una revisión crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Tapia Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un elemento esencial para la vida, por lo cual entender los mecanismos que permiten su disponibilidad en el suelo es prioritario. Debido a la complejidad de la dinámica de este nutriente, aún existen varios procesos que no están claramente entendidos, principalmente en los ecosistemas oligotróficos. En la presente revisión se analiza literatura relacionada con procesos involucrados en la disponibilidad del P, dándole énfasis al papel de las bacterias. La forma química disponible del P es el ortofosfato, pero por su alta reactividad y demanda de la biota, esta forma es rápidamente disminuida de la solución del suelo. Por lo que es necesario que la biota adquiera este elemento de otras formas químicas. Entre ellas, las formas orgánicas representan la principal fuente de este nutriente mediante la mineralización bioquímica producto principalmente de la comunidad bacteriana del suelo. Entre los compuestos organofosforados, los ésteres de fosfatos son los más fáciles de mineralizar, por la poca demanda energética en la producción de las enzimas involucradas en dicho proceso. Por otro lado, la mineralización de los fosfonatos puede representar una fuente alternativa de P disponible, a pesar de que se había considerado que esta forma química no era accesible por la complejidad de sus moléculas. En general, una estrategia exitosa para la adquisición de P en ecosistemas donde dicho elemento es limitado, depende de la presencia de una maquinaria genética capaz de sintetizar las diferentes enzimas que mineralizan compuestos orgánicos con demandas energéticas diferentes (fosfohidrolasas, fosfonatasas y C-P liasas, además de la presencia de transportadores específicos de membrana y la disponibilidad de C como fuente de energía. Aún faltan estudios integrados que permitan elucidar el movimiento del P en los ecosistemas y cómo esto puede ser controlado y llevado a cabo por las bacterias que habitan en el suelo.

  9. DIVERSIDAD BACTERIANA ASOCIADA A BIOPELÍCULAS ANÓDICAS EN CELDAS DE COMBUSTIBLE MICROBIANAS ALIMENTADAS CON AGUAS RESIDUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander MORA COLLAZOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evaluó la diversidad bacteriana asociada a las biopelículas formadas sobre los ánodos de celdas de combustible microbianas, por medio del análisis del gen del ARNr 16S y observaciones por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se construyeron celdas de combustible microbianas de una cámara que permanecieron en operación durante 30 días utilizando muestras ambientales como inóculo y único sustrato energético; las celdas fueron monitoreadas en función de la producción de energía durante el desarrollo del experimento; al finalizar los ensayos, se realizó la caracterización molecular y observaciones mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido a las biopelículas formadas. Se reportan valores de densidad de potencia máxima de 4,85 mW/m 2 para el agua residual doméstica y de 1,85 mW/m 2 para el caso del agua residual industrial, con disminuciones de 71 % de la DBO para el agua residual doméstica y de 59 % de la DBO para el caso del agua residual industrial. Se logró la recuperación de 15 secuencias únicas provenientes de la amplificación del gen del ARNr 16S obtenidas a partir de las biopelículas formadas sobre los ánodos. El análisis filogenético ubicó estas secuencias en la clase Deltaproteobacteria . Los dos sustratos ambientales contienen una importante e interesante diversidad microbiana, mostrándolos promisorios para la construcción y operación de MFC y la implementación de procesos de biodegradación de materia orgánica.

  10. Importance of bacterial endotoxin (LPS in endodontics A importância da endotoxina bacteriana (LPS na endodontia atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Leonardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New knowledge of the structure and biological activity of endotoxins (LPS has revolutionized concepts concerning their mechanisms of action and forms of inactivation. Since the 1980's, technological advances in microbiological culture and identification have shown that anaerobic microorganisms, especially Gram-negative, predominate in root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographically visible chronic periapical lesions. Gram-negative bacteria not only have different factors of virulence and generate sub-products that are toxic to apical and periapical tissues, as also contain endotoxin (LPS on their cell wall. This is especially important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. Thus, due to the role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, we reviewed the literature concerning the biological activity of endotoxin and the relevance of its inactivation during treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion.O conhecimento mais aprofundado sobre a estrutura e atividade biológica das endotoxinas (LPS revolucionou os conceitos sobre seu mecanismo de ação e formas de inativação. A partir da década de 80, os avanços tecnológicos na cultura e identificação microbiológica demonstraram que, em canais radiculares de dentes portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical crônica, visível radiograficamente, predominam microrganismos anaeróbios, particularmente os gram-negativos. Como se sabe, os microrganismos gram-negativos, além de possuírem diferentes fatores de virulência e gerarem produtos e sub-produtos tóxicos aos tecidos apicais e periapicais, contêm endotoxina em sua parede celular. Esse conhecimento é particularmente importante, uma vez que a endotoxina é liberada durante a multiplicação ou morte bacteriana, exercendo uma série de

  11. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2017-01-01

    in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. METHODS: WLWH between 18......BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding...... viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. RESULTS: Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (HIV...

  12. Gardnerella vaginalis outcompetes 29 other bacterial species isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis, using in an in vitro biofilm formation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patrícia; Castro, Joana; Sousa, Cármen; Cereija, Tatiana B; Cerca, Nuno

    2014-08-15

    Despite the worldwide prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), its etiology is still unknown. Although BV has been associated with the presence of biofilm, the ability of BV-associated bacteria to form biofilms is still largely unknown. Here, we isolated 30 BV-associated species and characterized their virulence, using an in vitro biofilm formation model. Our data suggests that Gardnerella vaginalis had the highest virulence potential, as defined by higher initial adhesion and cytotoxicity of epithelial cells, as well as the greater propensity to form a biofilm. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that most of the BV-associated bacteria had a tendency to grow as biofilms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Subtilosin Acts Synergistically with Glycerol Monolaurate, Lauric Arginate, and ε-Poly-l-Lysine against Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Pathogens but Not Human Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutyak Noll, Katia; Prichard, Mark N.; Khaykin, Arkady; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Subtilosin is a cyclical antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens that has antimicrobial activity against the bacterial vaginosis-associated human pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis. The ability of subtilosin to inhibit G. vaginalis alone and in combination with the natural antimicrobial agents glycerol monolaurate (Lauricidin), lauric arginate, and ε-poly-l-lysine was tested using a checkerboard approach. Subtilosin was found to act synergistically with all of the chosen antimicrobials. These promising results indicate that lower concentrations of subtilosin in combination with other compounds could effectively be used to inhibit growth of the pathogen, thereby decreasing the risk of developed antimicrobial resistance. This is the first report on the effects of subtilosin combined with other natural antimicrobials against G. vaginalis. PMID:22252803

  14. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms of Action of the Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Subtilosin Against the Bacterial Vaginosis-associated Pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Katia Sutyak; Sinko, Patrick J; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-03-01

    Subtilosin A is a 35-amino acid long cyclical peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens that has potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of human pathogens, including the bacterial vaginosis-related Gardnerella vaginalis. The specific mode of action of subtilosin against G. vaginalis was elucidated by studying its effects on the proton motive force's (PMF) components: transmembrane electric potential (ΔΨ), transmembrane pH gradient (ΔpH), and intracellular ATP levels. The addition of subtilosin to G. vaginalis cells caused an immediate and total depletion of the ΔpH, but had no effect on the ΔΨ. Subtilosin also triggered an instant but partial efflux of intracellular ATP that was twofold higher than that of the positive control bacteriocin, nisin. Taken together, these data suggest that subtilosin inhibits G. vaginalis growth by creating transient pores in the cells' cytoplasmic membrane, leading to an efflux of intracellular ions and ATP and eventually cell death.

  15. Bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic: a longitudinal analysis of possible causal links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Warner, Lee; Fleenor, Michael E; Hook, Edward W; Brill, Ilene; Weaver, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.R.F. Leite

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7.4% vaginal extract of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi was compared with 0.75% vaginal metronidazole, both manufactured by the Hebron Laboratory, for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, used at bedtime for 7 nights. The condition was diagnosed using the combined criteria of Amsel and Nugent in two groups of 140 and 137 women, aged between 18 and 40 years. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Women were excluded from the study if they presented delayed menstruation, were pregnant, were using or had used any topical or systemic medication, presented any other vaginal infections, presented hymen integrity, or if they reported any history suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. According to Amsel’s criteria separately, 29 patients (21.2% treated with the extract and 87 (62.1% treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001. According to Nugent’s score separately, 19 women (13.9% treated with the extract and 79 (56.4% treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001. Using the two criteria together, the so-called total cure was observed in 17 women (12.4% treated with the extract and in 79 women (56.4% treated with metronidazole (P < 0.001. In conclusion, the cure rate for bacterial vaginosis using a vaginal gel from a pepper tree extract was lower than the rate obtained with metronidazole gel, while side effects were infrequent and non-severe in both groups.

  17. Impact of bacterial vaginosis, as assessed by nugent criteria and hormonal status on glycosidases and lectin binding in cervicovaginal lavage samples.

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    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA. Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively. The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003 and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001 were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02 when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry.

  18. Extended antimicrobial treatment of bacterial vaginosis combined with human lactobacilli to find the best treatment and minimize the risk of relapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarström Lennart

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study was to investigate if extended antibiotic treatment against bacterial vaginosis (BV together with adjuvant lactobacilli treatment could cure BV and, furthermore, to investigate factors that could cause relapse. Methods In all, 63 consecutive women with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Amsel criteria were offered a much more aggressive treatment of BV than used in normal clinical practice with repeated antibiotic treatment with clindamycin and metronidazole together with vaginal gelatine capsules containing different strains of lactobacilli both newly characterised and a commercial one (109 freeze-dried bacteria per capsule. Oral clindamycin treatment was also given to the patient's sexual partner. Results The cure rate was 74.6% after 6 months. The patients were then followed as long as possible or until a relapse. The cure rate was 65.1% at 12 months and 55.6% after 24 months. There was no significant difference in cure rate depending on which Lactobacillus strains were given to the women or if the women were colonised by lactobacilli. The most striking factor was a new sex partner during the follow up period where the Odds Ratio of having a relapse was 9.3 (2.8-31.2 if the patients had a new sex partner during the observation period. Conclusions The study shows that aggressive treatment of the patient with antibiotics combined with specific Lactobacillus strain administration and partner treatment can provide long lasting cure. A striking result of our study is that change of partner is strongly associated with relapse of BV. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01245322

  19. Bacterial diversity in the sediments of a temperate artificial lake, Rapel reservoir Diversidad bacteriana en sedimentos de un lago artificial temperado, embalse Rapel

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    CRISTINA DORADOR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapel reservoir is an eutrophic system in Chile that has undergone a series of anthropogenic impacts in recent decades. To provide a better understanding of the processes occurring in the reservoir, we examined bacterial composition from surface sediments using traditional microbiology techniques and molecular biology tools. Our results showed significant temporal variation in the physical and chemical composition of the water column, but no depth-related differences during the study period. To detect temporal changes in bacterial composition, cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were extracted from the surface sediments and their concentration measured. Microbial diversity in sediments was represented by closest relatives of eight different bacterial phyla. The most frequently recovered phylotypes in the clone library of 16S rDNA were related to sulfate-reducing bacteria belong to the Deltaproteobacteria groupEl embalse Rapel es un sistema eutrófico en Chile que ha experimentado diversos impactos antropogénicos en las últimas décadas. Para conocer mejor los posibles procesos que ocurren en el embalse, la composición bacteriana fue estudiada en la zona superficial de los sedimentos utilizando técnicas microbiológicas tradicionales y herramientas de biología molecular. Nuestros resultados mostraron variación temporal significativa en la composición física y química del agua, no encontrándose diferencias de las variables medidas entre superficie y fondo en la columna de agua durante el período de estudio. Para detectar cambios temporales en la concentración y composición bacteriana, se midieron bacterias heterótrofas, heterótrofas oxidantes de fierro y bacterias reductoras de sulfato extraídas de la superficie de los sedimentos. La diversidad bacteriana en los sedimentos estuvo representada por 8 diferentes Phyla del dominio Bacteria. Los filotipos m

  20. Caracterización de pacientes con bronconeumonía bacteriana asociada a la ventilación artificial mecánica

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    Danilo Eranio Utra Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: las neumonías nosocomiales constituyen hoy en día un problema de salud a nivel mundial. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos de las instituciones hospitalarias ingresa un elevado número de pacientes que requieren ventilación artificial mecánica, factor de riesgo asociado a este tipo de infecciones. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con neumonías bacterianas asociadas a la ventilación artificial mecánica, ingresados en la sala de cuidados intensivos del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, Las Tunas, Cuba; durante el año 2012. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en los pacientes (262 ingresados en esa unidad, en el período de enero a diciembre de 2012. La muestra quedó conformada por los 173 pacientes complicados por neumonías bacterianas. Los datos fueron tomados de los expedientes clínicos. Se midieron las variables: grupos de edad, manifestaciones radiológicas, gérmenes más frecuentes y modalidades ventilatorias empleadas. Resultados: predominaron los pacientes mayores de 60 años, para un 41 %, seguido por el grupo de 50 a 59 años con 26,5 %. El germen más frecuente fue el bacilo no fermentador para el 76,6 %; la modalidad ventilatoria de volumen control fue la más utilizada, en 75 pacientes (43,6 %; el trastorno hidromineral se presentó en el 41 % de los casos, todos con tendencia a la hipokaliemia, que dio lugar a un difícil destete; los síntomas radiológicos anatomoclínicos fueron los relacionados con las neumonías a focos diseminados con 95 pacientes para 54,9 %. Conclusiones: se logró caracterizar a los pacientes con neumonías bacterianas asociadas a la ventilación artificial mecánica.

  1. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

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    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  2. Caracterização taxonômica e funcional da comunidade bacteriana associada a corais do Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Os recifes de corais são ecossistemas sensíveis que estão ameaçados pelas mudanças climáticas. Estudos têm demonstrado a importância da microbiota associada aos corais na resistência às doenças e aos estresses. Neste trabalho, a caracterização taxonômica e funcional da microbiota associada a corais encontrados no litoral de São Paulo permitiu a identificação de associações espécie-específicas entre corais e bactérias e a identificação de funções bacterianas responsáveis pelo estabelec...

  3. USO DE PATRONES DE DIFRACCIÓN DE LUZ LÁSER Y ANÁLISIS DE IMAGENES PARA DIFERENCIACIÓN DE TRES TIPOS DE COLONIAS BACTERIANAS

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    GLORIA ARANGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La diferenciación rápida de colonias bacterianas es esencial en muchos campos industriales, científicos y de salud humana y animal. Generalmente esa diferenciación se logra por técnicas microscópicas, bioquímicas o genéticas muy elaboradas que requieren tiempo y entrenamiento. En este estudio se utilizaron técnicas de análisis de imágenes sobre patrones de difracción de luz láser para evaluar su sensibilidad en la diferenciación de colonias bacterianas. Adicionalmente se estudió el efecto del tiempo de crecimiento de las colonias en la generación de estos patrones y se determinó la influencia de la cantidad de medio de cultivo en la difracción de luz láser. Los patrones de difracción del láser se obtuvieron sobre cultivos puros de cinco aislamientos bacterianos B1, B2, B3, B2Ca y B2Cb. En la primera prueba de diferenciación se utilizaron colonias de B2, B3, B2Ca. En el estudio del efecto del tiempo de crecimiento sobre patrones de difracción, las bacterias B1 y B2Cb con uno o dos días de crecimiento. Finalmente, el efecto de la cantidad de medio de cultivo en la difracción de la luz, se evaluó en una prueba en cajas petri con 10, 15 o 20 ml de medio de cultivo estéril sin colonias de bacterias. Mediante un análisis de escalado multidimensional realizado con los parámetros de textura extraídos de las imágenes de los patrones, se obtuvo un agrupamiento adecuado de los patrones asociados a las colonias de cada bacteria evaluada, lo cual indicó que las colonias bacterianas se pueden diferenciar por sus patrones de difracción. Adicionalmente se encontró que no hay variaciones significativas en los patrones de difracción obtenidos de dos aislamientos bacterianos en dos tiempos de crecimiento. El espesor del medio de cultivo afectó la difracción del haz de luz pues patrones obtenidos de cajas petri con 10 ml se separan completamente de los patrones obtenidos con 15 y 20 ml, aunque no hay diferencias entre los dos

  4. Lixiviação férrica, química e bacteriana de sulfetos secundários de cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Adan Rivera Rojas

    2009-01-01

    No presente trabalho, foram estudadas tanto a lixiviação química como a bacteriana de sulfetos secundários de cobre, a partir de amostras de um minério contendo baixos teores de cobre, presente, principalmente, na forma dos minerais Calcocita (Cu2S) e Covellita (CuS). Na lixiviação química, foram avaliados os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de Fe3+ na solução de lixiviação (1 a 20g.L-1), da temperatura (30 a 80"C), das concentrações iniciais de ácido sulfúrico (0,1 a 1mol.L-1), da porcenta...

  5. Pautas de profilaxis antibiótica de Endocarditis Bacteriana, recomendadas por los odontólogos en España

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Carmona, Inmaculada; Diz Dios, Pedro; Limeres Posse, Jacobo (ed.); Outumuno Rial, Mercedes; Caamaño Durán, Flor

    2004-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio fue conocer las pautas de profilaxis antibiótica de Endocarditis Bacteriana (EB) recomendadas por los odontólogos en España. Se preguntó a través de una llamada telefónica, cuál era el régimen profiláctico que se debía administrar a un paciente de riesgo de EB antes de someterse a una exodoncia. La información se obtuvo de 400 odontólogos seleccionados aleatoriamente y distribuidos por todo el territorio español. A 200 se les preguntó ...

  6. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Magalis Zabala; Yrma Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la re...

  7. Diversidad específica bacteriana en murciélagos de distintos gremios alimenticios en la sierra sur de Oaxaca, México

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    Mónica Marcela Galicia J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre ecología bacteriana de la micro- biota en los murciélagos son limitados, dicha información es importante para determinar la importancia de esta interacción entre microbiota y hospedero, por tal motivo el objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la composición y diversidad bacteriana en las regiones orales y anales de 10 especies de quirópteros con relación al gremio alimenticio a través de medios selectivos, cromogénicos y pruebas bio- químicas. Se muestrearon 502 murciélagos frugívoros, 29 hematófagos y 11 nectívoros, fueron encontradas un total de 26 especies bacterianas, siendo predominantes el filo proteobacterias y la familia Enterobacteriaceae. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el microhabitat oral y anal [frugívoros (t=-3.516, g.l=14.761, p=0.003, hematófagos (t=-3.320, g.l=19.262, p=0.003, y nectívoros (t=-2.497, g.l=11.933, p=0.026, así como en algunos gremios (frugívoros e nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.274, g.l=29.660, p=0.030, hematófago y nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.077, g.l=29.904, p=0.049]. También se mostró que existe especificidad de bacterias en algunos gremios como: Bacillus cereus, B. spp. X. spp. en nectívoros y frugívoros, así como, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Aeromonas hydrophyla en hematófagos que podría deberse al tipo de dieta que llevan o por transferencia de bacterias al contacto con sus presas. Los murciélagos han sido relacionados con varias zoonosis, sin embargo poco se conoce sobre la relación que existe entre el murciélago, su micro- biota y la dieta que llevan. Estas bacterias pudieran ser autóctonas de los murciélagos y jugar un papel de mutuo beneficio, proveyéndole al hospedero condiciones estables de crecimiento y nutrientes complementarios, mientras que la microbiota contribuye en la nutrición del hospedero, desarrollo del sistema inmune, estabilizando la

  8. Elaboración del video educativo sobre la identificación bacteriana por el método de gram

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Jose.

    2009-01-01

    El presente video fue creado y diseñado con la finalidad de proporcionar un instrumento didáctico para aprender de una manera eficaz sobre la identificación bacteriana empleando el método de tinción de Gram. La tinción de Gram es uno de los métodos más utilizados en el laboratorio bacteriológico, por lo cual es necesario llegar a un dominio adecuado de su manipulación. Este video tiene una duración de 8 minutos, durante los cuales se podrá adquirir el conocimiento suficiente para entender el ...

  9. Molecular characterization of bacterial populations of different soils Caracterização molecular de populações bacterianas de diferentes solos

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    Rodrigo Matheus Pereira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, few studies were carried out in Brazil about diversity of bacterial soil communities. Aiming to characterize the bacterial population in the soil through 16S rRNA analysis, two types of soil have been analyzed: one of them characterized by intensive use where tomato, beans and corn were cultivated (CS; the other analyzed soil was under forest (FS, unchanged by man; both located in Guaíra, São Paulo State, Brazil. Using specific primers, 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic DNA in both soils were amplified by PCR, amplicons were cloned and 139 clones from two libraries were partially sequenced. The use of 16S rRNA analysis allowed identification of several bacterial populations in the soil belonging to the following phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria Verrucomicrobia in addition to the others that were not classified, beyond Archaea domain. Differences between FS and CS libraries were observed in size phyla. A larger number of phyla and, consequently, a greater bacterial diversity were found in the under-forest soil. These data were confirmed by the analyses of genetic diversity that have been carried out. The characterization of bacterial communities of soil has made its contribution by providing facts for further studies on the dynamics of bacterial populations in different soil conditions in Brazil.Até o momento poucos estudos foram realizados no Brasil a respeito da diversidade de comunidades bacterianas no solo. Com o objetivo de caracterizar as populações bacterianas presentes no solo através da análise do gene 16S rRNA, foram analisados dois solos: um caracterizado pelo uso intensivo, principalmente para a produção de tomate, feijão e milho (CS; e outro sob floresta (FS, não modificado pelo homem, ambos do município de Guaíra, no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Usando oligonucleotídeos específicos, de genes 16S rRNA do DNA metagenomico de ambos os solos foram amplificados

  10. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of potato cultivars evaluated through PCR-DGGE profiles Comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata avaliadas por perfis de PCR-DGGE

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    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the shifts on the PCR-DGGE profiles of bacterial communities associated to the rhizosphere of potato cultivars, in order to generate baseline information for further studies of environmental risk assessment of genetically modified potato plants. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with five potato cultivars (Achat, Bintje, Agata, Monalisa and Asterix, cultivated in pots containing soil from an integrated system for agroecological production. The experiment was conducted in a split plot randomized block design with five cultivars, three sampling periods and five replicates. Rhizosphere samples were collected in three sampling dates during plant development. DNA of rhizosphere microorganisms was extracted, amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers, and analyzed through DGGE. Shifts on the rhizosphere bacterial communities associated to rhizosphere of different cultivars were related to both cultivar and plant age. Differences among rhizosphere bacterial communities were clearest at the earliest plant age, tending to decrease in later stages. This variation was detected among bacterial communities of the five tested cultivars. The characterization of soil microbial communities can be part of plant breeding programs to be used on studies of environmental risk assessment of genetically modified potatoes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as alterações nos perfis de PCR-DGGE das comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata, para obter informações para futuros estudos de avaliação de risco ambiental de plantas de batatas geneticamente modificadas. Foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com cinco cultivares de batata (Achat, Bintje, Ágata, Monalisa e Asterix, cultivadas em vasos com solo de um sistema integrado de produção agroecológica. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com cinco cultivares, tr

  11. Avaliação e acompanhamento audiológico após meningite bacteriana Audiological assessment and follow-up post bacterial meningitis

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    MARIA INÊS VIEIRA COUTO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva é uma das sequelas da meningite bacteriana que ocorre com maior frequência em crianças. Este estudo descreve o perfil audiológico (periférico e central de crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Nas 89 crianças que compareceram ao seguimento audiológico após a alta hospitalar e foram submetidas aos testes audiológicos, os resultados evidenciaram que 85,4% apresentaram acuidade auditiva normal em ambas orelhas, 10,1% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial bilateral e 4,5% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. Nos testes que avaliaram as habilidades de processamento auditivo, os resultados mostraram que 10% dessas crianças apresentaram alteração no desempenho de localização auditiva e de reconhecimento de sentenças com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral.Hearing loss is the more frequent sequel of bacterial meningitis in children. This study describes the audiological profile (peripheric and central of 89 children admitted to the hospital wards with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those children attended audiological follow up, after their hospital descharge, and were submitted to audiological tests. The results showed that 85.4% among them presented normal hearing in both ears 10.1% presented bilateral neurosensorial hearing loss and 4.5% presented unilateral neurosensorial hearing loss. The results from the auditory processing skills assessment showed that 10% of those children presented auditory localization and recognition of sentences with competitive messages (Paediatric Sentences Identification - ipsilateral disorders.

  12. Fermentation Tecniques and Applications of Bacterial Cellulose: a Review Técnicas de fermentación y aplicaciones de la celulosa bacteriana: una revisión

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    Luz Dary Carreño Pineda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganismsfrom Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Sarcina genera. Amongthem, Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient specie. This polymer hasthe same chemical composition of plant cellulose, but its conformation andphysicochemical properties are different, making it attractive for several applications, especially in the areas of food, separation processes, catalysis andhealth, due to its biocompatibility. However, the main problem is the production in mass that is constrained by low yield. It is therefore necessaryto develop some alternatives. This paper presents a review about synthesis,production, properties and principal applications of bacterial cellulose, as wellas some alternatives to reduce the difficulties for process scaling.La celulosa bacteriana es un polímero obtenido por fermentación con microrganismosde los géneros Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium y Sarcina, delas cuales la especie más eficiente es la Acetobacter Xylinum. Este polímero presenta la misma estructura química de la celulosa de origen vegetal, pero difiereen su conformación y propiedades fisicoquímicas, lo que lo hace atractivo para diversas aplicaciones, especialmente en las áreas de alimentos, procesosde separación, catálisis y en medicina, gracias a su biocompatibilidad. Sin embargo, el principal problema es la producción a gran escala limitada por losbajos rendimientos, lo que genera la necesidad de desarrollar alternativas que permitan disminuir o eliminar las causas de esta limitación. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la síntesis, producción, propiedades y principales aplicaciones de la celulosa bacteriana, así como de algunas alternativas estudiadas para disminuir los inconvenientes en el escalamiento del proceso.

  13. Infecções bacterianas pioram o prognóstico da hepatite alcoólica Alcoholic hepatitis: bad prognosis due to concomitant bacterial infections

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    Edna Strauss

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As infecções bacterianas cursam com altos índices de morbilidade e mortalidade na cirrose hepática. O objetivo do nosso trabalho foi avaliar se também na hepatite alcoólica as infecções bacterianas são fatores de mau prognóstico. Na avaliação retrospectiva de 681 pacientes hospitalizados em um único centro, por período de 6 anos, foram bem documentados 52 (7,5% casos de hepatite alcoólica, sendo 73,1% com biópsia hepática para análise histopatológica e os restantes por diagnóstico clínico-bioquímico. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (relação 3,3:1,0, com idade média de 40 anos e ingestão média de etanol puro de 193g/dia por mais de 3 anos. As principais complicações foram: encefalopatia hepática (n=5, insuficiência renal (n=4 e hemorragia digestiva alta (n=3. Houve infecção bacteriana em 11 (21,1% pacientes, sendo pulmonar (n=5, peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PBE (n=2, urinária (n=3 e dermatológica (n=1. Óbito precoce, durante o período de internação ocorreu em 8 (15,4% casos e a análise comparativa entre eles e os sobreviventes mostrou serem fatores de mau prognóstico a presença de encefalopatia hepática (p=0,012, bilirrubinas > 20mg% (p=0,012 e associação com infecções graves (pulmonar/PBE, com p=0,004. Em conclusão, demonstramos que as infecções bacterianas são fatores de mau prognóstico na hepatite alcoólica. Recomendamos, portanto, que a profilaxia com antibióticos que se faz durante hemorragia digestiva alta na cirrose e em casos de insuficiência hepática fulminante, seja estendida para a hepatite alcoólica, em sua forma grave, com finalidade de evitar infecções bacterianas e mortalidade precoce.Bacterial infections increase morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Our aim was to investigate whether in alcoholic hepatitis the development of bacterial infections was also a poor prognostic factor. In the retrospective evaluation of 681 hospitalized patients with liver disease

  14. Manejo conservador de pseudoquiste salival parotídeo postraumático: Reporte de un caso Conservative management of post-traumatic parotid salivary pseudocyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su compleja anatomía, las lesiones en la región bucal pueden llevar a múltiples complicaciones. Si bien el nervio facial y el conducto parotídeo pueden ser fácilmente heridos por golpes fuertes o traumatismos penetrantes de la mejilla, la lesión del conducto parotídeo es, en general, pasada por alto (especialmente en entornos de múltiples lesiones y rara vez es reportada en la literatura. El tratamiento de estas lesiones genera controversias, ya que series cortas y estudios de casos anecdóticos reportan su efectividad desde diversos enfoques (el tratamiento no quirúrgico, la ligadura del conducto proximal con o sin medicamentos antisialorreicos, la reparación primaria con microcirugía, la creación de la fístula sialoplastía usando mucosa oral y la sustitución de injerto venoso. Reportamos un método conservador, ideado por los autores, con el objetivo de drenar y mantener funcional al conducto de Stenon en un paciente masculino que presentó pseudoquiste salival derecho como complicación de un desgarro de la parte distal de este conducto por un trauma maxilofacial causado por accidente automovilístico.Given the complex anatomy of the mouth, injuries occurring in this region can result in multiple complications. The facial nerve and parotid duct can be easily injured by blows or trauma penetrating the cheek. Parotid duct injury is generally overlooked, especially in settings of multiple injuries. Consequently, they are rarely reported in the literature. The treatment of these injuries is very controversial. Short series and anecdotal case studies claim success with various approaches, such as non-surgical treatment, proximal duct glide with or without antisialogogue medication, primary repair with microsurgery, the creation of the fistula sialoplasty using oral mucosa and vein graft replacement. We present a conservative approach devised by the authors, with the aim of draining and maintaining Stenon's duct functional

  15. Combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy for male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis: Acceptability, tolerability and impact on the genital microbiota of couples - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Erica L; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Murray, Gerald L; Fairley, Christopher K; Garland, Suzanne M; Hocking, Jane S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2018-01-01

    Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria) and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated) for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76%) completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]). We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile microbiota (median

  16. Estudio comparativo entre la acción de un nuevo amino-glucosido (Netilmicina y la de nueve antibióticos de uso común sobre cepas bacterianas colombianas

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    Erix Bozón

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio descriptivo sobre el comportamiento de cepas bacterianas de diez y siete microorganismos frente a diez antibióticos de amplio espectro, de uso más común en nuestro medio, dentro de los cuales se encuentra un aminoglucósido, la netilmicina, de reciente introducción. Se presenten los porcentajes de inhibición logrados por los antibióticos probados, para cada microorganismo. ordenados en magnitudes decrecientes. Se recomienda este tipo de estudios para tener un conocimiento básico relativo al comportamiento de las cepas bacterianas de una comunidad frente a los antibióticos.

  17. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998 Epidemiologia de meningites bacterianas entre crianças no Brasil, 1997 a 1998

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    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age OBJETIVO: Documentar a incidência e a epidemiologia descritiva de meningites bacterianas entre pessoas com idade inferior a 20 anos em uma região geográfica definida do Brasil. O período foi de dois anos, imediatamente anterior à introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, no Programa Nacional de Imunização do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico populacional dos casos de meningites bacterianas notificados entre residentes em Campinas, SP, Brasil, com idade inferior a 20 anos (n=316.570, entre 1997 e 1998. Baseia-se em dados de notificação da vigilância epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, relatados entre casos provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados

  18. Epidemiología de las infecciones bacterianas en pacientes con cirrosis hepática, experiencia de un centro español de atención terciaria

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    Katerina Klímová

    2016-03-01

    Discusión. Los resultados del estudio confirmaron que el espectro microbiológico de las infecciones bacterianas en pacientes con cirrosis ha sufrido importantes cambios. Las infecciones por gérmenes multirresistentes causan infecciones con gran morbimortalidad y el fracaso del tratamiento antibiótico habitual. Para controlarlas de forma eficaz, es imprescindible detectar precozmente a aquellos pacientes con factores de riesgo.

  19. Determinación de la biomasa bacteriana en el mar Jónico mediante el análisis de la morfología celular y el contenido en LPS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosabruna La Ferla; Angelina Lo Giudice; Giovanna Maimone

    2004-01-01

    Fue estudiada la comunidad bacteriana del Mar Jónico mediante el análisis directo en epifluorescencia (recuentos, morfometría y biovolumen celular) y la determinación del contenido de lipopolisacáridos (LPS). Los microorganismos fueron agrupados en cinco morfotipos: cocos, bacilos, cocobacilos, vibriones y espirilos. La columna de agua se encontró dominada por formas cocoideas (39-73%); las formas bacilares y cocobacilares representaron morfotipos uniformemente distribuidos mientras la presen...

  20. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães The dental brush and thumb-stall in the removal of the dental plaque in dogs

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    Tânia Berbert Ferreira Lima

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05 entre a utilização da escova dental e a dedeira.The dental plaque is the primary factor for gingivitis formation, dental calculus, oral malodor and periodontal disease. To evaluate the amount of dental plaque removed by the dental brush and thumb-stall, 60 male and female dogs of different races, age and weight were divided in two groups and studies. The index of Logan & Boyce was used to quantify the dental plaque before and after the toothbrush. Statistical difference was observed (p 0.05 between the use of the dental brush and the thumb-stall.

  1. High recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis over the course of 12 months after oral metronidazole therapy and factors associated with recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catriona S; Morton, Anna N; Hocking, Jane; Garland, Suzanne M; Morris, Margaret B; Moss, Lorna M; Horvath, Leonie B; Kuzevska, Irene; Fairley, Christopher K

    2006-06-01

    We wished to determine recurrences of bacterial vaginosis (BV) after treatment over the course of 12 months and to establish factors associated with recurrence. Women with symptomatic BV (a Nugent score [NS] of 7-10 or of 4-6 with >or=3 Amsel criteria) were enrolled. BV was treated with 400 mg of oral metronidazole twice a day for 7 days. Participants completed a questionnaire and vaginal swabs were collected at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; the study end point was an NS of 7-10. A total of 121 (87%) women with an NS of 7-10 and 18 (13%) with an NS of 4-6 and >or=3 Amsel criteria were enrolled; 130 (94%) returned >or=1 vaginal samples. Sixty-eight women (58% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 49%-66%]) had a recurrence of BV (NS 7-10), and 84 (69% [95% CI, 61%-77%]) had a recurrence of abnormal vaginal flora (NS 4-10) by 12 months. A past history of BV, a regular sex partner throughout the study, and female sex partners were significantly associated with recurrence of BV and abnormal vaginal flora by multivariate analysis; the use of hormonal contraception had a negative association with recurrence. Current recommended treatment is not preventing the recurrence of BV or abnormal vaginal flora in the majority of women; factors associated with recurrence support a possible role for sexual transmission in the pathogenesis of recurrent BV.

  2. Comparison of Lactobacillus crispatus isolates from Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiomes with isolates from microbiomes containing bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmaksoud, Abdallah A.; Koparde, Vishal N.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Glascock, Abigail L.; Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli can inhibit colonization by and growth of other bacteria, thereby preventing development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amongst the lactobacilli, Lactobacillus crispatus appears to be particularly effective at inhibiting growth of BV-associated bacteria. Nonetheless, some women who are colonized with this species can still develop clinical BV. Therefore, we sought to determine whether strains of L. crispatus that colonize women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes are distinct from strains that colonize women who develop BV. The genomes of L. crispatus isolates from four women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes ( bacteria (>12 % 16S rRNA reads from bacterial taxa associated with BV) were sequenced and compared. Lactic acid production by the different strains was quantified. Phage induction in the strains was also analysed. There was considerable genetic diversity between strains, and several genes were exclusive to either the strains from Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes or those containing BV-associated bacteria. Overall, strains from microbiomes dominated by lactobacilli did not differ from strains from microbiomes containing BV-associated bacteria with respect to lactic acid production. All of the strains contained multiple phage, but there was no clear distinction between the presence or absence of BV-associated bacteria with respect to phage-induced lysis. Genes found to be exclusive to the Lactobacillus-dominated versus BV-associated bacteria-containing microbiomes could play a role in the maintenance of vaginal health and the development of BV, respectively. PMID:26747455

  3. A comparison of the efficacy of metronidazole vaginal gel and Myrtus (Myrtus communis extract combination and metronidazole vaginal gel alone in the treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis

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    Mansoure Masoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the high incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and its resistance to chemical medications and considering the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects of Myrtus communis, the present study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of M. communis 2% (in metronidazole base with metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% alone on BV.Materials and Methods: This research was a random­ized controlled clinical trial conducted on 80 women of 18-40 years old with BV. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 women. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel's criteria and Gram staining. The first group received vaginal gel of metronidazole plus M. communis 2% and the second group received metronidazole vaginal gel alone for five consecutive nights. Therapeutic effects and Amsel’s criteria were assessed after one week. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using t-test and Chi square tests.Results: There was a significant difference in the therapeutic response between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the combination of metronidazole and M. communis had a higher efficiency (p

  4. Self-collected vaginal swabs for the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis and the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J-P; Fenollar, F; Raoult, D; Boubli, L; Bretelle, F

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using self-collected vaginal specimens for the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria versus practitioner-collected swabs. A cross-sectional study included 190 pregnant women enrolled before 20 weeks' gestation from September 2008 to November 2009. Self- and practitioner-collected swabs were taken during the same prenatal visit for each woman, qPCR assays performed for each, and the results compared. The quantification of the human albumin gene was used as an internal control to ensure sampling quality and accurate comparisons. The level of agreement of the qPCR assays for each microorganism was calculated with the Spearman product moment correlation coefficient and the kappa statistic. In all, 370 vaginal samples (185 self- and 185 practitioner-collected swabs) had a narrow range of values for the number of albumin gene copies and a significant correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho = 0.532; p Gardnerella vaginalis; p vaginalis (≥10(9) copies/mL; kappa value = 0.903; p vaginalis, and A. vaginae.

  5. Benzoyl peroxide formulated polycarbophil/carbopol 934P hydrogel with selective antimicrobial activity, potentially beneficial for treatment and prevention of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqi; Cavera, Veronica L; Rogers, Michael A; Huang, Qingrong; Zubovskiy, Konstantin; Chikindas, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    The human vagina is colonized by a variety of indigenous microflora; in healthy individuals the predominant bacterial genus is Lactobacillus while those with bacterial vaginosis (BV) carry a variety of anaerobic representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) encapsulated in a hydrogel against Gardnerella vaginalis, one of the causative agents of BV, as well as indicating its safety for healthy human lactobacilli. Herein, it is shown that in well diffusion assays G. vaginalis is inhibited at 0.01% hydrogel-encapsulated BPO and that the tested Lactobacillus spp. can tolerate concentrations of BPO up to 2.5%. In direct contact assays (cells grown in a liquid culture containing hydrogel with 1% BPO or BPO particles), we demonstrated that hydrogels loaded with 1% BPO caused 6-log reduction of G. vaginalis. Conversely, three of the tested Lactobacillus spp. were not inhibited while L. acidophilus growth was slightly delayed. The rheological properties of the hydrogel formulation were probed using oscillation frequency sweep, oscillation shear stress sweep, and shear rate sweep. This shows the gel to be suitable for vaginal application and that the encapsulation of BPO did not alter rheological properties.

  6. Analysis of adherence, biofilm formation and cytotoxicity suggests a greater virulence potential of Gardnerella vaginalis relative to other bacterial-vaginosis-associated anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jennifer L; Stull-Lane, Annica; Girerd, Philippe H; Jefferson, Kimberly K

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder in women of childbearing age. BV is characterized by a dramatic shift in the vaginal microflora, involving a relative decrease in lactobacilli, and a proliferation of anaerobes. In most cases of BV, the predominant bacterial species found is Gardnerella vaginalis. However, pure cultures of G. vaginalis do not always result in BV, and asymptomatic women are sometimes colonized with low numbers of G. vaginalis. Thus, there is controversy about whether G. vaginalis is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of many cases of BV, or whether BV is a polymicrobial condition caused by the collective effects of an altered microbial flora. Recent studies of the biofilm-forming potential and cytotoxic activity of G. vaginalis have renewed interest in the virulence potential of this organism. In an effort to tease apart the aetiology of this disorder, we utilized in vitro assays to compare three virulence properties of G. vaginalis relative to other BV-associated anaerobes. We designed a viable assay to analyse bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, we compared biofilm-producing capacities, and we assessed cytotoxic activity. Of the BV-associated anaerobes tested, only G. vaginalis demonstrated all three virulence properties combined. This study suggests that G. vaginalis is more virulent than other BV-associated anaerobes, and that many of the bacterial species frequently isolated from BV may be relatively avirulent opportunists that colonize the vagina after G. vaginalis has initiated an infection.

  7. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted.

  8. Translocação bacteriana para o pulmão na icterícia obstrutiva experimental em ratos

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    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Tem sido demonstrado que a icterícia obstrutiva provoca depressão do sistema imunológico, mudança no padrão de colonização bacteriana dos intestinos e passagem de bactérias da luz intestinal para a circulação porta e sistêmica. Estudo experimental em ratos procurou observar a possibilidade de translocação bacteriana para os pulmões após a ligadura do colédoco. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar pesando de 178 a 215g, separados aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais. Nos ratos do grupo I foi feita a ligadura do colédoco e nos do grupo II apenas a manipulação do colédoco com pinça atraumática (sham operation. No sétimo dia de observação os animais foram mortos com superdose de anestésico, sangue foi colhido para dosagem de bilirrubinas e os pulmões ressecados sob condições assépticas. Metade de cada pulmão foi homogeneizada e semeada em meios de cultura ágar McConkey e ágar sangue. A outra metade serviu para exame histopatológico -coloração hematoxilina e eosina. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t, com significância 0,05. RESULTADOS: revelaram bilirrubina total em média 18,7±3,6 no grupo I e 0,7±0,2 no grupo II. No grupo I foram isoladas colônias de Klebsiela sp nos pulmões de 30% dos animais e E. coli em 20%, e os escores histopatológicos atingiram a média 6,2±2,08. No grupo II não foram detectadas bactérias nos pulmões e os escores do exame histopatológico atingiram 1,8±1,16. A diferença dos dados analisados mostrou-se significativa (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a icterícia obstrutiva por ligadura do colédoco em ratos provocou translocação de germes Gram-negativos para os pulmões e resultou em alterações histopatológicas significativas.

  9. Vigilancia de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, resistencia bacteriana y consumo de antibióticos en hospitales de alta complejidad, Colombia, 2011

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    Andrea Patricia Villalobos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Prevenir las infecciones adquiridas en los hospitales, en especial las causadas por microorganismos resistentes, es una prioridad. Por esta razón, Colombia inició la vigilancia nacional de estos eventos realizando una prueba piloto. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de las infecciones asociadas a dispositivos, resistencia bacteriana y consumo de antibióticos en instituciones con unidades de cuidados intensivos durante el 2011. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional descriptivo en 10 instituciones de salud de Antioquia, Valle del Cauca y Bogotá. Se diseñaron protocolos de vigilancia para cada evento, implementados por profesionales de salud entrenados. Se diseñó una herramienta en línea para la notificación y análisis de tasas de infección, porcentajes de utilización de dispositivos y dosis diarias definidas de antibióticos. Mediante el software Whonet 5.6 se reportaron y analizaron los perfiles y fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana. Resultados. La infección del torrente sanguíneo fue la más frecuente (tasa mayor de 4,8 por 1.000 días-catéter, seguida de la neumonía asociada al respirador e infección urinaria asociada a catéter, con amplia variación entre instituciones. Se observó un mayor consumo de meropenem en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (dosis diarias definidas, 22,5 por 100 camas-día, resistencia elevada a carbapenémicos (>11,6 % y cefalosporinas de tercera generación (>25,6 % en enterobacterias en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y en otras áreas de hospitalización. El porcentaje de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue mayor en otras áreas de hospitalización (34,3 %. Conclusiones. Se trata de la primera aproximación integral a la problemática de estos eventos en Colombia. Es necesario implementar la vigilancia nacional que permita orientar acciones gubernamentales e institucionales para la prevención y control de infecciones, contenci

  10. Un modelo de predicción de meningitis bacteriana en recién nacidos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: se han desarrollado herramientas de predicción de meningitis bacteriana (MB en pacientes pediátricos, pero ellas no incluyen el período neonatal. Objetivo: diseñar y validar un modelo de predicción de MB en pacientes neonatales quienes presentan pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR al ser evaluados por variables clínicas y de laboratorio. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo y analítico, que incluyó 320 pacientes neonatales evaluados por probable infección, en quienes se hizo el diagnóstico de meningitis, 45 con MB y 275 con meningitis aséptica, e ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan M. Márquez", entre Febrero de 1992 y Diciembre del 2009. Se creó un Modelo Predictivo de Meningitis Bacteriana, sobre la base de un conjunto de variables identificadas mediante procedimientos de análisis uni y multivariado. El modelo se diseñó a partir de una población «de derivación», y se contrastó en otro grupo, este "de validación". Resultados: las variables seleccionadas para integrar el modelo predictivo fueron: 1 Apariencia de estado tóxico-infeccioso, 2 Convulsiones en el transcurso de la enfermedad, 3 Tinción de Gram del LCR positiva, 4 Proporción de leucocitos polimorfonucleares en el LCR >80%, y 5 Glucorraquia <1.0 mMol/l. Con estas variables se alcanzaron sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo de 100.0%. Con el modelo propuesto, en el grupo de derivación no hubo ningún paciente malclasificado con predicción negativa de MB pero portador de este tipo de infección. En el grupo de validación, el modelo tuvo un desempeño similar, lo cual lo acredita como un modelo de predicción validado internamente. Conclusiones: el modelo de predicción diseñado descansa en variables de evaluación rutinarias, y permitió identificar inequívocamente la totalidad de los pacientes neonatales con MB. Su empleo podría ser una herramienta útil en la toma de

  11. Controle biológico da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro, por Pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes Biological control of bacterial wilt of tomato by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp

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    Ana Rosa Peixoto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão bibliográfica teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de espécies de Pseudomonas fluorescentes a Pseudomonas solanacearum, agente causal da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro. Devido a dificuldade encontrada nas estratégias utilizadas para o controle da Murcha Bacteriana por meio de métodos convencionais, alguns outros tem sido estudados, como o uso de microrganismos benéficos. As rizobactérias vem proporcionando solução viável a algumas doenças consideradas de difícil manejo. Dentre os mecanismos que tem sido sugeridos para o controle microbiano de patógenos de plantas, através do uso de rizobactérias fluorescentes, citamse produção de antibióticos, bactericinas, enzimas titicas, competição por espaço e nutrientes. Possuem uma alta capacidade de colonização e sobrevivência no hospedeiro, falares que são importantes no estabelecimento e introdução de microrganismos na rizosfera. Estas bactérias podem também incitar um aumento no desenvolvimento e na produção do hospedeiro, sendo denominadas de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas.This literature review has the objetive of evaluating the antagonism potential of species of florescem Pseudomonas to Pseudomonas solanacearum which is the causal agent of bacterial wilt on the tomato crop. Due to serious limitation in the ejficiency of conventional methods of contrai, other strategies have been siudied, such as the use o/beneficiai microrganisms. Rhizobacteria have shown to be a viable alternative in the contrai of some diseases of difficult managmenl. Among the mechanisms which have been suggestedfor microbian control of plantpathogens with fluorescent rhizobacteria, can be used antibiotic production, bacteriocin, uric emimes and competition for colonization and survival capacity on the host. The survival capacity is very important in the introduction and stablishment ofthe microrganisms in the rhizosphere. These bacteria can aiso

  12. Pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria: aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, radiológicos e terapêutica

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    Marcelo M. Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria, e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos.

  13. Plaque removal by manual and electric toothbrushing among children Remoção de placa bacteriana pela escovação elétrica e manual em crianças

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    Carolina Covolo da COSTA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plaque control performed with electric and manual toothbrushes. Fifteen children with primary dentition and 14 children with mixed dentition were divided in two groups and randomly assigned to utilize a manual or an electric toothbrush. In the first session, professional plaque removal was performed, and the children spent 24 hours without brushing their teeth. In the second session, plaque was disclosed and assessed on all facial and lingual surfaces. After that, all children brushed their teeth with the predetermined toothbrush. The next procedure was the disclosure and measurement of residual plaque. After a period of 7 days, the children switched the kind of toothbrush, and the same procedures were repeated. According to the statistical analysis of the results, there were no significant differences concerning plaque removal when the toothbrushes were utilized by children with mixed dentition. On the other hand, the electric toothbrush promoted significantly greater plaque removal on the lingual surfaces of teeth from children with primary dentition.A proposta deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da remoção de placa bacteriana pelas escovações elétrica e manual. Quinze crianças portadoras de dentadura decídua e 14 crianças portadoras de dentadura mista foram divididas em dois grupos e, aleatoriamente, designadas a utilizar a escova manual ou a escova elétrica. Na primeira sessão, foi realizada completa remoção de placa bacteriana e após, as crianças permaneceram 24 horas sem escovar os dentes. Na segunda sessão, foi feita revelação de placa bacteriana e computação de seu índice para todas as faces vestibulares e linguais dos dentes. Depois, todos os participantes escovaram os dentes com a escova predeterminada. A próxima etapa foi a revelação e medição da placa residual. Decorridos 7 dias, as crianças trocaram para a outra escova dental e os mesmos

  14. Estrategia más costo-efectiva para el diagnóstico de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes con síndrome febril sin foco

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    Jefferson Antonio Buendía

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. A pesar de los avances en la vacunación, la infección bacteriana grave en menores de dos años con fiebre sin foco sigue siendo un motivo de preocupación para médicos y padres. Por ello, resulta relevante contar con información sobre el costo-efectividad de su diagnóstico para la adopción de las decisiones pertinentes. Objetivo. Evaluar el costo-efectividad de cuatro estrategias para la detección en Argentina de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes con fiebre sin foco. Materiales y métodos. En una cohorte hipotética de 10.000 pacientes se evaluó mediante la técnica del árbol de decisiones la costo-efectividad de cuatro estrategias para la detección de la infección bacteriana grave: criterios de Rochester más prueba de proteína C reactiva, criterios de Rochester más prueba de procalcitonina, criterios de Rochester y conducta expectante. Resultados. La estrategia de aplicación de los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de proteína C reactiva resultó ser la más costo-efectiva, con una razón de costo-efectividad de USD$ 784 por caso correctamente diagnosticado frente a USD$ 839 para los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de procalcitonina, USD$ 1.116 para la conducta expectante y USD$ 1.193 para los criterios de Rochester. En el análisis de sensibilidad se determinó que, ante una probabilidad de infección bacteriana grave igual o menor de 14 %, la estrategia de elección era la conducta expectante. Conclusiones. La utilización combinada de los criterios de Rochester más la prueba de la proteína C reactiva constituyó la estrategia más costo-efectiva para la detección de la infección bacteriana grave en lactantes de uno a tres meses con fiebre sin foco. Sin embargo, en casos de bajo riesgo de dicha infección, la conducta expectante constituyó la estrategia de elección.

  15. Artemisia princeps Pamp. Essential oil and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting bacterial growth and NF-κB activation.

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    Trinh, Hien-Trung; Lee, In-Ah; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (family Asteraceae) essential oil (APEO) and its main constituents against bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis, their antimicrobial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vitro and their anti-inflammatory effects against G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis were examined in mice. APEO and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol were found to inhibit microbe growths. α-Terpineol most potently inhibited the growths of G. vaginalis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 % (v/v), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of α-terpineol was found to be comparable to that of clotrimazole. Intravaginal treatment with APEO, eucalyptol, or α-terpineol significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis and C. albicans numbers in the vaginal cavity and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues compared with controls. These agents also inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF- α), COX-2, iNOS, and the activation of NF- κB and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, they inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF- κB in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and α-terpineol most potently inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and NF- κB activation. Based on these findings, APEO and its constituents, particularly α-terpineol, ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the growths of vaginal pathogens and the activation of NF- κB. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Reação em campo à murcha bacteriana de cultivares de tomate em Roraima Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato cultivars in Roraima, Brazil

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    Hyanameyka E de Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith é a doença bacteriana mais importante do tomateiro na Região Norte do Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o nível de resistência de cultivares de tomate, avaliar o progresso da murcha bacteriana nesses genótipos a fim de conhecer o comportamento da doença nos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, para auxiliar no manejo da epidemia, e determinar a época crítica para o desenvolvimento da doença nessas cultivares nas condições de Roraima. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um campo naturalmente infestado com a biovar 1 de Rasltonia solanacearum, por dois anos. A área tinha um histórico de quatro anos de plantios sucessivos com plantas de tomate suscetíveis à murcha bacteriana, e as perdas alcançando até 100%. Para condução do experimento foram utilizadas mudas das cultivares Majestade, Nemonetta, Carmen, Liliane, Santa Clara, Sensação, San Vito, Gaúcho Melhorado, Hector e Laura. Foram feitas seis avaliações do número de tomateiros que apresentavam murcha irreversível e/ou morte durante o ciclo da cultura. Foram determinadas as variáveis área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a taxa de progresso da doença (r, incidência média (Y50, incidência máxima (Ymáx e a incidência final da doença. Os valores de AACPD e da variável r para a cultivar Majestade foram menores que para as demais, demonstrando que houve menor incidência de plantas doentes nesta cultivar, indicando resistência. Embora o nível de resistência apresentado por esta cultivar não seja muito elevado, o cultivo da mesma é recomendável e viável para o plantio no Estado de Roraima, especialmente considerando-se os altos preços do tomate, que são adquiridos de outras regiões produtoras no país, embora somente esta resistência não garanta, sozinha, o controle adequado da doença, sendo necessárias outras medidas de controle associadas

  17. EXTRATOS VEGETAIS, FORMULAÇÕES A BASE DE EXTRATO VEGETAL E PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DA MANCHA BACTERIANA DO MARACUJAZEIRO

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    Rosemary Corrêa Costa

    2017-05-01

    e as avaliações foram realizadas pela contagem do número de colônias do patógeno. Nos ensaios em casade-vegetação a aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada 7 dias antes da inoculação de X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae para as formulações e extratos e 2 dias antes da inoculação para os produtos químicos. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas em intervalos de 48 horas. Os produtos oxitetraciclina, fluazinam, mancozeb, oxicloreto de cobre, Fitoforce Cobre e Fitoforce Plus inibiram totalmente o crescimento in vitro da bactéria. Em casa-de-vegetação, todos os tratamentos reduziram significativamente a severidade da mancha bacteriana com reduções entre 54 e 62%, com exceção do Fitoforce Plus que apresentou porcentagem de controle abaixo de 50%.

  18. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

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    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  19. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

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    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test-of-cure, rather than qualitative detection or absolute counts of BV related

  20. Composition of the Vaginal Microbiota in Women of Reproductive Age – Sensitive and Specific Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis Is Possible?

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    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Materials and Methods Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Results Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Conclusions Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test

  1. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

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    Elena Shipitsyna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV, with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora cases were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be

  2. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis in different sub-populations of women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Vicky Jespers

    Full Text Available Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa.A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV, HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs. This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit.At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7-10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment.Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse.

  3. Self-taken vaginal swabs versus clinician-taken for detection of candida and bacterial vaginosis: a case-control study in primary care.

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    Barnes, Pam; Vieira, Rute; Harwood, Jayne; Chauhan, Mayur

    2017-12-01

    Vaginal discharge and vulvitis are common presenting symptoms in general practice. Few studies have specifically looked at the validity of self-taken low vulvovaginal swabs (LVS) for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). To assess if patient self-taken LVS are a valid alternative to clinician-taken high vaginal swabs (HVS) for the detection of VVC and BV. Case-control study with the patient acting as their own control in an urban sexual health centre in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Females aged 16-65 years attending with symptomatic vaginal discharge, vulval irritation, genital pain, and an offensive genital smell were recruited into the study. Participants took a self-taken LVS before vaginal examination, during which a clinician took an HVS (reference standard). Main outcome measures were the diagnosis of BV or VVC infection. A total of 104 females were enrolled. Of those, 45 were diagnosed with VVC and 26 with BV. The sensitivities of self-taken LVS for VVC and BV were 95.5% and 88.5% respectively. Cohen's κ coefficient showed 'strong agreement' for the detection of both VVC and BV. Vulval itching was the most common symptom associated with VVC (69%), whereas 50% of females diagnosed with BV presented with an offensive discharge. Both symptoms had poor positive predictive values (0.63 and 0.50, respectively). Self-taken LVS appears to be a valid alternative to clinician-taken HVS for detecting VVC and BV infections. Symptoms were found to be a poor indicator of underlying infection. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

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    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  5. Evaluation of tomato rootstocks and its use to control bacterial wilt diseaseAvaliação de porta-enxertos de tomateiro e o uso da enxertia no controle da murcha bacteriana

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    Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants are susceptible to bacterial wilting, which causes production losses varying from 10 to 100 %. A method for controlling this disease is the use of grafting on resistant rootstocks. This work had the objective of evaluating tomato genotypes for the resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and the grafting technique as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control in the region of Recôncavo Baiano, Brazil. To evaluate the resistance to R. solanacearum, four local genotypes, collected in different regions of Bahia, the cv. Santa Clara as a susceptible treatment, and the Hawaii 7996 (H7996, as a resistant treatment were studied. For the evaluation of grafting method for control of bacterial wilt, the H7996 was used as rootstock, and the cvs. Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada, and Débora Plus were used as the scion plants. Both experiments were evaluated in an area infested with R. solanacearum, for a period of 65 days for the selection of the rootstocks and 45 days for the evaluation of the grafting method. Only the H7996 can be recommended as a R. solanacearum resistant rootstock. The other genotypes showed susceptibility to the pathogen. The grafting on the H7996 did not show incompatibility with the scion tomato cultivars tested and reached 100 % control of the bacterial wilt disease, for all treatments, suggesting that this method can be used as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control, allowing the production of susceptible tomato cultivars in areas infested with R. solanacearum A suscetibilidade do tomateiro à murcha bacteriana (Ralstonia solanacearum causa perdas que vão de 10 a 100 % na produção e uma das alternativas de controle que vem sendo utilizada é a enxertia com porta-enxerto resistente. Este trabalho teve o objetivo avaliar genótipos de tomateiro quanto à resistência a R. solanacearum e a enxertia como alternativa para o controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Para avalia

  6. Etiologia e evolução das meningites bacterianas em centro de pediatria Etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis in a pediatric center

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    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a prevalência dos agentes etiológicos das meningites bacterianas em serviço de referência, no atendimento de doenças infecciosas para o estado de Minas Gerais, e verificar a resposta ao tratamento utilizado.Métodos: estudo descritivo em que foram incluídas todas as crianças com diagnóstico provável de meningite, admitidas na instituição no período de junho a novembro/99.Resultados: obteve-se 210 casos de meningite, sendo 111 casos de etiologia bacteriana (52,9%. Destes, 52 casos foram diagnósticos prováveis (por alteração do liquor rotina e 59 com diagnósticos de certeza (por cultura e/ou isolamento de antígeno. Os principais agentes isolados foram, em ordem decrescente, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis e S. pneumoniae. O tratamento inicial para a faixa etária de três meses a cinco anos foi ampicilina e cloranfenicol, sendo posteriormente restrito para penicilina em casos de meningococo e pneumococo, e para cloranfenicol nos casos de H. influenzae. A mudança para antimicrobiano de maior espectro foi realizada com base em dados clínicos ou laboratoriais, não havendo isolamento de microorganismo resistente.Conclusões: o acompanhamento do perfil epidemiológico das meningites deve ser contínuo, e cada serviço deve se basear em dados locais para direcionar a terapia antimicrobiana. A monitorização contínua dos agentes prevalentes em cada instituição e de sua resistência é fundamental para a escolha antimicrobiana, atuando com menor interferência na colonização individual, sem contribuir para a crescente resistência dos agentes responsáveis pelas infecções meníngeas.Objective: to establish the prevalence of the etiological agents of bacterial meningitis in a reference center for the treatment of infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais. Methods: descriptive study including all children with probable diagnosis of meningitis between June/1999 and November/1999.Results: there were 210

  7. Estudo da transmigração bacteriana na apendicite experimental em coelhos A study about bacterial transmigration in experimental Appendicitis in rabbits

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    ECF RAMOS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A queda extrínseca dos mecanismos de defesa de um hospedeiro é vista classicamente como uma infecção, que resulta na aquisição de um tecido normal, de um novo microorganismo, cuja virulência é fundamental para a sua patogenia.Na década de 50, estudos comprovaram que bactérias e endotoxinas podem ultrapassar a barreira intestinal e atingir a circulação, demonstrando ainda, que a flora intestinal representa uma importante fonte para o desenvolvimento da infecção sistêmica. Objetivo: o presente estudo visa avaliar a ocorrência de transmigração bacteriana em apendicite experimental induzida em coelhos, mediante a oclusão completa do apêndice vermiforme. Métodos: foram utilizados 24 coelhos brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso corporal variando de 2500 a 3000 gramas, sendo então divididos em 2 grupos. Os animais do Grupo I foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e retirada de fragmentos do baço, rim esquerdo, pulmão direito, linfonodo abdominal, conteúdo da luz do apêndice vermiforme e sangue da veia porta para cultura. Os animais do Grupo II foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão completa do apêndice vermiforme para a indução de apendicite e, após 24 horas, realizada a coleta do material nos moldes do Grupo I. Resultados: No Grupo controle (Grupo I, não se observou o crescimento de bactérias nas amostras analisadas. No Grupo experimento (Grupo II, observou-se o crescimento de Escherichia coli em todos os animais. Conclusão: Ocorreu transmigração bacteriana após 24 horas de observação em coelhos com apendicite experimental.The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of the bacterial transmigration in induced ezxperimental appendicitis in rabbitis through complete oclusion of the vermiform appendix. 24 New Zealand white rabbits with a body weight ranging from 2500 to 3000 grams were used. They were divided into 2 groups. The animals from group I were submitted to a median

  8. Patrones de resistencia bacteriana en urocultivos en un hospital oncológico Antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from urine cultures at an oncological center

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    Patricia Cornejo-Juárez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Describir los patrones de resistencia bacteriana en cultivos de orina en un hospital oncológico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron las cepas obtenidas de cultivos de orina de 1998 a 2005. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de sensibilidad para diferentes antibióticos, tras analizar por separado cepas nosocomiales y compararlas con las de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 9 232 cultivos positivos (20.7% de 44 447 muestras: gramnegativos, 78.8%; grampositivos, 13.8%; y levaduras, 7.4 por ciento. Escherichia coli fue el principal microorganismo identificado (41.3%; la resistencia en aislados nosocomiales fue mayor que en la comunidad para amikacina (92.4 y 97%, ceftazidima (83.1 y 95.1% y ciprofloxacina (46.2 y 58.6%. De igual manera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa presentó mayor resistencia para amikacina y ceftazidima en las cepas nosocomiales (55.7 y 66.6%; y 65.5 y 84.8%, respectivamente. Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina se encontró sólo en 2.5% (3/119 aislados de E. faecium. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una mayor resistencia bacteriana en las cepas de origen nosocomial en comparación con las cepas comunitarias. Se encontró un incremento progresivo de la resistencia para E. coli, el patógeno aislado con más frecuencia de infecciones nosocomiales y comunitarias. Es prioritario intensificar una campaña educativa para el control y uso racional de los antibióticos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of antimicrobial resistance of organisms isolated from urine cultures at a teaching oncological hospital for adult patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All strains obtained from urine cultures from 1998 to 2005 were included. Mean susceptibilities were obtained for each antimicrobial tested; nosocomial and community-acquired isolates were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 9 232 positive urine cultures were obtained (20.7% from 44 447 samples taken. Gram negative bacteria were reported in 78.8%, Gram-positive in 13.8% and yeasts in 7

  9. Aderência bacteriana in vitro a lentes intra-oculares de polimetilmetacrilato e de silicone In vitro bacterial adherence to silicone and polymetylmethacrylate intraocular lenses

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    Claudete Inês Locatelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a aderência bacteriana a lentes intra-oculares de silicone e de polimetilmetacrilato como possível fator de risco no desenvolvimento de endoftalmite pós-operatória, utilizando-se um modelo in vitro com três microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos. MÉTODOS: As análises foram realizadas com cepas de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis (amostra clínica e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 incluindo a determinação de curvas de crescimento, testes para verificação de produção de cápsula, avaliação da hidrofobicidade, testes de aderência a diferentes materiais, microscopia óptica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de força atômica. RESULTADOS: A produção de cápsula e a aderência das três diferentes cepas não mostraram qualquer relação com a quantidade de microrganismos; em relação às lentes intra-oculares de polimetilmetacrilato e de silicone, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na aderência de S. aureus e S. epidermidis; P. aeruginosa foi o microrganismo mais aderente a ambos os materiais. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura confirmou estes achados em relação à aderência, ao peso que a microscopia de força atômica evidenciou a produção de biofilme pelas cepas de S. aureus, S. epidermidis e P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSÕES: Constatou-se, in vitro, que os materiais analisados não diferiram com relação à taxa de aderência bacteriana, porém, P. aeruginosa apresentou maior eficiência de adesão entre as bactérias testadas. Todas as cepas produziram biofilme. Silicone foi o material mais hidrofóbico, quando comparado ao polimetilmetacrilato.PURPOSE: To evaluate bacterial adherence to silicone and polymetylmethacrylate (PMMA intraocular lenses as a risk factor for postsurgery endophthalmitis by using an in vitro model with three potentially pathogenic microorganisms. METHODS: In vitro experiments were carried out with the

  10. Prevalencia de la resistencia bacteriana en flora bucal en niños de 4 a 8 años

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    Carolina Verolo

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Esta investigación apunta a ser un aporte de interés para el estudio de la ecología microbiana de la cavidad bucal y al análisis de la importancia biológica del empleo de antimicrobianos. El uso de un antimicrobiano al mismo tiempo que actúa sobre el patógeno, puede modificar la composición de los gérmenes de la microflora normal. Métodos: Se siguió un procedimiento basado en un cuestionario y en la toma de muestras de la mucosa orofaríngea y/o yugal de niños de 4 a 8 años que concurrieron a la clínica de Odontopediatría de la Universidad de la República, durante los meses de julio-agosto y diciembre de 2009. Resultados: El 84,6% de los niños consumió antibiótico previo a la consulta. El 81,8% tomó Amoxicilina. El 89,4% lo consumió hacía más de 15 días. El 81,8% lo consumió por una semana o más. De las cepas analizadas, resultaron sensibles a Amoxicilina 62,5%, a Eritromicina 50%, a Clindamicina 92,5%. Del estudio de la CIM el 72,5% fue sensible a Penicilina. Conclusiones: En esta población de estudio no podemos objetivar que exista una correlación entre la resistencia bacteriana de S. mitis y el consumo de antibióticos.

  11. Aggregation of plaque disclosing agent in a dentifrice Incorporação de evidenciador de placa bacteriana a um dentifrício

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    Débora Dias da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque removal is an important issue in health promotion. Toothbrushing is one of the main methods employed for such purpose, since it can prevent dental caries by means of the fluoride present in the dentifrice. Dentifrices might contain plaque disclosing agents and thus allow dental plaque observation. The aim of this study was to assess whether utilization of a plaque disclosing agent interfered with plaque removal among adolescents, as well as the difference between utilization of erythrosine tablets and dentifrices containing plaque disclosing agent. The sample was composed of 62 students from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, aged 12 to 14 years old, divided into 3 groups: G1 or control group (toothbrushing without plaque disclosure; G2 (plaque disclosing with an erythrosine tablet and toothbrushing and G3 (toothbrushing with dentifrice containing plaque disclosing agent. After toothbrushing, disclosure of the remaining dental plaque was performed in all groups with a fuchsin tablet and measured through the Simplified Oral Health Assessment Index (OHI-S, in two stages with a 2-month interval between them. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that there was no difference in the OHI-S index between the groups (p>0.05, however the G3 displayed a higher proportion of students with plaque reduction (23% than G2 (21%, besides the smallest difference in the mean remaining dental plaque. There was no difference between groups; however, it was suggested that the dentifrice with plaque disclosing agent had positive results in relation to the erythrosine tablet, even though the small sample size may have interfered with the results, indicating the need of complementary studies.Na promoção de saúde, a remoção da placa bacteriana é um fator importante e um dos métodos que incentivam sua remoção, é a escovação dentária, podendo-se prevenir a cárie dental através do íon flúor dos dentifrícios. Estes podem conter evidenciadores

  12. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

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    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  13. Efecto de la adición de materia orgánica sobre la dinámica poblacional bacteriana del suelo en cultivos de papa y maíz

    OpenAIRE

    David García Ventocilla; Gloria Mamani Gamarra; Nicolás Román Cabello; Luis Suárez Salas; Ana Contreras Marín; Julio Malca Jauregui

    2012-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de la fertilización orgánica sobre las poblaciones bacterianas del suelo en cultivos de papa y maíz durante la campaña agrícola 2008-2009 en terrenos de cuatro localidades del Valle del Mantaro: INIA Santa Ana (Huancayo), en la EEA El Mantaro (Jauja), Vista Alegre y Huayao (ambos en Chupaca). En estos lugares se instalaron parcelas experimentales de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Var. Canchan) y maíz (Zea maíz L. Var. Cusco mejorado) bajo abonamiento orgánico (vacuno, ovino...

  14. Estudio comparativo entre la acción de un nuevo amino-glucosido (Netilmicina) y la de nueve antibióticos de uso común sobre cepas bacterianas colombianas

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    Erix Bozón; Miguel Guzmán; Mercy De Guevara; Alvaro Aguilera

    1982-01-01

    Se hace un estudio descriptivo sobre el comportamiento de cepas bacterianas de diez y siete microorganismos frente a diez antibióticos de amplio espectro, de uso más común en nuestro medio, dentro de los cuales se encuentra un aminoglucósido, la netilmicina, de reciente introducción. Se presenten los porcentajes de inhibición logrados por los antibióticos probados, para cada microorganismo. ordenados en magnitudes decrecientes. Se recomienda este tipo de estudios para tener un conocimiento bá...

  15. Probióticos em rações para frangos de corte utilizando farinha de carne e ossos com diferentes níveis de contaminação bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Antônio Soares; Cavalcanti,Jorge dos Santos; Ost,Paulo Roberto; Schoulten,Neudi Artemio

    2003-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de probióticos no desempenho de frangos de corte consumindo dietas com farinhas de carne e ossos com diferentes contaminações bacterianas, foi realizado um experimento na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no qual foram utilizados 576 pintos da linhagem Hubbard, com um dia de idade, metade de cada sexo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (rações e probióticos) com 4 repetições de 12 aves alojadas em baterias m...

  16. Estudio de la interacción de bacterias implicadas en la formulación de placa dentro-bacteriana con superficies de titanio comercialmente puro in vitro y su asociación con la peri-implantitis.

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    Rodríguez Hernández, Ana Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La peri-implantitis puede poner en riesgo la integridad funcional de un implante dental, ya que dependiendo de la severidad del daño, éste puede ocasionar la pérdida irremediable del implante. Dicho padecimiento está asociado directamente con la formación de la placa dento-bacteriana sobre la superficie del implante.En este trabajo de tesis se estudiarón, por un lado las propiedades de superficie de 6 tipos diferentes de tratamientos utilizados en implantes dentales (tales como: la rugosidad,...

  17. Cuatro métodos de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave en recién nacidos febriles Four methods to predict the severe bacterial infection risk in the febrile newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez; Daniel Claver Isás; Heidy González Trujillo; Humberto Martínez Canalejo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue contrastar la efectividad de 4 métodos de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave (IBG) en recién nacidos (RN) febriles, uno de los cuales fue desarrollado por los autores del trabajo y los otros son los utilizados en la práctica internacional. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y aplicado de 1358 RN febriles sin signos de focalización evaluados y clasificados por riesgo de IBG. Fue aplicado el método propue...

  18. Acute bacterial meningitis in HIV, pacients in southern Brazil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Meningite bacteriana aguda em portadores de HIV, no sul do Brasil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Sérgio M. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute communitarian bacterial meningitis and AIDS are prevalent infectious disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acute communitarian bacterial meningitis in AIDS patients, the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF characteristics. It was reviewed the Health Department data from city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2002. During this period, 32 patients with AIDS fulfilled criteria for acute bacterial meningitis, representing 0.84% of the AIDS cases and 1.85% of the cases of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent bacteria isolated. The number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils were higher and CSF glucose was lower in the group with no HIV co-infection (p 0.12; 0.008; 0.04 respectively. Bacteria not so common causing meningitis can occur among HIV infected patients. The high mortality rate among pneumococcus meningitis patients makes pneumococcus vaccination important.A meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária e a AIDS são doenças prevalentes no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária entre os pacientes com AIDS e as características clínicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR. Foram revistos os dados da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, nos anos de 1996 a 2002. Nesse período, 32 pacientes com AIDS preencheram os critérios para meningite bacteriana aguda, representando 0,84% dos casos com AIDS e 1,85% dos casos com meningite bacteriana aguda. A bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada foi S. pneumoniae. A celularidade total e a porcentagem de neutrófilos no LCR foi mais elevada e a glicose foi mais baixa no grupo sem co-infecção (p 0,12; 0,008; 0,04 respectivamente. Bactérias menos freqüentes como agentes etiológicos de meningite podem ocorrer. A taxa de mortalidade elevada entre pacientes com meningite por pneumococo torna a vacinação importante.

  19. Efectividad del uso empírico de vancomicina para tratar la meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Revisión sistemática de la literatura y metaanálisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Galeano Tapias, Adriana Catalina; Piedrahita Vargas, Cristian Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. Debido al aumento de la frecuencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en meningitis bacteriana aguda y de los casos de fracaso al tratamiento con betalactámicos, se recomienda el uso combinado de vancomicina con cefalosporinas de tercera generación como primera línea de tratamiento empírico. Sin embargo, la efectividad de dicho régimen y su relación con la resistencia antibiótica no se conoce con claridad. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de la administración em...

  20. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    OpenAIRE

    C Godoy; C Melej; N Silva

    2010-01-01

    Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival) y bajo este (subgingival) tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por l...

  1. Primera detección en España de necrosis bacteriana de la dipladenia y caracterización fenotípica de su agente causal (Pseudomonas savastanoi)

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    Caballo-Ponce, Eloy; Ramos, Cayo

    2017-01-01

    La dipladenia (género Mandevilla) es una planta nativa de Suramérica con un creciente interés en el sector ornamental, cuyo mercado anual está estimado en 300-400 millones de euros. Las infecciones causadas por Pseudomonas savastanoi, una de las diez especies integrantes del complejo Pseudomonas syringae, suponen una importante amenaza para este mercado. La necrosis bacteriana de la dipladenia, provocada por P. savastanoi, se caracteriza por la aparición de manchas necróticas r...

  2. Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

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    Ryttig Kjeld R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study was to investigate if supplementary lactobacilli treatment could improve the initial cure rate after vaginal clindamycin therapy, and secondly, if lactobacilli as repeated adjunct treatment during 3 menstrual cycles could lengthen the time to relapse after initial cure. Methods Women (n = 100 with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Amsel criteria were after informed consent offered vaginal clindamycin therapy followed by vaginal gelatine capsules containing either 109 freeze-dried lactobacilli or identical placebo capsules for 10 days during 3 menstrual cycles in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Results The initial intent to treat (ITT analysis for the one-month cure rate was 64% in the lactobacilli group and 78% in the placebo group (p > 0.05. However, any patient with missing or unclassified smears at the initial visit who continued the study and whose next smear indicated a cure was included in the cured group; the study also excluded two of the patients in the lactobacilli group who reported that they did not take any vaginal capsules. With consideration to these population changes, the initial cure rate would be 77% in the lactobacilli group. The 76 cured women were followed for 6 menstrual cycles or until relapse within that time span. At the end of the study, 64.9% (24/37 of the lactobacilli treated women were still BV-free compared to 46.2% (18/39 of the placebo treated women. Comparison of the two groups regarding "Time from cure to relapse" was statistically significant (p = 0.027 in favour of the lactobacilli treatment. Adjuvant therapy with lactobacilli contributed significantly to avoidance of relapse with a proportional Hazard Risk ratio (HR of 0.73 (0.54–0.98 (p Conclusion The study shows that supplementary treatment combining two different strains of probiotic lactobacilli does not improve the efficacy of BV therapy during the first month of treatment

  3. Avaliação da influência da infecção bacteriana secundária na evolução da leishmaniose cutânea em Corte de Pedra, Bahia

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    Vera Luis Angel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 84 pacientes leishmanióticos com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de infecção bacteriana secundária das úlceras cutâneas e de estudar sua relação com a cicatrização das lesões. A infecção secundária foi diagnosticada mediante cultura bacteriana aeróbica de amostra de tecido da lesão. Todos os pacientes receberam tratamento antimonial durante 20 dias e fizeram lavagem da úlcera com água e sabão comum. A casuística foi composta principalmente de adolescentes e de adultos dedicados à lavoura, apresentando lesão única. Em 47,6%, as úlceras estudadas estavam localizadas nas pernas e nos pés. Verificou-se infecção secundária em 45/83 (54,2%, sendo mais freqüente nas lesões localizadas abaixo dos joelhos. O Staphylococcus aureus predominou (88,9%. A reepitelização completa das úlceras, avaliada em 79 pacientes um mês após o fim do tratamento, não foi influenciada pela infecção secundária.

  4. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

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    E. Sánchez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. Material and methods: we included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. Results: the prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p Introducción: el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI está relacionado con la motilidad del intestino delgado y diferentes trabajos con modelos experimentales han sugerido su relación con el desarrollo de traslocación bacteriana (TB. Tanto el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal como la traslocación bacteriana son eventos frecuentes en la cirrosis hepática. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio han sido analizar la población cecal de bacterias aerobias y el tránsito intestinal en un modelo de ratas cirróticas y su relación con la TB. Material y métodos: el estudio se ha realizado en un modelo experimental de cirrosis inducida por tetracloruro de carbono por vía oral en ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos microbiológicos convencionales a partir de ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos (GLM, sangre portal y periférica, h

  5. Detecção da adição fraudulenta de soro de queijo em leite: interferência da atividade de proteases bacterianas.

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    Gislene Bremer de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das fraudes econômicas mais comumente aplicadas ao leite fluido é a adição do soro de queijo. A ocorrência dessa fraude, no Brasil, é sugerida pela análise do índice de caseinomacropeptídeo (CMP, uma porção da molécula de ê-caseína solúvel no soro. No entanto, a ação de proteases produzidas por microrganismos psicrotróficos pode interferir neste teste levando a resultados falso-positivos, situação que passou a ter maior importância após a implementação da Instrução Normativa 51 (2002. Com o objetivo de avaliar esta interferência, foi inoculado no leite ca6 103 UFC/mL de Pseudomonas spp. seguido de incubação durante 2 e 5 dias a 7 ºC. O crescimento microbiano foi monitorado e, após estes períodos, o leite foi submetido a tratamento térmico (100 ºC/5 min para eliminação das células bacterianas e o extrato enzimático foi obtido para posterior análise da atividade de proteases. Em seguida, o leite foi submetido à incubação 30 ºC/30 d e o índice de CMP foi analisado nos tempos zero e 30 dias. Os resultados dos testes de atividade de proteases após 2 dias de incubação, usando como substrato a azocaseína, não diferiram significativamente (P > 0,05 dos de 5 dias. Diferentemente, os índices de CMP no tempo zero do tratamento 5d/7 ºC para o leite inoculado com P. fluorescens, foram maiores do que o mesmo leite fraudado com 30% de soro de queijo, o que denota ainda mais a necessidade de controlar este importante deteriorante. Após 30 dias houve diminuição destes índices, possivelmente em decorrência da degradação do próprio CMP pelas proteases produzidas por P. fluorescens.

  6. Translocação bacteriana para o rim na icterícia obstrutiva experimental Bacterial translocation to kidney in obstructive experimental jaundice

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    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade de ocorrência de translocação bacteriana para os rins de ratos, após ligadura de colédoco. Foram utilizados 29 ratos Wistar com peso médio de 171 ± 12,6g. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo I (n=14 e grupo II (n=15. Com técnica asséptica, nos ratos no grupo I foi feita ligadura de colédoco com fio de seda nº 3 zeros e no grupo II foi simulada a ligadura com a simples manipulação do colédoco com pinça de Adson ("sham operation". No 7º dia pós-operatório os animais foram sacrificados e ressecados os rins para exame histopatológico (coloração H.E. e microbiológico (meios agar sangue e agar MacConkey. Houve crescimento bacteriano de Klebsiela sp em 28,5% dos casos no grupo I e foram observadas alterações histopatológicas significativas no mesmo grupo. As diferenças foram estatisticamente significantes quando foram comparados os 2 grupos (pExperimental study in order to determine if obstructive jaundice promotes basterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the kidney in rats. We used 29 Wistar male rats weighing 171±12,6g. They were ramdomly separated in goup I (n=14 and group II (n=15 and operated with asseptic technic. The group I underwent common bile ducts ligature with number 000 silk suture, and in group II (control the common bile ducts were manipulated with Adson forceps, as a sham operation. On 7th postoperative day the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthesic and had their kidneys resected. Portions of each kidney were harvested for quantitation of bacterial translocation and histopatologic examination. The incidance of bacterial translocation was 28,5% (Klebsiella sp in group I and 0% in group II (p<0,05. Intersticial edema, nephrosis and tubular degeneration were observed in group I and the histology was normal in group II. The authors conclude that obstructive ajundice promotes bacterial translocation to the kidney

  7. Eficacia de la aplicación de criterios de bajo riesgo de infección bacteriana severa en recién nacidos febriles

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    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 229 recién nacidos febriles sin signos de focalización en su evaluación inicial, en los cuales se consideró una serie de datos clínicos y de laboratorio, con el objetivo de valorar la efectividad de éstos como medio de predicción negativa de infección bacteriana severa (IBS, y así poder calificar un grupo como de bajo riesgo de IBS, y comparar estos criterios con los de Rochester aplicados a este mismo grupo de pacientes. La evaluación diagnóstica dio un valor predictivo negativo de 98,9 %. Con estos datos se conformó un test de evaluación que permitió calificar eficazmente a un grupo de pacientes como de bajo riesgo de IBS, al presentarse dentro de éstos sólo un caso con IBS, a diferencia de 40 casos en el grupo calificado como de alto riesgo. La comparación de los criterios de Rochester con los del presente trabajo destacó un saldo superior para los nuestros.229 febrile newborns with no signs of focalization in their initial evaluation were studied. A series of clinical and laboratory data was considered with the aim of assessing their effectiveness as a means of negative prediction of serious bacterial infection (SBI, and of qualifying a group as of low risk serious bacterial infection and comparing these criteria with those of Rochester applied to this same group of patients. The diagnostic evaluation showed a negative predictive value of 98,9 %. With these data it was possible to make an evaluation test which allowed the effective qualification of a group of patients as of low risk serious bacterial infection, taking into account that only a case of SBI was found among them, compared with 40 cases detected in the high risk group. On comparing Rochester's criteria with the ones included in the present paper, a higher balance was obtained for ours.

  8. Actividad inhibitoria de dihidroxifenilpropenona sobre β-lactamasa de Enterobacter cloacae: estudio preliminar en el desarrollo de fármacos para enfrentar la resistencia bacteriana

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    Cristina Lucía Mora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Microorganismos patógenos como Enterobacter cloacae producen enzimas β-lactamasas que les confieren resistencia a los antibioticos β-lactámicos y actualmente se ha identificado la actividad limitada de los inhibidores enzimáticos, de modo que las únicas posibilidades para enfrentar la problemática son el diseño de nuevos fármacos y el uso racional de los mismos. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la chalcona dihidroxifenilpropenona sobre un aislamiento clínico de E. cloacae y sobre la enzima β-lactamasa aislada a partir de este microorganismo resistente como un aporte hacia la búsqueda de compuestos inhibidores de β-lactamasa. Materiales y métodos. Se sintetizó la chalcona dihidroxifenilpropenona y se evaluó sobre el aislamiento clínico de E. cloacae para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria mediante el método de microdilución en caldo y con la β-lactamasa purificada mediante cromatografía de afinidad se realizaron estudios espectrofotométricos de cinética enzimática. Resultados. La concentración mínima inhibitoria de la dihidroxifenilpropenona sobre E. cloacae fue de 35 μg/ml, el porcentaje de recuperación de la enzima β-lactamasa a partir del microorganismo fue de 31,75% y en el estudio cinético se evidenció actividad inhibitoria de acuerdo con los parámetros cinéticos de Vmax= 1,7 x 10-3 μM/min y KM´= 2330 μM. Conclusión. La chalcona dihidroxifenilpropenona ejerce su actividad inhibitoria a través de la interacción con la enzima β-lactamasa y de esta manera protege la integridad estructural de los antibióticos β-lactámicos, este efecto sinérgico lo convierte en un compuesto promisorio en la búsqueda de alternativas para enfrentar la problemática de resistencia bacteriana.

  9. Endocardite bacteriana como complicação de sepse neonatal - relato de caso Bacterial endocarditis as a complication of neonatal sepsis: a case report

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    V.L.J. Krebs

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um paciente com 11 dias de vida, internado em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal devido a múltiplas malformações congênitas, apresentando sepse e endocardite bacteriana. Entre os fatores de risco para endocardite foram destacados o cateterismo venoso central, hemocultura com crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e ventilação mecânica. O diagnóstico foi realizado no 61o dia de internação devido a presença de febre persistente e aparecimento de sopro cardíaco sistólico. O ecocardiograma mostrou trombo em átrio direito, medindo 1,9 x 0,7mm sendo realizada antibioticoterapia e ressecção cirúrgica, com melhora clínica. No 125° dia de internação ocorreu óbito devido à sepse e abscesso cerebral. Na necrópsia não foram observados malformações cardíacas. Os autores concluem ser de grande importância o conhecimento das complicações potenciais das técnicas invasivas utilizadas em recém-nascidos criticamente doentes. A suspeita clínica de endocardite deve ser realizada em todos os neonatos com sepse, internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal por tempo prolongadoThe authors reported on a 11 day-old child, admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for multiple congenital malformations, who had sepsis and bacterial endocarditis. Among the risk factors for endocarditis were outstanding: the central venous catheterism, hemoculture with growth of Staphylococcus aureus and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis was made in the 61st day after admission owing to the presence of persistent fever and appearance of systolic murmur. The echocardiogram revealed a thrombus in the right atrium measuring 1.9 x 0.7mm. Antibiotic therapy and surgical resection being performed, with clinical improvement. On the 125st day after admission the patient died owing sepsis and cerebral abscess. At necropsy, heart malformations were not observed. The authors concluded to be very important the knowledge of the potential

  10. Validación de nuevos parámetros predictivos de infecciones bacterianas severas en niños febriles menores de 36 meses de edad

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    Alicia Álvarez Rodríguez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva-prospectiva con el objetivo de validar nuestros criterios de riesgos en la identificación de la infección bacteriana severa (IBS en niños febriles, para lo cual se establecieron las categorías de riesgos y se aplicaron en 215 niños febriles que habían ingresado por esta causa en un período de 12 meses. Se obtuvo que el 54,9 % de los niños se clasificaron como bajo riesgo y el 71,6 % sin IBS. No obstante, la frecuencia de dicha afección resultó elevada, 28,4 %, con predominio de las infecciones urinarias. Se triplicó el riesgo de padecer IBS en los niños con aspecto tóxico, temperatura mayor o igual a 39°C, test clínico de Bonadio mayor que 8, cituria mayor o igual a 10 000 células/mm³, con diferencias significativas entre las categorías de riesgo y la IBS, y fue mayor la frecuencia en los niños tóxicos y de riesgos, 92,8 y 54,3 %, respectivamente. Uno de cada 4 niños febriles presentó IBS. Se introdujo la categoría "Riesgo" y se recomienda un flujograma de evaluación.A descriptive-prospective research study was carried out to validate our risk criteria in the identification of severe bacterial infection in febrile young children. For this purpose, risk categories were set and applied in 215 febrile children who had been admitted in a period of 12 months. 54.9 % of febrile children were at low risk for serious bacterial infections whereas 71.6 % presented no risk at all. Nevertheless, the frequency of this affection was high, accounting for 28.4 % with predominance of urinary infections. The risk of getting SBI trippled in children who shared toxic look, temperature greater than or equal to 39 °C, Bonadium clinical test higher than 8, cyturia values over or equal to 10 000 cell/mm³, significant differences between risk and SBI categories and the highest frequency of such affection found in toxic children and in children at low risk (92.8 vs 54.3 %. One in every four febrile

  11. Evaluación de la sensibilidad del cultivo de semen en el diagnóstico de prostatitis bacteriana crónica

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    Nora Mendoza Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Evaluar la sensibilidad del cultivo de semen en el diagnóstico de pacientes con prostatitis bacteriana crónica (PBC. Materiales y métodos: Es un estudio de serie de casos prospectivo y analítico realizado en varones con clínica sugerente de PBC y sin tratamiento previo. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, demográficas y de laboratorio. A todos los pacientes se les realizó la prueba de Meares y Stamey y la prueba a la que denominamos Alterna (espermocultivo y 3 urocultivos. Se evaluó la sensibilidad del cultivo de semen. Resultados: De 130 pacientes, solo en 69 se realizaron ambas pruebas. La edad promedio fue de 37.07± 11.16 años. El tiempo promedio de enfermedad antes de acudir a consulta médica fue de 12.5 meses. El síntoma más frecuente fue el dolor testicular bilateral presente en 32 (46.59%pacientes. El exámen digito rectal de la próstata fue normal en 64 (92.75% de los pacientes. La prueba alterna fue positiva en 7 (10.14% casos siendo Escherichia coli el germen más frecuentemente aislado en el cultivo de semen. La prueba de Meares y Stamey fue positiva en todos los pacientes. Staphylococcus aureus fue el germen más frecuentemente encontrado en el cultivo de secreción prostática. La sensibilidad del cultivo de semen para el diagnóstico de PBC fue de 10.14%.Conclusión: En nuestro estudio el cultivo de semen tiene una baja sensibilidad en el diagnóstico de PBC y su empleo nos llevaría a sub diagnósticar esta condición .(Rev Med Hered 2004; 15:37-43.

  12. Genética y genómica enfocadas en el estudio de la resistencia bacteriana Genetics and Genomics for the study of bacterial resistance

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    Ulises Garza-Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana es un problema de salud pública causante de índices elevados de morbi-mortalidad hospitalaria. En la medida en que se usan los diferentes antibióticos se seleccionan bacterias resistentes a múltiples fármacos. El desarrollo de nuevas herramientas moleculares de la genómica y proteómica, como el PCR en tiempo real, pirosecuenciación de ADN, espectrometría de masas, microarreglos de ADN y bioinformática, permite conocer en forma más estrecha la fisiología y estructura de las bacterias y los mecanismos de resistencia a los antibióticos. Estos estudios hacen posible identificar nuevos blancos farmacológicos y diseñar antibióticos específicos para suministrar tratamientos más certeros que combatan las infecciones producidas por bacterias. Con estas técnicas también es posible la identificación rápida de los genes que confieren la resistencia a los antibióticos y el reconocimiento de las estructuras genéticas complejas como los integrones, que intervienen en la diseminación de los genes que producen la multirresistencia.Bacterial resistance is a public health problem causing high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. To the extent that different antibiotics are used, bacteria resistant to multiple drugs are selected. The development of new molecular genomic and proteomic tools such as real-time PCR, DNA pyrosequencing, mass spectrometry, DNA microarrays, and bioinformatics allow for more in-depth knowledge about the physiology and structure of bacteria and mechanisms involved in antibiotic resistance. These studies identify new targets for drugs and design specific antibiotics to provide more accurate treatments to combat infections caused by bacteria. Using these techniques, it will also be possible to rapidly identify genes that confer resistance to antibiotics, and to identify complex genetic structures, such as integrons that are involved in the spread of genes that confer

  13. EFICACIA DEL CEPILLADO CON Y SIN DENTÍFRICO EN EL CONTROL DE LA PLACA BACTERIANA SUPRAGINGIVAL EN ALUMNOS DEL 1ER GRADO DEL NIVEL PRIMARIO DE LA INSTITUCIÓN EDUCATIVA JUAN MANUEL POLAR DEL DISTRITO DE JOSÉ LUIS BUSTAMANTE Y RIVERO. AREQUIPA, 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    CÁRDENAS DEL CARPIO, ROSA ELENA

    2016-01-01

    CEPILLADO OBJETIVOS FRECUENCIA DE CEPILLADO DURACIÓN DEL CEPILLADO TÉCNICAS DE CEPILLADO REQUISITOS DE UN CEPILLADO DE DIENTES SATISFACTORIO DENTÍFRICO O PASTA DENTAL PLACA BACTERIANA ÍNDICE DE HIGIENE ORAL SIMPLIFICADO ANÁLISIS DE ANTECEDENTES INVESTIGATIVOS

  14. Diagnóstico de proliferación bacteriana intestinal en niños: evidencia experimental para sustentar el empleo de lactulosa en la prueba de hidrógeno y su validación como prueba tamiz

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    Evelyn Mendoza

    2007-09-01

    Conclusiones. Se aporta evidencia experimental para sustentar el uso de la lactulosa en la prueba de hidrógeno y se valida ésta frente al patrón de referencia como prueba tamiz para diagnosticar la proliferación bacteriana intestinal.

  15. Bacterial translocation in rats nonfunctioning diverted distal colon Translocação bacteriana no coto colônico distal desfuncionalizado de ratos

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    Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior

    2007-06-01

    colite de derivação fecal, seriam capazes de permitir Translocação Bacteriana (TB, ou se a mucosa intestinal atrofiada permitiria a passagem de bactérias para órgãos à distância. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 62 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 220 e 320 gramas, divididos em dois grupos: A (Colostomia e B (Controle, contendo cada um 31 animais. No grupo A, os animais foram submetidos à colostomia, terminal boca única, em cólon ascendente. A partir do 70º dia de observação os seguintes procedimentos foram adotados: em cinco ratos foi injetado por via retal no segmento desfuncionalizado - 2ml de uma solução salina 0,9% nos animais (subgrupo A1; em oito inoculou-se, por via retal, uma solução de 2ml contendo Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (American Type Culture Collection, na concentração de 10(8 Unidades Formadoras de Colônias por mililitros (UFC/ml - Subgrupo A2; em dez animais inoculava-se a mesma solução de E. coli, na concentração de 10(11UFC/ml (Subgrupo A3; e em oito colhia-se o muco do segmento colônico distal desfuncionalizado, para dosagens de açúcares neutros e proteínas totais (subgrupo A4. Os animais do grupo B foram submetidos aos mesmos procedimentos do grupo A, e não foram submetidos à colostomia. Nos animais dos subgrupos A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, e B3, após serem mortos, realizou-se punção cardíaca para coleta de 2ml de sangue e retiraram-se fragmentos de tecidos de linfonodo do mesocólon, fígado, baço, pulmão e rim, para análise microbiológica. Essa análise consistia em evidenciar a presença de UFC de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e Anova foram aplicados como técnicas investigativas para associação das variáveis. RESULTADOS: A ocorrência de TB, só foi evidenciada nos animais em que a concentração inoculada de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, atingia níveis de 10(11UFC/ml, ou seja, nos Subgrupos A3 e B3, no entanto, sendo significantemente superior (80% nos animais sem colostomia (subgrupo B3

  16. Peritonitis bacteriana espontánea: estudio en pacientes cirróticos descompensados con ascitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated cirrhotic patients with ascites

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    Fernando Montoya Maya

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo entre febrero de 1993 y marzo de 1994. Se estudiaron 25 pacientes cirróticos (3 de ellos en dos ocasiones con ascitis clínica o ecográfica que ingresaron al servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia, por descompensación de su cuadro clínico. A todos se les practicó paracentesis diagnóstica con estudio de citoquímico, citología y cultivo para bacterias aerobias y anaerobias. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 43.9 años (13 a 77 afíos, 13 fueron mujeres (52% y 12 hombres (48%. En 11 episodios (39.3% se encontró ascitis infectada, así: ascitis bacteriana 6 casos (54.6% (monomicrobiana en tres y polimicrobiana en otros tres; peritonitis bacteriana espontánea 3 casos (27.2% (polimicrobiana en dos y monomicrobiana en uno y ascitis neutrofílica dos casos (18.2%. El 72.7% de los casos con ascitis infectada tuvieron fiebre contra un 23.5% de aquéllos sin infección (p < 0.014. Asimismo, el dolor abdominal fue un síntoma bastante frecuente (45.5% de infección. La ascitis infectada se presentó únicamente en individuos categoría C de la clasificación de Child-Pugh, con niveles séricos de albúmina, generalmente menores de 2 g/dl (p < 0.01. Los niveles de albúmina en líquido ascítico menores de 1 g/dl no se asociaron a la infección del mismo. Los gérmenes prevalentes fueron Escherichia coli y estreptococos del grupo viridans, cada uno aislado en 5 ocasiones. Los aislamientos fueron polimicrobianos en 5 de nueve casos (55.5%. La mortalidad por ascitis infectada fue de 27.3% (3/11 casos comparable con la debida a causas diferentes (29.4% en individuos con ascitis sin infección (5/17. Se concluye que la infección del líquido ascítico es una complicación frecuente en los pacientes cirróticos descompensados. La fiebre y el dolor abdominal son los signos clínicos cardinales de la infección. El aislamiento frecuente de E

  17. Bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: HRCT findings Achados de TCAR nas pneumonias bacterianas após transplante de medula óssea

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    Luiz Otávio de Mattos Coelho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe HRCT findings in patients with bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation (BMT. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 30 patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia in whom HRCT of the chest was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was confirmed, based on a positive culture of sputum or bronchial aspirate, together with a positive pleural fluid or blood culture, within one week after symptom onset. There were 20 male patients and 10 female patients. The median age was 21 years (range, 1-41 years. The BMT had been performed for the treatment of the following: chronic myeloid leukemia, in 14 cases; severe aplastic anemia, in 6; acute myeloid leukemia, in 4; Fanconi's anemia, in 3; and acute lymphocytic leukemia, in 3. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT scans and reached their final decisions by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT findings were air-space consolidation (in 60%, small centrilobular nodules (in 50%, ground-glass opacities (in 40%, bronchial wall thickening (in 20%, large nodules (in 20%, pleural lesions (in 16.7% and tree-in-bud opacities (in 10%. The pulmonary lesions were distributed in the central and peripheral areas in 15 patients, whereas they were exclusively peripheral in 11. Lesions were located in the lower and middle lobes of the lung in 22 and 20 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The most common HRCT findings in our patient sample were air-space consolidation, small centrilobular nodules and ground-glass opacities, most often in the central and peripheral regions of the middle and lower lung zones.OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados de TCAR em pacientes com pneumonia bacteriana após transplante de medula óssea (TMO. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 30 pacientes diagnosticados com pneumonia bacteriana, documentada com TCAR do tórax realizada em até 24 h do início dos sintomas, e com diagnóstico comprovado com base em cultura positiva

  18. Flujo vaginal. Etiología en una unidad intermedia de salud

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    Luz Marina Alzate

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En una serie de 584 mujeres que consultaron por flujo vaginal a una Unidad Intermedia de Salud se halló que la entidad más frecuente era la vaginosis bacteriana (vaginitis inespecífica o por Gardnerella vaginalis con un 34,8% seguida por la candidiasis (9,4% y la tricomoniasis (43%; hubo también infecciones mixtas (7,2%; la candidiasis, la tricomoniasis y las infecciones mixtas, pero no la vaginosis bacteriana, fueron más frecuentes en mujeres embarazadas; se hace énfasis en la facilidad de diagnosticar vaginosis bacteriana en el laboratorio corriente con base en criterios de muy fácil determinación.

  19. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

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    Bailey Robin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6 and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated, but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15, and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28. Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12

  20. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

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    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine if oral metronidazole (MTZ-400 mg bid with 2% vaginal clindamycin-cream (Clind or a Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal-probiotic containing oestriol (Prob reduces 6-month bacterial vaginosis (BV recurrence. METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group single-site study with balanced randomization (1:1:1 conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Participants with symptomatic BV [Nugent Score (NS = 7-10 or ≥3 Amsel's criteria and NS = 4-10], were randomly allocated to MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob or MTZ-Placebo and assessed at 1,2,3 and 6 months. MTZ and Clind were administered for 7 days and Prob and Placebo for 12 days. Primary outcome was BV recurrence (NS of 7-10 on self-collected vaginal-swabs over 6-months. Cumulative BV recurrence rates were compared between groups by Chi-squared statistics. Kaplan-Meier, log rank and Cox regression analyses were used to compare time until and risk of BV recurrence between groups. RESULTS: 450 18-50 year old females were randomized and 408 (91%, equally distributed between groups, provided ≥1 NS post-randomization and were included in analyses; 42 (9% participants with no post-randomization data were excluded. Six-month retention rates were 78% (n = 351. One-month BV recurrence (NS 7-10 rates were 3.6% (5/140, 6.8% (9/133 and 9.6% (13/135 in the MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob and MTZ-Placebo groups respectively, p = 0.13. Hazard ratios (HR for BV recurrence at one-month, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy, were 0.43 (95%CI 0.15-1.22 and 0.75 (95% CI 0.32-1.76 in the MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob groups compared to MTZ-Plac respectively. Cumulative 6-month BV recurrence was 28.2%; (95%CI 24.0-32.7% with no difference between groups, p = 0.82; HRs for 6-month BV recurrence for MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob compared to MTZ-Plac, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy were 1.09(95% CI = 0.70-1.70 and 1.03(95% CI = 0.65-1.63, respectively. No serious

  1. Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples.

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    Craig R Cohen

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1-infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.We assessed the association between BV on female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk in a prospective study of 2,236 HIV-1-seropositive women and their HIV-1 uninfected male partners from seven African countries from a randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus (HSV-2, and their HIV-1-seronegative partners. Participants were followed for up to 24 months; every three months, vaginal swabs were obtained from female partners for Gram stain and male partners were tested for HIV-1. BV and normal vaginal flora were defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 and 0-3, respectively. To reduce misclassification, HIV-1 sequence analysis of viruses from seroconverters and their partners was performed to determine linkage of HIV-1 transmissions. Overall, 50 incident HIV-1 infections occurred in men in which the HIV-1-infected female partner had an evaluable vaginal Gram stain. HIV-1 incidence in men whose HIV-1-infected female partners had BV was 2.91 versus 0.76 per 100 person-years in men whose female partners had normal vaginal flora (hazard ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.74-7.52. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, sexual behavior, male circumcision, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in female partners, BV was associated with a greater than 3-fold increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission (adjusted hazard ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.37-7.33.This study identified an association between BV and increased risk of HIV

  2. Meningite bacteriana no período neonatal evolução clínica e complicações em 109 casos: clinical evolution and complications in 109 cases

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    Rubens Feferbaum

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available As meningites bacterianas apresentam características peculiares durante o período neonatal. A infecção bacteriana que se assesta no SNC, em fase rápida de crescimento, ocasiona complicações e sequelas graves, na maioria das crianças que contraem a doença, prejudicando seu desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. A análise de 109 crianças com meningite bacteriana neonatal no período janeiro/1977-abril/1987 demonstrou mortalidade de 34,8%. Na maioria dos casos não foram observados fatores de risco relacionados a antecedentes peri-natais e 80,5% dessas crianças foram caracterizadas como recém-nascido de termo. Os sinais mais encontrados à internação foram convulsões (53,2%, fontanela abaulada (37,6% e apnéia (20,2%; os sintomas mais frequentes foram depressão sensorial (64,2%, recusa alimentar (64,2%, febre (50,5% e irritabilidade (35,8%. As complicações verificadas durante a internação foram, por ordem de frequência, ventriculite (34,9%, SSIHAD (27,5%, coleção subdural (8,3%, abscesso cerebral (4,6% e enfarte cerebral (2,8%. A presença de SSIHAD e de ventriculite foram associadas a maior mortalidade. Das 71 crianças que sobreviveram à doença 44 (62% apresentaram-se com exame neurológico alterado e 29 (40,8% com hidrocefalia que exigiu a instalação de sistema de derivação ventrículo-peritoneal em 18 (62% dos casos. O seguimento neurológico dessas crianças é imprescindível, pois poderá haver modificação no prognóstico a longo prazo.

  3. Bacterial diversity of soil under eucalyptus assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis Diversidade bacteriana de solo sob eucaliptos obtida por seqüenciamento do 16S rDNA

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    Érico Leandro da Silveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the impact of Eucalyptus spp. on Brazilian soils have focused on soil chemical properties and isolating interesting microbial organisms. Few studies have focused on microbial diversity and ecology in Brazil due to limited coverage of traditional cultivation and isolation methods. Molecular microbial ecology methods based on PCR amplified 16S rDNA have enriched the knowledge of soils microbial biodiversity. The objective of this work was to compare and estimate the bacterial diversity of sympatric communities within soils from two areas, a native forest (NFA and an eucalyptus arboretum (EAA. PCR primers, whose target soil metagenomic 16S rDNA were used to amplify soil DNA, were cloned using pGEM-T and sequenced to determine bacterial diversity. From the NFA soil 134 clones were analyzed, while 116 clones were analyzed from the EAA soil samples. The sequences were compared with those online at the GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses revealed differences between the soil types and high diversity in both communities. Soil from the Eucalyptus spp. arboretum was found to have a greater bacterial diversity than the soil investigated from the native forest area.Estudos sobre impacto do Eucalyptus spp. em solos brasileiros têm focalizado propriedades químicas do solo e isolamento de microrganismos de interesse. No Brasil há pouco enfoque em ecologia e diversidade microbiana, devido às limitações dos métodos tradicionais de cultivo e isolamento. A utilização de métodos moleculares no estudo da ecologia microbiana baseados na amplificação por PCR do 16S rDNA têm enriquecido o conhecimento da biodiversidade microbiana dos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar e estimar a diversidade bacteriana de comunidades simpátricas em solos de duas áreas: uma floresta nativa (NFA e outra adjacente com arboreto de eucaliptos (EAA. Oligonucleotídeos iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar o 16S rDNA metagenômico do solo, o qual foi

  4. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND SENSIBILITY IN HEALTH AND SICK DOGS La identificación bacteriana y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de líquido de lavado tracheobronchial de sanos y enfermos perros IDENTIFICAÇÃO BACTERIANA E SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DO FLUIDO DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA DE CÃES SADIOS E DOENTES

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    Paula Cristina Basso

    2009-09-01

    ón bacteriana de las muestras y de pruebas de sensibilidad a los antibióticos por el método de difusión en agar. Las bacterias aisladas fueron: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas y Proteus mirabilis. Entre las muestras analizadas, 63% mostraron resistencia a diversos antibióticos. Se concluyó que la resistencia a la acción de los antibióticos está presente tanto en animales sanos como los enfermos, y que la ceftriaxona asociada con amoxicilina clavulánico y son eficaces contra las bacterias en el tracto respiratorio de perros.

    Pesquisas sobre a utilização de antibióticos e a resistência aos antimicrobianos em animais de produção são realizadas em diversos países. No entanto, poucos estudos incluem os agentes bacterianos associados ao trato respiratório de animais de companhia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana no fluido do lavado traqueobrônquico de cães saudáveis e doentes. Utilizaram-se vinte animais, dez clinicamente saudáveis (Grupo 1 e dez com distúrbio respiratório (Grupo 2. A colheita do lavado traqueobrônquico foi realizada com tubo endotraqueal ou guiada com o auxílio de um endoscópio rígido. Efetuaram-se o cultivo e a identificação bacteriana das amostras e teste de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos pelo método de difusão em ágar. As bactérias isoladas foram: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Dentre as amostras analisadas, 63% demonstraram resistência bacteriana a diferentes antimicrobianos. Conclui-se que resistência à ação dos antibióticos está presente tanto nos animais sadios quanto nos doentes e que a ceftriaxona e a amoxicilina associada com ácido clavulânico s

  5. Bacterial diversity in soil in response to different plans, phosphate fertilizers and liming Diversidade bacteriana do solo em resposta a diferentes plantas, fertilizantes fosfatados e calagem

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    Paulo da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Gram positivos não esporulados e bacilos Gram negativos que o solo com C. cajan ou não cultivado. O número de bacilos Gram positivos esporulados foi superior nas parcelas fertilizadas com fosfato do que nas não adubadas ou fertilizadas com fosfato de rocha. Nas parcelas não fertilizadas, maior número de cocos Gram positivos e bacilos Gram negativos foi obtido do que nas parcelas fertilizadas. A ausência de calagem favoreceu os bacilos Gram positivos esporulados, cocos Gram positivos e os bacilos Gram negativos, enquanto que, com calagem foram encontradas proporções maiores de bacilos Gram positivos não esporulados. De 7 a 86% do total de isolados utilizaram diferentes carboidratos. O registro dos dados utilizado neste experimento foi efetivo na identificação dos isolados e pode ser útil para o diagnóstico das bactérias do solo. Os gêneros mais freqüentes foram Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Rhodococcus, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus e Arthrobacter. A diversidade bacteriana foi aumentada nas parcelas com calagem, não fertilizadas e cultivadas com plantas.

  6. Bacterial Levan: tecnological aspects, characteristics and production/ Levana Bacteriana: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção

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    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2005-06-01

    contendo este açúcar, em diferentes concentrações, em um meio rico em sais minerais. A produção de levana é influenciada não apenas pela fonte de carbono e sua concentração, mas também pelas variações de pH, temperatura e tipo de sais presentes, além da oxigenação do meio de fermentação, afetando também as características da molécula e o crescimento celular. Neste trabalho de revisão apresentam-se tópicos de interesse referentes à produção de levana bacteriana.

  7. Microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors

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    Paula Fontana Lorenzini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea e seu padrão de suscetibilidade a antibióticos; verificar o número de córneas utilizadas para transplante e a média de tempo de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina; traçar o perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea. MÉTODOS: Espécimes clínicos foram colhidos de saco inferior da conjuntiva de ambos os olhos, de 40 doadores de córnea. As amostras foram inoculadas em ágar sangue azida, ágar chocolate e ágar MacConkey e o antibiograma foi realizado pelo método de Kirby-Bauer. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea foi de 72,5%, sendo que Gram-positivos totalizaram 81,6% e apenas 18,4% das amostras foram identificadas como Gram-negativos. Vancomicina inibiu 100% dos Gram-positivos, ao passo que a sensibilidade dos Gram-negativos à gentamicina foi de 53,8% e à estreptomicina foi de 30%. O sexo masculino predominou entre os doadores e receptores, a média de tempo entre o óbito e a enucleação foi de 2h e a de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina foi de 7 dias. Neoplasia e mais de uma causa associada foram as causas de óbito mais freqüentes. O ceratocone foi a principal indicação para transplante (51,7%. CONCLUSÕES: Staphylococcus coagulase negativo foi o microrganismo com o maior número de isolamentos, apresentando sensibilidade variada aos antimicrobianos. A quantidade de córneas utilizadas para transplante foi bastante inferior em relação ao total de captações. O perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea mostrou-se heterogêneo para grande parte das variáveis analisadas.PURPOSE: To determine aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors and its patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics; verify the number of corneas used for transplant and the average time of preservation in solutions with

  8. Cuatro métodos de predicción de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave en recién nacidos febriles

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue contrastar la efectividad de 4 métodos de evaluación de riesgo de infección bacteriana grave (IBG en recién nacidos (RN febriles, uno de los cuales fue desarrollado por los autores del trabajo y los otros son los utilizados en la práctica internacional. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y aplicado de 1358 RN febriles sin signos de focalización evaluados y clasificados por riesgo de IBG. Fue aplicado el método propuesto por los autores, que comprende: antecedente de ser sano; ausencia de impresión médica de un estado tóxico-infeccioso; ausencia de evidencias de infección focal en el examen físico; fiebre menor de 39 ºC y no persistente o recurrente; recuento de leucocitos sanguíneos > 5,0 x 10(9/L y < 20,0 x 10(9/L; velocidad de sedimentación globular < 20 mm/h y recuento de leucocitos en orina < 10 000/mL. Éste y los otros métodos se aplicaron en una evaluación inicial y al término de 48 h evolutivas. Se calcularon los valores predictivos para los distintos métodos y se evaluó también la efectividad mediante la función de ganancia. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de IBG fue del 20,4 %. La causa más frecuente fue la infección del tracto urinario. De los 652 RN evaluados inicialmente por nuestro método, hubo cambio de categoría evolutiva en 177 (13,0 %; con los otros métodos también ocurrieron cambios, menos notables. Los fallos de los valores predictivos con nuestro método fueron 40 (8,5 %, una proporción significativamente menor (p < 0,001 que con los otros métodos. La función de ganancia tuvo valores aritméticos superiores con los otros métodos. CONCLUSIONES. Existe un mayor margen de seguridad con nuestro método en relación con los otros métodos de evaluación estudiados. Atribuimos esta ventaja al hecho de que se incluyeron parámetros evaluativos clínicos y de laboratorio (como la magnitud y persistencia de la fiebre y el aspecto

  9. Eficacia de cinco desinfectantes para la reducción bacteriana doméstica Efficacy of five disinfectants to reduce bacterial load in the household

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    Julián Stambullian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso adecuado de hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán ha demostrado ser eficaz para eliminar gérmenes dentro del hogar. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia inmediata, a la semana y al mes del uso controlado de cinco productos con estos componentes, comparados con otros productos de uso habitual. Se incluyeron 32 hogares de clase media de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la periferia en un estudio con intervención, abierto, aleatorizado, y de grupos paralelos, durante 6 meses. La mitad de los hogares fue seleccionada para usar hipoclorito de sodio, sales de amonio cuaternario y triclosán en la cocina y el baño durante un mes. El grupo control mantuvo prácticas habituales de limpieza doméstica. Se tomaron muestras para recuento y tipificación bacteriana de los sitios estudiados: muestras basales (sin discriminación de grupo en cocina, que presentaron recuento bacteriano promedio de 66.0 UFC/cm²; baño: 40.1 UFC/cm². Las muestras inmediatas a la limpieza (sin discriminación de grupo: en cocina: 0.8 UFC/cm²; baño: The proper use of products containing sodium hypochlorite, ammonium salts and triclosan has proved to be effective in the elimination of infectious agents in the household environment. Our objective was to evaluate the immediate, one-week and one-month efficacy of controlled use of five products containing these components, compared to other commonly used products. Within a six month period, thirty two middle-class homes from Buenos Aires City and suburbs were included in this open-label, randomized, parallel-group intervention study. Sixteen homes were randomized to use products containing sodium hypochlorite, ammonia and triclosan in the kitchen and bathroom during one month. The remaining maintained usual practices for domestic cleaning. Bacterial counts and identification were performed from samples taken from each study site. Baseline samples (no group discrimination contained a mean bacterial

  10. Biopolímeros, Carbono e Enxofre Totais Associados à Atividade Bacteriana dos Sedimentos Superficiais do Delta do Paraíba do Sul, RJ-Brasil

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    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacia de drenagem do Rio Paraíba do Sul localiza-se ao longo do eixo Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo, de grande densidade demográfica e intensa industrialização. Este trabalho objetivou analisar quali-quantitativamente a matéria orgânica (biopolímeros, carbono orgânico total e enxofre e o estado metabólico bacteriano nos sedimentos superficiais estuarino-deltaicos do Rio Paraíba do Sul, relacionando-os a distribuição granulométrica. Em média, 65,5% dos sedimentos foi classificado como arenoso e empobrecidos em carbono e enxofre, cujas concentrações médias foram 0,71% e 0,04%, respectivamente. A razão elementar C:S indica que o ambiente é predominantemente oxidante, coerente com a forte influência fluvial no estuário desse rio de médio porte. Os biopolímeros carboidratos (média de 2075,93 μg C/g, proteínas (média de 25,70 μg C/g e lipídeos (média de 363,10 μg C/g também apresentaram concentrações inferiores a outros ambientes. Em função dessas baixas concentrações, pôde-se classificar o ambiente como sendo meso-oligotrófico. A razão CARBOIDRATO:COT identificou o impacto de atividades antrópicas, mais especificamente o aporte de efluentes domésticos ao longo de todo o seu curso e da indústria açucareira fortemente presente no seu baixo curso. A comunidade bacteriana, responsável pela hidrólise da matéria orgânica, é predominantemente anaeróbia e anaeróbia facultativa, implicando em perda de nitrogênio para a atmosfera (desnitrificação e produção de sulfetos (sulfato-redução e os baixos valores da razão PROTEINA:CARBOIDRATO refletem essa perda de nitrogênio (presente nos compostos protéicos considerando a ocorrência de bactérias desnitrificantes. Os valores encontrados de carbono bacteriano são elevados (3,29 μg C/g que também, provavelmente, são devidos aos impactos descritos.

  11. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    L. Nuñez

    2007-12-01

    antibióticos, os desinfetantes podem atuar como agentes seletivos de linhagens resistentes aos antimicrobianos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo do perfil da resistência aos desinfetantes das bactérias lançadas na rede de esgoto pelo efluente hospitalar. Na caracterização microbiológica do efluente do Hospital de Clínicas Buenos Aires, determinou-se a concentração de bactérias heterotróficas, bactérias indicadoras fecais, Pseudomonas sp. e Staphylococcus sp. presentes. A resistência aos desinfetantes empregados no hospital, glutaraldeído, iodo povidona, e clorexidina foi então avaliada. Verificou-se a existência de bactérias resistentes à clorexidina em número variando de 10³ a 10(6 bactérias/100 mL e de bactérias resistentes a outros desinfetantes em uma faixa de variação de 10³ a 10(4 bactérias/100 mL. Bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Bacillus, e da família Enterobacteriaceae, envolvidas em infecções hospitalares, apresentaram resistência aos desinfetantes testados. Estes resultados indicam que as águas residuárias de hospitais desempenham um papel de grande relevância na disseminação de linhagens bacterianas resistentes aos desinfetantes no meio aquático.

  12. Articulações entre linguagem, corpo e psiquismo em crianças surdas em decorrência de meningite bacteriana: estudo de dois casos clínicos

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    Garrido, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Introdução: Neste trabalho, a interlocução entre a Fonoaudiologia e a Psicanálise delimitou a perspectiva de investigação: a relação entre linguagem e psiquismo nas crianças surdas que sofreram golpes orgânicos precoces. É nessa perspectiva que a surdez como seqüela do acometimento por meningite bacteriana foi analisada, já que o foco, a partir da experiência clínica, foram os possíveis efeitos de tal quadro clínico no funcionamento simbólico desses sujeitos. Frente ao risco e às marcas perma...

  13. Utilização de biosurfatantes no controle da adesão bacteriana e na remoção de biofilmes de patógenos alimentares em superfície de poliestireno

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    Milene Zezzi do Valle Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Na natureza, os microorganismos podem apresentar forma de vida planctônica ou podem estar aderidos a superfícies formando comunidades conhecidas como biofilmes. A formação de biofilmes na indústria alimentícia é uma constante preocupação visto que os microorganismos aderidos podem causar contaminações persistentes, levando a deterioração do alimento e a transmissão de doenças. Uma alternativa para evitar a adesão bacteriana e a formação de biofilmes é o pré-condicionamento de superfícies co...

  14. Comunidade bacteriana como indicadora do efeito de feijoeiro geneticamente modificado sobre organismos não alvo Bacterial community as an indicator of genetically modified common bean effect on nontarget organisms

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    Adriano Moreira Knupp

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do feijoeiro geneticamente modificado quanto à resistência ao Bean Golden Mosaic Vírus, BGMV (Olathe M1-4, sobre organismos não alvo. De um experimento implantado no campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (Olathe Pinto e evento elite Olathe M1-4, dois períodos amostrais (estádio V4 e R6 e dez repetições, obtiveram-se células bacterianas cultivadas e não cultivadas da rizosfera e do solo não rizosférico, para as quais se procedeu à extração de DNA total. A região V6-V8 do 16S rDNA foi amplificada para a comunidade bacteriana total, e também realizou-se amplificação com iniciadores específicos para o subgrupo alfa (α do filo Proteobacteria a partir de células não cultivadas. Foram obtidos dendrogramas comparativos entre a variedade Olathe Pinto (convencional e o evento elite Olathe M1-4 (geneticamente modificado utilizando-se o coeficiente de Jaccard e o método UPGMA (Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean. Os agrupamentos obtidos dos perfis de 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE indicam alterações na comunidade bacteriana da rizosfera em função da transformação das plantas são mais notáveis nos perfis obtidos para alfa-proteobacteria. A origem das amostras e o estágio de desenvolvimento das plantas afetam a comunidade bacteriana.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of genetically modified common bean for Bean Golden Mosaic Virus, BGMV, resistance (Olathe M1-4 on nontarget organisms. In a field experiment established in a completely randomized design with two treatments (Olathe Pinto cultivar and M1-4 Olathe elite event, two sampling periods (V4 and R6 stages and ten replicates, cultivated and non-cultivated bacterial cells from rhizosphere soil and bulk soil were obtained, and their total DNA was extracted. The V6-V8 region of 16S rDNA was amplified for the whole bacterial community, and primers specific for the alpha (

  15. In vitro bacterial plaque suppression and recolonization by S. mutans and S. sobrinus Supressão e recolonização de placa bacteriana por S. mutans e S. sobrinus in vitro

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    Cássio Vicente Pereira

    2006-03-01

    que foram previamente padronizadas foram incubadas em meio de cultura contendo diferentes carboidratos fermentáveis. Em intervalos de tempo determinados, amostras de S. mutans e S. sobrinus foram coletadas a partir de culturas mistas, diluídas e semeadas em placas com meio BHI-ágar contendo rifampicina ou estreptomicina para determinação do número de células viáveis de cada espécie por contagem de unidades formadoras de colônia. Para a avaliação da colonização bacteriana e recolonização da placa bacteriana in vitro, três experimentos foram realizados: I - co-cultivo de S. mutans e S. sobrinus; II - inoculação de S. mutans em placa bacteriana pré-formada por S. sobrinus; e III - placa bacteriana pré-formada por S. mutans dispersada e plaqueada em meio BHI-ágar contendo estreptomicina ou rifampicina para determinação do número de células viáveis para cada espécie. Os resultados indicaram uma predominância de S. mutans em relação ao S. sobrinus, demonstrando a capacidade do S. mutans em inibir a formação de placa por S. sobrinus e recolonizar a superfície dentária.

  16. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

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    C Godoy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival y bajo este (subgingival tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por lo tanto, al remover los microorganismos que se ubican supragingivalmente sería posible encontrar cambios en el medio subgingival al no existir un intercambio entre los ambientes aerobios (supragingival y anaerobios (subgingival una vez desorganizada la placa bacteriana supragingival. Para demostrar esta relación se seleccionaron 7 individuos con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica moderada y severa a los cuales se les realizó un destartraje supragingival de boca completa para lograr desorganizar la placa bacteriana supragingival. A su vez se tomaron muestras microbiológicas de los sacos periodontales más profundos de cada cuadrante de estos individuos, siendo la primera muestra tomada previo al destartraje supragingival considerada como muestra basal (día 0, luego se tomaron a las 24 horas, a los 7 y 21 días de removida la placa bacteriana supragingival. De los resultados del presente estudio pudimos concluir que al desorganizar el biofilm supragingival se observa una disminución en la cantidad total de microorganismos subgingivales, así como también disminuye de manera considerable la proporción de Porphyoromona gingivalis presente en el medio subgingival. Lo cual permitiría establecer la existencia de una relación directa y dependiente entre los microorganismos que habitan el medio supragingival y subgingival.One of the fields of interest in the study of the microbiology periodontal for many investigators has been to identify if it is

  17. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic Impacto de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b sobre la meningitis bacteriana en la República Dominicana

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    Ellen H. Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de

  18. Caracterização da comunidade bacteriana endofítica de citros por isolamento, PCR específico e DGGE Characterization of the endophytic bacterial community from citrus by isolation, specific PCR and DGGE

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    Paulo Teixeira Lacava

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade bacteriana endofítica de plantas assintomáticas (escapes e afetadas pela clorose variegada dos citros (CVC por meio de isolamento em meio de cultura, técnica de gradiente desnaturante em gel de eletroforese (DGGE e detecção de Methylobacterium mesophilicum e Xyllela fastidiosa por meio de PCR específico, para estudar esta comunidade e sua relação com a ocorrência da CVC. A análise da comunidade bacteriana via DGGE permitiu a detecção de X. fastidiosa, bem como Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp. como endófitos de citros. Foram observados também Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Bacillus spp. Utilizando primers específicos, Methylobacterium mesophilicum e X. fastidiosa também foram observadas, reforçando hipóteses de que estas bactérias podem estar interagindo no interior da planta hospedeira.The aim of this work was to characterize endophytic bacterial community of assintomatic (escape and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC-affected citrus plants using isolation in culture medium, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE technique and Methylobacterium mesophilicum as well as Xylella fastidiosa specific PCR, allowing to assess this community and its interactions with CVC. The study of bacterial community by DGGE analysis allowed the detection of X. fastidiosa, as well as Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp., which were not detected previously. Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus spp. were also observed as endophyte in citrus plants. Using specific primers Methylobacterium mesophilicum and X. fastidiosa were observed, reinforcing that these bacteria could interact inside the host plant.

  19. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana bivalvular asociada a cáncer y ecocardiograma transesofágico Bivalvular non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with cancer and transesophageal echocardiography

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    Marcelo Zylberman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana es la causa más frecuente de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en pacientes con cáncer. En estos pacientes se hallaron vegetaciones valvulares hasta en el 9% de las autopsias. Sin embargo, la afección bivalvular es poco frecuente, observándose en el 9% de las endocarditis trombóticas. Se presenta una paciente con cáncer de ovario que presentó afasia e imágenes compatibles con isquemia cerebral. El ecocardiograma transtorácico fue normal. El ecocardiograma transesofágico evidenció vegetaciones en las válvulas aórtica y mitral. Se enfatiza la importancia de sospechar endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana en enfermos con cáncer y embolismo sistémico y en la escasa frecuencia de afección bivalvular.Non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis is the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Up to 9% of autopsies of cancer patients show non infectious valvular masses. However, bivalvular involvement is not frequently occurring in 9% of non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. We report a patient with ovarian cancer who presented aphasia. The MRI was compatible with cerebral ischemia. The transthoracic echocardiogram was normal and a transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetations in aortic and mitral valves. We emphasize the importance of suspecting non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in patients with cancer and systemic embolism and the low frequency of bivalvular involvement.

  20. Conjuntivite bacteriana secundária à doença dentária em chinchilas (Chinchilla lanigera Bacterial conjunctivitis secondary to dental disease in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera

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    Ricardo Barbosa Lucena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available São relatados três casos de conjuntivite bacteriana associada à doença dentária grave em chinchilas. Todas as chinchilas afetadas tinham histórico de emagrecimento, hipersalivação e epífora, que progrediu para exsudação ocular purulenta. Durante a necropsia, foi constatado marcado alongamento da coroa clínica dos incisivos e molares, e crescimento do ápice dentário, causando deformação óssea e compressão do canal lacrimal. Histologicamente, observou-se infiltrado de neutrófilos na conjuntiva e pálpebras. Cultivo microbiológico do exsudato ocular revelou crescimento de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva . Uma compressão do canal lacrimal pelo crescimento dentário excessivo impediu a drenagem das lágrimas, resultando em epífora. Esse é um importante fator predisponente para infecção bacteriana ocular em chinchilas.Three cases of bacterial conjunctivitis associated with severe dental disease in chinchillas are described. All affected chinchillas had a history of weight loss, ptyalism, and epiphora which progressed to suppurative ocular exsudation. At necropsy incisor and molar teeth revealed marked elongation of the clinical crown and overgrowth of the dental apexes resulting in deformation of the tear ducts. Histologically, there was neutrophilic infiltrate in the conjunctiva and eyelid skin. Microbiological culture carried out in samples from the ocular exsudate yielded Staphylococcus coagulase-positive. Compression of the lacrimal duct by dental overgrowth compromised tear draining and resulting in epiphora. This is a major predisposing factor inducing bacterial ocular infection in chinchillas.

  1. ORIGIN OF THE FACIAL ARTERY FROM THE LINGUAL-FACIAL TRUNK AND ITS COURSE THROUGH THE SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND: A CASE REPORT. Origen de la arteria facial desde el tronco lingual-facial y su curso a través de la glándula salival submandibular: informe

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    Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La disección cuidadosa del tercio posterior de la parte superficial de la glándula salival submandibular es uno de los pasos quirúrgicos esenciales en la extirpación endoscópica glandular, evitando daños en la arteria facial. Un buen conocimiento de la poco común relación entre la arteria facial y la glándula salival submandibular es de vital importancia para llevar a cabo de forma eficiente y segura la extirpación de la glándula submandibular. Las variaciones del patrón de ramificación de la arteria facial son bien conocidas y han sido expuestas en el pasado. Sin embargo, las variaciones en su origen y trayectoria son poco frecuentes. Durante una rutinaria disección de cabeza y cuello para los estudiantes universitarios de Medicina, observamos la inusual trayectoria de la arteria facial en el triángulo digástrico derecho en un cadáver de un varón de origen indio de aproximadamente 60 años. La arteria facial derecha se originó de la común lingual-facial del tronco por encima del nivel del asta mayor del hueso hioides, y luego atravesar a través de la sustancia de la parte superficial de la glándula submandibular, sin la formación de un bucle. Después la arteria entraba en la cara por el ángulo anteroinferior del masetero. A continuación, en su trayectoria intraglandular, esta arteria mostraba pequeñas ramificaciones glandulares.  Careful dissection of the posterior one third of the superficial part of the submandibular salivary gland is one of the essential surgical steps in endoscopic glandular excision, to avoid injury to the facial artery. A sound knowledge of unusual relationship of the facial artery with the submandibular salivary gland is essentially important to perform the safe and efficient submandibular gland excision. Different types of variations in the branching pattern of the facial artery have been reported in the past. However, variations in the origin and course of the facial artery are very rare

  2. Controle químico da mancha-bacteriana do tomate para processamento industrial em campo Field chemical control of bacterial spot on tomato for industrial processing

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    Abadia dos R Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar produtos químicos no controle da mancha-bacteriana em tomate para processamento industrial, foram conduzidos dois ensaios na área experimental da Unilever Bestfoods, em Goiânia-GO. No primeiro, o híbrido Heinz 9992 foi inoculado com Xanthomonas perforans em blocos casualizados, com 15 tratamentos e três repetições. O segundo ensaio foi em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. A parcela principal foi "tratamento químico" (10 tratamentos e a subparcela "híbrido" (Hypeel 108 e U2006. Inoculou-se X. perforans e X. gardneri. Em ambos os ensaios os produtos testados, em diferentes números de aplicações e regimes, foram: acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM; famoxadona + mancozebe; metiram + piraclostrobina; fosfito PK; cloretos de benzalcônio; óxido cuproso e hidróxido de cobre (SC, WP e WG. Em ambos os ensaios, foram avaliados severidade da doença nas folhas, número de frutos com sintomas e produtividade. No segundo ensaio avaliou-se também o número de frutos com escaldadura. No primeiro ensaio foram detectadas diferenças significativas (p>0,05 entre os tratamentos somente nas duas primeiras avaliações de severidade, mas nenhum dos tratamentos diferiu da testemunha. No segundo ensaio, para severidade foliar, foi detectada diferença significativa apenas para os híbridos na primeira avaliação. Para número de frutos com sintomas e escaldadura a interação entre os fatores "tratamento químico" e "híbrido" foi também significativa. Nas folhas, 'U2006' foi mais resistente do que 'Hypeel 108', que apresentou maior incidência de escaldadura, mas nos frutos ocorreu o inverso. Para produtividade, os dois fatores foram significativos. 'U2006' foi mais produtivo do que 'Hypeel 108'. Entre os 10 tratamentos químicos, apesar de nenhum ter diferido da testemunha, famoxadona + mancozebe, que resultou em maior produtividade, diferiu de hidróxido de cobre (WG, ASM - famoxadona + mancozebe e

  3. Nursing staff knowledge of multi-resistant bacterial infections Conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería referente a la resistencia bacteriana a múltiples drogas Conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem referente à resistencia bacteriana a múltiplas drogas

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    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess professional nurses', associate degree prepared nurses', licensed practical nurses', and nursing assistants' knowledge of the causes of multi-resistant bacterial infections, the risks theses infections pose to health care providers, the chain of transmission of these infections, and patients' susceptibility to colonization of these multi-resistant bacterial infections. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in a major general hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample consisted of 42 nursing staff from a medical clinical unit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and present the data. RESULTS: Nursing staff had unsatisfactory knowledge of the causes of multi-resistant bacterial infections, the chain of transmission of multi-resistant bacterial infections, and patients' susceptibility to colonization of multi-resistant bacterial infections. However, the majority of participants had some knowledge about the risks that multi-resistant bacterial infections posed to health care providers. CONCLUSION: Lack of knowledge among nursing staff compromise adherence to preventive measures and nursing management of multi-resistant bacterial infections.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de los enfermeros, técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería de un hospital general de Minas Gerais, en cuanto a las causas da multirresistencia bacteriana, los riesgos para el equipo de salud, el modo de transmisión y susceptibilidad de los pacientes a la colonización por bacterias resistentes a múltiples drogas. MÉTODOS: Realizado en la clínica médica, fueron entrevistados 42 profesionales de enfermería encontrados en la unidad. En este estudio de tipo cuantitativo se realizó un análisis descriptivo de sus datos, utilizándose la estadística descriptiva con base en el cálculo de porcentaje, los cuales fueron presentados en tablas. RESULTADOS: Los profesionales demostraron conocimiento restricto y limitado sobre la tem

  4. Individual and co-operative roles of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the killing activity of enteric strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 against enteric, uropathogenic and vaginosis-associated pathogens.

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    Atassi, Fabrice; Servin, Alain L

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism underlying the killing activity of Lactobacillus strains against bacterial pathogens appears to be multifactorial. Here, we investigate the respective contributions of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid in killing bacterial pathogens associated with the human vagina, urinary tract or intestine by two hydrogen peroxide-producing strains. In co-culture, the human intestinal strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and human vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 strains killed enteric Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344, vaginal Gardnerella vaginalis DSM 4944 and urinary tract Escherichia coli CFT073 pathogens. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs) produced the same reduction in SL1344, DSM 4944 and CFT073 viability, whereas isolated bacteria had no effect. The killing activity of CFCSs was heat-stable. In the presence of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium inhibiting the lactic acid-dependent killing activity, CFCSs were less effective at killing of the pathogens. Catalase-treated CFCSs displayed a strong decreased activity. Tested alone, hydrogen peroxide triggered a concentration-dependent killing activity against all three pathogens. Lactic acid alone developed a killing activity only at concentrations higher than that present in CFCSs. In the presence of lactic acid at a concentration present in Lactobacillus CFCSs, hydrogen peroxide displayed enhanced killing activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that for hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus strains, the main metabolites of Lactobacillus, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, act co-operatively to kill enteric, vaginosis-associated and uropathogenic pathogens.

  5. Tratamento cirúrgico do abscesso de anel valvar associado a endocardite bacteriana: resultados imediatos e tardios Surgical treatment of endocarditis with abscess in the valvular ring: immediate and long-term results

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    Pablo M. A Pomerantzeff

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1978 a dezembro de 1994, ocorreram 619 episódios de endocardite bacteriana em pacientes tratados no Instituto do Coração - HC-FMUSP. Destes, foram operados 208 pacientes e 65 apresentavam abscesso de anel. Quarenta e oito (73,8% eram do sexo masculino e 17 (26,2% do feminino. A idade variou de 6 a 61 anos (média de 38,3+/-11,9. Quarenta e seis (70,8% eram portadores de próteses (36 aórticas e 10 mitráis, 6 (9,2% apresentavam valvopatia prévia, 1 (1,5% apresentava cardiopatia congênita e 12 (18,5% não apresentavam cardiopatia. Os germes predominantes foram: Streptococcus viridans em 17 (26,2% pacientes, Enterococcus sp em 6 (7,7% e Staphylococcus aureus em 9 (13,8%. Nove pacientes apresentavam intervalo PR no eletrocardiograma maior que 0,20 mseg no pré-operatório. A indicação da operação foi devida a infecção em prótese em 46 (70,8% casos, insuficiência cardíaca em 9 (13,8%, falha no tratamento clínico em 5 (7,7%, embolia em 2 (3,1 %, infecção porfungos em 1 (1,5% e outras em 2 (3,1%. A mortalidade operatória foi de 17 (26,2% pacientes. Ocorreram 9 (13,8% óbitos tardios sendo que 5 pacientes faleceram devido a nova endocardite bacteriana. Trinta e sete (86% pacientes encontram-se em CFI (NYHA, 4 em CF II e 2 CF III no pós-operatório tardio (tempo médio de evolução de 5,3 anos. Os dados apresentados confirmam que a endocardite bacteriana associada a abscesso de anel é doença de alto risco, tem indicação cirúrgica precisa e a evolução tardia demonstra que a maior complicação é a reinfecção.Between October 1978 and December 1994, 619 cases of bacterial endocarditis were treated in the Heart Institute. Of these, 208 were submitted to surgical treatment, and 65 presented abscess in the valvular ring. Forty eight (73.8% were male, their ages varying from 6 to 61 years, with average of 38.3 +/-11.9 years. Forty six (70.8% presented a valvular prosthesis (37 aortic and 11 mitral. The

  6. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs Caracterização da diversidade bacteriana em amostras de petróleo provenientes de reservatórios brasileiros

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    Valéria Maia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as comunidades bacterianas de amostras de água de formação e de óleo de reservatórios de petróleo brasileiros com diferentes graus de biodegradação usando a técnica de PCR-DGGE. O DNA ambiental foi isolado e empregado em reações de PCR com primers bacterianos

  7. Prevalência de resistência bacteriana nas infecções de ferida operatória em cirurgia arterial periférica Prevalence of bacterial resistance in surgical wound infections in peripheral arterial surgery

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    Eduardo Lichtenfels

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A infecção de sítio cirúrgico é uma complicação grave da cirurgia vascular periférica. O recente aparecimento de microorganismos resistentes e agressivos gera uma nova preocupação com relação ao manejo dessas infecções. OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de resistência bacteriana, a epidemiologia, os possíveis fatores associados e o padrão de resistência nas infecções de ferida operatória das cirurgias arteriais periféricas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de prevalência, envolvendo 40 pacientes portadores de infecção da ferida operatória e submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização arterial periférica no período de janeiro de 2007 a maio de 2008. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo pacientes com média de idade de 64,2 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (70%. A prevalência geral de resistência bacteriana foi 72,5%, e de multirresistência, 60%. O microorganismo mais freqüentemente isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (40%, sendo 11 das 16 culturas (68,7% resistentes à oxacilina. As taxas de resistência aos principais antimicrobianos testados foram: ampicilina, 85,7%; cefalosporina, 76,9%; oxacilina, 65%; e ciprofloxacina, 62,5%. Não foi identificada resistência à vancomicina e ao imipenem. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a resistência bacteriana é um problema atual e muito prevalente nas cirurgias arteriais periféricas. O Staphylococcus aureus segue sendo o principal patógeno envolvido, demonstrando altas taxas de resistência. A vancomicina e o imipenem seguem sendo as principais opções terapêuticas para esse tipo de infecção.BACKGROUND: Surgical wound infection is a severe complication of peripheral vascular surgery. The recent appearance of resistant and aggressive pathogens brings new concerns related to the management of these infections. OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of bacterial resistance, epidemiology, possibly associated factors and resistance patterns in wound

  8. Tendencias de los fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana en hospitales públicos y privados de alta complejidad de Colombia Trends of bacterial resistance phenotypes in high-complexity public and private hospitals in Colombia

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    Andrea Patricia Villalobos Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir y comparar las frecuencias de los fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana de microorganismos obtenidos de pacientes en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI y otros servicios de hospitalización (no UCI públicos y privados de alta complejidad de Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo y multicéntrico, en el cual se consolidaronlos registros de los aislamientos bacterianos y los fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana de los microorganismos obtenidos de pacientes atendidos en UCI y no UCI de 79 hospitales públicos y privados de alta complejidad en el período de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2009. La información se analizó con el programa WHONET® versión 5.5 (OMS de acuerdo con las recomendaciones del Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio 2009 y se resumió en un formato de extracción de datos en Excel®. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo en el cual se calcularon proporciones. El análisis de tendencias se realizó mediante la prueba de correlación de rangos de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Las tendencias de los fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana de 2007 a 2009 muestran un comportamiento incremental en la proporción de Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina, Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a imipenem y a ciprofloxacina, Escherichia coli resistente a ceftazidima, y Enterobacter cloacae resistente a cefotaxima (ρ = 1, P OBJECTIVE: Describe and compare the frequency of bacterial resistance phenotypes of microorganisms obtained from patients in intensive care units (ICU and other (non-ICU high-complexity public and private hospital services in Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective observational, analytical, multicenter study was conducted. The records from January 2007 to December 2009 on bacterial isolates and bacterial resistance phenotypes of microorganisms obtained from ICU and non-ICU patients in 79 high-complexity public and private hospitals were consolidated. The information was

  9. Inoculação de suspensão bacteriana de Plesiomonas shigelloides em Jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae Inoculation of bacterial suspension of Plesiomonas shigelloides in jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae

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    Cheila de Lima Boijink

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da aqüicultura mundial e intensificação da criação de peixes, os animais ficam sujeitos às enfermidades bacterianas e outras. Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade da Plesiomonas shigelloides para jundiás (Rhamdia quelen, diferentes concentrações bacterianas (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 UFC - Unidade Formadora de Colônia/ml foram inoculadas por via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 84 jundiás juvenis com peso e comprimento médios de 24,37 ± 4,28g e 14,42 ± 1,62cm, respectivamente. Os animais inoculados foram mantidos durante 21 dias, em caixas d'agua de amianto, em condições semelhantes de temperatura, pH, alcalinidade e dureza. Os jundiás foram sacrificados a cada dois dias para contagem de UFC/ml de tecido renal. Por observações diárias, constatou-se que a inoculação intraperitoneal de Plesiomonas shigelloides não ocasionou nenhuma alteração nos jundiás, independente da concentração inoculada. As contagens das bactérias nos rins dos jundiás mantiveram-se entre 10(5 e 10(6UFC/ml até o 21º dia, quando o experimento foi finalizado.As worldwide aquaculture has grown, and intensification in fish raising, the animals are subject to bacterial diseases and others. With the aim of evaluating pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides for "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, different bacterial concentrations (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 CFU - Colony Former Unit/ml were inoculated via peritoneum. Eigthy four juvenile "jundiá" averaging 24.37 ± 4,28g of weight and 14.42 ± 1,62cm of length were utilized. The inoculated animals were maintained for 21 days, in asbestos water tanks, at similar temperature, pH, alkalinity and hardness conditions. The "jundiás" were slaughtered every other day for counting UFC/ml renal tissue. For daily inspections, it was observed that intraperitoneal inoculation of Plesiomonas shigelloides did not cause any change in the catfishes, regardless inoculated concentration. Bacteria counting in

  10. Bacterial skin colonization and infections in patients with atopic dermatitis Colonização bacteriana e infecções da pele em pacientes com dermatite atópica

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    Vanessa Petry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects a large number of children and adults. The disease results from an interaction between genetic predisposition, host environment, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. A major aggravating factor associated with Atopic Dermatitis is the presence of microorganisms on the patient's skin surface. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, for instance, can exacerbate chronic skin inflammation. As a result, antimicrobials have often been prescribed to control the acute phase of the disease. However, increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents has made it difficult for dermatologists to prescribe appropriate medication. In the presence of disseminated dermatitis with secondary infection, systemic antibiotics need to be prescribed; however, treatment should be individualized, in an attempt to find the most effective antibiotic with fewer side effects. Also, the medication should be used for as short as possible in order to minimize bacterial resistance.A dermatite atópica é uma doença inflamatória crônica da pele que afeta um grande número de crianças e adultos. A doença resulta da interação entre predisposição genética, fatores ambientais, defeitos da barreira cutânea e fatores imunológicos. Um dos grandes fatores agravantes associados à dermatite atópica é a presença de microorganismos na superfície cutânea desses pacientes. Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes, por exemplo, podem exacerbar a inflamação crônica da pele. Como resultado, antimicrobianos são prescritos para controlar a fase aguda da doença. O constante crescimento da resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos tem tornado a escolha do mais adequado medicamento uma difícil decisão para os dermatologistas. Na presença de dermatite disseminada com infecção secundaria, antibióticos sistêmicos necessitam ser prescritos; no entanto, o tratamento deve ser

  11. Relación entre ingesta de caramelos ácidos, ph salival, estrato socioeconómico y erosión dental en niños de tercero a séptimo año de educación básica de la parroquia de Guayllabamba.

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    Jeanne Prycyla Verdezoto Unaucho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso erosivo involucra diferentes factores donde el ácido cítrico presente en la dieta cumple un papel fundamental, así se propuso evaluar la relación entre consumo de caramelos ácidos, pH salival ácido, estrato socioeconómico y erosión dental en niños de 3ro a 7mo año de educación básica de tres escuelas de la parroquia de Guayllabamba. Mediante un estudio de caso y control 62 niños de entre 7 a 12 años (31 con diagnóstico de erosión dental y 31 controles. Previo consentimiento informado fueron sometidos a encuesta sobre hábitos de consumo de golosinas ácidas, examen clínico visual y registro fotográfico de sus dientes anteriores superiores. Las fotografías obtenidas fueron analizadas por evaluadores calibrados y entrenados en criterios del índice de erosión de O`Brien. De forma complementaria y según resultados de encuesta de consumo aplicada fueron seleccionadas ciertas golosinas para ser analizada su capacidad erosiva. Los datos obtenidos fueron examinados mediante paquete estadístico SPP v 22 a través de pruebas estadísticas de ODDS RATIO, Chi cuadrado, Mantel-Haenszel y ANOVA. Los resultados mostraron alta exposición al consumo de golosinas ácidas, guardando relación con el bajo nivel socio-económico en un porcentaje del 41,9%. La prueba de Chi cuadrado permitió determinar ausencia de relación entre edad y agresividad de la erosión (p=0,33. Concluyendo que el consumo frecuente de golosinas ácidas y un bajo estrato socio-económico es un factor importante para desarrollar erosión dental.

  12. Utility of Amsel criteria, Nugent score, and quantitative PCR for Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Lactobacillus spp. for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Beverly E; Chen, Hua Y; Wang, Qiong J; Zariffard, M Reza; Cohen, Mardge H; Spear, Gregory T

    2005-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a clinical syndrome presenting with a malodorous vaginal discharge and increased vaginal pH. Diagnosis has been based on clinical Amsel criteria and direct Gram stain of vaginal secretions. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study contributed cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples. Lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Mycoplasma hominis in cervicovaginal lavage samples were quantified by PCR. Gynecologic evaluation included Nugent score and Amsel criterion assessment. We compared the gold standard Nugent score to Amsel criteria and quantitative bacterial PCR for diagnosing BV in 203 CVL samples from women with Nugent scores of 7 to 10 (BV group) and 203 samples from women with BV Nugent scores of 0 to 3 ("No-BV" group). Only 75 of the 203 CVL samples from women with Nugent scores of 7 to 10 met positive Amsel criteria. Increasing levels of G. vaginalis and M. hominis and decreasing levels of lactobacilli were significantly associated with BV by Nugent score. Of the group with Nugent scores of 7 to 10, 83% and 81% had log(10) G. vaginalis counts and log(10) M. hominis counts greater than 6.81 and 4.82, respectively, while only 30% and 31% of the group with Nugent scores of 0 to 3 were above these thresholds, respectively. There was significant overlap in the log(10) lactobacillus counts between the two groups. Utilizing all three log(10) bacterial counts (G. vaginalis, M. hominis, and lactobacilli) in our model improved the sensitivity and specificity to 83% and 78%, respectively, in comparison with Nugent score. In this cohort, Amsel criteria were poorly predictive of BV. PCR quantification of G. vaginalis and M. hominis from CVL is significantly more sensitive than Amsel criteria for diagnosing BV.

  13. A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Metronidazole Vaginal Gel 1.3% in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebke, Jane R; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Beelen, Andrew P; Sobel, Jack D

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a prevalent infection in women of reproductive age, is associated with increased risk of upper genital tract and sexually transmitted infections, and complications in pregnancy. Currently approved treatments include metronidazole, which requires once or twice daily intravaginal administration for 5 days or twice daily oral administration for 7 days. This phase 3 study determined the safety and efficacy of single-dose metronidazole vaginal gel (MVG) 1.3%. In this double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 651 women with clinical diagnosis of BV were randomized 1:1 to receive MVG 1.3% or vehicle vaginal gel. Primary efficacy measure was clinical cure (normal discharge, negative "whiff test," and <20% clue cells) at day 21. Secondary measures included therapeutic cure (both clinical and bacteriological; day 21) and bacteriologic cure (Nugent score <4), clinical cure, and time to resolution of symptoms (day 7). A total of 487 participants were included in the primary analysis. Clinical and therapeutic cure rates (day 21) were higher in participants treated with MVG 1.3% compared with vehicle gel (37.2% vs. 26.6% [P = 0.010] and 16.8% vs. 7.2% [P = 0.001], respectively). Clinical and bacteriologic cure rates (day 7) were also higher in the MVG 1.3% group (46.0% vs. 20.0% [P < 0.001] and 32.7% vs. 6.3% [P < 0.001], respectively). The median time to resolution of symptoms was shorter in the MVG 1.3% (day 6) than vehicle group (not reached). No serious adverse events were reported, and incidence was similar across treatment groups. Single-dose MVG 1.3% was safe and superior to vehicle gel in producing cure among women with BV.

  14. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO Molecular Identification Of Bacterial Populations Associated To Queen Conch (Strombus gigas From Colombian Caribbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDINSON ANDRÉS ACOSTA

    Full Text Available El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y socioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como "vulnerable" y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 10(6 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >10(5 ufc mL-1. El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia.The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, is a species of great ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean area of Colombia. However, it is currently catalogued as "vulnerable"; there is limited information concerning the bacterial species associated with conch and important in the

  15. Estimativa da incerteza em ensaio de detecção de endotoxina bacteriana pelo método de gelificação Estimation of uncertainty in the detection of bacterial endotoxin by gel-clot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rebello Lourenço

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde a publicação da ISO 17025:1999, o interesse em métodos para estimativa da incerteza em ensaios qualitativos, do tipo "passa/não passa", têm ganho grande importância. Uma forma de estimar e informar a incerteza deste tipo de ensaio é o uso das probabilidades de respostas-falsas, particularmente falsos-positivos e falsos-negativos, determinados a partir do teorema de Bayes. O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer um método para a estimativa de incerteza em ensaios de detecção de endotoxina bacteriana pelo método in vitro Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL. Considerando a confirmação da sensibilidade do LAL e a validação do teste, a probabilidade de uma resposta falsa corresponde à soma da probabilidade dos resultados falso-negativos e falso-positivos. A partir dos resultados obtidos foi verificado que a etapa da confirmação da sensibilidade do LAL contribui para a incerteza de forma mais significativa (67,6% que a etapa de validação do teste (32,4%. Através de um procedimento simples, descrito neste artigo, e de dados obtidos a partir da confirmação da sensibilidade do LAL e validação do teste para um produto em questão é possível obter uma estimativa de incerteza razoável para o ensaio de detecção de endotoxinas bacterianas pelo método de gelificação.Since the publication of ISO 17025:1999, the interest in methods for estimation of the uncertainty in qualitative analysis, such as 'pass/fail', have became more important. The usual form of estimating and informing the uncertainty in this kind of analysis is the use of false-response rates, particularly false-positive and false-negative, determinated from Bayes theorem. The aim of this paper is establish a method for estimation of the uncertainty in the detection of bacterial endotoxins by in vitro Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL test. Considering the confirmation of LAL sensitivity and the validation of the test, the probability of a false-response corresponds to the

  16. Diversidad bacteriana en un biorreactor de lecho fluidificado durante el tratamiento de agua contaminada con nafta Bacterial diversity in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR treating gasoline-contaminated groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Ara-Rojas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad bacteriana del proceso de biorremediación de agua contaminada con nafta en un biorreactor de lecho fluidificado en el Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez, de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. El aislamiento y la caracterización de las colonias bacterianas del sistema de biorremediación fueron realizados en medio R2A. Las pruebas morfológicas incluyeron la determinación de la morfología celular y de las colonias, y la reacción frente a la coloración de Gram. Las propiedades fisiológicas se determinaron usando el sistema Biolog® y sobre la base de la habilidad para desarrollar en medio mínimo con nafta como única fuente de carbono. La caracterización molecular se llevó a cabo por BOX-PCR y por análisis de secuencia del ADNr 16S mediante la técnica de ARDRA (amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. De los 162 morfotipos de colonias aislados, 75% fueron bacilos gram-negativos, 19% bacilos gram-positivos, 5% cocos gram-negativos y 1% cocos gram-positivos. Según el análisis ARDRA, estos morfotipos se distribuyeron en 90 grupos genéticos, de los cuales 53% incluyeron cepas con crecimiento en nafta. Las 86 cepas que crecieron en nafta presentaron 52 patrones de amplificación, los que a través de BOX-PCR se agruparon en 50 grupos metabólicamente no relacionados. El alto nivel de diversidad microbiana observado en el reactor permitió la remoción del contaminante y, al parecer, fue importante para la operación estable y eficiente del sistema.The main objective of this research project was to determine the bacterial diversity during the process of bioremediation of water contaminated with gasoline in a fluidized bed reactor at Mayagüez, PR. Isolation and characterization of bacterial populations from the bioremediation system was performed on R2A medium. Morphological tests included cellular and colonial shape and reaction to Gram coloration. Physiological

  17. Atividade enzimática e perfil da comunidade bacteriana em solo submetido à solarização e biofumigação Enzymatic activity and bacterial community profile in soil under solariz