WorldWideScience

Sample records for salinity reduced growth

  1. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  2. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  3. Growth and Physiological Responses of Phaseolus Species to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the changes on growth, photosynthesis, water relations, soluble carbohydrate, and ion accumulation, for two salt-tolerant and two salt-sensitive Phaseolus species grown under increasing salinity (0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl. After 20 days exposure to salt, biomass was reduced in all species to a similar extent (about 56%, with the effect of salinity on relative growth rate (RGR confined largely to the first week. RGR of salt-tolerant species was reduced by salinity due to leaf area ratio (LAR reduction rather than a decline in photosynthetic capacity, whereas unit leaf rate and LAR were the key factors in determining RGR on salt-sensitive species. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased gradually with salinity, showing significant reductions only in salt-sensitive species at the highest salt level. There was little difference between species in the effect of salinity on water relations, as indicated by their positive turgor. Osmotic adjustment occurred in all species and depended on higher K+, Na+, and Cl− accumulation. Despite some changes in soluble carbohydrate accumulation induced by salt stress, no consistent contributions in osmotic adjustment could be found in this study. Therefore, we suggest that tolerance to salt stress is largely unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation in Phaseolus species.

  4. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  5. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants. An irriga......Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants...... incorporated salt ions in the tissues (stems, roots, leaves) preserving seed quality. Treatment with a reduction in the irrigation water to 25 % of full irrigated treatment (Q25) caused an increase in WP and a reduced dry matter accumulation in the leaves. Quinoa plants (Q25) were initially negatively affected...... by severe drought with RGR and NAR reduction, and then, they adapted to it. Quinoa could be considered a drought tolerant crop that adapt photosynthetic rate to compensate for a reduced growth....

  6. Salinity reduces carbon assimilation and the harvest index of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effects of salinity on the growth and gas exchange of cassava plants, cultivar Verdinha. The four concentrations of NaCl (mM were as follows: 0, 20, 40, and 60. Under salinity, the lowest concentration of Na+ ions was observed in the tuberous roots; however, the dry matter of tuberous roots was reduced with an application of just 20 mM NaCl. The harvest index was reduced 50% with the highest salt concentration. Salinity reduced carbon assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration, and the instantaneous water use efficiency. The correlation between gs and A was high and positive, showing that stomatal movement was one of the responsible for the lower A. Under salt stress, there was an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration, indicating the impairment of carbon metabolism. Based on the reduction of dry matter of the tuberous roots (reduction of 81% under 60 mM NaCl, it was concluded that cassava is sensitive to salinity. The growth of shoots and the absorbing roots were minimally affected by salinity, even in the situation where A was reduced; therefore, the sensitivity of cassava was related to the high sensitivity of the tuberous roots to the ionic and/or osmotic effects of salinity. Thus, tuberous roots can be the target organ in studies that aim to improve the tolerance of cassava to salinity.

  7. Effects Of Irrigation With Saline Water, And Soil Type On Germination And Seedling Growth Of Sweet Maize (Zea Mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.Z.; Amato, M.; Hamdi, A.; Mostafa, A.Z.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Lotfy, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Germination and early growth of maize Sweet Maize (Zea mays L.), var. (SEL. CONETA) under irrigation with saline water were investigated in a pot experiment with different soil types. Seven salinity levels of irrigation water up to 12 dS/m were used on a Clay soil (C) and a Sandy-Loam (SL). Emergence of maize was delayed under irrigation with saline water, and the final percentage of germination was reduced only at 8 dS/m or above. Seedling shoot and root growth were reduced starting at 4 dS/m of irrigation water. Salts accumulated more in the C soil but reductions in final germination rate and seedling growth were larger in the SL soil, although differences were not always significant. Data indicate that germination is rather tolerant to salinity level in var. SEL. CONETA whereas seedling growth is reduced at moderate salinity levels, and that soil type affects plant performance under irrigation with saline water

  8. Effect of salinity on growth of juvenile silver kob, Argyrosomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that silver kob perform at least as well at reduced salinities as in full strength seawater. This could lead to significant cost savings when rearing fish inland using artificial seawater. Keywords: fish physiology; mariculture; mulloway; osmolality; salinity tolerance. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, 33(2): ...

  9. Effects of salinity on growth and metabolism in blue tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were taken to analyse plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, total protein and triglycerides. Liver and muscle samples were collected for HSI and moisture values. Plasma sodium chloride increased in parallel with salinity rise. Total protein and triglycerides significantly reduced as salinity increased. Glucose ...

  10. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  11. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL"−"1, 10ngL"−"1, 2μgL"−"1, 20μgL"−"1) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. - Highlights:

  12. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

  13. Effect of Underground Saline Water on the Growth Characteristic of Tamarix austromongolica in Halomorphic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Kenji; Kobayashi, Koji; Kaneki, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Masayuki; Odani, Hiromichi

    It is important to evaluate the salt tolerance of native plants in order to utilize them for improving halomorphic soil in arid regions. Tamarix austromongolica, a dominant species in Inner Mongolia, China, has the property of salt absorption and expected soil desalinization. The effect of salt concentration in groundwater on the growth of stock diameter and shoot length were evaluated by cultivation experiments, growing the plants from cuttings for two years. Though the plants grew well in 1% salt concentration of groundwater, the evapotranspiration in the second year was reduced because of the growth of the root system. The growth of the plants and evapotranspiration were reduced with increasing groundwater salinity of 3 to 5%, but most plants did not die. In contrast, the plants which were supplied with groundwater of 7% salt concentration in the second year started to die in about a month, and two thirds of them died within five months. Thus the results showed that the tolerant limit of salinity of the plants in groundwater was 7%, and the growth was constrained with groundwater salinity of 3 to 5% concentration. The plants that survived with 7% salinity in the second year, however, were grown in groundwater salt concentration of 3% to 5% in the first year. This result indicated that saline stress might have changed the characteristic of salinity tolerance of the plant.

  14. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  15. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  16. Effect of Salinity on the Growth Parameters of Halotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    inoculation there was no significant difference in the pigment content per cell in all strains (p ≤ 0.05). This study ... carotene production costs, it is essential to identify ..... cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 69, 177-180. Rai, A. K. and Abraham, G. (1993) 'Salinity tolerance and growth analysis of the cyanobacterium.

  17. Salinity reduced growth PS2 photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish Crescimento reduzido por salinidade, fotoquímica PS2 e conteúdo de clorofila em rabanete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are grown under saline conditions, photosynthetic activity decreases leading to reduced plant growth, leaf area, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence. Seeds and seedlings of radish (Raphanus sativus L. were grown in NaCl solutions under controlled greenhouse conditions. The NaCl concentrations in complete nutrient solutions were 0 (control, 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m-1. The salinity reduced germination percentage and also delayed the germination rate as the salt level increased. Lengths and fresh weights of root and shoot decreased with the increasing salt concentration. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN, leaf area and chlorophyll content (SPAD value were also reduced (P Quando plantas crescem sob condições de salinidade, sua atividade fotossintética diminui levando a um crescimento reduzido, menor área foliar, conteúdo de clorofila e fluorescência de clorofila. Sementes e plântulas de rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. foram germinadas e conduzidas em soluções de NaCl sob condições controladas de casa de vegetação. As concentrações de NaCl adicionado a solução nutritiva completa foram 0 (Controle, 4,7; 9,4 e 14,1 dS m-1. A salinidade diminui a percentagem de germinação e também atrasou a taxa de germinação com o aumento do nível de sal. Comprimento e peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz decresceram com o aumento da concentração salina. Além disso, a eficiência fotoquímica de PS2 (Fv/Fm, o coeficiente fotoquímico de 'quenchin" (q p, o coeficiente não fotoquímico de "quenching" (q n, a área foliar e o teor de clorofila (valor SPAD também foram reduzidos (P < 0,001 por estresse de sal. Ao contrário, a relação Fo/Fm aumentou com a concentração salina, ao passo que a salinidade não teve efeito sobre a eficiência de excitação capturada pelo PS2 aberto (Fv'/Fm', taxa de transporte eletr

  18. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  19. Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Susan; Wiens, Karen C; Goranova, Greta A

    2016-09-01

    Iris pseudacorus spread rapidly into North America after introduction from Europe in the 1800s and now co-occurs with native I. hexagona in freshwater Louisiana wetlands. Native irises support and interact with multiple trophic levels, whereas I. pseudacorus is classified an invasive pest because it grows aggressively, reduces biodiversity, and displaces native vegetation. Salinity levels are increasing in coastal wetlands worldwide. We examined how salt-stress affects competitive interactions between these conspecifics. We established a three-way full-factorial common-garden experiment that included species (I. pseudacorus, I. hexagona), competition (no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition), and salinity (0, 4, 8 parts per thousand NaCl), with six replicates per treatment. After 18 mo, Iris pseudacorus produced much more biomass than the native species did (F1, 92 = 71.5, P Interspecific competition did not affect the introduced iris, but biomass of the native was strongly reduced (competition × species interaction: F2, 95 = 76.7, P = 0.002). Salinity significantly reduced biomass of both species (F2, 92 = 21.8, P competitive advantage over the native, regardless of environmental salinity levels. Based on patterns in clonal reproduction, the introduced iris could potentially threaten native iris populations. We are currently investigating seed production and mortality during competition and stress because both clonal and sexual reproduction must be considered when predicting long-term population dynamics. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Lodging markedly reduced the biomass of sweet sorghum via decreasing photosynthesis in saline-alkali field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Rong; Fan, Hai; Wang, Bao Shan

    2018-06-01

    Lodging is a serious problem in plant growth, especially in crops growth of the natural habitat. In order to determine the influence of lodging on the growth characters of sweet sorghum, plants grown in natural saline-alkali environment were used to investigate the fresh weight, dry weight, sugar content in the stalks and the photosynthesis index of salt tolerant crop sweet sorghum. Results showed that lodging significantly reduced the growth of sweet sorghum, the fresh weight and dry weight was only 28.3% and 22.5% of the normal plants when lodging occurred after 49 days. Lodging also reduced the stalks sugar content of sweet sorghum, the stalk sugar content of lodged plants was only 45.4% of that in the normal plants, when lodging occurred for 49 days. Lodging reduced the growth and sugar content by reducing the photosynthesis parameters of sweet sorghum grown in the saline-alkali field, thus, affected the accumulation of photosynthate. Interestingly, with the extension of the lodging time, lodging led to a decrease in photosynthetic rate of sweet sorghum mainly due to non-stomatal factors.

  1. Salinity reduces 2,4-D efficacy in Echinochloa crusgalli by affecting redox balance, nutrient acquisition, and hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Xie, Yuan; Farooq, Muhammad A; Wang, Jian; Yang, Chong; Gill, Rafaqat A; Zhu, Jinwen; Zhou, Weijun

    2018-05-01

    Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- ) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that 2,4-D induced severe damage to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and thylakoids. Severe saline stress (8 dS m -1 ) followed by mild saline stress treatments (4 dS m -1 ) also reduced the E. crusgalli growth, but had the least impact as compared to the 2,4-D alone treatment. Surprisingly, under combined treatments (salinity + 2,4-D), the phytotoxic effect of 2,4-D was reduced on saline-stressed E. crusgalli plants, especially under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This stimulated growth of E. crusgalli is related to the higher activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and dynamic regulation of IAA, ABA under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This shows that 2,4-D efficacy was affected by salinity in a stress intensity-dependent manner, which may result in the need for greater herbicide application rates, additional application times, or more weed control operations required for controlling salt-affected weed.

  2. Growth responses of Phragmites karka - a candidate for second generation biofuel from degraded saline lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer Ahmed, Muhammad; Shoukat, Erum; Abideen, Zainul; Aziz, Irfan; Gulzar, Salman; Ajmal Khan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Global changes like rapidly increasing population, limited fresh water resources, increasing salinity and aridity are the major causes of land degradation. Increasing feed production for bioenergy through direct and indirect land use cause major threat to biodiversity besides competing with food resources. Growing halophytes on saline lands would provide alternate source of energy without compromising food and cash crop farming. Phragmites karkahas recently emerged as a potential bio-fuel crop, which maintains optimal growth at 100 mM NaCl with high ligno-cellulosic biomass. However, temporal and organ specific plant responses under salinity needs to be understood for effective management of degraded saline lands. This study was designed to investigate variation in growth, water relations, ion-flux, damage markers, soluble sugars, stomatal stoichiometry and photosynthetic responses of P. karka to short (0-7 days) and long (15-30 days) term exposure with 0 (control), 100 (moderate) and 300 (high) mM NaCl. A reduced shoot growth ( 45%) during earlier (within 7 days) phase was observed in 300 mM NaCl compared to control and moderate salinity. Reduced leaf elongation rate and leaf senescence from 7th day in 300 mM NaCl (and later in moderate salinity) correspond to increasing hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents. Leaf turgor loss represents the osmotic effect of NaCl at both concentrations, however turgor recovered completely in moderate salinity within a week. Plant appeared to use both organic solutes (soluble sugars) and ions (Na++K++Cl-) for osmotic adjustment along with improved water use efficiency under saline conditions. Turgor loss in high salinity (300 mM NaCl) was related to increased bulk elastic modulus and decreased hydraulic capacitance which ultimately resulted in low water potential. Leaf Na+ and Cl- accumulation increased earlier (from 7th day) in 300 mM NaCl and later in 100 mM. Higher ion sequestration in different organs was found in the

  3. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Amelioration of Salinity Stress: A Systems Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ilangumaran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Recent advances in molecular studies have yielded insights into the signaling networks of plant–microbe interactions that contribute to salt tolerance. The beneficial effects of PGPR involve boosting key physiological processes, including water and nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and source-sink relationships that promote growth and development. The regulation of osmotic balance and ion homeostasis by PGPR are conducted through modulation of phytohormone status, gene expression, protein function, and metabolite synthesis in plants. As a result, improved antioxidant activity, osmolyte accumulation, proton transport machinery, salt compartmentalization, and nutrient status reduce osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Furthermore, in addition to indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase biosynthesis, other extracellular secretions of the rhizobacteria function as signaling molecules and elicit stress responsive pathways. Application of PGPR inoculants is a promising measure to combat salinity in agricultural fields, thereby increasing global food production.

  4. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  5. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  6. Assessment of Salinity Effect on Germination, Growth and Yield of Solanum lycopersicum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. BUAH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl. All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity compared with the control (no salinity. 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g NaCl treatment producing the least fruits. Chlorophyll contents were also significantly reduced by increasing saline concentrations. Ca and K were the predominant elements found in the digested fruit samples observed under Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS at different NaCl concentrations, while Mg, Na and P were significantly less. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that hampered the overall performance of tomato crop in salient ways and must therefore be curbed in order to meet its increasing global demand.

  7. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

  8. The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity of water and soil decreases the growth and yield of agricultural products. Salinity affects many physiological and morphological processes of plant by influencing soil solution osmotic potential and ion absorption and accumulation of minerals. To evaluate the effect of salinity on some physiological and ...

  9. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    ) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production......For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii...

  10. Growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants at different times of salinity exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdineia Soares Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of salt stress exposition on growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants. For this purpose, cashew nuts (CCP 06 clone were sown in plastic trays containing vermiculite moistened with nutrient solution containing NaCl with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.0 to 18.0 dS m-1. Plants were harvested after 30 and 60 days under salt stress. It was determined the shoot dry masses (SDM and root (RDM, the SDM/RDM ratio, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3 - contents and the Na+ and Cl- fluxes for whole plant in the period between two times of exposure to salt stress. The cashew growth was affected by salinity and by the exposure time to this stress, and the plants subjected to 60 days of stress were the most affected by NaCl. The Na+ and Cl- contents increased in all plant tissues, while the NO3 - content was reduced and K+ content has not changed by salinity. The Na+ and Cl-fluxes increased with salinity; however Cl- seemed to be more harmful to plants, since this ion has been absorbed in a higher ratio than Na+. The growth reduction in dwarf cashew is intensified when exposure to salt stress is longer and it is more associated with uptake and excessive accumulation of Cl- than Na+.

  11. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  12. Foliar Application of Potassium Fertilizer to Reduce the Effects of Salinity in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Molahoseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The potato of commerce (Solanum tuberosum L. is an annual dicot species. It is an autotetraploid with 4x=48 chromosomes. In Iran the consumption per capita of potato is over the 35 kg. Potato production is usually done without reducing yield in the irrigation water salinity 1-2 dS m-1, but 4.2 dS m-1 salinity reduces yield by 26 percent. 10, 25 and 50 percent yield reduction have been reported in soil electrical conductivity 2.5, 3.8 and 5.9 dS m-1, respectively . Between the ability of plant species to maintain potassium levels and their tolerance to salinity is positive correlation and on this basis nutritional irregularity due to increased salinity can be compensated by increasing of potassium fertilizer. In tolerant plant species, during times of increased salinity, selective absorption of potassium increased. The ability of plants to maintain a certain level of K/Na within the cell is essential for salt tolerance and sometimes of these ratios is used as indicators of salinity tolerance. Potato yield in response to salt stress, according to a variety of uses, can be reduced from 20 to 85 percent. Harmful effects of salinity in the beginning stages of tubers and tuber growth stage are important, therefore, tuber number and tuber size are two important components of yield which may reduce in the effect of salinity. Accelerate the aging process of the shoot, unwanted earliness, are of the reasons for the reduction in tuber size. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in the agricultural and natural resources research center (31° 32´ N, 51° 51´ E, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. According to twenty years statistics, rainfall and temperature means for experiment location were 110 mm and 25 °C, respectively. The experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were three levels of foliar K application (control, K sulphate 10 ppm, and 2.5 ppm

  13. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... The results showed that plant growth decreased proportionally with increasing ... Therefore, agriculturalists can assess growth rate changes caused by salinity using remote .... pH of all solutions was adjusted to 6. De-ionized ...

  14. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  15. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  16. Site condition, structure, and growth of baldcypress along tidal/non-tidal salinity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Conner, W.H.; Day, Richard H.; Inabinette, L.W.; Whitbeck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents changes in forest structure and growth potential of dominant trees in salt-impacted tidal and non-tidal baldcypress wetlands of the southeastern United States. We inventoried basal area and tree height, and monitored incremental growth (in basal area) of codominant baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees monthly, for over four years, to examine the inter-relationships among growth, site fertility, and soil physico-chemical characteristics. We found that salinity, soil total nitrogen (TN), flood duration, and flood frequency affected forest structure and growth the greatest. While mean annual site salinity ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppt, sites with salinity concentrations of 1.3 ppt or greater supported a basal area of less than 40 m2/ha. Where salinity was < 0.7 ppt, basal area was as high as 87 m2/ha. Stand height was also negatively affected by higher salinity. However, salinity related only to soil TN concentrations or to the relative balance between soil TN and total phosphorus (TP), which reached a maximum concentration between 1.2 and 2.0 ppt salinity. As estuarine influence shifts inland with sea-level rise, forest growth may become more strongly linked to salinity, not only due to salt effects but also as a consequence of site nitrogen imbalance.

  17. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  18. The Effects of Biochar on Germination and Growth of Wheat in Different Saline-alkali Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guijun; WANG; Zhenwen; XU

    2013-01-01

    Saline alkali soil can cause physiological drought on crops,so only some salinity tolerant crops can grow in saline alkali soil.Biochar can increase the utilize efficiency of nutrient and the water retention of the soil,and affect the growth of the plant.In this research,four different proportion of biochar was added in five different levels of saline-alkali soil for pot culture experiment.The pH of the soil increases as the proportion of biochar increase in same saline-alkali level soil,while the EC decrease as the proportion of biochar increase.The germination rate of wheat seeds varies as the different of soil’s saline-alkali level.Notable among these results is the germination of wheat seeds in the serious saline-alkali soil without biochar added is 0,while in 45%biochar added in serious saline-alkali soil,the germination rate get to as high as 48.9%.Also,biochar improve the growth of wheat seedling,while for mild saline alkali soil and normal soil.Biochar had no obvious effect on the growth of wheat seedling.

  19. Salinity-induced modulation of plant growth and photosynthetic parameters in faba bean (vicia faba) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.; Embiale, A.; Husen, A.; Eref, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress. (author)

  20. The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza isolated from Syrian soil on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation in saline soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atrash, F

    2001-01-01

    The influence of vesicular - arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi (VAM) on symbiotic fixation of N 2 n alfalfa plants has been observed. Beneficial effects of study the effect of VAM or phosphorous fertilization on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,) yields, umber of nodules and N 2 fixation by N 15 isotope dilution at different salinity levels. This experiment was realized in green house conditions, using soil of 2.3 dsm -1 conductivity mixed with sand (5: 2V) for alfalfa plants growing at various levels of phosphorus, or infected by Mycorrhiza fungi. Different conductivities (13.18, 22.2, 28.8, 43.5 dsm -1 ) were applied on these treatment by increasing concentrations of Nacl, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 and MgCl 2 by salinity soil irrigation. Ten days after planting, soil was enriched with 2 ppm of (NH 4 15 ) 2 SO 4 . Plant were grown under greenhouse condition for ten weeks. Our results confirmed that increased salinity reduced nitrogen - fixation and the number of nodules. The negative effect with increasing salinity was less in Mycorrhiza plants than in plants fertilized with various levels of phosphorus, and only the higher levels of salinity reduced significantly, the percentage of Mycorrhiza colonization, However, at all levels of salinity, VAM stimulated plant growth and nutrient uptake. (author)

  1. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  2. THE EFFECTS OF SEED SOAKING WITH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEEDLING VIGOR OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Irfan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators (IAA, GA3, kinetin or prostart on wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Auqab-2000 emergence and seedling growth under normal (4 dS/cm and saline (15 dS/cm conditions were studied to determine their usefulness in increasing relative salt-tolerance. During emergence test, emergence percentage and mean emergence time (MET were significantly affected by most of priming treatments, however, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly increased by 25 ppm kinetin followed by 1% prostart for 2 h treatments under both normal and saline conditions. All pre-sowing seed treatments decreased the electrolyte leakage of steep water as compared to that of non-primed seeds even after 12 h of soaking. Seed soaking with 25 ppm kinetin induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 25, 50 or 100 ppm IAA treatments. It is concluded that priming has reduced the severity of the effect of salinity but the amelioration was better due to 25 ppm kinetin and 1% prostart (2 h treatments as these showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry weights under non-saline and saline conditions whereas seed soaking with IAA and GA3 were not effective in inducing salt tolerance under present experimental material and conditions.

  3. Effects of Salinity Stress on Gas Exchange, Growth, and Nutrient Concentrations of Two Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was undertaken to assess the salt tolerance of two citrus rootstocks, namely, Bakraii (Citrus sp. and Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata. A factorial experiment through a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and four levels of salt including 0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl was conducted. After eight weeks of treatment, number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, wet and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, length of root, chlorophyll content, net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E and water use efficiency (WUE and ion concentrations were measured. Salinity decreased growth and net gas exchange. Trifoliate orange showed the most decrease in growth indices and net gas exchange compared with Bakraii. The ability to limit the transfer of sodium to leaves in low levels of salt was observed in Trifoliate orange, but this ability was not observed in high levels of salt. Results showed that accumulation of chloride in leaves and roots were less in Bakraii compared to the Trifoliate orange. The lower Cl- concentration in leaves of Bakraii than trifoliate orange suggests that the salinity tolerance of Bakraii is associated with less transport of Cl- to the leaves. Salinity increased K+ and decreased Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaves of both rootstocks. It is proposed that salt stress effect on plant physiological processes such as changes in plant growth, Cl- and Na+ toxicity, and mineral distribution, decreases chlorophyll content and reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of these citrus species.

  4. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the common sunflower (Sanay cultivar) using spectral discrimination techniques. H Turhan, L Genc, SE Smith, YB Bostanci, OS Turkmen ...

  5. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... accumulation on the leaves and stem, and free amino acids in the roots, leaves and stems. Plants showed a ... with soil salinity, which has increased due to excessive fertilization ... The salts effects in plants has been studied, and its must be of ... To adapt and survive in these adverse conditions, the plants ...

  6. Effects of Salinity on Growth and Metabolism in Blue Tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Water quality parameters [pH, temperature, electrical conductivity. (EC), total hardness, alkalinity, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, ammonia and nitrite] were measured and are given in Table 1. The osmolarity of each salinity treatment was measured by osmometer. (Model 3250 Advenced Instruments, ...

  7. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  8. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  9. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Hasna Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  10. The Effects of Salinity on Growth and Distribution of Four Freshwater Diatom Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayati, Attayeb A

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower salinity limits of Nitzschia acicularis, Nitzschia pusilla, Nitzschia palea and Synedra acus, which were isolated from the Damour River, Lebanon, were determined from laboratory cultures. Growth responses of the investigated diatoms showed maximum growth in the enriched Damour River natural water (salinity = 0.24 ppt). With an increase in salinity there was a gradual decrease in the growth until the upper limit was reached. At higher salt concentrations near the upper limit a lag phase was observed, during the first two days of the growing culture, where the growth was greatly declined. This reduction in growth can be attributed to high osmotic stress experienced by the investigated diatoms when transferred to flasks containing salinities near the extremes of their tolerance. The investigated diatoms appear to be very resistant and capable of adaptation to new situations because they grew better after this two days lag period. The results of this study also showed that all the investigated diatom species have broader salinity tolerance limits than those reported in the literature and this would enable their distribution at localities with higher or lower salinities than those typical of the Damour River, Lebanon. (author)

  11. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  12. Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Reduced Glutathione on the Alleviation of Salinity Stress in Olive Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Hajilou, J.; Tabatabaei, S.J.; Seifi Kalhor, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low molecular mass antioxidants and NaCl salinity on growth, ionic balance, proline, and water contents of ‘Zard’ olive trees under controlled greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out by spraying 2 mM of ascorbic acid (Asc) and 3

  13. The effect of salinity increase on the photosynthesis, growth and survival of the Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Gil, José M.; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Ruiz, Juan M.

    2012-12-01

    There are major concerns in the Mediterranean Sea over the effects of hypersaline effluents from seawater desalination plants on seagrass communities. However, knowledge concerning the specific physiological capacities of seagrasses to tolerate or resist salinity increases is still limited. In this study, changes in the photosynthetic characteristics, pigment content, leaf light absorption, growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were examined across a range of simulated hypersaline conditions. To this end, large plant fragments were maintained under salinities of 37 (control ambient salinity), 39, 41 and 43 (practical salinity scale) in a laboratory mesocosm system for 47 days. At the end of the experimental period, net photosynthesis exhibited a modest, but significant, decline (12-17%) in all tested hypersaline conditions (39-43). At intermediate salinity levels (39-41), the decline in photosynthetic rates was mainly accounted for by substantial increases in respiratory losses (approximately 98% of the control), the negative effects of which on leaf carbon balance were offset by an improved capacity and efficiency of leaves to absorb light, mainly through changes in accessory pigments, but also in optical properties related to leaf anatomy. Conversely, inhibition of gross photosynthesis (by 19.6% compared to the control mean) in the most severe hypersaline conditions (43) reduced net photosynthesis. In this treatment, the respiration rate was limited in order to facilitate a positive carbon balance (similar to that of the control plants) and shoot survival, although vitality would probably be reduced if such metabolic alterations persisted. These results are consistent with the ecology of Mediterranean C. nodosa populations, which are considered to have high morphological and physiological plasticity and a capacity to grow in a wide variety of coastal environments with varying salinity levels. The results from this study support the premise that C

  14. Sensitivity of root-knot nematodes to gamma irradiation, salinity and plant growth regulator, cycocel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweelam, M E [Econ. Entomology Dept., Fac. Agric. Menoufia University Shebin El-Kom, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The experiment was carried out at the experimental station of the faculty of agriculture, Menoufia Univ. To determine the sensitivity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica infecting tomato plants exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0,20,40,60,80 Gy, salinity levels 0. 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm and the plant growth regulator cycocel 0,200 ppm. Treated seeds were planted clay pots and salinity levels and cycocel concentrations were applied. Fresh weights and nematode populations were computed 3 months after application. Results indicated that 20 Gy, 1000 ppm salinity and cycocel gave the highest fresh weight of shoots and roots. The developmental stages and egg-laying females of nematode decreased by the increasing of irradiation dose and salinity levels. Root-knot galls decreased with 40 and 60 Gy, while significant increase was observed with 0 and 80 Gy, salinity levels decreased root galls. Cycocel decreased nematode population, egg-lying females and root-knot galls.

  15. Sensitivity of root-knot nematodes to gamma irradiation, salinity and plant growth regulator, cycocel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweelam, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at the experimental station of the faculty of agriculture, Menoufia Univ. To determine the sensitivity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica infecting tomato plants exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0,20,40,60,80 Gy, salinity levels 0. 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm and the plant growth regulator cycocel 0,200 ppm. Treated seeds were planted clay pots and salinity levels and cycocel concentrations were applied. Fresh weights and nematode populations were computed 3 months after application. Results indicated that 20 Gy, 1000 ppm salinity and cycocel gave the highest fresh weight of shoots and roots. The developmental stages and egg-laying females of nematode decreased by the increasing of irradiation dose and salinity levels. Root-knot galls decreased with 40 and 60 Gy, while significant increase was observed with 0 and 80 Gy, salinity levels decreased root galls. Cycocel decreased nematode population, egg-lying females and root-knot galls

  16. Using growth-based methods to determine direct effects of salinity on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a widespread agricultural problem and increasing salt concentrations in soils have been found to be correlated with decreased microbial activity. A central challenge in microbial ecology is to link environmental factors, such as salinity, to responses in the soil microbial community. That is, it can be difficult to distinguish direct from indirect effects. In order to determine direct salinity effects on the community we employed the ecotoxicological concept of Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). This concept is built on the assumption that if salinity had an ecologically relevant effect on the community, it should have selected for more tolerant species and strains, resulting in an overall higher community tolerance to salt in communities from saline soils. Growth-based measures, such as the 3H-leucine incorporation into bacterial protein , provide sensitive tools to estimate community tolerance. They can also provide high temporal resolution in tracking changes in tolerance over time. In our study we used growth-based methods to investigate: i) at what levels of salt exposure and over which time scales salt tolerance can be induced in a non-saline soil, and (ii) if communities from high salinity sites have higher tolerance to salt exposure along natural salinity gradients. In the first part of the study, we exposed a non-saline soil to a range of salinities and monitored the development of community tolerance over time. We found that community tolerance to intermediate salinities up to around 30 mg NaCl per g soil can be induced at relatively short time scales of a few days, providing evidence that microbial communities can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. In the second part of the study we used soil samples originating from natural salinity gradients encompassing a wide range of salinity levels, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.1 dS/m to >10 dS/m. We assessed community tolerance to salt by

  17. Effect of Salinity Stress on Growth Analysis of Isabgul, French Psyllium and Great Plantain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reaction to environmental factor. Using Growing Degree Days (GDD for estimating the phonological growth stages is more valid instead of calendar time. In order to study effect of salinity on growth analysis in three different plantago species, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2009. The study was carried out factorial experiment based on RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (9, 15, 21 dS/m and control with distilled water and three plantago species (Isabgul, French psyllium, Great plantain. Polynomial equations with the 88 to 98 distinction coefficient (R2 were known as the best indicator for interpreting of growth indices fluctuation to GDD. In all three species, the highest dry matter accumulation, leaf area, Crop growth rates (CGR were observed in 900-1000 GDD at all salinity levels and in higher GDD, the decreeing trend of dry matter accumulation, leaf area and CGR were observed in all salinity levels. The lowest relative growth rate, crop growth rate, Leaf area ratio, dry matter accumulation were observed in 21 dS/m NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulation was observed in 800, 900 and 1100 degree day in Isabgul, French psyllium, Great plantain, respectively. No seed harvested from Isabgul and French psyllium in 21 dS/m. Among three species, great plantain could remain the highest leaf area consequently this species produced higher dry matter (0.4 gr per plant and relative growth rate (0.06 g.g-1.10GDD-1 compared to other species. In general, among three species, great plantain was better species from a growth and seed yield point of view in salinity stress.

  18. Effect of Salinity Adaptation Technique on Survival and Growth Rate of Patin Catfish, Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of salinity adaptation techniques on growth and survival of patin catfish Pangasius sp. fry.  Fry of 1.5-2.0 inch in length were reared in the water with different of the initial salinity of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppt.  Salinity was then daily increased by duplicated the initial water salinity until fish died.  The results of study showed that fry could survive by initial salinity adaptation of 1 ppt and then increasing the salinity by 1 ppt/day to reach 27 ppt.  In the other treatments, all fry died after the salinity reach 18-25 ppt. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, adaptation, salinity   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik adaptasi salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan patin Pangasius sp.  Benih patin ukuran 1,5-2 inci dipelihara pada salinitas awal berbeda, yaitu 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 ppt. Salinitas air pemeliharaan ditingkatkan kelipatan dari salinitas awal setiap hari hingga ikan mati.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adaptasi salinitas awal 1 ppt dan peningkatan sebesar 1ppt/hari menyebabkan ikan dapat bertahan hidup sampai pada salinitas 27 ppt. Pada perlakuan lainnya, benih ikan mengalami kematian masal ketika salinitas mencapai 18-25 ppt. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, adaptasi, salinitas

  19. Salinity effect on the maximal growth temperature of some bacteria isolated from marine enviroments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S O; Morita, R Y

    1968-01-01

    Salinity of the growth medium was found to have a marked effect on the maximal growth temperature of four bacteria isolated from marine sources. Vibrio marinus MP-1 had a maximal growth temperature of 21.2 C at a salinity of 35% and a maximal growth temperature of 10.5 C at a salinity of 7%, the lowest salinity at which it would grow. This effect was shown to be due to the presence of various cations in the medium. The order of effectiveness of cations in restoring the normal maximal growth temperature, when added to dilute seawater, was Na(+) > Li(+) > Mg(++) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4) (+). The anions tested, with the exception of SO(4)=, had no marked effect on the maximal growth temperature response. In a completely defined medium, the highest maximal growth temperature was 20.0 C at 0.40 m NaCl. A decrease in the maximal growth temperature was observed at both low and high concentrations of NaCl.

  20. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  1. Interaction effects of water salinity and hydroponic growth medium on eggplant yield, water-use efficiency, and evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Mahjoor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is a plant native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The water crisis and drought on the one hand and eggplant greenhouse crop development as one of the most popular fruit vegetables for people on the other hand, led to the need for more research on the use of saline water and water stress to optimize salinity level and their impact on eggplant evapotranspiration and encounter better yield and crop quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interactions of water salinity and hydroponic growth medium on qualitative and quantitative properties of eggplant and its water-use efficiency. The study used the factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications of four levels of water salinity (electrical conductivity of 0.8 (control, 2.5, 5, and 7 dS m−1 and three growth media (cocopeat, perlite, and a 50–50 mixture of the two by volume. Total yield, yield components, evapotranspiration, and water-use efficiency were determined during two growing periods, one each in 2012 and 2013. All of these indices decreased significantly as water salinity increased. Water with of 0.8 dS m−1 produced an average eggplant yield of 2510 g per plant in 2012 and 2600 g in 2013. The highest yield was observed in cocopeat. Water with 7 dS m−1 reduced yield to 906 g per plant in 2012 and to 960 g in 2013. Lowest yield was observed in perlite. The highest evapotranspiration values occurred in cocopeat at the lowest salinity in both years. Cocopeat and the cocopeat–perlite mixture were equally good substrates. The mixture significantly improved the quantitative and qualitative properties of eggplant yield.

  2. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  3. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  4. Effects of salinity stress on seedlings growth, mineral nutrients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interference with the uptake of nutrients, particulary ... to which each of these factors affects growth depends on ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts:.

  5. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  7. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of salicylic acid (SA as a phytohormone has been increased due to resistance to stresses such as salt stress. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid application on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. For this purpose a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with 3 levels of SA (0 (control, 1, 2 mM and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM with 4 replications. At flowering stage, SA was applied with spraying two times in two week intervals. NaCl was also applied as drench (200 ml per pot in two day intervals. The results showed that salinity decreased the growth, Chlorophyll reading values, flower number per plant and flower diameter. However, foliar applications of SA resulted in greater root, shoot and total dry weight, plant height and leaf area of calendula plants under salt stress. The highest chlorophyll reading values was obtained from 2.00 mM SA application in all NaCl treatments. Salinity decreased number of flower per plant and flower diameter as ornamental characteristics; however SA increased them under salinity stress. Plants treated with 1.00 mM SA had the highest flower diameter at 100 and 200 mM of NaCl. Electrolyte leakage increased by salinity, however foliar application of SA significantly reduced electrolyte leakage under salt stress. Based on the present results, foliar application of SA treatments can ameliorate the negative effects of salinity on the growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula plants.

  8. Physiological and Growth Responses of Six Turfgrass Species Relative to Salinity Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for salinity-tolerant turfgrasses is increasing due to augmented use of effluent or low-quality water (sea water for turf irrigation and the growing turfgrass industry in coastal areas. Experimental plants, grown in plastic pots filled with a mixture of river sand and KOSASR peat (9 : 1, were irrigated with sea water at different dilutions imparting salinity levels of 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, or 48 dS m-1. Salinity tolerance was evaluated on the basis of leaf firing, shoot and root growth reduction, proline content, and relative water content. Paspalum vaginatum was found to be most salt tolerant followed by Zoysia japonica and Zoysia matrella, while Digitaria didactyla, Cynodon dactylon “Tifdwarf,” and Cynodon dactylon “Satiri” were moderately tolerant. The results indicate the importance of turfgrass varietal selection for saline environments.

  9. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Chambers, J.L.; Allen, J.A.; Soileau, D.M.; DeBosier, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico is one important factor in the destruction of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) swamps along the Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA. Recent restoration efforts have focused on identification of baldcypress genotypes with greater tolerance to saline conditions than previously reported. To date, salt tolerance investigations have not been conducted under saline field conditions. In 1996, therefore, three plantations were established with 10 half-sib genotype collections of baldcypress in mesohaline wetlands. Tree survival and growth were measured at the end of two growing seasons, and foliar ion concentrations of Na, Cl, K, and Ca and available soil nutrients were measured during the 1996 growing season. In general, soil nutrient concentrations exceeded averages found in other baldcypress stands in the southeastern United States. Seedlings differed among sites in all parameters measured, with height, diameter, foliar biomass, and survival decreasing as site salinity increased. Average seedling height at the end of two years, for example, was 196.4 cm on the lowest salinity site and 121.6 cm on the highest. Several half-sib families maintained greater height growth increments (ranging from 25.5 to 54.5 cm on the highest salinity site), as well as lower foliar ion concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca. Results indicate that genotypic screening of baldcypress may improve growth and vigor of seedlings planted within wetlands impacted by saltwater intrusion.

  10. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  11. Effects of Bicarbonate Limitation and Salinity Stress on Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photosynthetic organisms rarely experience optimal growth conditions in their natural habitat, and at any given time, two or more physical and chemical variables are likely to be suboptimal. The extreme environment of the Great Salt Plains (GSP) results in low algal biomass, such that natural selection is likely driven by ...

  12. Effect of Salinity and Seed Size on Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik Germination and Seedling Growth Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Alizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Both soil and water salinity is one of the main reasons in decreasing germination, seedling growth and establishment in many arid and semiarid parts of world especially in our country. For this reason in order to evaluate the effect of lentil seed size on germination and seedling growth properties that was under effect of salinity stress, a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and 3 replications conducted using two lentils genotypes (Robatt and Gachsaran, two small and large seed sizes (34.8 and 59 mg in Robatt and 41.5 and 69 mg in Gachsaran per seed, respectively and five drought levels (0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.7 percent of NaCl in 2008s. Results showed that Robatt genotype had higher germination rate and salinity tolerance than Gachsaran. In addition seed size had significant different (P

  13. Growth and root development of four mangrove seedlings under varying salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Keliat, D. A.; Lubis, M. U.; Manalu, N. B.; Syuhada, A.; Wati, R.; Yunasfi

    2018-03-01

    This present study describes four mangrove seedlings namely Bruguiera cylindrica, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora apiculata in response to salinity with particular emphasis to root development. The seedlings of four mangroves were grown for 5 months in 0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% salt concentration. Salinity significantly decreased the growth (diameter and plant height) of all mangrove seedlings. Root developments were observed from the tap and lateral root. The number, length and diameter of both roots-typed of B. cylindrica, B. sexangula and C. tagal seedlings significantly decreased with increasing salt concentration with optimum development at 0.5% salinity. By contrast, the number, length, and diameter of tap root of R. apiculata seedlings were significantly enhanced by salt with maximal stimulation at 0.5%, and this increase was attenuated by increasing salinity. On the other hand, lateral root development of R. apiculata significantly thrived up to 1.5% salinity then decreasing with the increasing salinity. The different response of root development suggested valuable information for mangrove rehabilitation in North Sumatra and their adaption to withstand salt stress.

  14. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moemen, A.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl 2 and Mg SO 4 ), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  15. Effect of Salinity on the Survival and Growth of Rufiji Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Survival and growth of Rufiji tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis urolepis) fry were determined under controlled salinity conditions of 5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt for 56 days. Experiments were carried out in 12 concrete tanks of 1 m3 volume each with three replicates for each treatment. Data was recorded at fourteen days ...

  16. The effect of biofertilizer fungi on Ciherang rice growth at some level of soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y B Subowo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A research about the effect of fungus contained biofertilizer on Ciherang rice that was growth on different level of soil salinity was conducted. One of the effect of global climate changes is the increase of sea water level. It leads to the expansion of sea water submerged land for agriculture. Salt intrution to the agriculture area considerably decrease soil fertility because of the high salinity. Some of microbes especially soil fungi such as Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp. are able to grow at high salinity environment. Those fungi were also able to degrade lignocellulose, sollubilize in organic phosphate and provide organic phosphat and produce plant growth hormon especially IAA. Such activities benefit to improve soil fertility in high salinity land as a bio-fertilizer.The objective of this research was to know the growth of rice plant that treated with fungus contained bio-fertilizer on land with different level of salinity. The rice were planted in Green house of Cibinong Science Centre, Cibinong.The research was set up as complete random design with five replication. The rice were watered by 5 conditions: 50% of sea water, 100% of sea water, 100% sea water + 2 % NaCl , fresh water + 5 % NaCl and 100% fresh water as the control. Fertilizer was added to the medium twice. Ten grams of fertilizer were used per polybag (10g/7 Kg, 2 weeks after planting and before flowering subsequently. The observed parameters were plant height, number of tiller, leaves colour, biomass dry weight, soil organic carbon content, cellulosic and lignin degrading activities of the fungus, fungus phosphate-solubilizing potency and fungus production of IAA.The watering treatment lead to 5 level of salinity i.e. : 5,93 dS/m (50% sea water, 9,15 dS/m (100% sea water, 10,42 dS/m (sea water + 2% NaCl, 12,43 dS/m (fresh water + 5% NaCl and 0,74 dS/m (fresh water. The result showed that among those 5 watering condition, the rice grew best on 5,93 dS/m (watering 50% of

  17. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  18. Effect of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Germination Stage and Growth of Black Cumin (Bunium Persicum Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Saeedi Goraghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Range plants have important and crucial roles in medicinal industry andtogether with scarcity and low quality of the water and soil resources, prevent a quick recovery of the soil plant covering. Because of these restrictions, it is important to consider the use of salt and drought tolerant species for plantation and to preserve plant cover. In this sense, the use of native species such as black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss may be of interest due to their medicinal characteristics and potential ability to adapt to adverse conditions (dry and saline conditions. Black cumin (B. persicum as a medicinal plant plays a vital role in Iranian medicine so there is a need to know about the factors affecting their growth and propagation. Materials and Methods To investigate the effects of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin two separate experiments were conducted. Drought stress was applied through incubation in four different concentrations of PEG 6000 that provide solutions with water potentials ranging from -0.2 to -0.8 MPa (including control and four levels of dryness. Salinity treatments (including control and four levels of salinity were prepared by adding molar concentrations of NaCl to provide a range of salinity from 50 to 300 mM. Germination percentage and speed was calculated by computation of germinated seeds every day. Growth parameters (rootlet, shoot and seedling length total, allometric index and seed vigority were obtained accordingly. Results and Discussion Seeds under both drought and salt stress showed significant reduction in germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and alometric and seed vigor indices. This trend was much pronounced under high levels of NaCl and low levels of water potentials, so that germination at Ψs = -0.6 MP was completely stopped. Conclusions Assessment of drought and salt stresses on germination and growth in black cumin is very

  19. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha

    2010-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use of an MDC as an RO pre-treatment method using a new type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a coulombic efficiency of 68 ± 11%. A higher concentration of acetate (2 g L-1) reduced solution conductivity by 60 ± 7%, and a higher salt concentration (20 g L-1 NaCl) reduced solution conductivity by 50 ± 7%. The use of membranes with increased ion exchange capacities further decreased the solution conductivity by 63 ± 2% (20 g L-1 NaCl). These results demonstrate substantial (43-67%) desalination of water is possible using equal volumes of anode solution and salt water. These results show that MDC treatment could be used to substantially reduce salt concentrations and thus energy demands for downstream RO processing, while at the same time producing electrical power. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Temperature and salinity affect the germination and growth of Silybum marianum Gaertn and Avena fatua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir, S.; Khan, M. A.; Shad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40 degree C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25 degree C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40 degree C) or lower temperature (15 degree C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua. (author)

  1. Effects of seawater salinity and temperature on growth and pigment contents in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lanping; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    This study simulated outdoor environmental living conditions and observed the growth rates and changes of several photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) by setting up different ranges of salinity (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) and temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C). At conditions of culture, the results are as follows. (1) Changes in salinity and temperature have significant effects on the growth of H. cervicornis. The growth rates first increase then decrease as the temperature increases, while growth tends to decline as salinity increases. The optimum salinity and temperature conditions for growth are 25 and 25°C, respectively. (2) Salinity and temperature have significant or extremely significant effects on photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Car, PE, and PC) in H. cervicornis. The results of this study are advantageous to ensure propagation and economic development of this species in the southern sea area of China.

  2. Use of mixed solid waste as a soil amendment for saline-sodic soil remediation and oat seedling growth improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Ge, Tian; Zheng, Yanli; Li, Hua; Cheng, Fangqin

    2016-11-01

    Soil salinization has become a worldwide problem that imposes restrictions on crop production and food quality. This study utilizes a soil column experiment to address the potential of using mixed solid waste (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) as soil amendment to ameliorate saline-sodic soil and enhance crop growth. Mixed solid waste with vinegar residue content ranging from 60-90 %, sewage sludge of 8.7-30 %, and fly ash of 1.3-10 % was added to saline-sodic soil (electrical conductivity (EC 1:5 ) = 1.83 dS m -1 , sodium adsorption ratio (SAR 1:5 ) = 129.3 (mmol c L -1 ) 1/2 , pH = 9.73) at rates of 0 (control), 130, 260, and 650 kg ha -1 . Results showed that the application of waste amendment significantly reduced SAR, while increasing soil soluble K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ , at a dose of 650 kg ha -1 . The wet stability of macro-aggregates (>1 mm) was improved 90.7-133.7 % when the application rate of amendment was greater than 260 kg ha -1 . The application of this amendment significantly reduced soil pH. Germination rates and plant heights of oats were improved with the increasing rate of application. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of vinegar residue and the K/Na ratio in the soil solutions and roots. These findings suggest that applying a mixed waste amendment (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) could be a cost-effective method for the reclamation of saline-sodic soil and the improvement of the growth of salt-tolerant plants.

  3. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  4. Effects of Salinity on the Habitat Selection and Growth Performance of Mediterranean Flathead Grey Mullet Mugil cephalus (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, L.

    2000-05-01

    Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L. 1758) are commonly found in tropical and temperate estuaries. In spite of their ecological and economical importance, little is known about the effects of salinity on growth performance and habitat selection. Laboratory experiments revealed that the metabolic rate of young specimens was negatively affected by high salinity levels and that an improved growth performance was achieved in fresh water and oligohaline water. A stratified study on microhabitat use, carried out on the island of Minorca (Balearic archipelago), demonstrated that juvenile specimens, shorter than 200 mm (total length), concentrated all year round in fresh water or oligohaline sites. Mesohaline areas were usually avoided, except in summer. Immature fish, with a total length between 201 and 300 mm, show a similar pattern although in some seasons avoided freshwater sites. The habitat selection pattern of adults, i.e., fish longer than 301 mm, changed seasonally due to their offshore migration during the spawning season (from late summer to early winter). However, they usually showed a greater preference for polyhaline areas and strongly avoided freshwater sites. Euhaline areas were also avoided in autumn and summer. These results suggest that the young of this species are highly dependent on areas of low salinity and any factor which reduces the availability of such areas will, in turn, affect their fishery. Adults depend on polyhaline areas, although the avoidance of freshwater areas might be due to their shallowness. The situation might be different in some areas of the Indo-Pacific. These differences are discussed.

  5. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  6. EFFECT OF SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, AND FOOD VALUE OF FOUR MICROALGAE TO OYSTER, Crassostrea iredalei LARVAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Published accounts of Crassostrea iredalei are only of its distribution in the Philippines. In Indonesia, this species is known to occur on the coast of South Sulawesi as well as in Banten. The purposes of the present studies were to investigate effect of salinity, temperature and food value of four microalgae to C. iredalei larval growth. Fine filtration of water was carried out using Sartorius capsule filter cartridge (1.2 ìm and 0.2 ìm and sterilization was achieved by passing the water through an ultraviolet light unit. Low-salinity water was prepared by diluting filtered seawater with distilled water. High-salinity water was made by adding synthetic sea salts. All cultures were kept in constant temperature baths. Experiments of 8-days (for temperature and salinity trials and 10-days (for diet trial duration were duplicated in 500 mL glass beakers with larval density of 104 per liter. Seawater was changed every 48 h. The algae, Isochrysis galbana, I. galbana clone T-ISO, and Pavlova lutheri were added to the glass beakers at a rate of 100 cells/ìL; cell density of Chaetoceros calsitrans was 250 cells/ìl at the start of the experiment and after every water change. Using thermostat chambers, 5 temperatures were tested, ranging from 14o to 34o in 5 steps. Four salinities were used, they ranged from 10 to 35‰ in 5‰ steps. For environmental condition trial, I. galbana as food was used. In diet trials, 4 species of algae were tested e.g. I. galbana, I. galbana T-ISO, P. lutheri, C. calcitrans and a mixture of algae, T-ISO/C. calcitrans. The optimum salinity range for growth of larvae was recorded at 20‰—30‰ at which the mean shell length was 85.1—87.7 ìm. The highest survival rate was recorded at salinity of 25‰—30‰, it was 91.6%—92.7%. There were significant differences in larval growth between temperature treatments. The optimum temperature for larval growth was at 24°C—29°C, with survival rate of 91.6%—93.0%. P

  7. Improvement of Chickpea Growth and Biological N Fixation under Water Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; Hamdy, A.

    2004-01-01

    This work had been carried out under greenhouse conditions of IAM-Bari, aimed at evaluating the effects of water and soil salinity on growth, yield and nitrogen fixation by chickpea plants inoculated with selected Rhizobium strains. Isotope dilution approach ( 15 N) was applied for quantification of biological N fixation and portions derived from fertilizer and soil (Ndff and Ndfs, respectively). Number of pods was decreased gradually with increasing water salinity levels. High levels of salinity negatively affected shoot, root dry matter, seed yield and N accumulated in shoots and roots. A slight difference in seed N was noticed between fresh water and 9 dS/m treatments. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer by shoots was slightly increased with 3, 6 and 9 dS/m treatments, while they were notably higher than the fresh water control. More than 80% and 70% of N accumulated in shoots and seeds, respectively were derived from fixation. Portions of N 2 -fixed in shoots was decreased with the level of 3 dS/m as compared to the fresh water, then tended to increase with both 6 and 9 dS/m treatments. Stability of %Ndfa with increasing salinity was noticed with seeds-N. Soil-N came next as a fraction of nitrogen demand, where it increased with increasing water salinity levels. Under adverse conditions of salinity, the plants offered some of their N requirements from the other two N sources. Application of the suitable Rhizobium bacteria strains could be profits for both of the plant growth and soil fertility via N 2 fixation. (Authors)

  8. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  9. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  10. The growth performance of Osphronemus goramy reared in saline water with electrical field exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the optimal salinity level on growth rates of giant gouramy Osphronemus goramy  reared in different salinity with electrical field exposure. Four different salinities tested were 0; 3; 6 and 9‰ with the electrical field exposure of 10 Volt. The experiment design was arranged in completely randoumizes design with four treatments and three replications. Stock density was 3 fish/l with mean initial total body length of 7.18±0.30 cm and initial body weight of 5.68±0.67 g. Result of study showed that the treatment of 3‰ shows the best growth performance with specific growth rates of 1.02±0.10% and growth of absolute length of 0.56±0.18 cm. Key words: Salinity, electrical field, growth rate, Osphronemus goramy   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui salinitas optimal untuk pertumbuhan ikan gurame Osphronemus goramy yang dipelihara pada media bersalinitas berbeda dengan paparan medan listrik. Perlakuan meliputi empat salinitas media yang berbeda: 0, 3, 6, dan 9‰ dengan paparan medan listrik 10 Volt. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Padat penebaran ikan adalah 3 ekor/l dengan rata-rata panjang total 7,18±0,30 cm dan bobot rata-rata awal 5,68±0,67 g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan ikan gurame terbaik pada penelitian ini dicapai pada salinitas 3‰ dengan pertumbuhan bobot 1,02±0,10% dan pertumbuhan panjang mutlak 0,56±0,18 cm.   Kata-kata kunci: Salinitas, medan listrik, laju pertumbuhan, Osphronemus goramy

  11. Effect of salinity on survival, growth and biochemical parameters in juvenile Lebranch mullet Mugil liza (Perciformes: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Lisboa

    Full Text Available Teleost fish growth may be improved under isosmotic condition. Growth and metabolic performance of juvenile Mugil liza (isosmotic point: 12‰ were evaluated after 40 days in different salinities (0, 6, 12 and 24‰. Tests were performed in quadruplicate (30 fish/tank; 0.48 ± 0.1 g body weight; 3.27 ± 0.1 cm total length under controlled water temperature (28.2 ± 0.1ºC and oxygen content (>90% saturation. Fish were fed on artificial diet (50% crude protein four times a day until apparent satiation. Results showed that salinity influenced juvenile mullet growth. Fish reared at salinity 24‰ grew better than those maintained in freshwater (salinity 0‰. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and whole body oxygen consumption showed an U-shape-type response over the range of salinities tested, with the lower values being observed at the intermediate salinities. Although no significant difference was observed in liver glycogen content at different salinities, it tended to augment with increasing salinity. These findings indicate that energy demand for osmorregulation in juvenile M. liza can be minimized under isosmotic condition. However, the amount of energy spared is not enough to improve fish growth. Results also suggest that M. liza is able to alternate between different energy-rich substrates during acclimation to environmental salinity.

  12. Growth and yield of cowpea/sunflower crop rotation under different irrigation management strategies with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Leila Rocha Neves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management strategies of irrigation with saline water on growth and yield of cowpea and sunflower in a crop rotation. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with thirteen treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2, T3 and T4 using water of 0.5 (A1, 2.2 (A2, 3.6 (A3 and 5.0 (A4 dS m-1, respectively, during the entire crop cycle; T5, T6 and T7, use of A2, A3 and A4 water, respectively, only in the flowering and fructification stage of the crop cycle; using different water in a cyclic way, six irrigations with A1 followed by six irrigations with A2 (T8, A3 (T9 and A4, (T10, respectively; T11, T12 and T13, using water A2, A3 and A4, respectively, starting at 11 days after planting (DAP and continuing until the end of the crop cycle. These treatments were employed in the first crop (cowpea, during the dry season, and the same plots were used for the cultivation of sunflower as succeeding crop during rainy season. The strategies of use of saline water in the salt tolerant growth stage (treatments T5, T6 and T7 or cyclically (treatments T8, T9 and T10 reduced the amount of good quality water used in the production of cowpea by 34 and 47%, respectively, without negative impacts on crop yield, and did not show the residual effects of salinity on sunflower as a succeeding crop. Thus, these strategies appear promising to be employed in areas with water salinity problems in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN HIGH SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increasing salinity to the morpho-metric parameters of Salix alba L., which dominated in the coastal areas on rivers of Steppe Dnieper, is investigated. We added Mg as salt MgSO4 * 3H2O in the range of concentration: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l in a solution of willow cuttings. In the solution was added and plant growth regulator "Kornevin" the synthetic origin. The negative effect of salt at a concentration from 1.0 g/l to 2.5 g/l in the dynamics of growth and development was found. The correlation between the size and salinity in dynamics of growth and development of plant were demonstrated: in the growth of shoots (R = 0.83, 0.91 and 0.95, in the growth of roots (R = 0.92, 0.68 and 0.84 respectively depended from salt concentration. The length of the leaf blade was from 4% to 8%, from 7% to 43%, from 333% to 11% (R = 0,68, 0,93, 0,61, depending on the concentration of salt and during observing compared with control (distilled water. "Kornevin" and combined effect of salt increased the length of the leaf blade growth by 4-5, 2-4, 3-5 times, the roots by7 and 3-14 times, the shoots by 3-4, 6-7 and 5-7 times in the dynamics of growth compared with control (MgSO4, 2,5 g/l. The recommendations regarding for the advisability of using the plant growth regulator "Kornevin", as very effective plant growth preparation that promoted rooting and activated physiological processes of plant organism, expressed protective effect in conditions of excessive salinity, were provided. Key words: the morpho-metric index, the plant growth regulators, abiotic factors, salinity factor, the adaptation.

  14. No evidence for a critical salinity threshold for growth and reproduction in the freshwater snail Physa acuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    The growth and reproduction of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae) were measured at various salinity levels (growth: distilled water, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 μS/cm; reproduction: deionized water, 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 μS/cm) established using the artificial sea salt, Ocean Nature. This was done to examine the assumption that there is no direct effect of salinity on freshwater animals until a threshold, beyond which sub-lethal effects, such as reduction in growth and reproduction, will occur. Growth of P. acuta was maximal in terms of live and dry mass at salinity levels 500-1000 μS/cm. The number of eggs produced per snail per day was maximal between 100 and 1000 μS/cm. Results show that rather than a threshold response to salinity, small rises in salinity (from low levels) can produce increased growth and reproduction until a maximum is reached. Beyond this salinity, further increases result in a decrease in growth and reproduction. Studies on the growth of freshwater invertebrates and fish have generally shown a similar lack of a threshold response. The implications for assessing the effects of salinisation on freshwater organisms need to be further considered. - Responses of snails to increasing salinity were non-linear

  15. Salinity tolerance of Dodonaea viscosa L. inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: assessed based on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi Sonia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR to reduce the effects of salinity stress on the medicinal hopbush plant. The bacterium factor was applied at five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated by Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum + Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and Azospirillum lipoferum + Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and the salinity stress at six levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 dS m-1. The results revealed that Pseudomonas putida showed maximal germination percentage and rate at 20 dS m-1 (18.33% and 0.35 seed per day, respectively. The strongest effect among the treatments was obtained with the treatment combining the given 3 bacteria at 15 dS m-1 salinity stress. This treatment increased the root fresh and dry weights by 31% and 87.5%, respectively (compared to the control. Our results indicate that these bacteria applied on hopbush affected positively both its germination and root growth. The plant compatibility with the three bacteria was found good, and the treatments combining Pseudomonas putida with the other one or two bacteria discussed in this study can be applied in nurseries in order to restore and extend the area of hopbush forests and akin dry stands.

  16. Long-term surveillance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Eitan; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-02-18

    Abundance and seasonal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), in general, and of extreme halophilic SRB (belonging to Desulfocella halophila) in particular, were examined in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds over a forty one month period. Industrial wastewater was sampled and the presence of SRB was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with a set of primers designed to amplify the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) gene. SRB displayed higher abundance during the summer (10(6)-10(8) targets ml(-1)) and lower abundance from the autumn-spring (10(3)-10(5) targets ml(-1)). However, addition of concentrated dissolved organic matter into the evaporation ponds during winter immediately resulted in a proliferation of SRB, despite the lower wastewater temperature (12-14 degrees C). These results indicate that the qPCR approach can be used for rapid measurement of SRB to provide valuable information about the abundance of SRB in harsh environments, such as highly saline industrial wastewaters. Low level of H2S has been maintained over five years, which indicates a possible inhibition of SRB activity, following artificial salination (approximately 16% w/v of NaCl) of wastewater evaporation ponds, despite SRB reproduction being detected by qPCR.

  17. Growth and chlorophyll fluorescence under salinity stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, at Der EzZour Agricultural Research Center, from 2008-2010, to examine the effect of salt conditions on some growth attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence in 10 Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar beet plants were irrigated with saline water, having electrical conductivity ranged from 8.6-10 dS.m-1during first year and 8.4-10.4 dS.m-1 during second year. A randomized completely block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that all studied growth attributes, leaf area, leaf number, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate were decreased in salinity stress conditions compared to the controlled state. The findings indicated that salinity caused a decrement of light utilizing through increased values of fluorescence origin (fo, decreased values of fluorescence maximum (fm, and maximum yield of quantum in photosystem-II (fv/fm. Genotypes differed significantly in all studied attributes except in leaf number. Under salt conditions, Brigitta (monogerm achieved an increase in net assimilation rate, while Kawimera (multigerm achieved the lowest decrement in quantum yield in photosystem-II. Further studies are necessary to correlate the yield with yield components under similar conditions to determine the most tolerant genotype.International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 1-9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9937

  18. Reducing longitudinal emittance growth in RFQ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-08-01

    Bunching and capture of a monochromatic beam into an rf bucket inevitably lead to substantial emittance growth through the mechanisms of filamentation and non-adiabatic variation of parameters. We describe a three step strategy for minimizing this growth, based on a clear understanding of the non-linear beam dynamics, and apply to acceleration of heavy ions with Z/A = 1/60 (and initial kinetic energy 60 keV/u) in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) operating at 25 MHz. We also describe a scheme, to further reduce the emittance, based upon the use of an external RFQ-type prebuncher before the main accelerator. The external unit permits the bunching voltage to be reduced, to inject into a moving bucket, and to reduce the structure length. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  19. Rearing Mozambique tilapia in tidally-changing salinities: Effects on growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Benjamin P; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2016-08-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a central role in the regulation of growth in teleosts and has been shown to be affected by acclimation salinity. This study was aimed at characterizing the effects of rearing tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, in a tidally-changing salinity on the GH/IGF axis and growth. Tilapia were raised in fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), or in a tidally-changing environment, in which salinity is switched between FW (TF) and SW (TS) every 6h, for 4months. Growth was measured over all time points recorded and fish reared in a tidally-changing environment grew significantly faster than other groups. The levels of circulating growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), pituitary GH mRNA, gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and growth hormone receptor 2 (GHR) in the muscle and liver were also determined. Plasma IGF-I was higher in FW and TS than in SW and TF tilapia. Pituitary GH mRNA was higher in TF and TS than in FW and SW tilapia. Gene expression of IGF-I in the liver and of GHR in both the muscle and liver changed between TF and TS fish. Fish growth was positively correlated with GH mRNA expression in the pituitary, and GHR mRNA expression in muscle and liver tissues. Our study indicates that rearing fish under tidally-changing salinities elicits a distinct pattern of endocrine regulation from that observed in fish reared in steady-state conditions, and may provide a new approach to increase tilapia growth rate and study the regulation of growth in euryhaline fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. No evidence for a critical salinity threshold for growth and reproduction in the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Ben J; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-04-01

    The growth and reproduction of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae) were measured at various salinity levels (growth: distilled water, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 microS/cm; reproduction: deionized water, 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 microS/cm) established using the artificial sea salt, Ocean Nature. This was done to examine the assumption that there is no direct effect of salinity on freshwater animals until a threshold, beyond which sub-lethal effects, such as reduction in growth and reproduction, will occur. Growth of P. acuta was maximal in terms of live and dry mass at salinity levels 500-1000 microS/cm. The number of eggs produced per snail per day was maximal between 100 and 1000 microS/cm. Results show that rather than a threshold response to salinity, small rises in salinity (from low levels) can produce increased growth and reproduction until a maximum is reached. Beyond this salinity, further increases result in a decrease in growth and reproduction. Studies on the growth of freshwater invertebrates and fish have generally shown a similar lack of a threshold response. The implications for assessing the effects of salinisation on freshwater organisms need to be further considered.

  1. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  2. Effects of Salinity on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidombo, S.D; KOech, E.K

    2007-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Iam is a very important species because of it's multiple uses. The tree grows in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Central America and South America. In Kenya, it grows in drier regions of Baringo, Kibwezi, Mandera and the coastal strip. These regions are known to have substantially high level of soluble salts. The study aims at finding the effect of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of M. oleifera seedlings. This was tested in Moi University department of forestry laboratory by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) in germination medium. The petri dishes with germination media were placed in the incubator at 30 degrees Celsius each containing 25 seeds of each treatment replicated four times. The effect of seedling growth and development was tested in the greenhouse. This was done by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45) in the forest soil used in the experiment. After germination one seedling per treatment was randomly selected and then carefully dug. The root length, shoot height, total dry matter, stem dry matter and leaves dry matter were measured. This was repeated at intervals of one week for seven weeks. The data obtained from the experiments were analysed using ANOVA based on generalized linear modelling procedures. The tests indicated that M. oleifera seed germination and early seedling growth was significantly (p<0.05) affected by salinity. The seedlings also demonstrated development of swellings in the root region and the development of multiple stems for salt concentrations of 0.05 moles and above. These observations show that M. oleifera is affected by salinity in both seed germination and early seedling growth

  3. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  4. Certain growth related attributes of micropropagated banana under different salinity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.U.; Soomro, F.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity (NaCl) was assessed on banana (Musa spp.) cv., Sindhri Banana (Basrai) propagating plantlets in aseptic condition. Four different NaCl levels [0 (control) 50, 100 and 150 mM] were maintained at shoot multiplication stage for 6-weeks. Salinity reduced the number of plantlets per explants and plant biomass significantly. A proportional relationship was observed for Na/sup +/ and Cl/sub -/ but K/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/and NO/sub 3/ were observed to be inversely proportioned with NaCl stress. Similarly, total proteins as well as carbohydrate contents were decreased significantly. Increasing mode of secondary metabolites (proline, betaine contents and reducing sugars) were showing a negative relationship of saline stress with plant micro-propagation efficiency. Among photosynthetic pigments, total carotenoids were increased while chlorophyll contents (Chl a and b) decreased. Similarly, nitrate reductase activity also reduced. Overall, vegetative propagation of banana was affected significantly by NaCl stress under in-vitro conditions. (author)

  5. Photosynthesis, growth and survival of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica in response to simulated salinity increases in a laboratory mesocosm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Sandoval-Gil, José M.; Ruíz, Juan M.; Sánchez-Lizaso, José L.

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of increased salinity on the photosynthetic activity of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica in a laboratory mesocosm system. To do this, large rhizome fragments were transplanted in a mesocosm laboratory system and maintained at 37 (ambient salinity, control treatment), 39, 41 and 43 (hypersaline treatments) for 47 days. Pigment content, light absorption, photosynthetic characteristics (derived from P vs. E curves and fluorescence parameters), and shoot size, growth rates and net shoot change were determined at the end of the experimental period. Both net and gross photosynthetic rates of plants under hypersaline conditions were significantly reduced, with rates some 25-33% and 13-20% lower than in control plants. The pigment content (Chl a, Chl b, Chl b:Chl a molar ratio, total carotenoids and carotenoids:Chl a ratio), leaf absorptance and maximum quantum yield of PSII ( F v/ F m) of control plants showed little or no changes under hypersaline conditions, which suggests that alterations to the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus to capture and process light were not responsible for the reduced photosynthetic rates. In contrast, dark respiration rates increased substantially, with mean values up to 98% higher than in control leaves. These results suggest that the respiratory demands of the osmoregulatory process are likely to be responsible for the observed decrease in photosynthetic rates, although alterations to photosynthetic carbon assimilation and reduction could also be involved. As a consequence, leaf carbon balance was considerably impaired and leaf growth rates decreased as salinity increased above the ambient (control) salinity. No significant differences were found in the percentage of net shoot change, but mean values were clearly negative at salinity levels of 41 and 43. Results presented here indicate that photosynthesis of P. oceanica is highly sensitive to hypersaline stress and that it likely

  6. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  7. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  8. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  9. The Effect of Salinity Stress on the Growth, quantity and quality of Essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifulia Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sarah khorasaninejad

    2017-02-01

    essential oil are flowers and leaves. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replications to study the effect of salinity stress on growth parameters, essential oil constituents and yield of Lavender (Lavandula angustifulia at the Horticultural Sciences Department, Plant Product faculty, Gorgan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Lavender plants were obtained from seed plantation. The seeds in this investigation were obtained from the Institution of Forests and Range researches in Tehran. After three weeks stratification (4ºC and germination, five plants were transplanted into similarized pots that were filled with perlite and cocopeat (2:1. Irrigation treatments with hydroponic solution were completed during germination until stage of 6-8 leaf. Then, five levels of salt stress, including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl levels were investigated during four months, applied in hydroponic. Length, shoot wet weight, root wet weight and root dry weight were measured at full flowering stage (after five months. The same time in order to evaluate percentage and composition essential oil, each plant were harvested and dried under room condition. After two weeks, Clevenger method was used to extract the essential oil from the plant foliage. The obtained essential oil were measured for calculating of essential oils percentage and then, analyzed by using GC/MS (Gas choromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and quantification of the components. Statistical analysis of data was used with SAS software and charts preparing was done with Excel software. Mean comparison with LSD’s test in 5 percent probability was used. Results and Discussion: Results indicated that salinity stress motivated a significant influence in all of the growth parameters and essential oil yield and percent in P < 0.05. Increasing salt of the soil led to reduce in stem length, shoot wet weight, root wet weight and root

  10. Mining Halophytes for Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria to Enhance the Salinity Tolerance of Non-halophytic Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Etesami

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of halophytic species can be effective bio-inoculants for promoting the production of non-halophytic species in saline soils. These studies support the viability of bioinoculation with halophilic PGPRs as a strategy for the sustainable enhancement of non-halophytic crop growth. The potential of this strategy is discussed within the context of ensuring sustainable food production for a world with an increasing population and continuing climate change. We also explore future research needs for using halotolerant PGPRs under salinity stress.

  11. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  12. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  13. Effect of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on wheat plants and soil health in a saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S K; Singh, D P

    2015-01-01

    Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (ST-PGPR) significantly influence the growth and yield of wheat crops in saline soil. Wheat growth improved in pots with inoculation of all nine ST-PGPR (ECe = 4.3 dS·m(-1) ; greenhouse experiment), while maximum growth and dry biomass was observed in isolate SU18 Arthrobacter sp.; simultaneously, all ST-PGPR improved soil health in treated pot soil over controls. In the field experiment, maximum wheat root dry weight and shoot biomass was observed after inoculation with SU44 B. aquimaris, and SU8 B. aquimaris, respectively, after 60 and 90 days. Isolate SU8 B. aquimaris, induced significantly higher proline and total soluble sugar accumulation in wheat, while isolate SU44 B. aquimaris, resulted in higher accumulation of reducing sugars after 60 days. Percentage nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in leaves of wheat increased significantly after inoculation with ST-PGPR, as compared to un-inoculated plants. Isolate SU47 B. subtilis showed maximum reduction of sodium (Na) content in wheat leaves of about 23% at both 60 and 90 days after sowing, and produced the best yield of around 17.8% more than the control. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Effect of Salinity on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Four Olive (OleaeuropaeaL. Cultivars underGreenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Olyaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production around the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Olive is one of the most important fruit crops in Iran and the world. Despite olive has been classified as moderately salt tolerant plant, poor quality of irrigation water in association with salt build-up soils has reduced the yields, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The tolerance of the olive to salt is to a great extent depends on the cultivar. Selecting salinity-resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies used for mitigating salinity effects on olive. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the salt tolerance of four olive cultivars under greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, one-year-old rooted cuttings of Iranian olive cultivars (‘Dakal’, ‘Shiraz’, ‘Zard’ and non-Iranian cultivar ‘Amigdal’ were grown in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. Plants were grown in plastic pots. The pots were 180 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth with volume of 7 L. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 35˚C, respectively. After sticking the cuttings, the pots with uniform plants were subjected to the treatment with 0 (control, 100, 150 or 200 mMNaCl. The electrical conductivities of these solutions were 0.003, 10.52, 15.43 and 19.55 dS m-1, respectively. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was gradually increased. The layout was a 4×4 factorial experiment based oncompletely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out three months after beginning the salt treatments

  15. Interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes on ameliorating salinity stress in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Naveed, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and exopolysaccharide activity on mitigating salinity stress in maize (Zea mays L.). The plants were grown in a greenhouse...... under controlled conditions, and were subjected to separate or combined treatments of biochar (0% and 5%, w/w) and two endophytic bacterial strains (Burkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN) and Enterobacter sp. (FD17)) and salinity stress. The results indicated that salinity significantly decreased the growth...... of maize, whereas both biochar and inoculation mitigated the negative effects of salinity on maize performance either by decreasing the xylem Na+ concentration ([Na+]xylem) uptake or by maintaining nutrient balance within the plant, especially when the two treatments were applied in combination. Moreover...

  16. Determination of the Optimum Concentration and Time of Salicylic Acid Foliar Application for Improving Barley Growth under Non-Saline and Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Ranjbar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In a 2yrs field study the effect of concentration and time of salicylic acid (SA foliar application on growth of barley under non-saline and saline (2 and 12 dS m-1 of NaCl, respectively conditions was evaluated in National Salinity Research Center of Iran, Yazd, central Iran during 2012-2014 growing seasons. The treatments of SA (11 treatments included without SA and SA foliar application at 0.0, 0.35, 0.70, 1.05, 1.40 and 1.75 mM applied at tillering + stem elongation + ear emergence or stem elongation + ear emergence. Salt stress led to significant decreases in seed yield and yield components; however, grain yield of barley plants were considerably increased when subjected to SA. This positive impact of SA was due probably to its effect on grain number. Average of grain yield in 0.0, 0.35, 0.70, 1.05, 1.40 and 1.75 mM SA concentrations were 496.1, 539.7, 538.5, 553.8, 517.4 and 501.3 g m-2 under non-saline and 189.2, 212.5, 219.1, 206.9, 200.3 and 182.3 g m-2 under saline conditions, respectively. Considering the negative correlation between sodium concentration in shoot and grain yield, modulating role of exogenous SA on adverse effect of salinity might be related to a SA-induced lowered Na+ concentration in such organs. The appropriate treatment seems to be SA foliar application at 1.05 mM for non-saline and 0.70 mM for saline conditions applied at stem elongation + ear emergence, as they increased grain yield by 16.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The result of this study revealed that higher concentration or frequency of SA application could be associated with negative impacts on barley.

  17. The Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi-Darbandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a crucial stage in the plant life cycle and salt tolerance during germination stage is vital for the establishment of plants in saline soils. In order to evaluation of sesame (Sesamum indicum landraces germination to salinity stress at different temperature, an experiment was conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Collage of Agriculture during 2009. Experimental type was complete randomized design in factorial arrangement with 4 replications. Factors included salinity at 7 levels (0, -2, -3, -4, -6, -8, -10 and -12 bar, temperature at 3 levels (15°c, 20°c, 25°c and 3 sesame landraces (Sabzevar, Kalat and Oltan. Results showed that germination parameters (germination percentage, germination rate, root length, shoot length, dry weight of roots and dry weight of shoots in all landraces were significantly (p≤0.01 affected by salinity and temperature. Increasing salinity reduced all above parameters in sesame cultivars, so that highest tolerated dose of salt was obtained in 25°c and increasing of temperature reduced effects of salinity. The highest germination percent was observed in salinity between 0 to -4 bar at 25°c. Sabzevar and Oltan landraces exhibited the highest and the lowest indicators at different temperatures respectively. According to these results, it seems that in saline condition and temperature variation, Sabzevar is the appropriate sesame landraces for optimal seedling establishment.

  18. Impact of soil salinity on the plant-growth – promoting and biological control abilities of root associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plant growth – promoting bacteria is variable under different biotic and abiotic conditions. Abiotic factors may negatively affect the beneficial properties and efficiency of the introduced PGPR inoculants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth – promoting rhizobacteria on plant growth and on the control of foot and root rot of tomatoes caused by Fusarium solani under different soil salinity conditions. Among the five tested strains, only Pseudomonas chlororaphis TSAU13, and Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 were able to stimulate plant growth and act as biological controls of foot and root rot disease of tomato. The soil salinity did not negatively affect the beneficial impacts of these strains, as they were able to colonize and survive on the roots of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions. The improved plant height and fruit yield of tomato was also observed for plants inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20. Our results indicated that, saline condition is not crucial factor in obtaining good performance with respect to the plant growth stimulating and biocontrol abilities of PGPR strains. The bacterial inoculant also enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities thereby preventing ROS induced oxidative damage in plants, and the proline concentrations in plant tissue that play an important role in plant stress tolerance.

  19. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  20. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  1. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  2. Naturally occurring soil salinity does not reduce N-transforming enzymes or organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinity can negatively affect plant production and important biogeochemical cycles which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. The objective of this study was to contribute new information on soil biological N transformations by examining the impact primary salinity reduction has on a) the ...

  3. Growth and physiological response of tall oat grass to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... lipid peroxidation and proline in leaves was found during the period of intensive leaf growth. These ..... in cytoplasmic structure and negative feedback by reduced sink .... Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley ...

  4. Saline irrigation water and its effect on N.use efficiency, growth and yield of Sorghum plant using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Latteef, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Series of pot experiments were conducted and randomly arranged under greenhouse conditions for evaluating the effect of irrigation with saline water (alternative source) in combination with different organic sources (amendments) i.e. leucaena plant residue (LU), Quail feces (QF) and chicken manure (ChM) added in different percentages against the mineral form (ammonium sulfate) either in ordinary or 15 N labeled (2 and 5% 15 N atom excess) forms, on sorghum growth and nutrients acquisition. Artificial saline water with different EC and SAR values was prepared at laboratory using computer program designed by the author with guiding of the designed Package named Artificial Saline Irrigation Water (ASIW) (Manual of Salinity Research Methods). In addition, proline acid was also sprayed (foliar) on leaves of sorghum plants at different concentrations. The experimental results indicated the positive effect of organic amendments, as compared to mineral fertilizer, and foliar application of proline acid on enhancement of plant growth and nutrient uptake. This phenomenon was pronounced under water salinity conditions. In this regard, increasing of water salinity levels induced reduction in plant growth as well as nutrients acquisition. Data of 14 N/ 15 N ratio analysis pointed out enhancement of N derived from mineral source as affected by organic amendments. At the same time, considerable amounts of N was derived from organic sources and utilized by plants. The superiority of organic sources on each others was fluctuated depending on interaction with water salinity levels and proline concentrations. In conclusion, organic additives and proline acid has an improvement effects especially under adverse condition of irrigation water salinity.

  5. Effect of temperature, salinity, and food availability on the growth and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.S.; Boyd, M.T.; DeVane, J.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rate, feeding rate, and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were measured under various combinations of temperature, salinity, and food availability. Data were analyzed by multiple regression and presented as response surfaces. Temperature accounted for most of the variation in maximum feeding rate. Temperature and feeding rate accounted for over 90 percent of the observed variation in growth rate. Salinity effects were more important in predicting growth efficiency than in predicting growth rate. Because a feeding--temperature interaction affects growth and because the effect of thermal effluents on food availability is unknown, it is impossible at this time to predict whether thermal alteration of the environment would increase or decrease growth of pinfish

  6. Bacillus cereus: a competent plant growth promoting bacterium of saline sodic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.; Naz, I.; Hussain, M.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of Bacillus cereus were investigated on wheat in the presence or absence of L-tryptophan, in a saline sodic field. An aqueous solution of L-tryptophan was added to the rhizosphere soil at 1 µg/L, after 8d of seeds germination with irrigated water. The survival efficiency measured as colony forming unit revealed that B. cereus was salt tolerant to rhizosphere soil filtrate and in NaCl. Bio-inoculation of B. cereus significantly decreased Electrical conductivity (EC), Na and Cl contents by 35%, and increased K, NO3-N, P, and organic matter by (25%) over control. Tryptophan addition assisted B. cereus to further decrease Na, Cl, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na/K by 80%. Inoculation of B. cereus alone and with tryptophan significantly increased proline, antioxidant enzymes, phytohormones and yield attributes. The results revealed that tryptophan addition augmented the potential of B. cereus in improving crop growth and productivity which was mediated by the salinity alleviation. (author)

  7. Growth, Physiological, Biochemical, and Ionic Responses of Morus alba L. Seedlings to Various Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus alba L., a moderately salt-tolerant tree species, is considered to be economically important. In this study, 1-year-old mulberry seedlings cultivated in soil under greenhouse conditions were treated with five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% for 3 and 21 days. Plant growth parameters were not affected by 0.1% NaCl, but significant reductions were observed after treatment with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% NaCl. The malondialdehyde content and cell membrane stability of mulberry seedlings exposed to 0.1% NaCl did not change, indicating that mulberry is not significantly affected by low-salinity conditions. The Na contents of various organs did not increase significantly in response to 0.1% NaCl, but the K:Na, Mg:Na, and Ca:Na ratios of various organs were affected by NaCl. Marked changes in the levels of major compatible solutes (proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins occurred in both the leaves and roots of NaCl-treated seedlings relative to control seedlings. Under severe saline conditions (0.5% NaCl, the ability of mulberry to synthesize enzymatic antioxidants may be impaired.

  8. Growth of common brackish marsh macrophytes under altered hydrology and salinity regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marsh plants are increasingly subject to physicochemical stressors under rising sea levels, and the maintenance of marsh ecological functions can depend on the ability of individual species and communities to tolerate or adapt to altered conditions. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to identify hydrology and salinity effects on growth of three common brackish marsh macrophytes of coastal Florida, USA: Distichlis spicata, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina bakeri. The species were potted as monocultures and exposed to three salinities (0, 15, or 28 psu) and two hydrologic conditions (saturated, tidal) over 22 months. Final stem density of J. roemerianus and S. bakeri did not differ among treatments. In D. spicata, however, stem density was lowest at 28 psu and lower in tidal compared to saturated conditions. Mean stem height of all species was lowest at 28 psu. Aboveground biomass of J. roemerianus was not affected by the treatments, but in D. spicata andS. bakeri it was lowest at 28 psu. Results indicated that J. roemerianus was the most adaptable species and may, therefore, be more resilient to climate-change driven stressors. However, plant-plant interactions such as interspecific competition and facilitation can alter the response of individual species to environmental factors.

  9. Growth, delayed fluorescence and pigment composition of four Prorocentrum minimum strains growing at two salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA BERDEN-ZRIMEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrum minimum is a potentially harmful and widely distributed marine dinoflagellate. Several P. minimum strains have already been studied, showing phylogenetical relations of strains isolated from the same geographical regions. Similarity among the strains was further examined on the basis of their physiology. Pigment composition and concentration, as well as delayed fluorescence (DF decay kinetics and intensity, were measured in four P. minimum strains isolated from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas. The strains were grown at two salinities characteristic of the Baltic (8 PSU and North Adriatic Seas (32 PSU. Strain differences in DF decay kinetics and growth did not always follow their genetic relations. While two strains showed similarities to the previously described strains from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas in DF parameters, the other two strains seemed to be specific. The differences among strains isolated from the same sea could stem from adaptations to conditions in the specific habitats. Cluster analysis based on the ratio of individual carotenoid pigments concentrations to the chlorophyll a concentration or to total carotenoids were not conclusive in showing relations among the strains. Among the measured pigments, only peridinin concentration depended on salinity in all st

  10. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) leaf compost ameliorates the adverse effects of salinity on growth of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, R.; Shah, P.; Jahan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of tea compost on plant growth under salinity. Plants were grown in clay pots filled with sandy loam soil and irrigated by saline water (0, 50 and 100mM NaCl) with and without tea compost amendments. Soil evapotranspiration (ET), vegetative and reproductive growth and biochemical parameters were studied in this experiment. ET rate was increased with increasing salinity, whereas, it decreased with application of tea compost under all salinity. Vegetative (shoot height, number of leaves, fresh and dry biomass) and reproductive (number of seeds per plant) growth significantly decline under increasing salinity levels. Tea compost treatment helped in improving all these parameters. Total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll content) showed reduction under raising salinity levels, while betterment was recorded with application of tea compost. Organic solutes (soluble sugars, proteins, free amino acids and phenolic content) increased with increasing salinity (50-100mM NaCl). Increased soluble sugars were found with tea compost treatment under non-saline control and decreased in salinity. Soluble proteins, amino acids and phenolic content increased with application of tea compost under both control and salinity. It is concluded that tea compost treatment is found to cope with salinity stress and improve plant growth and biochemical parameters by diluting the hazardous effects of salinity. (author)

  11. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth parameters of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. seed contains a large amount of proteins, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, vitamins A and C, calcium and phosphorous, and hence it is widely used for many purposes. Although field pea has moderate requirements for its growth, it is sensitive to increased salt content in soil. This research included eight varieties (Javor, Jantar, Partner, Kristal, Pionir, Junior, Trezor, Dukat developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM were added in growing media to simulate saline conditions. The following were subsequently determined: seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings and 1000-seed weight. Among the analyzed varieties, variety Jantar expressed a high level of tolerance to increased salt content in growing media under laboratory conditions.

  12. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  13. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Hugo; Lara, Nelson; Zapata, Yubinza; Urbina, Camilo; Rodriguez, Manuel; Figueroa, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    H. Escobar, N. Lara, Y. Zapata, C. Urbina, M. Rodriguez, and L. Figueroa. 2013. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 597-607. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of saline-boron stress on the vegetative growth, dry leaf weight, water potential (Ψw), relative water content, and leaf and root B and Cl- contents in 8 accessions of olive. Rooted one-year-old plants were culti...

  14. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Keug-Tae; McLean, Rebecca; Oh, You-Kwan; Nam, Bora; Joo, Jin Chul; Lee, Woo Hyoung

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae can offer several benefits for wastewater treatment with their ability to produce large amounts of lipids for biofuel production and the high economic value of harvested biomass for biogas and fertilizer. This study found that salt concentration (∼45gL -1 ) had more of an effect than salt type on metabolisms of Chlorella vulgaris for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. Salinity stress decreased the algal growth rate in wastewater by 0.003day -1 permScm -1 and slightly reduced nutrient removal rates. However, salinity stress was shown to increase total lipid content from 11.5% to 16.1% while also increasing the saturated portions of fatty acids in C. vulgaris. In addition, salinity increased the algal settling rate from 0.06 to 0.11mday -1 which could potentially reduce the cost of harvesting for algal biofuel production. Overall, C. vulgaris makes a suitable candidate for high salinity wastewater cultivation and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of salinity, light and temperature on growth rates of two species of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjian; Wei, Wei; Fang, Jianguang

    2009-05-01

    Effects of temperature, salinity and light intensity on growth rates of Gracilaria lichenoides and G. tenuistipitata var. liui Zhang et Xia were tested. Eight to ten levels of each factor were first tested separately. The best growth rate was obtained under the conditions of 32°C, 30 and 240 μmol/(m2·s) for G. lichenoides, and 24°C, 20 and 200 μmol/(m2·s) for G. tenuistipitata, respectively. Then a uniform design was used to evaluate the optimal combinations of the three factors. The best conditions for the highest daily specific growth rates (% increase in wet weight) are determined to be 31.30°C, 32.10, and 287.23 μmol/(m2·s) for G. lichenoides (16.26%/d), and 25.38°C, 21.10, and 229.07 μmol/(m2·s) for G. tenuistipitata (14.83%/d), respectively.

  16. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the oxidative stress responses in traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Hypertonic saline (HTS has advantages as being preferred osmotic agent, but few studies investigated oxidant and antioxidant effects of HTS in TBI. This study was designed to compare two different regimens of HTS 5% with mannitol on TBI-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with TBI were recruited and have randomly received one of the three protocols: 125 cc of HTS 5% every 6 h as bolus, 500 cc of HTS 5%as infusion for 24 h or 1 g/kg mannitol of 20% as a bolus, repeated with a dose of 0.25-0.5 g/kg every 6 h based on patient′s response for 3 days. Serum total antioxidant power (TAP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO were measured at baseline and daily for 3 days. Results: Initial serum ROS and NO levels in patients were higher than control(6.86± [3.2] vs. 1.57± [0.5] picoM, P = 0.001, 14.6± [1.6] vs. 7.8± [3.9] mM, P = 0.001, respectively. Levels of ROS have decreased for all patients, but reduction was significantly after HTS infusion and mannitol (3. 08 [±3.1] to 1.07 [±1.6], P = 0.001, 5.6 [±3.4] to 2.5 [±1.8], P = 0.003 respectively. During study, NO levels significantly decreased in HTS infusion but significantly increased in mannitol. TAP Levels had decreased in all patients during study especially in mannitol (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline 5% has significant effects on the oxidant responses compared to mannitol following TBI that makes HTS as a perfect therapeutic intervention for reducing unfavorable outcomes in TBI patients.

  17. Growth and nutrient concentrations of maize in pressmud treated saline-sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muhammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available n open-air pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of pressmud (PM on saline-sodic soil reclamation, mitigating the adverse effects of saline irrigation and increase of maize (Zea mays L. growth. Pressmud was added at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 to pots containing 6.8 kg air dried surface (0-20 cm soil collected from two sites. The increasing levels of PM enhanced maize plant height, shoots and roots biomass in both soils. However, the Soil 2, with initial EC and SAR of 5.43 dS m-1 and 18.67(m mol L-11/2, respectively, produced comparatively more biomass at all PM levels than Soil 1 [silty-clay loam, EC = 6.22 dS m-1, SAR = 20.72 (m mol L- 1 1/2]. The [P] in shoots was maximum at the highest PM in both the soils but the [K] increased with PM levels in Soil 1 and decreased in Soil 2 due to the dilution effect. The Soil 1 maintained several folds more [Na] in shoots and consequently lower K:Na ratio than Soil 2. The post harvest soil pH, Na, Ca+Mg and SAR in saturation extracts decreased with increasing levels of PM as compared to control. Soil 2 released more volume of leachate as compared to Soil 1 but the leachate EC and [Na] were comparable while [Ca+Mg] were relatively higher in Soil 2. The higher removal of total salts from Soil 2 resulted in lower soil pH, EC and SAR in this soil as compared to Soil 1. The increases in crop growth with each increment of PM up to 20 Mg ha-1 in the present study proved the benefits of PM in increasing crop yields and suggested that doses higher than 20 Mg PM ha-1 could be applied to the saline-sodic soils ofthe area to get maximum possible crop yields depending on soil and water quality

  18. Low salinity and high-level UV-B radiation reduce single-cell activity in antarctic sea ice bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew; Hall, Julie; Ryan, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Experiments simulating the sea ice cycle were conducted by exposing microbes from Antarctic fast ice to saline and irradiance regimens associated with the freeze-thaw process. In contrast to hypersaline conditions (ice formation), the simulated release of bacteria into hyposaline seawater combined with rapid exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly reduced metabolic activity.

  19. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  20. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  1. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gananadha, Sivakumar; Morris, David Lawson

    2004-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 ± 16.2 and 183.3 ± 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 ± 22O and 103.6 ± 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 ± 23 cm 3 vs 10.47 ± 2.9 cm 3 , p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 ± 25.8 cm 3 vs 24.9 ± 19.3 cm 3 , p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

  2. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gananadha, Sivakumar; Morris, David Lawson

    2004-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 ± 16.2 and 183.3 ± 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 ± 22O and 103.6 ± 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 ± 23 cm 3 vs 10.47 ± 2.9 cm 3 , p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 ± 25.8 cm 3 vs 24.9 ± 19.3 cm 3 , p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size

  3. Identification of anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with an alkaline saline lake in Khovsgol, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Itai, Takaaki; Liu, Yitai; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Damdinsuren, Narantuya; Inskeep, William P

    2014-10-01

    Microbial arsenic transformation pathways associated with a saline lake located in northern Mongolia were examined using molecular biological and culturing approaches. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from saline lake sediments and soils were affiliated with haloalkaliphiles, including Bacillus and Halomonas spp. Diverse sequences of arsenate respiratory reductase (arrA) and a new group of arsenite oxidase (arxA) genes were also identified. Pure cultures of arsenate-reducing Nitrincola strain and anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing Halomonas strain were isolated. The chemoorganotrophic Halomonas strain contains arxA gene similar to that of a chemoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizing Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1. These results revealed the diversity of arsenic transformation pathways associated with a geographically distinct saline system and the potential contribution of arx-dependent arsenite oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria.

  4. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High salinity relay as a post-harvest processing method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus levels in oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard, Corinne; Kator, Howard I; Reece, Kimberly S

    2018-08-20

    High salinity relay of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated as a post-harvest processing (PHP) method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus. This approach relies on the exposure of oysters to natural high salinity waters and preserves a live product compared to previously approved PHPs. Although results of prior studies evaluating high salinity relay as a means to decrease V. vulnificus levels were promising, validation of this method as a PHP following approved guidelines is required. This study was designed to provide data for validation of this method following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PHP validation guidelines. During each of 3 relay experiments, oysters cultured from 3 different Chesapeake Bay sites of contrasting salinities (10-21 psu) were relayed without acclimation to high salinity waters (31-33 psu) for up to 28 days. Densities of V. vulnificus and densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (as tdh positive strains) were measured using an MPN-quantitative PCR approach. Overall, 9 lots of oysters were relayed with 6 exhibiting initial V. vulnificus >10,000/g. As recommended by the FDA PHP validation guidelines, these lots reached both the 3.52 log reduction and the levels ranged from 2 to 61% after 28 days of relay. Although the identification of the factors implicated in oyster mortality will require further examination, this study strongly supports the validation of high salinity relay as an effective PHP method to reduce levels of V. vulnificus in oysters to endpoint levels approved for human consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory ATP cost and benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with Nicotiana tabacum at different growth stages and under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Romero-Munar, Antonia; Alonso, David; Aroca, Ricardo; Baraza, Elena; Flexas, Jaume; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2017-11-01

    Growth and maintenance partly depend on both respiration and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation in leaves. Under stress, ATP is needed to maintain the accumulated biomass. ATP production mostly proceeds from the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP), while respiration via the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) may decrease the production of ATP per oxygen consumed, especially under phosphorus (P) limitation and salinity conditions. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reputed by their positive effect on plant growth under stress at mature stages of colonization; however, fungal colonization may decrease plant growth at early stages. Thus, the present research is based on the hypothesis that AM fungus colonization will increase both foliar respiration and ATP production at mature stages of plant growth while decreasing them both at early stages. We used the oxygen-isotope-fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities and ATP production of the COP and AOP in AM and non-AM (NM) tobacco plants grown under P-limiting and saline conditions in sand at different growth stages (14, 28 and 49days). Our results suggest that AM symbiosis represents an ATP cost detrimental for shoot growth at early stages, whilst it represents a benefit on ATP allowing for faster rates of growth at mature stages, even under salinity conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth and yield of different brassica genotypes under saline sodic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mahmood, I.A.; Salim, M.

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted at farmer's salt-affected field (ECe=12.3 dS m/sup -1/; pH=9.7; SAR=46.2) in Hafizabad to test growth and yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seeds but genotype Dunkled showed minimum Na+ and K+ concentration in their tissues. (author)

  8. Cumulative effect of sulfur and calcium on wheat growth and yield under saline-sodic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshadullah, M.; Hyder, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of three rates of gypsum on growth and ionic concentration of wheat variety (Saher) sown in saline-sodic soil (ECe=5.32 dS m , pH=8.52 and SAR=18.87) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SSRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during rabi 2009-10. Treatments were arranged using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, spike length, number of grains spike , 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Potassium (K), Na, Ca, S and Mg concentrations in grain were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Tillering, grains spike , 1000-grain weight and paddy yield significantly (P = 0.05) enhanced by increasing the rate of gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/). The maximum 4 number of grains spike (60), 1000-grain weight (47 g) and grain yields (4.01 t ha ) were recorded with CaSO application at the rate 150 kg ha . Grain 4 yield was 43% more than control treatment. Positive correlations (r2+ + 0.96), (r=0.96) and (r=0.91) between Ca , K , S and negative correlation r+ (-0.99) between Na contents in grain and wheat grain yield, respectively. It indicates presence of significantly higher Ca , K contents in grain receiving CaSO/sub 4/ help plants to attain more Ca/sup 2+/ , K and S to avoid Na 4 uptake. (author)

  9. Role of salinity on food conversion efficiency and growth in juvenile penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Crustacea/Arthropoda)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, Brenda; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Growth parameters of juvenile Metapenaeus dobsoni, fed with fresh squid meat were estimated in 5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt salinities for 4 weeks. Although no significant differences were noticed in food ingestion rates, higher body weight (68.9% over...

  10. Growth of fouling diatoms from the Zuari estuary, Goa (west coast of India) under different salinities in the laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Diatoms take part in the initial process of fouling i.e. primary film formation. In order to understand the growth of the diatoms under different salinity conditions in the laboratory, this work was undertaken. Fouling diatoms on glass slides were...

  11. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  12. Growth of a mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata seedlings as influenced by GA3 , light and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kathiresan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance of Rhizophora apiculata Blume (mangrove seedlings in the presence and absence of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 under different combinations of salinity and light was analyzed. Root and shoot growth responses of 75-day old seedlings in liquid-culture, were measured. It was concluded that light exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on all the growth parameters-number of primary roots, primary root length, shoot elongation, number of leaves, total leaf area; and, the GA3 treatment singly or in combinations with light, showed a significant influence on the total leaf area and primary root lengthSe analizó el crecimiento de las semillas de mangle Rhizophora apiculata Blume en presencia y ausencia de ácido giberelico (GA3 exógeno bajo diferentes combinaciones de salinidad y luz. Se midió crecimiento de la raíz y el brote en plántulas de 75 días de germinación en medio de cultivo líquido. Se concluye que la luz presenta un efecto inhibitorio significativo respecto a todos los parámetros de crecimiento - número de raíces primarias, longitud de la raíz primaria, elongación de la plántula, número de hojas, área total de las hojas; y el tratamiento de GA3 solo o en combinaciones con luz, mostró una influencia significativa sobre el área total de las hojas y longitud de la raíz primaria

  13. Morphology and Kinetics of Growth of CaCO3 Precipitates Formed in Saline Water at 30°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xin; Wang, Baohui; Wu, Haiming

    2018-02-01

    The crystallization kinetics and morphology of CaCO3 crystals precipitated from the high salinity oilfield water were studied. The crystallization kinetics measurements show that nucleation and nuclei growth obey the first order reaction kinetics. The induction period of precipitation is extended in the high salinity solutions. Morphological studies show that impurity ions remain mostly in the solution phase instead of filling the CaCO3 crystal lattice. The morphology of CaCO3 precipitates can be changed from a smooth surface (calcite) to rough spheres (vaterite), and spindle rod bundles, or spherical, ellipsoid, flowers, plates and other shapes (aragonite).

  14. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.R. Damaiyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to study the effect mycorrhiza on growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was conducted in screen house 14 m x 10.5 m, in Pasuruan on November 2013 until March 2014, The experiment was conducted as a factorial randomized complete design. The first factor was dose of mycorrhiza (without mycorrhiza, 5 g mycorrhiza, 10 g mycorrhiza, and 20 g mycorrhiza. The second factor was the salinity stress level (without NaCl, 2500 ppm NaCl, 5000 ppm NaCl, and 7500 ppm NaCl. The results showed that salinity stress at the level 7500 ppm decreased the amount of fruit by 30.84% and fresh weight per hectare decreased by 51.72%. Mycorrhizal application was not able to increase the growth and yield in saline stress conditions; it was shown by the level of infection and the number of spores on the roots of tomato plants lower the salinity level 5000 ppm and 7500 ppm. But separately, application of 20 g mycorrhiza enhanced plant growth, such as plant height, leaf area, leaf number and proline. Application of 20 g mycorrhiza increased the yield by 35.99%.

  15. Influences of salinity and shade on seedling photosynthesis and growth of two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Bruguiera sexangula, introduced to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Allen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle was first introduced to Hawaii in 1902 to promote shoreline stabilization. Intertidal competition with native and introduced salt marsh species was low, and beyond the early 1920s, mangrove forests expanded rapidly. An additional mangrove species, Bruguiera sexangula, was introduced in 1922 and currently co-occurs with R. mangle in only a few stands on the north shore and windward sides of Oahu. Where the two species overlap, R. mangle, having colonized intertidal zones first, forms nearly monospecific forest stands. To determine why R. mangle remains the dominant mangrove, we initiated a greenhouse study to compare seedling growth and photosynthetic light response of both species growing at two light levels and contrasting salinity regimes (2, 10, 32 PSU). The asymptotic nature of B. sexangula' s assimilation response is indicative of stomatal regulation, whereas only light level appears to regulate photosynthesis in R. mangle. Shifts in patterns of biomass allocation and physiological response indicate two contrasting strategies relative to sunlight and salinity. B. sexangula's strategy is characterized by slow growth with little variation under favorable conditions and morphological plasticity under stressful conditions, which allows for adjustments in carbon gain efficiency (morphological strategy). On the other hand, R. mangle's strategy involves faster growth under a wide range of environmental conditions with physiological enhancement of carbon assimilation (physiological strategy). Low salinity combined with reduced light, or simply low sunlight alone, appears to favor R. mangle and B. sexangula equally. High salinity places greater, but not overwhelming, stress on B. sexangula seedlings, but tends to favor R. mangle at higher light levels.

  16. Survival and growth of invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish at low salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Huge, Dane H.; Rezek, Troy C.; Slone, Daniel H.; Morris, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish [Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. miles (Bennett, 1828)] are now established throughout the Western North Atlantic. Several studies have documented negative effects of lionfish on marine fauna including significant changes to reef fish community composition. Established populations of lionfish have been documented in several estuaries, and there is concern that the species may invade other low-salinity environments where they could potentially affect native fauna. To gain a better understanding of their low-salinity tolerance, we exposed lionfish to four salinities [5, 10, 20 and 34 (control)]. No lionfish mortality was observed at salinities of 34, 20 or 10, but all fish died at salinity = 5 within 12 days. Lionfish survived for at least a month at a salinity of 10 and an average of about a week at 5. Fish started the experiment at an average mass of 127.9 g, which increased at a rate of 0.55 g per day while they were alive, regardless of salinity treatment. Our research indicated lionfish can survive salinities down to 5 for short periods and thus may penetrate and persist in a variety of estuarine habitats. Further study is needed on effects of salinity levels on early life stages (eggs, larvae).

  17. Sulfate reducing processes at extreme salinity and temperature. extending its application window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of various sulfate-rich wastewaters, such as temperature, pH and salinity, are determined by the (industrial) process from which they originate, and can be far from the physiological optima of the sulfur cycle microorganisms. The main goal of the research described in this thesis

  18. Effects of Chitosan–PVA and Cu Nanoparticles on the Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Tomato under Saline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Hernández-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polymer, which has been used in agriculture to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, it has been used for the encapsulation of nanoparticles in order to obtain controlled release. In this work, the effect of chitosan–PVA and Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs absorbed on chitosan–PVA on growth, antioxidant capacity, mineral content, and saline stress in tomato plants was evaluated. The results show that treatments with chitosan–PVA increased tomato growth. Furthermore, chitosan–PVA increased the content of chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, and superoxide dismutase. When chitosan–PVA was mixed with Cu NPs, the mechanism of enzymatic defense of tomato plants was activated. The chitosan–PVA and chitosan–PVA + Cu NPs increased the content of vitamin C and lycopene, respectively. The application of chitosan–PVA and Cu NPs might induce mechanisms of tolerance to salinity.

  19. Effect of salinity on cell growth and β-carotene production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urmia Lake, the second largest hyper-saline lake by area in the world, has fluctuated in salinity over time, but recently, it has reached a maximum of 360 g/l. Dunaliella is a type of halophile green-orange microalgae especially found in lake and salty fields and is known for its antioxidant activity; because of its ability to create ...

  20. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 reduces adaptive intestinal growth in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Bolette; Thulesen, Jesper; Hare, Kristine Juul

    2002-01-01

    in the proximal part of the small intestine (10.84+/-0.44 mm(2)). Antibody treatment had no effect on body weight, blood glucose concentrations and food intake. Thus, blocking of endogenous GLP-2 in a model of adaptive intestinal growth reduces the growth response, providing strong evidence for a physiological......Supraphysiological doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have been shown to induce intestinal growth by increasing villus height and crypt depth and by decreasing apoptosis, but a physiological effect of GLP-2 has not yet been demonstrated. Earlier, we found elevated levels of endogenous GLP-2...... in untreated streptozotocin diabetic rats associated with marked intestinal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous GLP-2 for this adaptive response. We included four groups of six rats: (1) diabetic rats treated with saline, (2) diabetic rats treated with non-specific antibodies...

  1. Effect of saline water on growth, yield and N2 fixation by faba bean and lentil plants using nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Elakel, E.A.; Ismail, H.; Hamdy, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work had been carried out under greenhouse conditions through joint research project between international agronomic mediterranean (IAM, Bari), italy and soils and water dept., Egyptian atomic energy authority. The aim of this dy was to assess the effect of saline water irrigation on growth, yield and nitrogen fixation (% Ndfa) by faba bean and lentil plants inoculated with selected rhizobium strains. Four saline irrigation water levels (fresh water, 3.6 and ds/m) were used. 20 kg N/ha as ammonium sulfate contained 10% N-15 atom excess was applied for quantification of biological N-fixation N-portions derived from fertilizer (Ndff). Results showed that high levels of salinity negatively affected seed yield and N accumulated in tissue of faba bean. Similar trend was noticed with dry matter of lentil while shoot-N was increased at 6 and 9 ds/m. Both leguminous crops were mainly dependent on N 2 fixation as an important source of nitrogen nutrition. Under adverse conditions salinity, the plants gained some of their N requirements from the other two N sources (Ndff and Ndfs). Application of the suitable Rhizobium bacteria strains could be beneficial for both the plant growth and soil fertility via N 2 fixation

  2. Effects of Vinegar Bad and Flyash on the Growth of Sorghum and the Improvement of Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Na

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sorghum growth and salinity soil improvement, the effects of vinegar bad and flyash on the growth of sorghum and the improvement of saline soils were studied. The experiment was carried out with random block design, in 4 treatment, which were pure vinegar bad(treatment 1, vinegar bad and fly ash 1:1 ratio(treatment 2, vinegar bad and fly ash 2:1 ratio(treatment 3 and control respectively. The results showed that the contents of available nutrient in the four periods of sorghum growth increased firstly and then decreased, and the effect of vinegar bad and flyash treatment was better than that of control. Among them, the ratio 1:1 of vinegar and fly ash had the best effect. The results showed that compared with the control, the soil bulk density of treatment 1~3 was decreased by 19.6%, 28.6% and 11.32%, respectively. The spike length of treatment 1~3 was 6.25%, 9.06%, 3.93% higher than that of the control, respectively. The yield per plant of treatment 1~3 was increased by 10.53%, 13.26% and 8.89%, respectively. In summary, vinegar bad, flyash could improve the physical and chemical properties of saline soil, improve the environment of deep soil for plant growth, thereby increase the yield of sorghum.

  3. The Changes in the Physiological Growth and the React of the Salinity and Number of Irrigation Water of Two Cumin Cultivars (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M kafi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water shortage in Iran has always been a limiting factor for crop cultivation. Drought stress at different growth stages, especially flowering and grain filling stages decreases the yield of the plants. Drought stress may limit yield of medicinal and aromatic plants by reducing the harvest index (HI. This can occur even in the absence of a strong reduction in total medicinal and aromatic plants dry matter accumulation, if a brief period of stress coincides with the critical developmental stage around flowering stage. Water stress is the most influential factor affecting crop yield particularly in irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. It is necessary to get maximum yield in agriculture by using the least available water in order to get maximum profit per unit area because existing agricultural land and irrigation water are rapidly diminishing due to rapid industrialization and urban development. In general, 15% of the Iran lands are saline and sodic (Parsa, 2000 and it dues to the use of widespread of water resources and the soil salinity of the farms. Unfortunately this factor (soil salinity gradually becomes more serious, in fact even in none-saline water irrigation with salt accumulation in the soil in long period of time it may increase and the result will be the limitation of the products (Sharma, 1996. The analyzing of the growth and product is a method for discovering the factors which are effecting on the plants. The purpose of the analyzing of the plants growth is the reaction of the plants to the environmental factors (Sangwan et al., 1994. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum is one of the most important economic and medicinal plants that can growth in arid and semi-arid conditions. Cumin is mostly grown in China, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Mexico, Chile and India. In the ancient Egyptian civilization cumin was used as spice and as preservative in mummification. The purpose of this study

  4. Growth and ions (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and Cl/sup-1/-) accumulating pattern of some brassica genotypes under saline - sodic field condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.U.; Ali, M.; Khan, M.A.; Mumtaz, S.; Rajpoot, M.A.; Ali, M.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and ionic uptake pattern of some Brassica genotypes i.e., Rainbow, Wester, Durr-e-NIFA, Abaseen 95 (Brassica napus) and NIFA raya (Brassica juncea) under saline-sodic field conditions was studied. Two sets of experiments on normal and saline-sodic site were conducted at NIA experimental farm, Tandojam, Pakistan during Rabi 2006-07. The salinity of the experimental site ranged between 11.0-22.9 dS/m and the pH was alkaline (8-8.6). The dominant cation was sodium (Na). The growth performance was recorded at the time of crop harvest in terms of plant height, grain weight / plant, grain yield and 100 grain weight. It was observed that the performance of Wester was better followed by NIFA- raya. The ionic uptake pattern, of leaves, stem and roots showed that the accumulation of Na was less in leaf as compared to stem and roots. However, the genotypes having better performance we re found to have accumulating type of behavior showing comparatively higher Na contents in all plant parts than other genotypes. This suggests that these genotypes might adjust their osmotic potential through the accumulation of sodium in vacuole. On the other hand trend in case of K accumulation was reverse i.e. high in leaves and stem as compared to roots. Higher accumulating pattern of K in leaves might be helpful for reducing the toxic effects of sodium. However, no correlation was observed between K-Na selectivity or K/Na ratio among the genotypes tested. It is therefore concluded that better selective mechanism for Na uptake and strict control of intercellular Na influx for cellular osmotic adjustment could be selected for saline environment. (author)

  5. Studying the effects of different levels of salinity which caused by NaCl on early growth and germination of Lactuca Sativa L. seedling

    OpenAIRE

    KESHAVARZI MOHAMMAD HOSEIN BIJEH

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important constraints that limit crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Seed germination is a critical stage in the history of plants and salt tolerance during germination is crucial for the establishment of plants that grow in saline soils. This research was carried out in order to test the effects of different salinity levels on germination and early growth of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.). The experiment was carried out using completely randomized des...

  6. Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity Stress Condition caused by Alkali Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bekhrad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamun indicum L. is an important oil seed crop. Its seed has excellent nutritional value with a high and unique protein composition, making it a perfect food. Salinity is a serious problem in many regions of the world including Iran. Salinity stress is one of the widespread environmental constraints affecting crop productivity. Salinity generally induces osmotic stress and causes direct ion injury by disrupting ion homeostasis and the ion balance within plant cells (25. Seed priming is one of the ways to reduce negative effects of salt which is used for increasing germination percentage and seed resistance in salty zones. Seed priming is a pre-germination treatment that provides a moisture level sufficient to start pre-germination metabolic processes. It entails the partial germination of seeds by soaking them in water (or in a solution of salts for specified period of time, and then re-dry them just before radicle emerges (24. Priming stimulates many of the metabolic processes involved with the early phases of germination. Given that part of the germination processes have been initiated, seedlings from primed seed grow faster, grow more vigorously, and perform better in adverse conditions (24. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress caused by alkali salts on growth and some physiologic characteristics of sesame. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental factors included priming (control (unprimed, hydropriming, halopriming with NaCl and NaHCO3 and level of salinity with sodium bicarbonate salt (Zero, 15, 30 and 45 mM. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution (with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, salinty stress in

  7. Oligo-Alginate with Low Molecular Mass Improves Growth and Physiological Activity of Eucomis autumnalis under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have become increasingly popular as biostimulators of plant growth. One of them, oligo-alginate, is a molecule that regulates plant biological processes and may be used in horticultural practice as a plant growth regulator. Biostimulators are mainly used to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of salinity and oligo-alginate of various molecular masses on the growth and physiological activity of Eucomis autumnalis. The species is an ornamental and medicinal plant that has been used for a long time in the traditional medicine of South Africa. The bulbs of E. autumnalis were coated using depolymerized sodium alginate of molecular mass 32,000; 42,000, and 64,000 g mol−1. All of these oligo-alginates fractions stimulated plant growth, and the effect was the strongest for the fraction of 32,000 g mol−1. This fraction was then selected for the second stage of the study, when plants were exposed to salt stress evoked by the presence of 100 mM NaCl. We found that the oligo-alginate coating mitigated the negative effects of salinity. Plants treated with the oligomer and watered with NaCl showed smaller reduction in the weight of the above-ground parts and bulbs, pigment content and antioxidant activity as compared with those not treated with the oligo-alginate. The study demonstrated for the first time that low molecular mass oligo-alginate may be used as plant biostimulator that limits negative effects of salinity in E. autumnalis.

  8. Growth Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Medium, Fed Different Protein and Calcium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kaligis, Erly

    2015-01-01

    The white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been an important commercial shrimp species in Indonesia. This species is tolerance to low salinity therefore, it is important to develop its aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of protein and calcium levels in diet on growth performance of the white shrimp post larvae. A factorial experiment at three levels of dietary protein (25, 35, 45%) and three levels of calcium (0, 2, 4%) with three replicates were used in this expe...

  9. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... studies of the salinity tolerance of salt marsh plants are very important and ... In April 2009, seeds were rinsed with fresh water to remove salts, sown into ..... EP, Guntenspergen GP, Brown JJ, Nelson SG (2006). Salt tolerance.

  10. Intraspecific variation in growth of marsh macrophytes in response to salinity and soil type: Implications for wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity within plant populations can influence plant community structure along environmental gradients. In wetland habitats, salinity and soil type are factors that can vary along gradients and therefore affect plant growth. To test for intraspecific growth variation in response to these factors, a greenhouse study was conducted using common plants that occur in northern Gulf of Mexico brackish and salt marshes. Individual plants of Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus californicus, and Schoenoplectus robustus were collected from several locations along the coast in Louisiana, USA. Plant identity, based on collection location, was used as a measure of intraspecific variability. Prepared soil mixtures were organic, silt, or clay, and salinity treatments were 0 or 18 psu. Significant intraspecific variation in stem number, total stem height, or biomass was found in all species. Within species, response to soil type varied, but increased salinity significantly decreased growth in all individuals. Findings indicate that inclusion of multiple genets within species is an important consideration for marsh restoration projects that include vegetation plantings. This strategy will facilitate establishment of plant communities that have the flexibility to adapt to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, are capable of persisting over time. ?? Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009.

  11. Investigation on the Protective Role of Nitric Oxide in Reducing Damages Induced by Salinity Stress in Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam jabbarzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors that regulates plant growth and development, and limits plant production. Researchers have shown that some plant growth regulators such as nitric oxide improve the plants resistance to environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought and salinity. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP commonly has been used as nitric oxide (NO donor in plants. NO is a diffusible gaseous free radical. Low concentrations of NO inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species and protect plants against ROS damages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of SNP as NO donor on salt tolerance of Calendula officinalis and its effects on some morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of this plant. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of salinity (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and sodium nitroprusside (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mM on morphological and physiological characteristics of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. Total leaf area and number of leaves were determined in the end of the experiment. Electrolyte leakage was used to asses’ membrane permeability. This procedure was based on Lutts et al.,1995. Soluble sugars were extracted and estimated by the method of Irigoyen et al., 1992. Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid content were calculated from the absorbance of extract at 653, 666 and 470 nm using the formula of Dere et al., 1998. Proline was extracted by the method of Bates et al., 1973. DPPH radical- scavenging activity of sample was performed as described previously of Cleep et al., 2012. The SAS software was used for the analysis of variance (ANOVA, comparisons with P

  12. Growth and Physiology of Senegalia senegal (L. Britton Seedlings as Influenced by Seed Origin and Salinity and Fertility Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mame Sokhna Sarr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose trees such as Senegalia senegal are widespread in arid and semi-arid lands that have natural or induced saline soils and poor soil fertility. Such environmental problems impact growth and have the potential to influence plant physiological adaptations. Identifying superior genotypes better adapted to these environmental stresses will be of great importance for tree selection for reclamation of degraded drylands. The main objective of this study was to examine the growth performance, and physiological and morphological adaptations to salinity, and fertility treatments of different Senegalia senegal families. We used five families (DB16, DB14, K4B19, K17B19, NB1 selected from 60 families of a Senegalia senegal progeny trial in Dahra, Senegal. Seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions by watering all plants for three weeks and then stopping all watering for three more weeks. In a randomized complete block design, a two-level factorial combination was used for salinity (zero and 183.1 mM NaCl added and fertility (zero and 100 kg/ha N-P-K added treatments. A significant family × salt × fertilizer interaction was found for all biomass parameters (leaf dry matter, stem dry matter, root dry matter, and leaf area. The fertilizer application resulted in a significant increase of total biomass of all families, ranging from 63% to 237% for NB1 and K17B19, respectively. In contrast, salt only decreased total biomass of NB1 and K17B19 increased growth. Despite similar net photosynthetic rates before treatment started, fertilizer and salinity induced different effects between families. Prior to drought stress, fertilizer did not affect photosynthesis of DB16, while salt significantly decreased stomatal conductance of all families. DB16 and N1B1, despite significant differences of stomata size and density, significantly decreased transpiration, and thereby increased their intrinsic water use efficiency. Under drought, relative growth rate

  13. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  14. Effects of water salinity and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of ‘BRS Gabriela’ castor beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean has attracted the attention of many farmers as an alternative crop for the National Program of Biofuel and its extensive use in the ricinochemical industry. The crop requires large planting areas to meet the demands of the fuel market. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and production of castor beans, ‘BRS Gabriela’, in a protected environment. The present study was conducted at the Center of Technology and Natural Resources of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 × 4 factorial with three replications and one plant per plot. The treatments consisted of irrigation water with five electrical conductivity (ECw levels of 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, and 4.7 dS m-1 associated with four nitrogen levels of 60, 80, 100, and 120 mg of N kg-1 of soil. The interaction between water salinity and nitrogen rates did not exert significant effects on the variables studied. Increased salinity of irrigation water affected the growth in height and stem diameter of castor beans in all periods, and leaf area from 90 days after sowing. Increased nitrogen levels had a positive effect on leaf area at 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after sowing. The total mass of seeds, one hundred seed mass, yield, and number of fruits per plant decreased with the increase in water salinity, and the total mass of seeds was the most affected variable.

  15. Effect of salinity on cell growth and β-carotene production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... In the samples with different salinities, the cell count and the ... are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped (9 to 11 µm), occurs in .... 2284 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. ... 2°C. Flasks each containing 100 ml of modified Johnson's.

  16. Salinity Reduction and Biomass Accumulation in Hydroponic Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Laís Pessôa; Lange, Liséte Celina; Costa França, Marcel Giovanni; Zonta, Everaldo

    2015-01-01

    In many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions, the increase in demand for good quality water associated with the gradual and irreversible salinisation of the soil and water have raised the development of techniques that facilitate the safe use of brackish and saline waters for agronomic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the salinity reduction of experimental saline solutions through the ions uptake capability of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), as well as its biomass accumulation. The hydroponic system used contained three different nutrient solutions composed of fixed concentrations of macro and micronutrients to which three different concentrations of sodium chloride had been added. Two conditions were tested, clipped and intact plants. It was observed that despite there being a notable removal of magnesium and elevated biomass accumulation, especially in the intact plants, purslane did not present the expected removal quantity of sodium and chloride. We confirmed that in the research conditions of the present study, purslane is a saline-tolerant species but accumulation of sodium and chloride was not shown as previously described in the literature.

  17. The salicylic acid effect on the tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill. germination, growth and photosynthetic pigment under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahba Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research tomato seeds planted in pots containing perlite in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27±2°c and 23±2°c temperature , 16h lightness and 8h darkness respectively, 15 Klux light intensity and 75% humidity; NaCl concentration of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and salicylic acid concentration of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. Results show that germination was decreased with salinity increasing. At low levels of salinity, SA leads to decrease in germination and had no effect in high levels of salinity. The length of shoot were not effected by salinity but decrease with increase in SA concentration. Low salinity concentrations led to significant increase in root length and high concentrations don’t have significant difference with control. SA also had no effect on it. The highest amount of a, b, c and total chlorophyll and carotenoid was show in 50 mM salinity levels.

  18. Comparative Study on Growth Performance of Transgenic (Over-Expressed OsNHX1 and Wild-Type Nipponbare under Different Salinity Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kahrani ISHAK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Nipponbare which over-expressed a Na+/H+ antiporter gene OsNHX1 was used to compare its growth performance, water status and photosynthetic efficiency with its wild type under varying salinity regimes. Chlorophyll content, quantum yield and photosynthetic rate were measured to assess the impact of salinity stress on photosynthetic efficiency for transgenic and wild-type Nipponbare. Effects of salinity on water status and gas exchange to both lines were studied by measuring water use efficiency, instantaneous transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Dry shoot weight and leaf area were determined after three months of growth to assess the impacts of salinity on the growth of those two lines. Our study showed that both lines were affected by salinity stress, however, the transgenic line showed higher photosynthetic efficiency, better utilization of water, and better growth due to low transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Reduction of photosynthetic efficiency exhibited by the wild-type Nipponbare was correlated to its poor growth under salinity stress.

  19. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzyun, M.; Sohn, Eun-Young; Khan, A.L.; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  20. Variations in the growth, oil quantity and quality, and mineral nutrients of chamomile genotypes under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Askari-Khorasgani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to salinity, which severely restricts plant growth, productivity, and survival, is highly important in agriculture. Using three genotypes of Matricaria recutita L. (Shiraz, Ahvaz, and Isfahan with different sensitivity to NaCl, the effect of long-term (about 110 days NaCl treatments (2.5, 6, 9, and 12 dS*m-1 on crop growth, oil quality and quantity, and nutrient variations were investigated to underpin its agricultural management in the future. The adaptation strategy and plant responses were influenced by salinity level, genotype, and genotype × salinity interactions. With higher productivity compared to the Isfahan genotype, the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes had efficient Na+ exclusion at root surface as an avoidance strategy; however, under higher NaCl concentration, their higher performance were mainly attributed to the Na+ sequestration in root vacuoles and higher Ca2+/Na+, Mg2+/Na+, and root/shoot ratios as tolerance strategies. The higher oil yield and chamazulene percentage in the Isfahan genotype were not affected by salinity level and were only genotype dependent. Under 12 dS*m-1 NaCl, roots of the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes accumulated markedly higher Ca2+ (2.5% and 1.5% respectively and Mg2+ (1.6% and 1.3% respectively, required for membrane stability and chlorophyll synthesis, respectively, more than the Isfahan genotype (0.2% Ca and 0.1% Mg2+ and considerably more than the control plants to keep low concentrations of ion toxicity of Na2+ and Cl- in shoots. Overall, greater salt tolerance found in the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes could be due to a variety of mechanisms, including higher efficiency of nutrient uptake (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+, utilization (N, P, Ca2+, and Mg2+, compartmentation (Na in roots, and maintenance of higher root/shoot ratios. Taking flower and oil yield as well as chamazulene percentage into consideration, the findings recommended cultivation of the Ahvaz genotype in the absence of

  1. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  2. Studying the effects of different levels of salinity which caused by NaCl on early growth and germination of Lactuca Sativa L. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important constraints that limit crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Seed germination is a critical stage in the history of plants and salt tolerance during germination is crucial for the establishment of plants that grow in saline soils. This research was carried out in order to test the effects of different salinity levels on germination and early growth of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.. The experiment was carried out using completely randomized design in four replication in 2011 Zabol University laboratory Iran. The results showed that by increasing salinity, percentage and race of germination decreased, So that, in the 150 mM of salinity level, germination reached to minimized (8.33%. Other measured parameters such as plumule length, radicle length, dry and wet weight decreased as well. All the results analyzed by SAS statistical software and comparison of average had done by Duncan test on 5% possible level.

  3. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  4. Growth and yield of lettuce plants under salinity Crescimento e produtividade da alface em condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce plants, cv. Vera, were grown under five salinity levels in a hydroponical experimental set-up using a 0.15 m deep sand growing bed. A standard nutrient solution was used, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 16.9 NO3-; 2.0 H2PO4-; 1.0 SO4- 4.0 Ca++; 10.9 K+ e 1.0 Mg++, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0,05 Cu; 0,50 B; 0,04 Mo, and 4.82 chelated Fe. The five salinity levels compared as treatments were obtained by varying the concentration of the standard nutrient solution, reaching average electrical conductivities (EC of 0.80; 1.93; 2.81; 3.73 and 4.72 dS m-1, for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The nutrient solution at each salinity level was supplied from a reservoir by means of a flooded-type electrical pump, for 15 minutes, at intervals of 90 minutes during the day and 420 minutes during the night. A completely randomised experimental design was used with four replications and 20 plants per plot. Four plants of each plot were harvested at 32 days after planting, to determine shoot and root dry mass, shoot fresh weight, leaf area and number of leaves per plant. Number of leaves was 18 per plant and was not affected by treatments. Dry mass of leaves increased 24,4% from T1 to T3. No relationships were found on data from stem and root dry mass. A positive effect of EC was recorded on shoot fresh mass, which increased 28.5% from T1 to T2, and decreased 16.5% from T2 to T5. Maximum LAI estimated value was 4.3 m² m-2 for an EC of 2.6 dS m-1. Salinity levels above 2.0 and 2.6 dS m-1 reduce fresh yield and plant growth, respectively.Plantas de alface, cv. Vera, foram cultivadas em cinco níveis de salinidade em um dispositivo experimental composto por uma camada de areia de 0,15 m de profundidade. Foi empregada uma solução nutritiva padrão, com a seguinte composição, em mmol/L: 16,9 de NO3-; 2,0 de H2PO4-; 1,0 de SO4-; 4,0 de Ca++; 10,9 de K+ e 1,0 de Mg++, e, em mg L¹, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0

  5. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha; Saito, Tomonori; Yan, Jingling; Hickner, Michael; Cao, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a

  6. Utilization of organic fertilizer to increase paddy growth and productivity using System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V . O . Subardja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity has negative effect on soil biodiversity as well as microbial activities. Hence, rice growth also effected by salinity. Application of organic fertilizer and adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI cultivation might improve the (biological soil properties and increase rice yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different rice cultivation methods namely conventional rice cultivation method and System of Rice Intensification (SRI rice cultivation method and two kinds organic fertilizer on improvement of soil biological properties and rice yield. In this study, a split plot experimental design was applied where rice cultivation method (conventional and SRI was the main plot and two kinds of organic fertilizer (market waste and rice straw was the sub plot. The treatments had four replicates. The results showed that SRI cultivation with market waste organic fertilizer could increase soil biological properties (population of microbe, fungi and soil respiration. The same treatment also increased rice growth and production. Combination of SRI and market waste organic fertilizer yielded the highest rice production (7.21 t/ha.

  7. Effect of salinity and priming on seedling growth in rapeseed (Brassica napus var oleifera Del. - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.17655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed to examine the effect of salt stress and GA3-priming on initial growth of two rapeseed cultivars, one tolerant and one sensitive to salt stress during germination. Seedlings from seeds germinated in salty (as NaCl and non salty substrate were grown in salty and non salty hydroponics. Salt stress reduced seedling growth of the two genotypes consistently with their degree of stress tolerance during germination. Seedlings from stress sensitive seeds germinated under high salinity showed a rapid recover of growth in non stressing conditions. The effect of salt stress on shoot/root ratio was controversial, increased for lab and decreased for greenhouse experiments, probably due to different timing of stress application and additional experimental conditions. Salt stress decreased leaf photosynthesis and increased thermal dissipation in sensitive seedlings (decrease of ΦPSII and qP, increase of NPQ. The GA3-priming did not affect seedling growth of the stress sensitive cultivar subjected to stress, while it greatly improved the performance of the stress tolerant cultivar.

  8. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico, in Estuaries, edited by Lauff G H (Amer Ass Adv Sci Publ, Washington D C) 1967, pp. 621-638. 3 Mair J McD, Salinity and water-type preference of four species of postlarval shrimp (Penaeus) from... west Mexico, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 45(1980)69-82. 4 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters, Indian J Mar Sci, 15 (1986)171-173. 5 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Distribution of penaeid...

  9. Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The ability of the following four organic amendments to ameliorate saline soil in coastal northern China was investigated from April 2010 to October 2012 in a field experiment: green waste compost (GWC, sedge peat (SP, furfural residue (FR, and a mixture of GWC, SP and FR (1∶1∶1 by volume (GSF. Compared to a non-amended control (CK, the amendments, which were applied at 4.5 kg organic matter m(-3, dramatically promoted plant growth; improved soil structure; increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC, organic carbon, and available nutrients; and reduced the salt content, electrical conductivity (EC, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP. At the end of the experiment in soil amended with GSF, bulk density, EC, and ESP had decreased by 11, 87, and 71%, respectively, and total porosity and organic carbon had increased by 25 and 96% respectively, relative to the CK. The GSF treatment resulted in a significantly lower Na(++K(+ content than the other treatments. CEC and the contents of available N, P, and K were significantly higher in the GSF-treated soil than in the CK and were the highest in all treatments. The FR treatment resulted in the lowest pH value and Ca(2+ concentration, which decreased by 8% and 39%, respectively, relative to the CK. Overall, the results indicate that a combination of green waste compost, sedge peat and furfural residue (GSF treatment has substantial potential for ameliorating saline soils in the coastal areas of northern China, and it works better than each amendment alone. Utilization of GWC and FR can be an alternative organic amendment to substitute the nonrenewable SP in saline soil amelioration.

  10. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of salinity on growth rate and osmolyte concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although at a slower rate, growth is maintained in seawater cultures supplemented with nutrients. Differences were found in carbohydrate content between cultures in different growth media. The highest carbohydrate content was observed in cultures growing in Zarrouk medium supplemented with 4 NaCl and in seawater ...

  12. Periodicity in stem growth and litterfall in tidal freshwater forested wetlands: influence of salinity and drought on nitrogen recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Nicole; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Many tidally influenced freshwater forested wetlands (tidal swamps) along the south Atlantic coast of the USA are currently undergoing dieback and decline. Salinity often drives conversion of tidal swamps to marsh, especially under conditions of regional drought. During this change, alterations in nitrogen (N) uptake from dominant vegetation or timing of N recycling from the canopy during annual litter senescence may help to facilitate marsh encroachment by providing for greater bioavailable N with small increases in salinity. To monitor these changes along with shifts in stand productivity, we established sites along two tidal swamp landscape transects on the lower reaches of the Waccamaw River (South Carolina) and Savannah River (Georgia) representing freshwater (≤0.1 psu), low oligohaline (1.1–1.6 psu), and high oligohaline (2.6–4.1 psu) stands; the latter stands have active marsh encroachment. Aboveground tree productivity was monitored on all sites through monthly litterfall collection and dendrometer band measurements from 2005 to 2009. Litterfall samples were pooled by season and analyzed for total N and carbon (C). On average between the two rivers, freshwater, low oligohaline, and high oligohaline tidal swamps returned 8,126, 3,831, and 1,471 mg N m−2 year−1, respectively, to the forest floor through litterfall, with differences related to total litterfall volume rather than foliar N concentrations. High oligohaline sites were most inconsistent in patterns of foliar N concentrations and N loading from the canopy. Leaf N content generally decreased and foliar C/N generally increased with salinization (excepting one site), with all sites being fairly inefficient in resorbing N from leaves prior to senescence. Stands with higher salinity also had greater flood frequency and duration, lower basal area increments, lower tree densities, higher numbers of dead or dying trees, and much reduced leaf litter fall (103 vs. 624 g m−2 year−1) over the

  13. Responses of three tomato cultivars to sea water salinity 1. Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sea water salinity (1500, 2500 and 3500 ppm) on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars (Trust, Grace and Plitz) was studied. The sea water salinity delayed seed germination and reduced germination percentage especially with increasing salinity level. Chlorophyll b content was higher than ...

  14. A Kinetic and Factorial Approach to Study the Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Growth and Toxin Production by the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Salgado

    Full Text Available Alexandrium ostenfeldii is present in a wide variety of environments in coastal areas worldwide and is the only dinoflagellate known species that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins and two types of cyclic imines, spirolides (SPXs and gymnodimines (GYMs. The increasing frequency of A. ostenfeldii blooms in the Baltic Sea has been attributed to the warming water in this region. To learn more about the optimal environmental conditions favoring the proliferation of A. ostenfeldii and its complex toxicity, the effects of temperature and salinity on the kinetics of both the growth and the net toxin production of this species were examined using a factorial design and a response-surface analysis (RSA. The results showed that the growth of Baltic A. ostenfeldii occurs over a wide range of temperatures and salinities (12.5-25.5°C and 5-21, respectively, with optimal growth conditions achieved at a temperature of 25.5°C and a salinity of 11.2. Together with the finding that a salinity > 21 was the only growth-limiting factor detected for this strain, this study provides important insights into the autecology and population distribution of this species in the Baltic Sea. The presence of PSP toxins, including gonyautoxin (GTX-3, GTX-2, and saxitoxin (STX, and GYMs (GYM-A and GYM-B/-C analogues was detected under all temperature and salinity conditions tested and in the majority of the cases was concomitant with both the exponential growth and stationary phases of the dinoflagellate's growth cycle. Toxin concentrations were maximal at temperatures and salinities of 20.9°C and 17 for the GYM-A analogue and > 19°C and 15 for PSP toxins, respectively. The ecological implications of the optimal conditions for growth and toxin production of A. ostenfeldii in the Baltic Sea are discussed.

  15. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  16. Can Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce the Growth of Agricultural Weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rita S. L.; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their beneficial effects on plants. However, there is increasing evidence that some ruderal plants, including several agricultural weeds, respond negatively to AMF colonization. Here, we investigated the effect of AMF on the growth of individual weed species and on weed-crop interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings First, under controlled glasshouse conditions, we screened growth responses of nine weed species and three crops to a widespread AMF, Glomus intraradices. None of the weeds screened showed a significant positive mycorrhizal growth response and four weed species were significantly reduced by the AMF (growth responses between −22 and −35%). In a subsequent experiment, we selected three of the negatively responding weed species – Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum – and analyzed their responses to a combination of three AMF (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus claroideum). Finally, we tested whether the presence of a crop (maize) enhanced the suppressive effect of AMF on weeds. We found that the growth of the three selected weed species was also reduced by a combination of AMF and that the presence of maize amplified the negative effect of AMF on the growth of E. crus-galli. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that AMF can negatively influence the growth of some weed species indicating that AMF have the potential to act as determinants of weed community structure. Furthermore, mycorrhizal weed growth reductions can be amplified in the presence of a crop. Previous studies have shown that AMF provide a number of beneficial ecosystem services. Taken together with our current results, the maintenance and promotion of AMF activity may thereby contribute to sustainable management of agroecosystems. However, in order to further the practical and ecological relevance of our findings, additional experiments should be performed under field conditions. PMID

  17. Reduced growth due to belowground sink limitation is not fully explained by reduced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campany, Courtney E; Medlyn, Belinda E; Duursma, Remko A

    2017-08-01

    Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings. Significant reductions in photosynthetic capacity in containerized seedlings were related to both reduced leaf nitrogen content and starch accumulation, indicating direct effects of sink limitation on photosynthetic downregulation. After 120 days, harvested biomass of Free seedlings was on average 84% higher than seedlings in containers, but biomass distribution in leaves, stems and roots was not different. However, the reduction in net leaf photosynthesis over the growth period was insufficient to explain the reduction in growth, so that we also observed an apparent reduction in whole-plant C-use efficiency (CUE) between Free seedlings and seedlings in containers. Our results show that sink limitation affects plant growth through feedbacks to both photosynthesis and CUE. Mass balance approaches to predicting plant growth under sink-limited conditions need to incorporate both of these feedbacks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Maximum standard metabolic rate corresponds with the salinity of maximum growth in hatchlings of the estuarine northern diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin): Implications for habitat conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L.

    2018-01-01

    I evaluated standard metabolic rates (SMR) of hatchling northern diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin) across a range of salinities (salinity = 1.5, 4, 8, 12, and 16 psu) that they may encounter in brackish habitats such as those in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Consumption of O2 and production of CO2 by resting, unfed animals served as estimates of SMR. A peak in SMR occurred at 8 psu which corresponds closely with the salinity at which hatchling growth was previously shown to be maximized (salinity ∼ 9 psu). It appears that SMR is influenced by growth, perhaps reflecting investments in catabolic pathways that fuel anabolism. This ecophysiological information can inform environmental conservation and management activities by identifying portions of the estuary that are bioenergetically optimal for growth of hatchling terrapins. I suggest that conservation and restoration efforts to protect terrapin populations in oligo-to mesohaline habitats should prioritize protection or creation of habitats in regions where average salinity is near 8 psu and energetic investments in growth appear to be maximized.

  19. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... randomized design in a glass-covered greenhouse with natural temperature and light. The interior of the greenhouse ceiling was draped with 30% shade ... Scientific, Great Amwell, Herts, UK) in the growth chamber. Statistical ...

  20. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Broekman, R.A.; de Vos, A.C.; Parra González, A.; Rozema, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation

  1. EFFECT OF SOIL SULFUR FERTILIZER AND SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI IN SALINE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factorial experiment was conducted in the open fields of Agricultural College, Al-Qasim Green University during the agricultural seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the effect of adding two levels of agricultural sulfur (control and add 100 kg.ha-1 and four levels of nutrient spray (without spray, high-potash fertilizer, high-phosphorus fertilizer and humic acid on growth and yield of broccoli under drip irrigation and polyethylene soil mulching in saline soil (9.6 dS.m-1. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that agricultural sulfur led to increase number of leaves, leaf area, leaves chlorophyll content, diameter and weight of flower head compared to control. Spraying foliar fertilizer and its interaction with sulfur fertilizer also led to increase all of parameters above (except leaves chlorophyll content significantly compared to control treatment.

  2. Feeding ω-3 PUFA enriched rotifers to Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842 larvae reared at different salinity conditions: effects on growth parameters, survival and fatty acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Dantagnan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well known importance of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in marine and freshwater fish larvae, there are few studies on how essential fatty acid requirements and composition on whole body can be altered by changes in water salinity. The present study aimed to determine the effect of salinity on ω-3 PUFA requirements, larval growth survival and fatty acid composition of Galaxias maculatus larvae cultured at two different salinities (0 and 15 g L-1 for 20 days while fed rotifers containing two different levels of ω-3 PUFA (1.87 and 3.16%. The results denoted a marked difference in ω-3 PUFA requirements and in the pattern of fatty acid deposition in the whole body of larvae reared at different salinities, depending of ω-3 PUFA in diets. Thus, to improve growth and survival larvae of G. maculatus reared at 0 g L-1 require higher levels of ω-3 PUFA, principally 18:3 ω-3. Larvae reared at salinities of 15 g L-1 require low levels of ω-3 PUFA for optimal survival, especially 18:3 ω-3. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in the whole body of larvae was also affected by water salinity.

  3. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Funneliformis mosseae improves alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. re-growth ability in saline soil through enhanced nitrogen remobilization and improved nutritional balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Namdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In current study, the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on salinity tolerance in terms of root’s reserves remobilization to shoot and its relationship with re-growth ability and ionic status of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were investigated. In a pot experiment, a factorial experiment in base of randomized complete blocks design in three replications was carried out. Alfalfa plants (Iranian cultivar-Baghdadi inoculated with AMF (Funneliformis mosseae or retained as un-inoculated, were grown in soil and irrigated with three salt concentrations including 1.4 (control, 7 and 12 dS/m. Three harvests were carried out at 10% of flowering stage. AMF inoculation increased the size of root sugars and soluble N pools at harvest time. The shoot biomass production following harvest had a close correlation with nitrogen (N remobilization from root (r=0.92, P≤0.01. However salinity stress significantly reduced amount and percentage of N remobilization to re-growing shoot but AMF plants exhibited greater amount and percentage of root N pools dedicated to remobilization. AMF inoculation also affected ionic relations of plants as AM+ plants contained greater K+ within both root and shoot organs while Ca2+ and Na+ were affected by AMF only within shoot tissue. AMF plants exhibited higher K+/Na+ within shoot and Ca+2/Na+ within root organs. There was a high positive correlation coefficient between K+/Na+, Ca+2/Na+ ratios and N remobilization from root (respectively, r=0.92, 0.88; P≤0.01. To sum up, ionic status within both root and shoot organs, got more balanced by AMF inoculation so that AMF reduced limitations within both source (root and sink (re-growing shoot organs concerning N remobilization to re-growing shoot.

  5. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  6. Growth of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797 in tanks in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain: effects of temperature, salinity and culture density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Delgado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possibility of O. vulgaris ongrowing using tanks or cages in the bays of the Ebro Delta, we performed several growth trials of common octopus held in tanks. Effects of environmental factors (temperature and salinity and zootechnical aspects (culture density were studied. The thermal ranges that defined positive growth periods in the bays of the Ebro Delta were 19.5ºC to 23ºC (spring-summer and 23.5ºC to 12.3ºC (autumn-winter, the latter being the most suitable period for ongrowing. Salinity did not affect survival (100% or growth within the range tested (34-29 psu, though feeding rates (AFR, SFR were directly related to salinity. On the other hand, after 60 days, final culture density increased three-fold (D1: 12.36 → 44.37 kg m–3; D2: 24.13 → 67.76 kg m–3, with optimal survival results ( > 90% for the two densities tested. Growth and feeding rates showed a slight inverse relationship with density. Finally, growth and feeding rates showed a clear dependence on temperature in the two experiments (density and salinity. Our results conclude that industrial production of O. vulgaris in tanks is promising: this system offers an alternative to cages and allows for a more exhaustive control of culture.

  7. The effect of salinity on the growth, sporulation and infection of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora ramorum, a threat to Eastern U.S. forests, has been found in waterways outside the boundaries of infested ornamental nurseries. Very little is known about what factors are conducive to its survival and sporulation in water. This study examined the effect of salt on growth, sporulation,...

  8. Irrigation of grapevines with saline water. II. Mathematical simulation of vine growth and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Asher, J.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Jhorar, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil, water, atmosphere and plant (SWAP) model simulates deterministic transport of water and solutes, incorporating a semi-analytical sink function. It enables one to simulate detailed (SAWPd) or simple (SWAPs) crop growth patterns in response to flow patterns in the root zone. The objectives of

  9. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, peconomic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, pEconomic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This verifies the fact that the economic growth of the country accompanied with socio-economic development and improvement of the livelihood of the poor. Direct nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions could also be recommended in order to have an impact on the massive reduction of childhood undernutrition in the country.

  10. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300 0 F. to 1350 0 F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of between 1450 0 -1550 0 F., the thermal treatment temperature being above the recrystallization temperature

  11. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  12. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    and soluble sugars as osmolytes produced by chickpea to mitigate the effect of salinity stress. The added value of these results is that the crop's responses to salinity are quantified. The obtained values can be used to determine 'threshold values'; should the salinity of the irrigation water go above...... these threshold values one may expect the crop yield parameters to be affected. The quantified responses also indicate the rate of change of yield parameters in response to the irrigation water salinity level. This could help in avoiding significant yield reduction when deciding on the irrigation water salinity...

  13. Growth of cowpea plants inoculated with Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil after application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jessyka Pereira Brito Fontenele

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with the aim of evaluating the growth of cowpea cultivated in saline-sodic soils corrected with gypsum: one experiment in the laboratory, to identify the best level of gypsum for the correction of the saline-sodic soils of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil; and the other in a greenhouse, after correction of the soils. As the test plant, the cowpea cultivar pele de moça, inoculated with Rhizobium strain BR3267 was used. The experiments were arranged in a randomised block design in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, two soils and five levels of the gypsum requirement (GR, equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250% of the GR of the soil, as determined by the Schoonover M-1 method, with five replications. The following were evaluated: electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract (EC, soil exchangeable sodium and percentage of soil exchangeable sodium (ESP, number of nodules (NN, nodule dry weight (NDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, shoot height (PH and nitrogen concentration (N in the shoots. Application of 100% of the GR, followed by the enough water for leaching, was effective for the correction of soil sodicity. The application of increasing levels of soil GR resulted in an increase in the number of nodules, dry weight of the nodules and shoots, and the height and levels of N absorbed by the plants in soil S2. In soil S1, the use of levels of 200 and 250% of soil the GR caused a decrease in all the variables under study.

  14. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Jain, Parul; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum) and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  15. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  16. Manipulating vineyard nitrogen on a saline site: 1. Effect of nitrogen on growth, grape yield and nutrients of Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sally-Jean; Francis, I Leigh

    2013-08-15

    With increased prevalence of saline irrigation water applied to vines worldwide, the issue of appropriate nitrogen management is of concern. Different rates of nitrogen per vine as urea were applied to Shiraz vines on own roots over four seasons in a low-rainfall, saline growing environment. Application of nitrogen in the vineyard early in the season not only altered the vine nitrogen status but also increased some other elements in the petioles, notably chloride and sodium but also manganese and magnesium. In contrast, nitrogen application decreased petiole phosphorus. In comparison with the majority of nitrogen studies on non-saline sites, nitrogen-induced growth responses were restricted under the saline conditions in this study. While some changes in canopy density in response to nitrogen were observed, this did not affect light interception in the fruit zone. Yield responses were varied and could be related to the nutritional conditions under which bud development and flowering took place. This study demonstrated that current best practice guidelines, in terms of rate of nitrogen applied, for correcting a nitrogen deficiency on a non-saline site may not be appropriate for saline sites and that application of nitrogen can increase the potential for salt toxicity in vines. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  18. The effect of temperature, salinity and growth rate on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schouten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two haptophyte algae, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, were cultured at different temperatures and salinities to investigate the impact of these factors on the hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones synthesized by these algae. Results showed that alkenones synthesized by G. oceanica were on average depleted in D by 30 compared to those of E. huxleyi when grown under similar temperature and salinity conditions. The fractionation factor, αalkenones-H2O, ranged from 0.760 to 0.815 for E. huxleyi and from 0.741 to 0.788 for G. oceanica. There was no significant correlation of αalkenones-H2O with temperature but a positive linear correlation was observed between αalkenones-H2O and salinity with ~3 change in fractionation per salinity unit and a negative correlation between αalkenones-H2O and growth rate. This suggests that both salinity and growth rate can have a substantial impact on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of long chain alkenones in natural environments.

  19. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  20. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in germinator in order to study the effects of water potential on seed germination, rate of germination and seedlings growth of four medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum, Plantago psyllium, Discorinia sophia and Portulaca oleracea. Four water potential inclouding distilled water as control (0, -0.37, -0.59 and –0.81 Mpa which made by different salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and NaCl+CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio. The experiment was carried out based on completly randomized design with six replications. Results showed that the effects of water potential, type of salt on germination percentage, rate of germination, root and shoot length were significant. With decreasing water potential, germination percentage and rate of germination declined but the response of plant were differ. Germination of Portulaca oleracea was not affected by decreasing water potential where as other significantly decreased. The effect of salt composition was significant on rate and percentage germination. The percentage of germination at lower water potential (–0.37 MPa which made by NaCl + CaCl2 significantly was higher than the same water potential made by only NaCl and CaCl2. Although, percentage and rate germination of Portulaca oleracea were not affected by different water potential, seedling growth of Portulaca oleracea significantly decreased.

  1. Effects of salinity on growth, water content and distribution of Na + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 4 different concentrations of NaCl on plant height, on water content and on the distribution of monovalent cations (Na + and K +) in organs of Avicennia germinans seedlings in semi-controlled conditions were investigated. After 4 weeks of cultivation, results showed that 200 mmoles sodium chloride reduced the ...

  2. Branchial expression and localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor and changes in plasma IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein in striped bass during salinity acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen; Borski, Russell

    2006-01-01

    In euryhaline teleosts the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/growth hormone axis is known to affect salinity tolerance and gill Na,K-ATPase activity. However, virtually nothing is known on expression and cellular localization of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the teleost gill during salinity a...

  3. Saline Flush After Rocuronium Bolus Reduces Onset Time and Prolongs Duration of Effect: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Masui, Kenichi; Kazama, Tomiei

    2016-03-01

    Circulatory factors modify the onset time of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Therefore, we hypothesized that infusion of a saline flush immediately after rocuronium administration would shorten the onset time without influencing the duration of the rocuronium effect. Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to the control or saline flush group. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, and all patients received 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium in 10 mL of normal saline. In the saline flush group, 20 mL normal saline was immediately infused after rocuronium administration. Neuromuscular blockade was assessed using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. The neuromuscular indices for rocuronium were calculated as follows: the latent onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the first twitch of the TOF (T1) ≥5%; onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the T1 ≥95%; clinical duration, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until T1 recovered to 25% of the final T1 value; recovery index, defined as the time for recovery of T1 from 25% to 75% of the final T1 value; and the total recovery time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until reaching a TOF ratio of 0.9. Significance was designated at P rocuronium bolus by 17%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. In addition, the recovery phase was significantly prolonged in the saline flush group. The mean clinical duration (5th-95th percentile range) in the saline flush group and control group was 35 minutes (27-63 minutes) and 31 minutes (19-48 minutes; P = 0.032), respectively; the recovery index was 13 minutes (8-25 minutes) and 10 minutes (7-19 minutes; P = 0.019), respectively; and the total recovery time was 61 minutes (44-108 minutes) and 50 minutes (35-93 minutes; P = 0

  4. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel (Prymnesiophyceae) isolated from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Huang, Bozhu; Hu, Zhangxi; Tang, Yingzhong; Duan, Shunshan; Zhang, Chengwu

    2017-05-01

    Blooms of Phaeocystis globosa have been frequently reported in Chinese coastal waters, causing serious damage to marine ecosystems. To better understand the ecological characteristics of P. globosa in Chinese coastal waters that facilitate its rapid expansion, the effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of P. globosa from the South China Sea were examined in the laboratory. The saturating irradiance for the growth of P. globosa ( I s) was 60 μmol/(m2•s), which was lower than those of other harmful algal species (70-114 μmol/(m2•s)). A moderate growth rate of 0.22/d was observed at 2 μmol/(m2•s) (the minimum irradiance in the experiment), and photo-inhibition did not occur at 230 μmol/(m2•s) (the maximum irradiance in the experiment). Exposed to 42 different combinations of temperatures (10-31°C) and salinities (10-40) under saturating irradiance, P. globosa exhibited its maximum specific growth rate of 0.80/d at the combinations of 24°C and 35, and 27°C and 40. The optimum growth rates (>0.80/d) were observed at temperatures ranging from 24 to 27°C and salinities from 35 to 40. While P. globosa was able to grow well at temperatures from 20°C to 31°C and salinities from 20 to 40, it could not grow at temperatures lower than 15°C or salinities lower than 15. Factorial analysis revealed that temperature and salinity has similar influences on the growth of this species. This strain of P. globosa not only prefers higher temperatures and higher salinity, but also possesses a flexible nutrient competing strategy, adapted to lower irradiance. Therefore, the P. globosa population from South China Sea should belong to a new ecotype. There is also a potentially high risk of blooms developing in this area throughout the year.

  5. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia.The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010 from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank.A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7% [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8% [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1% [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI. The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001, wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001 and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001 from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade.Economic growth reduces child undernutrition in

  6. Effect of long-term salinity on the growth and biomass of two non-secretors mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Ceriops tagal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Nuryawan, A.; Yunasfi; Putri, L. A. P.; Baba, S.

    2018-02-01

    The present study describes the effect of long-term salinity on morphological character and biomass content of two non-secretors mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Ceriops tagal. Two mangrove seedlings were grown for six months in 0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% salt concentration. The growth of R. apiculata was significantly enhanced by salt with maximal stimulus at 1.5% (equal to 50% natural seawater), and this increase appeared to be attenuated by increasing the salinity concentration above 1.5%. By contrast, the growth of C. tagal thrived up to 0.5% salt concentration. Our findings, therefore, suggested that within the range of treatments used, 1.5% and 0.5%, respectively were the optimal salinity of R. apiculata and C. tagal for growth. The highest leaf area of C. tagal was obtained at 1.5% salinity concentrations and, on the other hand, R. apiculata showed much greater extent. The wet and dry weight of the two seedlings was changed in the same manner as the height of plants upon salt treatment. Our results indicated that R. apiculata was more salt tolerant than C. tagal, which may provide valuable information for mangrove rehabilitation in North Sumatra, Indonesia.

  7. Application of AM Fungi with Bradyrhizobium japonicum in improving growth, nutrient uptake and yield of Vigna radiata L. under saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Kadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted under polyhouse conditions, to evaluate the effect of two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and A. laevis in combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth and nutrition of mungbean plant grown under different salt stress levels (4 dS m−1, 8dS m−1 and 12 dS m−1. It was found that under saline conditions, mycorrhizal fungi protect the host plant against the detrimental effect of salinity. The AM inoculated plants showed positive effects on plant growth, dry biomass production, chlorophyll content, mineral uptake, electrolyte leakage, proline, protein content and yield of mungbean plants in comparison to non-mycorrhizal ones but the extent of response varied with the increasing level of salinity. In general, the reduction in Na uptake along with associated increase in P, N, K, electrolyte leakage and high proline content were also found to be better in inoculated ones. The overall results demonstrate that the co-inoculation of microbes with AM fungi promotes salinity tolerance by enhancing nutrient acquisition especially phosphorus (P, producing plant growth hormones, improving rhizospheric and condition of soil by altering the physiological and biochemical properties of the mungbean plant.

  8. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  9. Influence of salinity, competition and food supply on the growth of Gobiosoma robustum and Microgobius gulosus from Florida Bay, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The code Gobiosoma robustum and clown Microgobius gulosus gobies were grown in the laboratory over 27 days at two salinities (5 and 35), two food levels [low (a fixed proportion of initial mass) and high (saturation)] and both with and without the presence of the other species. Both species exhibited greatest growth at the high food level and the low (5) salinity. Neither species was affected by the presence of the other species, and there were no overall differences in growth between the two species. Thus, the observed competitive superiority of G. robustum over M. gulosus does not seem to confer an advantage relative to feeding success. Furthermore, as growth of G. robustum was greater at the lower salinity, it is clear that some factor other than salinity is restricting this species from north-eastern Florida Bay. Additional work on the importance of predation and food resources in various regions of Florida Bay is needed to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the bay-wide distribution of these species. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Effects of Trophic Modes, Carbon Sources, and Salinity on the Cell Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Tropic Ocean Oilgae Strain Desmodesmus sp. WC08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyu; Ma, Shasha; Li, Ang; Liu, Pinghuai; Wang, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The effects of trophic modes, carbon sources, and salinity on the growth and lipid accumulation of a marine oilgae Desmodesmus sp. WC08 in different trophic cultures were assayed by single factor experiment based on the blue-green algae medium (BG-11). The results implied that biomass and lipid accumulation culture process were optimized depending on the tophic modes, sorts, and concentration of carbon sources and salinity in the cultivation. There was no significant difference in growth or lipid accumulation with Na 2 CO 3 amendment or NaHCO 3 amendment. However, Na 2 CO 3 amendment did enhance the biomass and lipid accumulation to some extent. The highest Desmodesmus sp. WC08 biomass and lipid accumulation was achieved in the growth medium with photoautotrophic cultivation, 0.08 g L -1 Na 2 CO 3 amendment and 15 g L -1 sea salt, respectively.

  11. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel; Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien; Marteau, Lena; Bernaudin, Jean-Francois; Roussel, Simon; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  12. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  13. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  14. Protective ventilation reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue in a porcine pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2017-08-31

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg -1 . The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg -1 . 10 11 colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p protective group was unchanged (p protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.

  15. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  16. Growth and osmoregulation in Salmo salar L. juveniles 1+, 1½ + and 2+ reared under restrained salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater phase of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L vary between one and eight years. The reduction of the freshwater phase is desirable to reduce freshwater usage, human resources and to increase year round availability of pan-sized salmon. Three trials were conducted to investigate the possibility of supply the market in a year-round basis, with pan-sized Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. (250-300 g in Portugal (southern limit of the natural distribution of this species. This study primarily aimed to compare the osmoregulatory ability and growth of different fish sizes, smolts 1+ (trial 1, 1.5+ (trial 2 and 2+ (trial 3, in freshwater and seawater conditions. Additionally, effects of photoperiod were determined in smolts 1.5+ (trial 2 for both freshwater and seawater groups. The increments in the plasma osmolality and chlorine concentrations after seawater transfer suggest an identical development in the hypo-osmoregulation capacity among the different age classes. In all trials, weight gain was smaller after 30 d of saltwater transfer when compared to fish reared in freshwater. However, the growth depression was temporary. Seawater group showed a compensatory growth in the immediate months, which permitted an improvement in growth rates. At the end of trials there were minor differences on growth performance between freshwater and seawater groups. Specific growth rates varied between 0.7 and 1.0 % day-1, according to the age and /or size and transfer season.

  17. The effect of parenteral alimentation fluid, undiluted with saline or fresh sera, on the growth of Candida albicans in vitro at 37 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, T; Rippon, J; Baldwin, S; Pachman, L M

    1975-02-28

    Parenteral alimentation is often complicated by Candida albicans infection which may be fatal. This study investigated the effect of alimentation fluid (Aminosol) on C. albicans' growth in vitro. It was found that concentrated Aminosol (1400 millisomoles) maintained C. albicans in a viable state but inhibited replication. Dilution of alimentation fluid to physiological concentrations (300 milliosmoles) with either saline or aged pooled normal sera promoted in vitro growth of C. albicans which was equivalent to that obtained in BHI broth and was slightly less than that obtained in Sabouraud's broth. The effects of fresh sera with full complement activity were also investigated. In fresh sera appropriately diluted with physiological saline, some clumping of the yeasts was observed and all formed germ tubes. Growth as defined by budding or the formation of hyphae was inhibited. When Aminosol was diluted to 300 milliosomoles with fresh sera, all yeasts were noted to be in clumps with germ tubes as well as continually growing hyphae. Growth was approximately equal to that seen in Aminosol similarly diluted with saline.

  18. Prolactin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and putative somatolactin receptor in Mozambique tilapia: tissue specific expression and differential regulation by salinity and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A L; Fox, B K; Davis, L K; Visitacion, N; Kitahashi, T; Hirano, T; Grau, E G

    2007-01-01

    In fish, pituitary growth hormone family peptide hormones (growth hormone, GH; prolactin, PRL; somatolactin, SL) regulate essential physiological functions including osmoregulation, growth, and metabolism. Teleost GH family hormones have both differential and overlapping effects, which are mediated by plasma membrane receptors. A PRL receptor (PRLR) and two putative GH receptors (GHR1 and GHR2) have been identified in several teleost species. Recent phylogenetic analyses and binding studies suggest that GHR1 is a receptor for SL. However, no studies have compared the tissue distribution and physiological regulation of all three receptors. We sequenced GHR2 from the liver of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for the three receptors, and assessed their tissue distribution and regulation by salinity and fasting. PRLR was highly expressed in the gill, kidney, and intestine, consistent with the osmoregulatory functions of PRL. PRLR expression was very low in the liver. GHR2 was most highly expressed in the muscle, followed by heart, testis, and liver, consistent with this being a GH receptor with functions in growth and metabolism. GHR1 was most highly expressed in fat, liver, and muscle, suggesting a metabolic function. GHR1 expression was also high in skin, consistent with a function of SL in chromatophore regulation. These findings support the hypothesis that GHR1 is a receptor for SL. In a comparison of freshwater (FW)- and seawater (SW)-adapted tilapia, plasma PRL was strongly elevated in FW, whereas plasma GH was slightly elevated in SW. PRLR expression was reduced in the gill in SW, consistent with PRL's function in freshwater adaptation. GHR2 was elevated in the kidney in FW, and correlated negatively with plasma GH, whereas GHR1 was elevated in the gill in SW. Plasma IGF-I, but not GH, was reduced by 4 weeks of fasting. Transcript levels of GHR1 and GHR2 were elevated by fasting in the muscle. However

  19. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  20. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

    2012-04-20

    Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world.

  1. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Índices fisiológicos e de crescimento de um porta-enxerto de aceroleira sob estresse salino Physiological and growth indices of a West Indian Cherry rootstock under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo T. Gurgel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura há registros de variações na fisiologia e no desenvolvimento de genótipos diversos em condições de estresse salino. Não se encontrando informações nesse sentido, sobre aceroleira, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos da salinidade sobre o clone BV1, através de variáveis fisiológicas e de crescimento, na fase de formação de porta-enxerto. Os estudos foram realizados no Campo Experimental de Pacajus (EMBRAPA, na cidade de Pacajus, CE, testando-se seis níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (condutividade elétrica, variando de 0,5 a 5,5 dS m-1, preparada mantendo-se a proporção 7:2:1 entre Na:Ca:Mg, respectivamente. O sistema radicular da aceroleira é mais sensível à salinidade que a parte aérea, assim como a fitomassa seca total quando comparada com a área foliar. A eficiência da aceroleira em produzir matéria nova por unidade de matéria preexistente, aumenta com a elevação do nível de salinidade da água de irrigação. A velocidade de crescimento e a fotossíntese líquida da aceroleira decrescem com o aumento do estresse salino.It is known that the physiological behavior of the plants under saline stress conditions vary among genotypes. Considering non existence of references about effect of salinity in West Indian Cherry plants, the objective of this study was to evaluate such effects on the growth and physiology of the clone BV1 rootstock. The studies were carried out at the Experimental Center of Pacajus (EMBRAPA, in the city of Pacajus - CE. The treatments studied were six levels of salinity of the irrigation water (electrical conductivity varying from 0.5 to 5.5 dS m-1. The results obtained show that the efficiency of the West Indian Cherry to produce new matter in relation to preexisting increases with the elevation of salinity. The root system of the West Indian Cherry is more affected than the aerial parts by water salinity. The growth velocity and the net

  3. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  4. Detecting the Spatio-temporal Distribution of Soil Salinity and Its Relationship to Crop Growth in a Large-scale Arid Irrigation District Based on Sampling Experiment and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D.; Huang, G., Sr.; Xu, X.; Huang, Q., Sr.; Xiong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity analysis on a regional scale is of great significance for protecting agriculture production and maintaining eco-environmental health in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas. In this study, the Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with suffering long-term soil salinization problems, was selected as the case study area. Field sampling experiments and investigations related to soil salt contents, crop growth and yields were carried out across the whole area, during April to August in 2015. Soil salinity characteristics in space and time were systematically analyzed for Hetao as well as the corresponding impacts on crops. Remotely sensed map of soil salinity distribution for surface soil was also derived based on the Landsat OLI data with a 30 m resolution. The results elaborated the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil salinity and the relationships with irrigation, groundwater depth and crop water consumption in Hetao. In addition, the strong spatial variability of salinization was clearly presented by the remotely sensed map of soil salinity. Further, the relationship between soil salinity and crop growth was analyzed, and then the impact degrees of soil salinization on cropping pattern, leaf area index, plant height and crop yield were preliminarily revealed. Overall, this study can provide very useful information for salinization control and guide the future agricultural production and soil-water management for the arid irrigation districts analogous to Hetao.

  5. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( Pshrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  6. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) - Test of hypothesis and new 'high Chl a BEG-model'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-04-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l-1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison of literature values for actually measured weight-specific growth rates (μ, % d-1) of small (20 to 25 mm) M. edulis, either grown in controlled laboratory experiments or in net bags in Danish waters, as a function of Chl a. A linear increase up to about μ = 8.3% d-1 at 8.1 μg Chl a l-1 fits the "standard BEG-model" after which a marked decrease takes place, and this supports the hypothesis. A "high Chl a BEG-model", applicable to newly settled post-metamorphic and small juvenile (non-spawning) mussels in eutrophicated Danish and other temperate waters, is developed and tested, and new data from a case study in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.

  8. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (pfacial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally.

  9. Growth retardation and reduced growth hormone secretion in cystic fibrosis. Clinical observations from three CF centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, D'Orazio; Padoan, Rita; Blau, Hannah; Marostica, Anna; Fuoti, Maurizio; Volpi, Sonia; Pilotta, Alba; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh M

    2013-03-01

    Growth delay in cystic fibrosis is frequent and is usually the result of several interacting causes. It most often derives from severe respiratory impairment and severe malabsorption. There are however patients whose clinical condition is not severe enough to be held accountable for this phenomenon. We aimed at describing patients who showed growth delay, who were not affected by severe pulmonary disease or malabsorption and who, when tested, showed a reduced GH secretion after stimulation with conventional agents. We noticed a disproportionately large prevalence of growth hormone (GH) release deficit (GHRD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We examined all patients under our care in the period 2006-11, who were older than 5 and younger than 16 years old. We focussed on those who fell below the 3rd height percentile, or whose growth during the previous 18 months faltered by >2SD, and who did not present clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive. These patients were subjected to standard GH provocative tests. Out of 285 who matched the age criterion, 33 patients also matched the height percentile criterion. While 15/33 suffered clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive, 18/33 underwent GH release provocative tests and 12/18 showed a release deficit. We conclude that impaired GH secretion is more frequent among CF patients compared to the prevalence of GH deficiency in the general population and that GH release impairment may be an independent cause of growth delay in CF. Our findings are in agreement with recent studies that have described low GH levels in CF piglets and in neonates with CF [1]. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on oats in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum to enhance phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Feifei; Xie, Baoming; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phytoremediation in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum, saline-alkali soil samples were artificially mixed with different amount of oil, 5 and 10 g/kg, respectively. Pot experiments with oat plants (Avena sativa) were conducted under greenhouse condition for 60 days. Plant biomass, physiological parameters in leaves, soil enzymes, and degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon were measured. The result demonstrated that petroleum inhibited the growth of the plant; however, inoculation with PGPR in combination with AMF resulted in an increase in dry weight and stem height compared with noninoculated controls. Petroleum stress increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and free proline and the activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. Application of PGPR and AMF augmented the activities of three enzymes compared to their respective uninoculated controls, but decreased the MDA and free proline contents, indicating that PGPR and AMF could make the plants more tolerant to harmful hydrocarbon contaminants. It also improved the soil quality by increasing the activities of soil enzyme such as urease, sucrase, and dehydrogenase. In addition, the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon during treatment with PGPR and AMF in moderately contaminated soil reached a maximum of 49.73%. Therefore, we concluded the plants treated with a combination of PGPR and AMF had a high potential to contribute to remediation of saline-alkali soil contaminated with petroleum.

  11. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  12. Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation Water Salinity and Soil Texture on Growth and N Use Efficiency of Tomato and Melochia Grown in Rotation using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; El Moujabber, M.; Atallah, T.; El Chami, D.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing water demands and water scarcity imply large farmer's reliance on groundwater on the coastal area leading to water salinization by seawater intrusion. Irrigation using saline water accumulates salts in the soil notably under protected agriculture leading to negative impact on yields. Consequently salt removal by leaching is required. Bioremediation of salt affected soils through a rotation acquires economic and environmental importance. Pot experiments were conducted under plastic house conditions on sandy soil (T1) and clay soil (T2). Three saline water treatments were used: low (S1=1.0 dS.m-1), moderate (S2=2.5 dS.m-1) and high (S3=5.0 dS.m-1). Tomato cv Tyrade (S and G seeds) was planted first, followed by Melochia or Jew's mallow (Corchorus olitorius) for remediation purposes. Each soil was placed in 24 pots and treatments were distributed randomly. Fertigation was done using drip method. Labeled nitrogen 15 N was used to trace the direct and residual effect of nitrogen under different saline conditions. Tomato yield, for the sandy soil, was negatively affected by the higher level of salinity. This effect could be attributed to the smaller buffering capacity of the sand soil. As a result of salinity, there was a remarkable increase in dry matter contents of fruits in the sandy soil only. Texture had a major effect on leaf area index (LAI) with better development in clay soil. Water consumption in the first 200 days of growth period did not show any significant difference among treatments with around 350-375 mm consumed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizers (% Ndff) was not affected by the soil texture or by the salinity. N yield and use efficiency were higher in the clay soil texture. Moreover, yield and Ndff in Melochia plants were negatively affected due to salt accumulation in the soil. Counting for all recovered N in the tomato-Melochia rotation, N use efficiency was higher in plants grown on clay soil (47%) compared to sandy soil (37.5%). (author)

  13. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) – Test of hypothesis and new ‘high Chl a BEG-model’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl...... a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l−1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison...... the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu....

  14. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  15. Crescimento inicial do cafeeiro irrigado com água salina e salinização do solo Initial growth of coffee plants irrigated with saline water and soil salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Figueirêdo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. vem-se expandindo para regiões ainda pouco exploradas, em que o uso da irrigação com água salina possa ser fator limitante. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o crescimento inicial do cafeeiro, conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, submetendo-o a níveis crescentes de salinidade da água de irrigação. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos (S0 = 0,0 dS m-1, S1 = 0,6 dS m-1, S2 = 1,2 dS m-1, S3 = 1,8 dS m-1, S4 = 2,4 dS m-1 e S5 = 3,0 dS m-1 e 4 repetições. A reposição de água foi realizada com base na curva característica do solo, pela leitura da tensão de água por blocos de resistência, retornando o conteúdo de água à capacidade de campo. Verificou-se que os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente as características da planta e que a salinidade da água a partir de 1,2 dS m-1 prejudicou o crescimento e, em alguns casos, provocou a morte das plantas. A área foliar foi a variável mais prejudicada. Ao final do experimento o solo foi classificado como salino-sódico.The coffee crop is expanding to new areas with not enough studies about its response to saline irrigation water. The initial growth of coffee plant was evaluated, in greenhouse at the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, under different levels of irrigation water salinity. The completely randomized design was used with 6 treatments (S0 = 0.0 dS m-1, S1 = 0.6 dS m-1, S2 = 1.2 dS m-1, S3 = 1.8 dS m-1, S4 = 2.4 dS m-1 and S5 = 3.0 dS m-1 and 4 replications. The irrigation was accomplished according to soil water retention curve and resistance block reading, restoring the soil water content to its field capacity. It was verified that water salinity affected the plants characteristics significantly. The water salinity above 1.2 dS m-1 caused damage to plant development resulting, in some cases, in death of

  16. Growth and proximate composition of the Chaetoceros calcitrans f. pumilus under different temperature, salinity and carbon dioxide levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, G.; Haridevi, C; Gopinathan, C

    The marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans f. pumilus has been examined for its potential source as live feed in aquaculture. The present study investigated eíects of temperature (20,25 and 30 degrees C), salinity (25 and 35) and carbon dioxide...

  17. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long-term effe...

  18. Growth and silica conten of the diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Navicula salinarum at different salinities and enrichments with aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, E.G.; Poort, L.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Gieskes, W.W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of the cellular (biogenic) and frustule-associated (mineralized) silica content of the diatoms Navicula salinarum and Thalassiosira weissflogii on salinity and aluminium conditions was studied in order to make it possible to manipulate silicification in vitro and maximize it to levels

  19. Significance of salinity and silicon levels for growth of a formerly estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) population (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Hemminga, M.A.; De Jong, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the eelgrass, Zostera marina L., population in the saline Lake Gevelingen, The Netherlands, is rapidly declining. An earlier study, in which long-term data on eelgrass coverage in this former estuary were correlated with several environmental variables, showed only one

  20. Crescimento do meloeiro cultivado sob diferentes níveis de salinidade, com e sem cobertura do solo Growth of muskmelon under different levels of salinity, with and without soil covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de Medeiros

    2007-06-01

    area and dry weight of plants. In case of hybrid Trusty the dry weight reduced when water of higher salinity was used. Highest absolute growth rate was verified between 35 and 45 days after planting, and in this period the absolute growth rate decreased with an increase in salinity. The relative growth and liquid assimilation rates were not affected by water salinity, soil covering or hybrid.

  1. Salt tolerance of halophytes, research questions reviewed in the perspective of saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes of the lower coastal salt marsh show increased salt tolerance, and under high salinity they grow faster than upper marsh species. We could not show reduced growth rate of halophytes compared with glycophytes when grown under non-saline conditions. This indicates limited energy costs

  2. Placental Growth Factor Reduces Blood Pressure in a Uteroplacental Ischemia Model of Preeclampsia in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Angela; Yeung, Kristen R; Lim, Shirlene M; Sunderland, Neroli; Heffernan, Scott; Thompson, John F; Iliopoulos, Jim; Killingsworth, Murray C; Yong, Jim; Xu, Bei; Ogle, Robert F; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    An imbalance in the angiogenesis axis during pregnancy manifests as clinical preeclampsia because of endothelial dysfunction. Circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) increases and placental growth factor (PlGF) reduces before and during disease. We investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of replenishing the reduced circulating PlGF with recombinant human PlGF (rhPlGF) and thus restoring the angiogenic balance. Hypertensive proteinuria was induced in a nonhuman primate (Papio hamadryas) by uterine artery ligation at 136 days gestation (of a 182-day pregnancy). Two weeks after uteroplacental ischemia, rhPlGF (rhPlGF, n=3) or normal saline (control, n=4) was administered by subcutaneous injection (100 μg/kg per day) for 5 days. Blood pressure was monitored by intra-arterial radiotelemetry and sFLT-1 and PlGF by ELISA. Uteroplacental ischemia resulted in experimental preeclampsia evidenced by increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and endotheliosis on renal biopsy and elevated sFLT-1. PlGF significantly reduced after uteroplacental ischemia. rhPlGF reduced systolic blood pressure in the treated group (-5.2±0.8 mm Hg; from 132.6±6.6 mm Hg to 124.1±7.6 mm Hg) compared with an increase in systolic blood pressure in controls (6.5±3 mm Hg; from 131.3±1.5 mm Hg to 138.6±1.5 mm Hg). Proteinuria reduced in the treated group (-72.7±55.7 mg/mmol) but increased in the control group. Circulating levels of total sFLT-1 were not affected by the administration of PlGF; however, a reduction in placental sFLT-1 mRNA expression was demonstrated. There was no significant difference between the weights or lengths of the neonates in the rhPlGF or control group; however, this study was not designed to assess fetal safety or outcomes. Increasing circulating PlGF by the administration of rhPlGF improves clinical parameters in a primate animal model of experimental preeclampsia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masondo, Nqobile A; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR 1 ), Kelpak ® (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR 1 enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak ® stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 on crop plants and influence on physiological changes in soybean under soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to identify plant growth-promoting bacterial isolates from soil samples and to investigate their ability to improve plant growth and salt tolerance by analysing phytohormones production and phosphate solubilisation. Among the four tested bacterial isolates (I-2-1, H-1-4, H-2-3, and H-2-5), H-2-5 was able to enhance the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish, tomato, and mustard plants. The isolated bacterium H-2-5 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 based on 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. The secretion of gibberellins (GA 4 , GA 8 , GA 9 , GA 19 , and GA 20 ) from B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 and their phosphate solubilisation ability may contribute to enhance plant growth. In addition, the H-2-5-mediated mitigation of short term salt stress was tested on soybean plants that were affected by sodium chloride. Abscisic acid (ABA) produced by the H-2-5 bacterium suppressed the NaCl-induced stress effects in soybean by enhancing plant growth and GA 4 content, and by lowering the concentration of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and proline. These results suggest that GAs, ABA production, and the phosphate solubilisation capacity of B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 are important stimulators that promote plant growth through their interaction and also to improve plant growth by physiological changes in soybean at saline soil.

  5. Hinokitiol Enhanced Vegetative Growth Parameters of Tomato cv. �Falkato� Compared with Salicylic Acid and Paclobutrazol under In Vitro Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz ESMAEILPOUR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the potential in vitro effect of hinokitiol on improvement of tomato seedling resistance to salinity stress. Effect of hinokitiol was compared with two anti-stress compounds, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol. Leaf numbers, shoot and root fresh weight and root fresh weight were recorded after about 8 weeks. Salt stress was accomplished by application of two levels of pure NaCl (50 and 100 mM on MS basal medium. The treatments consisted of different concentrations of hinokitiol (0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm, paclobutrazol (0, 1, 2 and 4 ?M and salicylic acid (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM. Results revealed that salinity blocked seed germination in media containing only 100 mM of pure NaCl without any treatment. In general all three compounds increased tomato seedling growth, indicating these compounds are able to alleviate the negative effect of salinity on tomato plants. However, Hinokitiol was the most efficient compound. Compared with SA, application of hinokitiol significantly increased leaf numbers, shoot length and shoot and root dry weight. Also, media containing different concentrations of hinokitiol produced higher root and shoot fresh weight than control and other treatments. Future physiological studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of induction of salt tolerance activity by hinokitiol.

  6. Reduced Tonoplast Fast-Activating and Slow-Activating Channel Activity Is Essential for Conferring Salinity Tolerance in a Facultative Halophyte, Quinoa1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pottosin, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte species implement a “salt-including” strategy, sequestering significant amounts of Na+ to cell vacuoles. This requires a reduction of passive Na+ leak from the vacuole. In this work, we used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to investigate the ability of halophytes to regulate Na+-permeable slow-activating (SV) and fast-activating (FV) tonoplast channels, linking it with Na+ accumulation in mesophyll cells and salt bladders as well as leaf photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Our data indicate that young leaves rely on Na+ exclusion to salt bladders, whereas old ones, possessing far fewer salt bladders, depend almost exclusively on Na+ sequestration to mesophyll vacuoles. Moreover, although old leaves accumulate more Na+, this does not compromise their leaf photochemistry. FV and SV channels are slightly more permeable for K+ than for Na+, and vacuoles in young leaves express less FV current and with a density unchanged in plants subjected to high (400 mm NaCl) salinity. In old leaves, with an intrinsically lower density of the FV current, FV channel density decreases about 2-fold in plants grown under high salinity. In contrast, intrinsic activity of SV channels in vacuoles from young leaves is unchanged under salt stress. In vacuoles of old leaves, however, it is 2- and 7-fold lower in older compared with young leaves in control- and salt-grown plants, respectively. We conclude that the negative control of SV and FV tonoplast channel activity in old leaves reduces Na+ leak, thus enabling efficient sequestration of Na+ to their vacuoles. This enables optimal photosynthetic performance, conferring salinity tolerance in quinoa species. PMID:23624857

  7. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  8. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  9. African economists inspire growth, reduce poverty | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... AERC awards research grants on issues such as poverty, trade and finance and manages collaborative Master's and PhD programs in economics with dozens of African universities. “Within the first 10 years of AERC support for economic policy research, many African countries began to see growth rates ...

  10. Brassinolide Increases Potato Root Growth In Vitro in a Dose-Dependent Way and Alleviates Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 μg/L promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1–100 μg/L inhibited root elongation. There was a significant (P<0.05 positive correlation between root activity and BL concentrations within a range from 0.01 to 100 μg/L, with the peak activity of 8.238 mg TTC·g−1 FW·h−1 at a BL concentration of 100 μg/L. Furthermore, plants treated with 50 μg/L BL showed enhanced salt stress tolerance through in vitro growth. Under this scenario, BL treatment enhanced the proline content and antioxidant enzymes’ (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in potato shoots. Application of BL maintain K+ and Na+ homeostasis by improving tissue K+/Na+ ratio. Therefore, we suggested that the effects of BL on root development from stem fragments explants as well as on primary root development are dose-dependent and that BL application alleviates salt stress on potato by improving root activity, root/shoot ratio, and antioxidative capacity in shoots and maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in potato shoots and roots.

  11. A Comparison Study of Growth Factor Expression following Treatment with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Saline Solution, Povidone-Iodine, and Lavender Oil in Wounds Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet Koca Kutlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, saline solution (SS, povidone-iodine (PI, and lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia through expression of growth factors in a rat model of wound healing. Six experimental groups were established, each containing 8 rats: a healthy group with no incision wounds, an incision-control group, an incision and TENS group, an incision and SS group, an incision and PI group, and an incision and lavender oil group. Experiments continued for 5 days, after which the skin in the excision area was removed. Tissue concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Tissue expressions of EGF, PDGF-A, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 were determined using immunohistochemistry. Wound closure progressed more rapidly in the TENS and lavender oil groups than in the control and other study groups. In particular, PDGF-A expressions in the dermis and EGF expression in the epidermis were significantly intense in the TENS group (P<0.05. In addition, ELISA levels of growth factors such as PDGF-A and EGF were significantly higher in TENS group compared to the control group (P<0.05. These immunohistochemical and ELISA results suggest that TENS may improve wound healing through increasing growth factors in the dermis and epidermis more than other topical applications.

  12. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  13. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, C.J.; Waycott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature extremes occur during low tide in shallow seagrass meadows. • The effects of temperature extremes were tested experimentally at 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C. • 40 °C was a critical threshold with a large impact on growth and mortality. • At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. • Lower light conditions (e.g. poor water quality) led to a greater negative impact. - Abstract: Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕ PSII ), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5 h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕ PSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows

  14. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedmer B Van de Waal

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  15. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C J; Waycott, M

    2014-06-30

    Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕPSII), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕPSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2-3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing atelectasis attenuates bacterial growth and translocation in experimental pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kaam, Anton H.; Lachmann, Robert A.; Herting, Egbert; de Jaegere, Anne; van Iwaarden, Freek; Noorduyn, L. Arnold; Kok, Joke H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    Besides being one of the mechanisms responsible for ventilator-induced lung injury, atelectasis also seems to aggravate the course of experimental pneumonia. In this study, we examined the effect of reducing the degree of atelectasis by natural modified surfactant and/or open lung ventilation on

  17. Produção do algodoeiro em função da salinidade e tratamento de sementes com regulador de crescimento Cotton yield as a function of salinity and seeds treatment with growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e sementes tratadas com regulador de crescimento na produção do algodoeiro. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente ao acaso, arranjados em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (S1-0,5; S2-2,0; S3-3,5; S4-5,0 e S5-6,5 dS m-1 em sementes tratadas e não tratadas com regulador de crescimento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: produção de algodão em caroço, produção de sementes e de fibra, peso de 100 sementes e porcentagem de fibra. Não houve interação entre os níveis de salinidades e as sementes tratadas com regulador de crescimento. Os parâmetros produtivos do algodoeiro são reduzidos com uso de água de salinidade a partir de 3,5 dS m-1, independente das sementes serem tratadas com regulador de crescimento. As características agronômicas: peso de 100 sementes, porcentagem de fibra e produção de algodão em caroço não são influenciadas pelo cloreto de mepiquat. O tratamento das sementes com regulador de crescimento não afeta o efeito adverso da salinidade.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different salinity levels of irrigation water and seed treated with growth regulator on the yield of cotton. It was used an entirely statistical randomized design, in a factorial scheme 5 x 2, with four replications. The treatments resulted from the combination of four salinity levels of irrigation water (S1-0.5; S2-2.0; S3-3.5; S4-5.0 and S5-6.5 dS m-1 in treated and untreated seeds with growth regulator. The variables were: production of cotton, seed and fiber, 100 seed weight and percentage of fiber. There was not interaction between salinity levels and seed treated. The parameters of cotton production are reduced with the use of water salinity from 3.5 dS m-1

  18. Taking Exception. Reduced mortality leads to population growth: an inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, James D

    2014-05-01

    Reduced mortality has been the predominant cause of the marked global population growth over the last 3/4 of a century. While improved child survival increases motivation to reduce fertility, it comes too little and too late to forestall substantial population growth. And, beyond motivation, couples need effective means to control their fertility. It is an inconvenient truth that reducing child mortality contributes considerably to the population growth destined to compromise the quality of life of many, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Vigorous child survival programming is of course imperative. Wide access to voluntary family planning can help mitigate that growth and provide many other benefits.

  19. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    condition for growth are important to mass production and to determined parameters most suitable for growth. The effects of  temperature, pH and salinity on the growth and production of lactic acid from the three shrimp intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolates were conducted using bacth culture in a flask. These variables for growth were determined based on the growth curves and lactic acid production. Data from the flask batch experiment demonstrated that the best initial pH and temperature  for growth of isolat L12 ,L14 and L21 were found to be pH 6 and 30 OC.  Salinity (NaCl concentration 0,75% were the best for growth of isolat L12. Salnity  1,5 % were best for growth of isolat L14 and L21. Key words : growth, temperature, pH, salinity, lactic aid bacteria

  20. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of salinity stress on growth, lipid productivity, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties in Acutodesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti Raj; Fulekar, Madhusudan H; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi

    2017-05-01

    Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 49 and 43% in BG11 amended with 0.4 M NaCl. The microalgal strains C. vulgaris and A. obliquus grow better at 0.06 M NaCl concentration than control condition. At 0.06 M NaCl, improved dry biomass content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 0.92 and 0.68 gL -1 , respectively. Stress biomarkers like reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also lowest at 0.06 M NaCl concentration revealing that both the microalgal strains are well acclimatized at 0.06 M NaCl concentration. The fatty acid composition of the investigated microalgal strains was also improved by increased NaCl concentration. At 0.4 M NaCl, palmitic acid (37%), oleic acid (15.5%), and linoleic acid (20%) were the dominant fatty acids in C. vulgaris while palmitic acid (54%) and stearic acid (26.6%) were major fatty acids found in A. obliquus. Fatty acid profiling of C. vulgaris and A. obliquus significantly varied with salinity concentration. Therefore, the study showed that salt stress is an effective stress that could increase not only the lipid content but also improved the fatty acid composition which could make C. vulgaris and A. obliquus potential strains for biodiesel production.

  2. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  3. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Rafique, Q.; Rahman, A.U.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  4. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    analyzed using statistical package SAS and means were compared using LSD test at the level of statistical significance of P˂0.05. Results and Discussion: The results indicated that GA3 affected all the measured characteristics except carotenoids in comparison with thiamine and ascorbic acid. Meanwhile, the combined application of GA3 and ascorbic acid affected stem growth, root growth and flower diameter. Simultaneous use of GA3 and thiamine was effective on pigments, reducing sugar, carotenoids and flower number. The simultaneous application of three chemicals resulted in a considerable increase in growth and development traits, such as stem and root growth, flower number and diameter, pigments and reducing sugar compared to control. Generally, gibberellic acid will increase vegetative growth with impress cellular processes, including stimulation cell division and cell elongation. It was reported that the uses of ascorbic acid and gibberellic acid in Thyme (Thymus vulgaris increased plant height and root length. Ascorbic acid makes a set of functions such as cell division and enlargements, cell wall development and other developmental processes in plants. Ascorbic acid affects plasma membrane proton pump and according to the acidic theory stimulates weaking cell wall and consequently will increase cell wall development and cell enlargement. It was found that thiamine significantly increased flower number in chrysanthemum . Conclusion: The results indicated that the synergistic effects of this material can be used to enhance the growth and development of petunia. On the other hand, in arid and semiarid areas of the country, that drought and salinity stresses somewhat inevitable, these materials, especially vitamins are effective in reducing stress and increase flowering period.

  5. Assisted Reproduction Causes Reduced Fetal Growth Associated with Downregulation of Paternally Expressed Imprinted Genes That Enhance Fetal Growth in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Shuqiang; Tang, Na; Xiao, Xifeng; Huang, Jianlei; Jiang, Feng; Huang, Xiuying; Sun, Fangzhen; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    Alteration of intrauterine growth trajectory is linked to metabolic diseases in adulthood. In mammalian and, specifically, human species, pregnancies through assisted reproductive technology (ART) are associated with changes in intrauterine growth trajectory. However, it is still unclear how ART alters intrauterine growth trajectory, especially reduced fetal growth in early to midgestation. In this study, using a mouse model, it was found that ART procedures reduce fetal and placental growth at Embryonic Day 10.5. Furthermore, ART leads to decreased methylation levels at H19, KvDMR1, and Snrpn imprinting control regions in the placentae, instead of fetuses. Furthermore, in the placenta, ART downregulated a majority of parentally expressed imprinted genes, which enhance fetal growth, whereas it upregulated a majority of maternally expressed genes which repress fetal growth. Additionally, the expression of genes that regulate placental development was also affected by ART. ART also downregulated a majority of placental nutrient transporters. Disruption of genomic imprinting and abnormal expression of developmentally and functionally relevant genes in placenta may influence the placental development and function, which affect fetal growth and reprogramming. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P  .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

  7. Crescimento de meloeiro sob estresse salino e doses de potássio Growth of melon cultivated under saline stress and potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo T. Gurgel

    2010-01-01

    five doses of K2O (218, 273, 328, 383 and 438 kg ha-1. Plants were collected at 21, 28, 35, 49 and 63 days after sowing, and were separated in branches (shoot + leaves, flowers and fruits, and the total dry matter of the aerial parts obtained by summation. The absolute and relative growth rates and the production of fruits were also evaluated. The absolute growth rate of the plant was maximum between 35 and 49 days. The highest total biomass was obtained with 438 kg ha-1 K2O and use of high salinity water at the end of crop cycle.

  8. Phytoplankton growth balanced by clam and zooplankton grazing and net transport into the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Wim J.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the influence of planktonic and benthic grazing on phytoplankton in the strongly tidal, river-dominated northern San Francisco Estuary using data from an intensive study of the low salinity foodweb in 2006–2008 supplemented with long-term monitoring data. A drop in chlorophyll concentration in 1987 had previously been linked to grazing by the introduced clam Potamocorbula amurensis, but numerous changes in the estuary may be linked to the continued low chlorophyll. We asked whether phytoplankton continued to be suppressed by grazing and what proportion of the grazing was by benthic bivalves. A mass balance of phytoplankton biomass included estimates of primary production and grazing by microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, and clams. Grazing persistently exceeded net phytoplankton growth especially for larger cells, and grazing by microzooplankton often exceeded that by clams. A subsidy of phytoplankton from other regions roughly balanced the excess of grazing over growth. Thus, the influence of bivalve grazing on phytoplankton biomass can be understood only in the context of limits on phytoplankton growth, total grazing, and transport.

  9. Influence of seed priming and nitrogen application on the growth and development of maize seedlings in saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, D.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Guan, B.

    2018-01-01

    Seed priming and nitrogen application can promote plant tolerance and resistance to salt stress. To explore the combined effects of these two factors on the growth of salt-stressed seedlings, four treatments (priming + nitrogen application, PN; priming + no nitrogen application, P; unprimed + nitrogen application, UPN; and control treatment unprimed + no nitrogen application, UP) were applied to evaluate the responses of plant morphology, antioxidase systems, physiological and biochemical parameters of the maize seedlings under different concentrations of salt stress (0, 100, 200, and 300 mM). The results indicated that under salt stress, the priming treatment facilitated the growth of seedlings of root and stems, increased the amount of osmoregulatory substances, and enhanced the antioxidase activity and resistance of the maize seedlings. After nitrogen application during the maize growth stage, the growth of young leaves was greatly promoted along with an increase in the soluble protein and chlorophyll content. The combination of seed priming and nitrogen application significantly improved the plant growth, antioxidase activities and physiological and biochemical parameters. (author)

  10. Recovery of market size Florida pompano, grown at 3 ppt salinity, from the effects of severe osmotic stress after increasing salinity to 12 ppt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturing a saltwater fish, such as Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus, in near freshwater can lead to physiological changes that lead to slow growth, organ damage, and reduced survival. During a study to examine growth of pompano at different daily feed rates in low salinity (3 ppt) recirculati...

  11. Substitution time of natural food by artificial diet on survival rate and growth of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing in low salinity media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine natural food substitution time by artificial diet   after salinity acclimatization from 20 ppt until 2 ppt, which can increase survival and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing period. Design experiment was completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications of natural food Chironomus sp.  (60% of crude protein substitution time by artificial diet (40% of crude protein at day: 1 (A, 7 (B, 14 (C, 21 (D and full natural food without artificial diet (E during 28 days rearing period. White shrimp postlarvae and rearing media in this experiment based from best result of earlier research that is PL25 from acclimatization in media 2 ppt with addition of potassium 25 ppm to freshwater media.  The densities of PL25 white shrimp were 20 PLs/50 liters of 2 ppt media. The result of this experiment showed that the use of artificial diet as soon as after salinity acclimatization (PL25 gave best performance production compared to which only that was given natural food Chironomus sp. during experiment or with treatment by artificial diet substitution at day-7, day-14 or day-21, shown with the highest value of food consumption level, protein retention, energy retention, daily growth rate and food efficiency. Survival rate of PL54 was above 80% and not significant different between treatment. That is supported by chemical-physical value of water quality still in range appropriate to survival rate of white shrimp post larvae during a rearing period. The result of this experiment indicated that requirement nutrient of PL25 in low salinity did not fulfilled if only rely on natural food, so that require artificial diet with nutrition content to support growth and survival rate of white shrimp post larvae more maximal. Key words: salinity, natural food, artificial diet, Pacific white shrimp   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan waktu penggantian pakan alami oleh

  12. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  13. Plant growth promotion properties of bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) adapted to saline-alkaline soils and their effect on wheat growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Xiangyue; Li, Yan; Li, Runzhi; Xie, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus), known to be tolerant to saline-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and to characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculants benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta. Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of JA on the basis of growth on nitrogen-free Ashby medium. Identification and phylogenetic analysis was performed after nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Plant-growth-promoting traits, such as nitrogen fixation activity, phosphate solubilization activity, indole-3-acetic acid production, were determined using conventional methods. Eleven strains were isolated and 6 of them were further examined for their level of salt tolerance and their effect on plant growth promotion. Inoculation of Enterobacter sp. strain N10 on JA and wheat led to significant increases in both root and shoot dry mass and shoot height. Enterobacter sp. strain N10 appeared to be the best plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to increase wheat productivity in future field applications.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2016-11-04

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress.

  16. Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity often suppresses the wheat performance. As wheat is designated as silicon (Si accumulator, hence Si application may alleviate the salinity induced damages. With the objective to combat the salinity stress in wheat by Si application (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 using calcium silicate, an experiment was conducted on two contrasting wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5 in salinized (10 dS m-1 and non-salinized (2 dS m-1 solutions. Plants were harvested 32 days after transplanting and evaluation was done on the basis of different morphological and analytical characters. Silicon supplementation into the solution culture improved wheat growth and K+/Na+ with reduced Na+ and enhanced K+ uptake. Concomitant improvement in shoot growth was observed; nonetheless the root growth remained unaffected by Si application. Better results were obtained with 150 and 200 mg L-1 of Si which were found almost equally effective. It was concluded that SARC-5 is better than Auqab-2000 against salt stress and Si inclusion into the solution medium is beneficial for wheat and can improve the crop growth both under optimal and salt stressful conditions.

  17. Skeletal muscle protein accretion rates and hindlimb growth are reduced in late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Zastoupil, Laura; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Goldstrohm, David A; Strahan, Brittany; Cree-Green, Melanie; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Meschia, Giacomo; Hay, William W; Wilkening, Randall B; Brown, Laura D

    2018-01-01

    Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass, which may contribute to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. We demonstrate slower hindlimb linear growth and muscle protein synthesis rates that match the reduced hindlimb blood flow and oxygen consumption rates in IUGR fetal sheep. These adaptations resulted in hindlimb blood flow rates in IUGR that were similar to control fetuses on a weight-specific basis. Net hindlimb glucose uptake and lactate output rates were similar between groups, whereas amino acid uptake was significantly lower in IUGR fetal sheep. Among all fetuses, blood O 2 saturation and plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were positively associated and norepinephrine was negatively associated with hindlimb weight. These results further our understanding of the metabolic and hormonal adaptations to reduced oxygen and nutrient supply with placental insufficiency that develop to slow hindlimb growth and muscle protein accretion. Reduced skeletal muscle mass in the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) persists into adulthood and may contribute to increased metabolic disease risk. To determine how placental insufficiency with reduced oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus affects hindlimb blood flow, substrate uptake and protein accretion rates in skeletal muscle, late gestation control (CON) (n = 8) and IUGR (n = 13) fetal sheep were catheterized with aortic and femoral catheters and a flow transducer around the external iliac artery. Muscle protein kinetic rates were measured using isotopic tracers. Hindlimb weight, linear growth rate, muscle protein accretion rate and fractional synthetic rate were lower in IUGR compared to CON (P fetal norepinephrine and reduced IGF-1 and insulin. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  18. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  19. High ammonium availability amplifies the adverse effect of low salinity on eelgrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villazán, Beatriz; Salo, Tiina Elina; Brun, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change intensifies the frequency and intensity of rainfall events, which increases the discharge of freshwater and nutrients to coastal areas. This may lower salinity and increase nutrient availability and, thus, affect estuarine eelgrass populations. We studied the interactive effect...... of increasing NH4+ levels and low salinity on estuarine eelgrass Zostera marina, grown in microcosm at various combinations of NH4+ enrichment (0, 10 and 25 µM) and salinity (5, 12.5 and 20). Increasing NH4+ had a positive effect on eelgrass performance as long as salinity was kept at ambient level (20). N...... enrichment was followed by an increase in pigments, photosynthesis and various growth variables and a decrease in stored carbon concentrations (sucrose and starch). Low salinity had an overall negative effect on plant fitness; pigment concentration, photosynthesis and growth were reduced while mortality...

  20. Effect of reduced light and low oxygen concentration on germination, growth and establishment of some plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasin, Muhammad

    Many abiotic factors effect plants germination, growth, and development. This Ph.D. study elucidates the effect of reduced light, low oxygen and seed dormancy on germination and growth of some weed species, field crops and vegetables. One study describes the growth and developmental responses...... of some common, invasive and rare weed species to reduced light levels in greenhouse experiments. The seed germination response of some weed species, field crops, and vegetables to different oxygen concentrations was also quantified in the laboratory experiments. The effect of east-west (EW) and north...

  1. Quantifying salinity and season effects on eastern oyster clearance and oxygen consumption rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, S.M.; Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Comeau, L. A.; Filgueira, R.; LaPeyre, Jerome F.

    2018-01-01

    There are few data on Crassostrea virginica physiological rates across the range of salinities and temperatures to which they are regularly exposed, and this limits the applicability of growth and production models using these data. The objectives of this study were to quantify, in winter (17 °C) and summer (27 °C), the clearance and oxygen consumption rates of C. virginica from Louisiana across a range of salinities typical of the region (3, 6, 9, 15 and 25). Salinity and season (temperature and reproduction) affected C. virginica physiology differently; salinity impacted clearance rates with reduced feeding rates at low salinities, while season had a strong effect on respiration rates. Highest clearance rates were found at salinities of 9–25, with reductions ranging from 50 to 80 and 90 to 95% at salinities of 6 and 3, respectively. Oxygen consumption rates in summer were four times higher than in winter. Oxygen consumption rates were within a narrow range and similar among salinities in winter, but varied greatly among individuals and salinities in summer. This likely reflected varying stages of gonad development. Valve movements measured at the five salinities indicated oysters were open 50–60% of the time in the 6–25 salinity range and ~ 30% at a salinity of 3. Reduced opening periods, concomitant with narrower valve gap amplitudes, are in accord with the limited feeding at the lowest salinity (3). These data indicate the need for increased focus on experimental determination of optimal ranges and thresholds to better quantify oyster population responses to environmental changes.

  2. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  3. Morpholino-Mediated Isoform Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2) Reduces Colon Cancer Xenograft Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Brian C., E-mail: briancstagg@gmail.com; Uehara, Hironori; Lambert, Nathan; Rai, Ruju; Gupta, Isha; Radmall, Bryce; Bates, Taylor; Ambati, Balamurali K. [John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pro-angiogenic that is involved in tumor angiogenesis. When VEGF binds to membrane-bound vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (mVEGFR2), it promotes angiogenesis. Through alternative polyadenylation, VEGFR2 is also expressed in a soluble form (sVEGFR2). sVEGFR2 sequesters VEGF and is therefore anti-angiogenic. The aim of this study was to show that treatment with a previously developed and reported antisense morpholino oligomer that shifts expression from mVEGFR2 to sVEGFR2 would lead to reduced tumor vascularization and growth in a murine colon cancer xenograft model. Xenografts were generated by implanting human HCT-116 colon cancer cells into the flanks of NMRI nu/nu mice. Treatment with the therapeutic morpholino reduced both tumor growth and tumor vascularization. Because the HCT-116 cells used for the experiments did not express VEGFR2 and because the treatment morpholino targeted mouse rather than human VEGFR2, it is likely that treatment morpholino was acting on the mouse endothelial cells rather than directly on the tumor cells.

  4. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  5. Tolerance of photoperiod insensitive mutant of Sesbania rostrata to salinity and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Saradha; Joshua, D.C.; Shaikh, M.S.; Athalye, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The photoperiod insensitive mutant, TSR-1 of Sesbania rostrata was compared with the parent variety for its response to soil salinity and different levels of pH in hydroponics. The plant growth and stem nodulation were not significantly affected by salinity. However, salinity in soil without farmyard manure stimulated plant growth. Radiotracer studies showed that the translocation of Na to stem and leaves was much less compared to uptake in both parent and mutant. The growth of TSR-1 was comparable to or marginally better than that of the parent variety in the pH range of 3.5-8.0. Root nodulation was less with low pH. The nitrogen content was not adversely affected by pH, but it was reduced with 200 mM NaCl. This mutant in addition to being short-day insensitive, is tolerant to low to moderate salinity levels and pH like its parent. (author)

  6. Dehydrins from wheat x Thinopyrum ponticum amphiploid increase salinity and drought tolerance under their own inducible promoters without growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu-Xiang; Qin, Fangyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dehydrins confer abiotic stress tolerance in seedlings, but few dehydrins have been studied by transgenic analysis under their own promoters in relation to abiotic stress tolerance. Also the inducible promoters for transgenic engineering are limited. In this study, we isolated from wheat three salt-induced YSK2 dehydrin genes and their promoters. The cDNA sequences were 711, 785, and 932 bp in length, encoding proteins containing 133, 166 and 231 amino acids, respectively, and were named TaDHN1, TaDHN2, and TaDHN3. TaDHN2 doesn't contain introns, while the other two genes each contain one. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed all three dehydrin genes are substantially induced by ABA and NaCl, but only TaDHN2 is induced in seedlings by PEG and by cold (4 °C). Regulatory sequences upstream of the first translation codon (775, 1615 and 889 bp) of the three dehydrin genes were also cloned. Cis-element prediction indicated the presence of ABRE and other abiotic-stress-related elements. Histochemical analysis using GUS expression demonstrated that all three promoters were induced by ABA, cold or NaCl. Ectopic over-expression of TaDHN1 or TaDHN3 in Arabidopsis under their own inducible promoters enhanced NaCl- and drought-stress tolerance without growth retardation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Alleviation of heavy metals toxicity by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and effects on wheat grown in saline sodic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamoor Ul; Bano, Asghari; Naz, Irum

    2017-06-03

    The aim of the study was to determine tolerance of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in different concentrations of Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Pb and to evaluate the PGPR-modulated bioavailability of different heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil and wheat tissues, grown in saline sodic soil. Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas moraviensis were isolated from Cenchrus ciliaris L. growing in the Khewra salt range. Seven-day-old cultures of PGPR were applied on wheat as single inoculum, co-inoculation and carrier-based biofertilizer (using maize straw and sugarcane husk as carrier). At 100 ppm of Cr and Cu, the survival rates of rhizobacteria were decreased by 40%. Single inoculation of PGPR decreased 50% of Co, Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. Co-inoculation of PGPR and biofertilizer treatment further augmented the decreases by 15% in Co, Ni, Cr and Mn over single inoculation except Pb and Co where decreases were 40% and 77%, respectively. The maximum decrease in biological concentration factor (BCF) was observed for Cd, Co, Cr, and Mn. P. moraviensis inoculation decreases the biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) as well as translocation factor (TF) for Cd, Cr, Cu Mn, and Ni. The PGPR inoculation minimized the deleterious effects of heavy metals, and the addition of carriers further assisted the PGPR.

  8. Seasonal formation of ikaite (caco 3 · 6h 2o) in saline spring discharge at Expedition Fiord, Canadian High Arctic: Assessing conditional constraints for natural crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Christopher R.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Marion, Giles M.

    2001-05-01

    - Spring discharge at Expedition Fiord (Pollard et al., 1999) on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic produces a variety of travertine forms in addition to a diverse collection of mineral precipitates. This paper focuses on clusters of thermally unstable crystals believed to be the mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O) growing seasonally along two spring outflows at Colour Peak. This form of calcium carbonate mineral occurs along small sections of discharge outflow as white euhedral crystals up to 0.5 cm in length. Difficulty in sampling, storage and transport of the samples for analysis has hampered attempts to confirm the presence of ikaite by X-ray diffraction. However, various field observations and the remarkable instability of these crystals at normal ambient temperatures strengthens our argument. This paper provides a description of these particular CaCO 3 · 6H 2O crystals and their environmental surroundings, and attempts to determine the validity of ikaite precipitation at this site by theoretical geochemical modeling: these results are compared with other reported observations of ikaite to both understand their occurrence and help delineate their geochemical characteristics. It is believed that the restrictive combination of spring water chemistry and long periods of low temperatures characteristic of arctic climates are necessary for ikaite growth at this site. The fact that ikaite is not forming at a second group of saline springs 11 km away allows us to more specifically outline conditions controlling its presence.

  9. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  10. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  11. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  12. Endothelial Dll4 overexpression reduces vascular response and inhibits tumor growth and metastasization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alexandre; Djokovic, Dusan; Gigante, Joana; Mendonça, Liliana; Duarte, António

    2017-03-14

    The inhibition of Delta-like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling has been shown to result in excessive, nonfunctional vessel proliferation and significant tumor growth suppression. However, safety concerns emerged with the identification of side effects resulting from chronic Dll4/Notch blockade. Alternatively, we explored the endothelial Dll4 overexpression using different mouse tumor models. We used a transgenic mouse model of endothelial-specific Dll4 overexpression, previously produced. Growth kinetics and vascular histopathology of several types of solid tumors was evaluated, namely Lewis Lung Carcinoma xenografts, chemically-induced skin papillomas and RIP1-Tag2 insulinomas. We found that increased Dll4/Notch signaling reduces tumor growth by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial proliferation, tumor vessel density and overall tumor blood supply. In addition, Dll4 overexpression consistently improved tumor vascular maturation and functionality, as indicated by increased vessel calibers, enhanced mural cell recruitment and increased network perfusion. Importantly, the tumor vessel normalization is not more effective than restricted vessel proliferation, but was found to prevent metastasis formation and allow for increased delivery to the tumor of concomitant chemotherapy, improving its efficacy. By reducing endothelial sensitivity to VEGF, these results imply that Dll4/Notch stimulation in tumor microenvironment could be beneficial to solid cancer patient treatment by reducing primary tumor size, improving tumor drug delivery and reducing metastization. Endothelial specific Dll4 overexpression thus appears as a promising anti-angiogenic modality that might improve cancer control.

  13. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  14. The Changes in the Physiological Growth and the React of the Salinity and Number of Irrigation Water of Two Cumin Cultivars (Cuminum cyminum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M kafi; Ehsan Keshmiri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Water shortage in Iran has always been a limiting factor for crop cultivation. Drought stress at different growth stages, especially flowering and grain filling stages decreases the yield of the plants. Drought stress may limit yield of medicinal and aromatic plants by reducing the harvest index (HI). This can occur even in the absence of a strong reduction in total medicinal and aromatic plants dry matter accumulation, if a brief period of stress coincides with the critical d...

  15. Emergência, crescimento e produção da mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada Emergence, growth and production of the castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gomes Nobre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na atividade agrícola vem se tornando uma realidade em diversas regiões do mundo, tendo em vista o aumento na demanda por água doce, tanto para agricultura irrigada, como no abastecimento urbano e industrial. Neste sentido, objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação associada a doses de adubação nitrogenada, sobre a emergência, crescimento e produção da mamoneira cv. BRS Energia, em experimento onde as plantas foram conduzidas em lisímetros sob condições de campo, no CCTA/UFCG. Utilizou-se a aleatoriedade em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três repetições, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (0,4; 1,4; 2,4; 3,4 e 4,4 dS m-1 associados a cinco doses de adubação nitrogenada (50; 75; 100; 125 e 150% da dose recomendada para ensaios em vaso. A salinidade da água de irrigação a partir de 0,4 dS m-1 afeta linear e negativamente a percentagem de emergência (PE, o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a altura de planta (AP, o diâmetro caulinar (DC, a fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e de raiz (FSRaiz e a massa de sementes do racemo primário (MSemRP, enquanto que doses crescentes de nitrogênio promoveram aumento no DC, na FSPA e na FSRaiz. A aplicação de doses crescentes de N reduziu o efeito da salinidade sobre o DC e a FSRaiz da mamoneira cv. BRS Energia.The use of saline water in agriculture is becoming a reality in many regions of the world, given the increased demand for fresh water, both for irrigated agriculture, as well as for urban and industrial supply. In this context, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of different salinity levels in irrigation water, associated with amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, on the emergence, growth and yield of the castor bean, cv. BRS Energia, in an experiment where plants were maintained in lysimeters under field

  16. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained.

  17. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-square quantum well growth for reduced threshold current in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents calculations demonstrating that non-square quantum well growth (well shaping) can result in reduced threshold current for tensilely strained quantum well bipolar diode lasers operating at 1.52ìm m. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and laser gain are performed for arbitrarily ...

  19. MULCHES AND OTHER COVER MATERIALS TO REDUCE WEED GROWTH IN CONTAINER-GROWN NURSERY STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, F; Van Wesemael, D; Van Haecke, D; Mechant, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent EU-wide implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), alternative methods to reduce weed growth in container-grown nursery stock are needed to cut back the use of herbicides. Covering the upper layer of the substrate is known as a potential method to prevent or reduce weed growth in plant containers. As a high variety of mulches and other cover materials are on the market, however, it is no longer clear for growers which cover material is most efficient for use in containers. Therefore, we examined the effect on weed growth of different mulches and other cover materials, including Pinus maritima, P. sylvestris, Bio-Top Basic, Bio-Top Excellent, coco chips fine, hemp fibres, straw pellets, coco disk 180LD and jute disk. Cover materials were applied immediately after repotting of Ligustrum ovalifolium or planting of Fagus sylvatica. At regular times, both weed growth and side effects (e.g., plant growth, water status of the substrate, occurrence of mushrooms, foraging of birds, complete cover of the substrate and fixation) were assessed. All examined mulches or other cover materials were able to reduce weed growth on the containers during the whole growing season. Weed suppression was even better than that of a chemical treated control. Although all materials showed some side effects, the impact on plant growth is most important to the grower and depends not only on material characteristics (e.g., biodegradation, nutrient leaching and N-immobilisation) but also on container size and climatic conditions. In conclusion, mulches and other cover materials can be a valuable tool within IPM to lower herbicide use. To enable a deliberate choice of which cover material is best used in a specific situation more research is needed on lifespan and stability as well as on economic characteristics of the materials.

  20. Effects of water salinity on hatching of egg, growth and survival of larvae and fingerlings of snake head fish, Channa striatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of water salinity ranging from 0-30 ppt on hatching success of snake head fish, Channa striatus was conducted in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 eggs for various levels of water salinity. Fertilization rates at 0, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 ppt were 69.33, 72.67, 71.33, 72.67, 82.00, 73.33 and 10.67%, respectively. The fertilization rate at 12-13 ppt salinity was significantly (P0.05 among 0, 5 and 10 ppt.

  1. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot

  2. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  3. Salinity effects on radiation utilization characteristics of Kochia (Kochia Scoparia L. Schrad.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jami Al-Ahmadi, M.; Kafi, M.; Nassiri Mahalati, M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency of Kochia scoparia in response to saline stress, a study was performed at Birjand, South Khorasan, using three levels of salinity in irrigation water (1.5, 8.6 and 28.2 dSm-1) with three replications. Several measurements were conducted during growth season to calculate radiation fraction passed through plant canopy, and also leaf area index (LAI) and total dry matter (TDM). Light extinction coefficient calculated with correcting fraction of plant light absorption for whole day, and using dry matter accumulation, radiation use efficiency obtained in each different salinity level. The results showed that light extinction coefficient of Kochia was equal to 0.59 for solar noon and 0.75 for whole day. The radiation absorption of kochia rose as LAI increased, and 95% of radiation was absorbed at LAI equal to 4 to 5. LAI and total dry matter accumulation were highest in moderate salinity level. In general, increase in salinity caused a delay in early season development, and accelerated plant maturity at late season. This caused plant canopies at the highest salinity reached to maximum light absorption later in growth season. Increase of salinity from 1.5 to 8.6 dSm-1 was responsible for little increase in RUE from 2.4 to 2.5 g per MJ absorbed PAR; however, it reduced with further increase in salinity. Thus, it seems that moderate salinity levels stimulate growth and dry matter accumulation of kochia and cause kochia canopy convert the absorbed radiation to dry matter more effectively. Key words: Kochia scoparia, Salinity, Light extension coefficient, Radiation use efficiency, Leaf Area Index

  4. Tolerance of Hordeum marinum accessions to O2 deficiency, salinity and these stresses combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Al Imran; English, Jeremy Parker; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims When root-zone O2 deficiency occurs together with salinity, regulation of shoot ion concentrations is compromised even more than under salinity alone. Tolerance was evaluated amongst 34 accessions of Hordeum marinum, a wild species in the Triticeae, to combined salinity and root-zone O2 deficiency. Interest in H. marinum arises from the potential to use it as a donor for abiotic stress tolerance into wheat. Methods Two batches of 17 H. marinum accessions, from (1) the Nordic Gene Bank and (2) the wheat belt of Western Australia, were exposed to 0·2 or 200 mol m−3 NaCl in aerated or stagnant nutrient solution for 28–29 d. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was included as a sensitive check species. Growth, root porosity, root radial O2 loss (ROL) and leaf ion (Na+, K+, Cl−) concentrations were determined. Key Results Owing to space constraints, this report is focused mainly on the accessions from the Nordic Gene Bank. The 17 accessions varied in tolerance; relative growth rate was reduced by 2–38 % in stagnant solution, by 8–42 % in saline solution (aerated) and by 39–71 % in stagnant plus saline treatment. When in stagnant solution, porosity of adventitious roots was 24–33 %; salinity decreased the root porosity in some accessions, but had no effect in others. Roots grown in stagnant solution formed a barrier to ROL, but variation existed amongst accessions in apparent barrier ‘strength’. Leaf Na+ concentration was 142–692 µmol g−1 d. wt for plants in saline solution (aerated), and only increased to 247–748 µmol g−1 d. wt in the stagnant plus saline treatment. Leaf Cl− also showed only small effects of stagnant plus saline treatment, compared with saline alone. In comparison with H. marinum, wheat was more adversely affected by each stress alone, and particularly when combined; growth reductions were greater, adventitious root porosity was 21 %, it lacked a barrier to ROL, leaf K+ declined to lower levels, and leaf Na+ and

  5. Regulation of cation transporter genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice plants subjected to salinity suggests improved salt tolerance due to reduced Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Aroca, Ricardo; Azcon, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Rice is a salt-sensitive crop whose productivity is strongly reduced by salinity around the world. Plants growing in saline soils are subjected to the toxicity of specific ions such as sodium, which damage cell organelles and disrupt metabolism. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of salinity. These include the regulation of genes with a role in the uptake, transport or compartmentation of Na(+) and/or K(+). Studies have shown that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates salt stress in several host plant species. However, despite the abundant literature showing mitigation of ionic imbalance by the AM symbiosis, the molecular mechanisms involved are barely explored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of the AM symbiosis on the expression of several well-known rice transporters involved in Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and measure Na(+) and K(+) contents and their ratios in different plant tissues. Results showed that OsNHX3, OsSOS1, OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT1;5 genes were considerably upregulated in AM plants under saline conditions as compared to non-AM plants. Results suggest that the AM symbiosis favours Na(+) extrusion from the cytoplasm, its sequestration into the vacuole, the unloading of Na(+) from the xylem and its recirculation from photosynthetic organs to roots. As a result, there is a decrease of Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution and an increase of Na(+) accumulation in rice roots which seems to enhance the plant tolerance to salinity and allows AM rice plants to maintain their growing processes under salt conditions.

  6. Efeito da carga de frutos e concentrações salinas no crescimento do meloeiro Cultivado em substrato Effect of fruit load and saline concentrations on the growth of melon cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da S Duarte

    2008-09-01

    was established. The fruits comprised from 49 to 55% of the total above-ground DM production, which demonstrated that they are the strongest sinks for assimilates. Increasing the number of fruits reduced the fruit mean weight, with no effect on the production and distribution of total, vegetative and generative DM. However, it slightly increased the fruit and whole aerial plant parts, FM production and partitioning to the fruits. Therefore, the accumulation of water in fruits was not proportional to DM accumulation. The lower saline concentration in the nutrient solution can be indicated for melon cultivation in raw rice husk during the autumn crop-season, because it promotes a similar plant growth to the observed in the highest concentrations.

  7. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  8. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  9. Increased classical endoplasmic reticulum stress is sufficient to reduce chondrocyte proliferation rate in the growth plate and decrease bone growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H W Kung

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and matrilin-3 cause a spectrum of chondrodysplasias called multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH. The majority of these diseases feature classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR as a result of misfolding of the mutant protein. However, the importance and the pathological contribution of ER stress in the disease pathogenesis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the generic role of ER stress and the UPR in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A transgenic mouse line (ColIITgcog was generated using the collagen II promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (Tgcog in chondrocytes. The skeletal and histological phenotypes of these ColIITgcog mice were characterised. The expression and intracellular retention of Tgcog induced ER stress and activated the UPR as characterised by increased BiP expression, phosphorylation of eIF2α and spliced Xbp1. ColIITgcog mice exhibited decreased long bone growth and decreased chondrocyte proliferation rate. However, there was no disruption of chondrocyte morphology or growth plate architecture and perturbations in apoptosis were not apparent. Our data demonstrate that the targeted induction of ER stress in chondrocytes was sufficient to reduce the rate of bone growth, a key clinical feature associated with MED and PSACH, in the absence of any growth plate dysplasia. This study establishes that classical ER stress is a pathogenic factor that contributes to the disease mechanism of MED and PSACH. However, not all the pathological features of MED and PSACH were recapitulated, suggesting that a combination of intra- and extra-cellular factors are likely to be responsible for the disease pathology as a whole.

  10. Effect of The Phytase Enzyme Addition in The Artificial Feed on Digestibility of Feed, Feed Conversion Ratio and Growth of Gift Tilapia Saline Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Nursery Stadia I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Diana; Samidjan, Istiyanto; Elfitasari, Tita

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding the phytase enzyme in the artificial feed on digestibility of feed, feed conversion ratio and growth of gift tilapia saline fish (Oreochromis niloticus) nursery stadia I. The fish samples in this study used gift tilapia saline fish (O. niloticus) with an average weight of 0,62 ± 0,008 g/fish and the stocking density of 1 fish1 L. Experimental method used in this study was completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were by adding phytase enzyme in artificial feed with the different level of doses those were A (0 FTU kg1 feed), B (500 FTU kg1 feed), C (1000 FTU kg1 feed) and D (1500 FTU kg1 feed). The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme was significantly (P0.05) affected on Survival Rate (SR) of gift tilapia saline fish. The optimum doses of phytase enzyme on RGR, FCR, PER, ADCP and ADCF of gift tilapia saline fish ranged from 1060 to 1100 FTU kg-1 feed.

  11. Laboratory experiment to study the effect of salinity variations on benthic foraminiferal species - Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.

    Culture experiment has been carried out to observe the response of Pararotalia nipponica (Asano) to different salinities and its salinity tolerance limits. The specimens of P. nipponica kept in 33‰ saline water achieved optimum growth, while rest...

  12. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  13. Oral antibody to interleukin-10 reduces growth rate depression due to Eimeria spp. infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jordan M; Arendt, Maria K; Repasy, Alec; Deniz, Gűlay; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Eimeria spp. must be controlled in floor-reared poultry to prevent the onset of coccidiosis. Here we use an oral antibody to chicken IL-10 to prevent growth depression due to Eimeria spp. infection. Egg antibody directed against an antigenic peptide of IL-10 was produced in laying hens and measured using an ELISA. In the first experiment, egg yolk powder containing antibody to chicken IL-10 (vlpramqt conjugate) (anti-IL-10 yolk powder) was fed at 3.4 g/kg feed to determine growth response following mixed Eimeria spp. challenge. Chicks were fed either anti-IL-10 antibodies or control antibodies and challenged (d3) with either sterile saline or a 10× attenuated Eimeria spp. vaccine. Control-fed and Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 8.8% slower than those challenged with saline (P < 0.04), whereas anti-IL-10-fed Eimeria challenged chicks were not different from untreated controls. In the second trial a dose response was performed with doses of either 0 (control antibody), 0.34-, or 3.4-g anti-IL-10 yolk powder/kg feed. Control-fed, Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 10.6% slower than control saline-challenged chicks (P < 0.05); however, anti-IL-10-fed chicks fed either dose of anti-IL-10 were not different from saline-challenged chicks. Finally, the effect of anti-IL-10 on acquired immunity was investigated. Chicks were fed control or anti-IL-10 yolk powder and vaccinated with a 1× dose of Eimeria vaccine at d 3. After 14 d, antibody was removed from the diet. Chicks were either saline or 10× Eimeria challenged at d 17. We found that the anti-IL-10-fed chickens did not show a reduction in growth due to challenge; hence anti-IL-10 does not appear to affect adaptive immunity during the primary immunization. Overall, use of an antibody to IL-10 is a novel method in preventing adverse effects of Eimeria spp. infection in poultry. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  15. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  16. Pilot-scale continuous recycling of growth medium for the mass culture of a halotolerant Tetraselmis sp. in raceway ponds under increasing salinity: a novel protocol for commercial microalgal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon Sing, S; Isdepsky, A; Borowitzka, M A; Lewis, D M

    2014-06-01

    The opportunity to recycle microalgal culture medium for further cultivation is often hampered by salinity increases from evaporation and fouling by dissolved and particulate matter. In this study, the impact of culture re-use after electro-flocculation of seawater-based medium on growth and biomass productivity of the halotolerant green algal strain Tetraselmis sp., MUR 233, was investigated in pilot-scale open raceway ponds over 5months. Despite a salinity increase from 5.5% to 12% (w/v) NaCl, Tetraselmis MUR 233 grown on naturally DOC-enriched recycled medium produced 48-160% more ash free dry weight (AFDW) biomass daily per unit pond area than when grown on non-recycled medium. A peak productivity of 37.5±3.1gAFDWm(-2)d(-1) was reached in the recycled medium upon transition from ∼14% to ∼7% NaCl. The combination of high biomass-yielding mixotrophic growth under high salinity has been proven to be a successful sustainable cultivation strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MutY-Homolog (MYH) inhibition reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth and increases chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbeen, George; Youkhana, Janet; Mawson, Amanda; McCarroll, Joshua; Nunez, Andrea; Biankin, Andrew; Johns, Amber; Goldstein, David; Phillips, Phoebe

    2017-02-07

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC) have a poor prognosis due to metastases and chemoresistance. PC is characterized by extensive fibrosis, which creates a hypoxic microenvironment, and leads to increased chemoresistance and intracellular oxidative stress. Thus, proteins that protect against oxidative stress are potential therapeutic targets for PC. A key protein that maintains genomic integrity against oxidative damage is MutY-Homolog (MYH). No prior studies have investigated the function of MYH in PC cells. Using siRNA, we showed that knockdown of MYH in PC cells 1) reduced PC cell proliferation and increased apoptosis; 2) further decreased PC cell growth in the presence of oxidative stress and chemotherapy agents (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and vincristine); 3) reduced PC cell metastatic potential; and 4) decreased PC tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. The results from this study suggest MYH may be a novel therapeutic target for PC that could potentially improve patient outcome by reducing PC cell survival, increasing the efficacy of existing drugs and reducing metastatic spread.

  19. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggins Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  20. Effects of salt stress imposed during two growth phases on cauliflower production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Francesco; Cassaniti, Carla; Malvuccio, Angelo; Leonardi, Cherubino

    2017-03-01

    Cultivation of cauliflower is diffused in Mediterranean areas where water salinity results in the need to identify alternative irrigation sources or management strategies. Using saline water during two growth phases (from transplanting to visible appearance of inflorescence or from appearance of inflorescence to head harvest), the present study aimed to identify the growth period that is more suitable for irrigation with low quality water in relation to cauliflower production and quality. Salinity affected cauliflower growth mainly when imposed in the first growth phase. The growth reduction depended mainly on ion-specific effects, although slight nutrient imbalances as a result of Na + and Cl - antagonisms were observed. The use of non-saline water in the first or second growth period reduced both the osmotic and toxic effects of salinity. When salinity was applied during inflorescence growth, yield was reduced because of a restriction of water accumulation in the head. The results of the present study demonstrate the possibility of producing marketable cauliflower heads under conditions of salinity by timing the application of the best quality water during the first growth phase to improve fruit quality and during the second phase to reduce the negative effects of salinity on yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica R Cappellari

    Full Text Available Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5'-NT participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5'-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children.The effects of ecto-5'-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified.The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5'-NT (D283hCD73, revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5'-NT.This work suggests that ecto-5'-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5'-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy.

  2. Reduced interaction layer growth of U-Mo dispersion in Al-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Development of high U-density U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U-Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to {approx}50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at {approx}200 Degree-Sign C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U-Mo/Al-Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0-8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL-matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  3. Reduced interaction layer growth of U–Mo dispersion in Al–Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong; Hofman, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of high U-density U–Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U–Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to ∼50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at ∼200 °C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U–Mo/Al–Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0–8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL–matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  4. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil salinity: Germination tolerance of alternative oilseed crops for soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide, saline soils contribute to over US$27.3 billion in agricultural losses annually by reducing plant growth through osmotic imbalances and ion toxicity. Nearly 800,000 ha of salt affected land is located in the northern Great Plains. Limited information is available on the germination of al...

  6. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  7. Growth and chemosensory behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxygen-sulfide gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Andrea M.; Wieland, Andrea Eschemann; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Growth and chemotactic behavior in oxic–anoxic gradients were studied with two freshwater and four marine strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria related to the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium or Desulfobulbus. Cells were grown in oxygen–sulfide counter-gradients within tubes filled with agar...... chemotactically to lactate, nitrate, sulfate and thiosulfate, and even sulfide functioned as an attractant. In oxic–anoxic gradients the bacteria moved away from high oxygen concentrations and formed bands at the outer edge of the oxic zone at low oxygen concentration (... to actively change the extension and slope of the gradients by oxygen reduction with lactate or even sulfide as electron donor. Generally, the chemotactic behavior was in agreement with a defense strategy that re-establishes anoxic conditions, thus promoting anaerobic growth and, in a natural community...

  8. The importance of high injection velocity to reduce plasma armature growth and drag in hypervelocity railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Dixon, W.R.; Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R.C.; Susoeff, A.R.; Asay, J.R.; Shaninpoor, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas are required to serve as armature in hypervelocity railguns. Typically, the plasmas are at temperatures of about 20-30,000 K and result in a high heat flux on the barrel wall. Slow moving plasmas radiate heat and melt the launcher wall causing it to ablate and resulting in a growth of the armature mass and length. As the velocity increases, the more massive and longer armature will result in greater viscous drag and ultimately limit the maximum achievable velocity. Several possible means of reducing the armature growth are possible. This paper discusses two of them, use of heat resistant barrel materials, and reduction of wall heating by reduction of exposure time through use of a high initial velocity. A summary of experimentally based, material ablation resistance calculations is presented. Second, the benefit of high injection velocity is evaluated. Finally, a joint SNLA and LLNL railgun research project based on the above considerations are described

  9. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  10. Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

  11. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  12. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  13. Addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk scaffolds improves mammalian cell activity while reducing bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Chung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas compared to non-electrospun equivalents. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. In contrast, selenium nanoparticles have excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics.

  14. The Use of gamma-Irradiation in Counteracting the Effect of Salinity for Cultivation of Barley and Pea Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, L.M.; Kamel, H.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Kord, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical changes induced by salinity in two economic plants (Barley and Pea) and the probable counteraction of gamma irradiation for enhancement of growth were studied. The data obtained revealed that the reduction in pigments content due to salinity treatment was more pronounced in pea plants than barley. However, gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in pigment content of both plants. The interaction effect of salinity and radiation varied from an increase in case of barley to a reduction in peas. In both plants, soluble sugars content increased due to salinity and /or gamma-radiation. Moreover, total carbohydrates increased due to the combined treatment. A matched increase in free proline content was recorded with increase of salinity. While, gamma-irradiation showed a different trend. Protein and nucleic acids contents were proportionally decreased with increase of salinity levels, whereas gamma radiation induced an increase in both protein and nucleic acids content. A progressive reduction in the yield by increasing salinity was observed, while gamma-irradiation increased the yield of both plants. 14 CO 2 fixation was reduced by salinity treatment while gamma-radiation increased it. Contrary to 14 CO 2 fixation, salinity enhanced respiration, while radiation retarded it

  15. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Interest in and demand for preserved seafood with reduced salt/sodium content is increasing. As a consequence of the reduced salt content potential growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to unacceptable high concentration where they cause product spoilage is an increasing challenge. Innovation...... include the effect of temperatures and salt. However, these simple secondary models do not include the effect of a broader range of product characteristics and therefore they cannot be used to predict how the inhibiting effect of salt can be replaced by changes in other environmental factors The objective...... and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...

  16. Posttraumatic growth and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents at month 1 after the Sichuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-nan; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated posttraumatic growth (PTG) and reduced suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents at one month after the occurrence of the Sichuan Earthquake. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 3324 high school students in Chengdu, Sichuan. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children and the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale assessed PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that being in junior high grade 2, having probable PTSD, visiting affected areas, possessing a perceived sense of security from teachers, and being exposed to touching news reports and encouraging news reports were associated with probable PTG; the reverse was true for students in senior high grade 1 or senior high grade 2 who had experienced prior adversities. Among the 623 students (19.3% of all students) who had suicidal ideation prior to the earthquake, 57.4% self-reported reduced suicidal ideation when the pre-earthquake and post-earthquake situations were compared. Among these 623 students, the multivariate results showed that being females, perceived sense of security obtained from teachers and exposure to encouraging news reports were factors associated with reduced suicidal ideation; the reverse was true for experience of pre-earthquake corporal punishment and worry about severe earthquakes in the future. The study population was not directly hit by the earthquake. This study is cross-sectional and no baseline data were collected prior to the occurrence of the earthquake. The earthquake resulted in PTG and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents. PTSD was associated with PTG. Special attention should be paid to teachers' support, contents of media reports, and students' experience of prior adversities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Herbivore impacts on marsh production depend upon a compensatory continuum mediated by salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Long

    Full Text Available Plant communities are disturbed by several stressors and they are expected to be further impacted by increasing anthropogenic stress. The consequences of these stressors will depend, in part, upon the ability of plants to compensate for herbivory. Previous studies found that herbivore impacts on plants can vary from negative to positive because of environmental control of plant compensatory responses, a.k.a. the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis. While these influential studies enhanced our appreciation of the dynamic nature of plant-herbivore interactions, they largely focused on the impact of resource limitation. This bias limits our ability to predict how other environmental factors will shape the impact of herbivory. We examined the role of salinity stress on herbivory of salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, by an herbivore previously hypothesized to influence the success of restoration projects (the scale insect, Haliaspis spartinae. Using a combination of field and mesocosm manipulations of scales and salinity, we measured how these factors affected Spartina growth and timing of senescence. In mesocosm studies, Spartina overcompensated for herbivory by growing taller shoots at low salinities but the impact of scales on plants switched from positive to neutral with increasing salinity stress. In field studies of intermediate salinities, scales reduced Spartina growth and increased the rate of senescence. Experimental salinity additions at this field site returned the impact of scales to neutral. Because salinity decreased scale densities, the switch in impact of scales on Spartina with increasing salinity was not simply a linear function of scale abundance. Thus, the impact of scales on primary production depended strongly upon environmental context because intermediate salinity stress prevented plant compensatory responses to herbivory. Understanding this context-dependency will be required if we are going to successfully predict the

  18. Crescimento do melão Pele de Sapo, em níveis de salinidade e estágio de desenvolvimento da planta Growth of 'Pele de Sapo' muskmelon under salinity levels and development stage of plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana C. de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As áreas de cultivo com intensa evaporação, deficiência em drenagem e uso inadequado de fertilizantes, têm aumentado os problemas com a salinidade, prejudicando o rendimento das culturas. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de se avaliar a alocação de massa seca do meloeiro, em função dos diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e estágios de desenvolvimento da planta, em Mossoró, RN. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas apresentando, nas parcelas, cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,54, 1,48, 2,02, 3,03 e 3,90 dS m-1 e, nas subparcelas, quatro épocas de coleta de plantas em função dos estágios de seu desenvolvimento (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplante - DAT correspondendo às fases de crescimento inicial, floração plena, frutificação plena e anterior ao início da colheita, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. Todos os parâmetros de crescimento avaliados foram afetados pela salinidade da água de irrigação. O efeito da salinidade da água sobre a área foliar específica e a massa seca das folhas, foi variável de acordo com a fase de desenvolvimento das plantas. As variáveis mais afetadas pela salinidade da água de irrigação foram a área foliar e a massa seca de frutos, com redução de 28,9 e 24,6%, respectivamente. O maior acúmulo de massa seca no meloeiro Pele de Sapo ocorreu no período entre 30 e 45 dias após o transplantio.The region of Mossoró, RN, Brazil, underwent increasing problems with soil salinity and melon crop yields, mainly in areas with intense evaporation, deficient drainage and inadequate fertilizer use. With this concern, dry mass accumulation in different muskmelon plant organs was evaluated in a trial combining different irrigation water salinity levels and crop growth stages. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized block design with split plot arrangement, having four

  19. Reduced angiogenic factor expression in intrauterine fetal growth restriction using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahakoon, Thushari I; Zhang, Weiyi; Arbuckle, Susan; Zhang, Kewei; Lee, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    To localize, quantify and compare angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), as well as their receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (Flt-1) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in the placentas of normal pregnancy and complications of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and PE + IUGR. In a prospective cross-sectional case-control study, 30 pregnant women between 24-40 weeks of gestation, were recruited into four clinical groups. Representative placental samples were stained for VEGF, PlGF, Flt-1 and KDR. Analysis was performed using semiquantitative methods and digital image analysis. The overall VEGF and Flt-1 were strongly expressed and did not show any conclusive difference in the expression between study groups. PlGF and KDR were significantly reduced in expression in the placentas from pregnancies complicated by IUGR compared with normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. The lack of PlGF and KDR may be a cause for the development of IUGR and may explain the loss of vasculature and villous architecture in IUGR. Automated digital image analysis software is a viable alternative method to the manual reading of placental immunohistochemical staining. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Construction of Zn-incorporated multilayer films to promote osteoblasts growth and reduce bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng, E-mail: liupeng79@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhang [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ding, Hongyan [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, Jiangsu Province 223003 (China); Hu, Yan; Yang, Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Cai, Kaiyong, E-mail: kaiyong_cai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-06-01

    To improve the biological performance of titanium substrates, a bioactive multilayered structure of chitosan/gelatin pair, containing zinc ions, was constructed via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The successful preparation of zinc ions incorporated multilayer films was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, respectively. The biological behaviors of osteoblasts adhered to modified Ti substrates were investigated in vitro via cytoskeleton observation, cell viability measurement, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay. The cytocompatibility evaluation verified that the present system was capable of promoting the growth of osteoblasts. In addition, Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria were used to evaluate antibacterial property of modified Ti substrates. Bacterial adhesion and viability assay confirmed that Zn-loaded multilayer films were able to inhibit the adhesion and growth of bacteria. The approach presented here affords an alternative to reduce bacterial infection and promote osteoblast growth for titanium-based implants. - Highlights: • Polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing Zn ions were fabricated on Ti substrate. • Modified Ti substrate stimulated the biological responses of osteoblast. • Antibacterial property of Ti substrate was significantly improved. • The resulting material thus has potential application in orthopedic field.

  1. Fatigue life assessment based on crack growth behavior in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Sato, Yuki; Hasegawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Crack growth behavior under low cycle fatigue in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H IEA-heat (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), was investigated to improve the fatigue life assessment method of fusion reactor structural material. Low cycle fatigue test was carried out at room temperature in air at a total strain range of 0.4-1.5% using an hourglass-type miniature fatigue specimen. The relationship between the surface crack length and life fraction was described using one equation independent of the total strain range. Therefore, the fatigue life and residual life could be estimated using the surface crack length. Moreover, the microcrack initiation life could be estimated using the total strain range if there was a one-to-one correspondence between the total strain range and number of cycles to failure. The crack growth rate could be estimated using the total strain range and surface crack length by introducing the concept of the normalized crack growth rate. (author)

  2. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance the productivity of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Khaliq, Abdul; Ahmed, Jam Nazir; Nawaz, Ahmad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2018-04-24

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1tiller -1 ), and highest plant height (85.8cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320m -2 ), straw yield (8.6Mgha -1 ), and grain yield (4.8Mgha -1 ) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of salinity effects on past, present, and future soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Gottschalk, Pia; Baldock, Jeff; Verma, Vipan; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2012-02-07

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) models are used to predict changes in SOC stocks and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions from soils, and have been successfully validated for non-saline soils. However, SOC models have not been developed to simulate SOC turnover in saline soils. Due to the large extent of salt-affected areas in the world, it is important to correctly predict SOC dynamics in salt-affected soils. To close this knowledge gap, we modified the Rothamsted Carbon Model (RothC) to simulate SOC turnover in salt-affected soils, using data from non-salt-affected and salt-affected soils in two agricultural regions in India (120 soils) and in Australia (160 soils). Recently we developed a decomposition rate modifier based on an incubation study of a subset of these soils. In the present study, we introduce a new method to estimate the past losses of SOC due to salinity and show how salinity affects future SOC stocks on a regional scale. Because salinity decreases decomposition rates, simulations using the decomposition rate modifier for salinity suggest an accumulation of SOC. However, if the plant inputs are also adjusted to reflect reduced plant growth under saline conditions, the simulations show a significant loss of soil carbon in the past due to salinization, with a higher average loss of SOC in Australian soils (55 t C ha(-1)) than in Indian soils (31 t C ha(-1)). There was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05) between SOC loss and osmotic potential. Simulations of future SOC stocks with the decomposition rate modifier and the plant input modifier indicate a greater decrease in SOC in saline than in non-saline soils under future climate. The simulations of past losses of SOC due to salinity were repeated using either measured charcoal-C or the inert organic matter predicted by the Falloon et al. equation to determine how much deviation from the Falloon et al. equation affects the amount of plant inputs generated by the model for the soils used in this study

  4. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  5. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  6. Glufosinate-ammonium reduces growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubajikat, K M; Damann, K E

    2002-09-01

    The herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GA) [butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-ammonium salt] was tested at concentrations from 2 to 2,000 g GA per ml for activity against growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB) production by the mycotoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr. The highest concentration (2,000 microg GA per ml) reduced colony diameter of A. flavus strain AF13 by 80%. AFB1 production was inhibited by 90% at this concentration. Reduction in mycelial dry weight and AFB1 production in response to GA application ranged from 17.2 to 97.1% and from 39.1 to 90.1%, respectively. Of four concentrations tested, 2 microg GA per ml was weakly inhibitory. In the kernel screening assay, AFB1 production was inhibited 60 to 91% when kernels were preimmersed or immersed 5 days after incubation in 200 microg GA per ml. Both concentrations (2 and 200 microg GA per ml) reduced seed germination by 25 to 50%. Results indicate that GA has an inhibitory effect on growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus.

  7. Seagrass proliferation precedes mortality during hypo-salinity events: a stress-induced morphometric response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Collier

    Full Text Available Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response--analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR. Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress.

  8. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  9. Five Year Field Evaluation of Prosopis alba Clones on pH 9–10 Soils in Argentina Selected for Growth in the Greenhouse at Seawater Salinities (45 dS m−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ewens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on soils with low salinity (EC 5.1–7.5 dS m−1 but high pH (8.9 to 10.2. A pH gradient occurred in the field with values ranging from pH 9.4 in block 1 to pH 10.3 in block 5. After five years growth, almost all of the clones had a mean height greater than 4 m and one clone was more than 5 m. Ten of the 21 tested clones had significantly greater biomass growth than the three seed propagated check varieties. The broad-sense (i.e., clone mean heritability was estimated to be 0.45 for biomass, 0.53 for diameter and 0.59 for height indicating that strong genetic gains should be possible by selecting and vegetatively propagating the best genotypes. In the block with the highest pH values, two clones that appear to be P. alba × P. ruscifolia hybrids (i.e., P. vinallilo had the greatest biomass. Correlations between growth during the last two months in the high salinity hydroponic greenhouse selection system and growth in the field were significant (R2 = 0.262 and positive, although the relationship was negative for putative P. vinallilo clones (R2 = 0.938. The several fold increase in biomass of some of the clones over the three check varieties, suggests that the greenhouse screen was successful in identifying superior salt tolerant clones. Apparently whether the greenhouse seedlings had lesser (~1 cm to greater (~3 cm height growth was not as important as just having a healthy live apical meristem. The observed salt tolerance of the putative P. vinalillo clones may prove useful as rootstocks for recently described high pod producing P. alba clones.

  10. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  11. Exposure of P. gingivalis to noradrenaline reduces bacterial growth and elevates ArgX protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takayuki; Inagaki, Satoru; Sakurai, Kaoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    Periodontitis, an infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is reported to be accelerated by stress, under which noradrenaline levels are increased in the bloodstream. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of noradrenaline on P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis was incubated in the presence of 25μM, 50μM, or 100μM adrenaline or noradrenaline at 37°C for 12, 24 or 36h and growth was evaluated by OD(660). Auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) was measured by luminescence of Vibrio harveyi BB 170. Expression of P. gingivalis genes was evaluated using a microarray and RT-PCR. Rgp activity of arg-gingipainA and B (Rgp) was measured with a synthetic substrate. Growth of P. gingivalis FDC381 was inhibited by noradrenaline at 24 and 36h. Growth inhibition by noradrenaline increased dose-dependently. Inhibition of growth partially recovered with addition of propranolol. AI-2 production from P. gingivalis showed a marked decrease with addition of noradrenaline compared with peak production levels in the control group. Microarray analysis revealed an increase in expression in 18 genes and a decrease in expression in 2 genes. Amongst these genes, expression of the protease arg-gingipainB (RgpB) gene, a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis, was further analysed. Expression of rgpB showed a significant increase with addition of noradrenaline, which was partially reduced by addition of propranolol. Cell-associated Rgp activity also increased with addition of noradrenaline. These results suggest that stressors influence the expression of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis via noradrenaline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  13. Resveratrol Reduces Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Inhibiting the Akt/MicroRNA-21 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Sandeep; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Kaur, Tejbeer; Mukherjea, Debashree; Sheehan, Kelly; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of foods containing resveratrol produces significant health benefits. Resveratrol inhibits cancer by reducing cell proliferation and metastasis and by inducing apoptosis. These actions could be explained by its ability to inhibit (ERK-1/2), Akt and suppressing the levels of estrogen and insulin growth factor -1 (IGF-1) receptor. How these processes are manifested into the antitumor actions of resveratrol is not clear. Using microarray studies, we show that resveratrol reduced the expression of various prostate-tumor associated microRNAs (miRs) including miR-21 in androgen-receptor negative and highly aggressive human prostate cancer cells, PC-3M-MM2. This effect of resveratrol was associated with reduced cell viability, migration and invasiveness. Additionally, resveratrol increased the expression of tumor suppressors, PDCD4 and maspin, which are negatively regulated by miR-21. Short interfering (si) RNA against PDCD4 attenuated resveratrol’s effect on prostate cancer cells, and similar effects were observed following over expression of miR-21 with pre-miR-21 oligonucleotides. PC-3M-MM2 cells also exhibited high levels of phospho-Akt (pAkt), which were reduced by both resveratrol and LY294002 (a PI3-kinase inhibitor). MiR-21 expression in these cells appeared to be dependent on Akt, as LY294002 reduced the levels of miR-21 along with a concurrent increase in PDCD4 expression. These in vitro findings were further corroborated in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. Oral administration of resveratrol not only inhibited the tumor growth but also decreased the incidence and number of metastatic lung lesions. These tumor- and metastatic-suppressive effects of resveratrol were associated with reduced miR-21 and pAkt, and elevated PDCD4 levels. Similar anti-tumor effects of resveratrol were observed in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells which were associated with suppression of Akt and PDCD4, but

  14. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...... at in site conditions....

  15. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  16. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  17. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1 weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid, amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid, and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose. ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  18. Expression of PML tumor suppressor in A 431 cells reduces cellular growth by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallian, S.; Chang, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the promyelocytic leukemia, PML, protein functions as a cellular and growth suppressor. Transient expression of PML was also found to repress the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. In this study we have examined the effects of PML on A431 cells, which express a high level of + protein. The PML gene was introduced into the cells using the adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system. Western blot analysis on the extracts from the cells expressing PML showed a significant repression in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein. The cells were examined for growth and DNA synthesis. The data showed a marked reduction in both growth and DNA synthesis rate in the cells expressing PML compared with the control cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the controls, the cells expressing PML were found to be more in G1 phase, fewer in S and about the same number in the G2/M phase. This data clearly demonstrated that the repression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in A 431 cells by PML was associated with inhibition of cell growth and alteration of the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a novel mechanism for the known growth inhibitory effects of PML

  19. A Novel Ras Inhibitor (MDC-1016 Reduces Human Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G Mackenzie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among all cancers partly because of its persistent resistance to chemotherapy. The currently limited treatment options for pancreatic cancer underscore the need for more efficient agents. Because activating Kras mutations initiate and maintain pancreatic cancer, inhibition of this pathway should have a major therapeutic impact. We synthesized phospho-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (PFTS; MDC-1016 and evaluated its efficacy, safety, and metabolism in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. PFTS inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in culture in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In an MIA PaCa-2 xenograft mouse model, PFTS at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced tumor growth by 62% and 65% (P < .05 vs vehicle control. Furthermore, PFTS prevented pancreatitis-accelerated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in mice with activated Kras. PFTS appeared to be safe, with the animals showing no signs of toxicity during treatment. Following oral administration, PFTS was rapidly absorbed, metabolized to FTS and FTS glucuronide, and distributed through the blood to body organs. Mechanistically, PFTS inhibited Ras-GTP, the active form of Ras, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the inhibition of downstream effector pathways c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK/ERK1/2 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT. In addition, PFTS proved to be a strong combination partner with phospho-valproic acid, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 inhibitor, displaying synergy in the inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth. In conclusion, PFTS, a direct Ras inhibitor, is an efficacious agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models, deserving further evaluation.

  20. Inhibition of peripubertal sheep mammary gland development by cysteamine through reducing progesterone and growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Li, Lan; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Pengfei; Cui, Liantao; Chu, Meiqiang; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2017-02-01

    Cysteamine has been used for treating cystinosis for many years, and furthermore it has also been used as a therapeutic agent for different diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, malaria, cancer, and others. Although cysteamine has many potential applications, its use may also be problematic. The effects of low doses of cysteamine on the reproductive system, especially the mammary glands are currently unknown. In the current investigation, low dose (10 mg/kg BW/day) of cysteamine did not affect sheep body weight gain or organ index of the liver, spleen, or heart; it did, however, increase the levels of blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets. Most interestingly, it inhibited mammary gland development after 2 or 5 months of treatment by reducing the organ index and the number of mammary gland ducts. Plasma growth hormone and estradiol remained unchanged; however, plasma progesterone levels and the protein level of HSD3β1 in sheep ovaries were decreased by cysteamine. In addition to steroid hormones, growth factors produced in the mammary glands also play crucial roles in mammary gland development. Results showed that protein levels of HGF, GHR, and IGF1R were decreased after 5 months of cysteamine treatment. These findings together suggest that progesterone and local growth factors in mammary glands might be involved in cysteamine initiated inhibition of pubertal ovine mammary gland development. Furthermore, it may lead to a reduction in fertility. Therefore, cysteamine should be used with great caution until its actions have been further investigated and its limitations overcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  2. Suppression of peroxiredoxin 4 in glioblastoma cells increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyong Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4 is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.

  3. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV

  4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the nucleation and growth of mackinawite and greigite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Clarke, David R.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2018-01-01

    Sedimentary iron sulfide minerals play a key role in maintaining the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere over geological timescales; they also record critical geochemical information that can be used to reconstruct paleo-environments. On modern Earth, sedimentary iron sulfide mineral formation takes places in low-temperature environments and requires the production of free sulfide by sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) under anoxic conditions. Yet, most of our knowledge on the properties and formation pathways of iron sulfide minerals, including pyrite, derives from experimental studies performed in abiotic conditions, and as such the role of biotic processes in the formation of sedimentary iron sulfide minerals is poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of SRM in the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in laboratory experiments. We set out to test the hypothesis that SRM can influence Fe-S mineralization in ways other than providing sulfide through the comparison of the physical properties of iron sulfide minerals precipitated in the presence and in the absence of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis AM13 under well-controlled conditions. X-ray diffraction and microscopy analyses reveal that iron sulfide minerals produced in the presence of SRM exhibit unique morphology and aggregate differently than abiotic minerals formed in media without cells. Specifically, mackinawite growth is favored in the presence of both live and dead SRM, when compared to the abiotic treatments tested. The cell surface of live and dead SRM, and the extracellular polymers produced by live cells, provide templates for the nucleation of mackinawite and favor mineral growth. The morphology of minerals is however different when live and dead cells are provided. The transformation of greigite from mackinawite occurred after several months of incubation only in the presence of live SRM, suggesting that SRM might accelerate the kinetics of greigite

  5. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B signaling reduces growth in medulloblastoma in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckard Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor that requires surgery, whole brain and spine irradiation, and intense chemotherapy for treatment. A more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of medulloblastoma is needed to successfully reduce the intensity of treatment and improve outcomes. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Methods To test the importance of NFκB to medulloblastoma cell growth, the effects of multiple drugs that inhibit NFκB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfasalazine, curcumin and bortezomib, were studied in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a malignant glioma cell line and normal neurons. Expression of endogenous NFκB was investigated in cultured cells, xenograft flank tumors, and primary human tumor samples. A dominant negative construct for the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, IκB, was prepared from medulloblastoma cell lines and flank tumors were established to allow specific pathway inhibition. Results We report high constitutive activity of the canonical NFκB pathway, as seen by Western analysis of the NFκB subunit p65, in medulloblastoma tumors compared to normal brain. The p65 subunit of NFκB is extremely highly expressed in xenograft tumors from human medulloblastoma cell lines; though, conversely, the same cells in culture have minimal expression without specific stimulation. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB in cell lines halts proliferation and leads to apoptosis. We show by immunohistochemical stain that phosphorylated p65 is found in the majority of primary tumor cells examined. Finally, expression of a dominant negative form of the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, dnIκB, resulted in poor xenograft tumor growth, with average tumor volumes

  6. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  7. Solar energy system reduces time taken to inhibit microbial growth in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phitthayarachasak, Thanathep; Thepa, Sirichai; Kongkiattikajorn, Jirasak [Energy Technology Division, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthid Road, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This research studied how to reduce the time consumption and to increase and improve the efficiency of the solarization process. The asymmetry compound parabolic concentrator (ACPC) was developed to produce boiling water to be utilized while the solarization process was in operation. This could decrease the time consumed in the solarization process from 4 to 6 weeks to 4 h, with a temperature of approximately 41.25 C at the various depth levels, not exceeding 50 cm. The test to inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of wilt in crops leaves, indicated that R. solanacearum was reduced from the total bacterial population of 10.9 x 10{sup 8} colony forming unit/g soil (cfu g{sup -1}) at soil surface to 9.0 x 10{sup 7}, 7.5 x 10{sup 4} and 4.1 x 10{sup 3} cfu g{sup -1} within 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. (author)

  8. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  9. JcDREB2, a Physic Nut AP2/ERF Gene, Alters Plant Growth and Salinity Stress Responses in Transgenic Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuehui; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Qi, Jing; Yu, Deshui; Wang, Jian; Li, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors of the AP2/ERF family play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a physic nut AP2/ERF gene, JcDREB2 , was functionally characterized. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that JcDREB2 was expressed mainly in the leaf and could be induced by abscisic acid but suppressed by gibberellin (GA) and salt. Transient expression of a JcDREB2-YFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells suggested that JcDREB2 is localized in the nucleus. Rice plants overexpressing JcDREB2 exhibited dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes with shorter shoots and roots than those of wild-type plants. The dwarfism phenotype could be rescued by the application of exogenous GA 3 . The expression levels of GA biosynthetic genes including OsGA20ox1 , OsGA20ox2 , OsGA20ox4 , OsGA3ox2, OsCPS1 , OsKO2 , and OsKAO were significantly reduced in plants overexpressing JcDREB2 . Overexpression of JcDREB2 in rice increased sensitivity to salt stress. Increases in the expression levels of several salt-tolerance-related genes in response to salt stress were impaired in JcDREB2 -overexpressing plants. These results demonstrated not only that JcDREB2 influences GA metabolism, but also that it can participate in the regulation of the salt stress response in rice.

  10. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archibald M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monica Archibald,1 Tara Pritchard,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Rhonda J Rosengren,1 Khaled Greish,1,2 Sebastien Taurin1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Aljawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles’ charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. Keywords: sorafenib, nilotinib, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nanomedicine

  11. Crescimento inicial do tomateiro-cereja sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizantes bovino Initial growth of cherry tomatoes under irrigation with saline water in a soil with bovine biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outubro de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010, em ambiente telado do Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Rural do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, PB, para avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação no crescimento inicial do tomate-cereja em solo não salino, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizante bovino. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5x3, com seis repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, em solo sem biofertilizante, com biofertilizante comum e enriquecido com leite, melaço e gesso agrícola. Depois de diluídos em água não salina (0,5 dS m-1 na razão de 1:1. Os biofertilizantes foram aplicados uma única vez, dois dias antes da semeadura, a nível de 10% do volume do substrato. Os biofertilizantes proporcionaram maior crescimento das plantas em relação ao solo sem os respectivos insumos, independentemente do nível de salinidade das águas. A adição do biofertilizante comum e do enriquecido elevou o caráter salino do solo com superioridade sobre os tratamentos com apenas águas salinas, mas sem diferença significativa entre ambos.An experiment was conducted, from October 2009 to February 2010, in a greenhouse of the Soil and Rural Engineering Department from CCA – UFPB, Areia – PB, to evaluate the influence of the irrigation water salinity in the initial growth of the cherry tomatoes in a non-saline soil with and without two types of bovine biofertilizer. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 3, with six repetitions, referring to values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 , in the soil without biofertilizer, with ordinary biofertilizer and enriched with milk, molasses, agricultural gypsum. The biofertilizers after

  12. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DO CAMARÃO BRANCO DO PACIFÍCO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 EM DIFERENTES SALINIDADES GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    aquariums, with a capacity of 30 liters each one, were randomly distributed in five treatments (control, 0‰, 10‰, 20‰, 30‰ e 35‰ and four replications, at a density of 30 shrimps/aquarium. Initial average total weight and length of PL’s10 were 0.008 ± 0.001 g e 11.00 ± 0.05 mm, respectively. The PL’s were gradually acclimatized at the different experimental salinities. Significant differences among salinity treatments were determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by least significant difference test of treatment means (Tukey test (P<0,001. The water quality were maintained for all treatments within an acceptable pattern for it species cultivation. The PL´s cultured in freshwater (0‰ showed the best index growth in weight, increments in weight, daily relative increment of biomass and survival rate (P<0.001, while that cultured at 10‰ of salinity showed the highest total length and length increment (P<0.001. These results suggest that L. vannamei shows similar growth and survival rate even if cultured in different salinities.

    KEY WORDS: Laboratory, Litopenaeus vannamei, osmoregulation, saline gradient.

  13. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  14. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa J; Finster, Kai W; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-07-18

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase. IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus , with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an

  15. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Downing, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Comolli, Luis R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-02-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III)-bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Furthermore, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA, close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated two- and three-dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The outer membranes of most cells were decorated with aggregates up to 150 nm in diameter composed of ∼3 nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well-studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L(2,3) absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed-valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  16. The role of salinity tolerance and competition in the distribution of an endangered desert salt marsh endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Beamguard, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Rare plants are often associated with distinctive soil types, and understanding why endemic species occur in unique environments is fundamental for their management. At Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in southern Nevada, USA, we evaluated whether the limited distribution of endangered Amargosa niterwort (Nitrophila mohavensis) is explained by this species’ tolerance of saline soils on salt-encrusted mud flats compared with the broadly distributed desert saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta). We simultaneously explored whether niterwort distribution is restricted from expanding due to interspecific competition with saltgrass. Surface soils collected throughout niterwort’s range were unexpectedly less saline with lower extractable Na, seasonal electroconductivity, and Na absorption ratio, and higher soil moisture than in adjacent saltgrass or mixed shrub habitats. Comparison of niterwort and saltgrass growth along an experimental salinity gradient in a greenhouse demonstrated lower growth of niterwort at all but the highest NaCl concentrations. Although growth of niterwort ramets was similar when transplanted into both habitats at the refuge below Crystal Reservoir, niterwort reproductive effort was considerably higher in saltgrass compared to its own habitat, implying reallocation of resources to sexual reproduction to maximize fitness when the probability of ramet mortality increases with greater salinity stress. Saltgrass was not a demonstrated direct competitor of niterwort; however, this species is known to increase soil salinity by exuding salt ions and through litterfall. Niterwort conservation will benefit from protecting hydrological processes that reduce salinity stress and preventing saltgrass colonization into niterwort habitat.

  17. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  18. Muscle growth is reduced in 15-month-old children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    AimLack of muscle growth relative to bone growth may be responsible for development of contractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Here, we used ultrasonography to compare growth of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in children with and without CP.MethodTwenty-six children with spastic CP (15...

  19. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Growth characteristics of thermophile sulfate-reducing bacteria and its effect on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, B. [Department of Chemistry and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been identified as the main corrosive microorganisms causing unpredictable failure of materials. In this present work, a strain of thermophile SRB isolated from Bohai oilfield of China has been characterized and preliminarily identified. Furthermore, its effects on carbon steel at 60 C in SRB culture media were studied by electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight loss measurements. The results show that the bacteria belong to Desulfotomaculum. The optimum growth temperature and pH of the bacteria were 60 C and 7.0, respectively. Weight loss measurements suggested that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in the culture media inoculated with thermophile SRB at 60 C was 2.2 times less than that at 37 C. At 60 C, SRB shifted the freely corroding potential of carbon steel toward a more positive value in the first 10 days, which later change to a negative value. Results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS were in good agreement. The changes in biofilm structure with increase in bacteria supply offers some kind of protection to the base material in the early culture days at 60 C. Subsequently, it accelerated corrosion. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods indicate that corrosion products such as iron sulfides (FeS{sub x}) in biofilm play an important role in the biocorrosion process. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J; Duncan, William C; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P endometrial stromal cells (HES; P Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  2. Effect of helium on fatigue crack growth and life of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Takahashi, Manabu; Hasegawa, Akira; Yamazaki, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    The effects of helium on the fatigue life, micro-crack growth behavior up to final fatigue failure, and fracture mode under fatigue in the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H IEA-heat, were investigated by low cycle fatigue tests at room temperature in air at a total strain range of 0.6–1.5%. Significant reduction of the fatigue life due to helium implantation was observed for a total strain range of 1.0–1.5%, which might be attributable to an increase in the micro-crack propagation rate. However, the reduction of fatigue life due to helium implantation was not significant for a total strain range of 0.6–0.8%. A brittle fracture surface (an original point of micro-crack initiation) and a cleavage fracture surface were observed in the helium-implanted region of fracture surface. A striation pattern was observed in the non-implanted region. These fracture modes of the helium-implanted specimen were independent of the strain range

  3. A novel transgenic mouse model of growth plate dysplasia reveals that decreased chondrocyte proliferation due to chronic ER stress is a key factor in reduced bone growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Gualeni

    2013-11-01

    Disease mechanisms leading to different forms of chondrodysplasia include extracellular matrix (ECM alterations and intracellular stress resulting in abnormal changes to chondrocyte proliferation and survival. Delineating the relative contribution of these two disease mechanisms is a major challenge in understanding disease pathophysiology in genetic skeletal diseases and a prerequisite for developing effective therapies. To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. Previous studies on this mutant protein have shown that it induces intracellular aggregates and causes cell stress and death in the thyroid gland. The expression and retention of this exogenous mutant protein in resting and proliferating chondrocytes resulted in a chronic cell stress response, growth plate dysplasia and reduced bone growth, without inducing any alterations to the architecture and organization of the cartilage ECM. More significantly, the decreased bone growth seemed to be the direct result of reduced chondrocyte proliferation in the proliferative zone of growth plates in transgenic mice, without transcriptional activation of a classical unfolded protein response (UPR or apoptosis. Overall, these data show that mutant protein retention in the ER of resting and proliferative zone chondrocytes is sufficient to cause disrupted bone growth. The specific disease pathways triggered by mutant protein retention do not necessarily involve a prototypic UPR, but all pathways impact upon chondrocyte proliferation in the cartilage growth plate.

  4. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  5. Stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the cardiovascular health effects of a managed aquifer recharge initiative to reduce drinking water salinity in southwest coastal Bangladesh: study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Doza, Solaiman; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Rahman, Mahbubur; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Selim, Shahjada; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Burgess, William; Chang, Howard H; Gribble, Matthew O; Clasen, Thomas F; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-09-01

    Saltwater intrusion and salinisation have contributed to drinking water scarcity in many coastal regions globally, leading to dependence on alternative sources for water supply. In southwest coastal Bangladesh, communities have few options but to drink brackish groundwater which has been associated with high blood pressure among the adult population, and pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension among pregnant women. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR), the purposeful recharge of surface water or rainwater to aquifers to bring hydrological equilibrium, is a potential solution for salinity problem in southwest coastal Bangladesh by creating a freshwater lens within the brackish aquifer. Our study aims to evaluate whether consumption of MAR water improves human health, particularly by reducing blood pressure among communities in coastal Bangladesh. The study employs a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled community trial design in 16 communities over five monthly visits. During each visit, we will collect data on participants' source of drinking and cooking water and measure the salinity level and electrical conductivity of household stored water. At each visit, we will also measure the blood pressure of participants ≥20 years of age and pregnant women and collect urine samples for urinary sodium and protein measurements. We will use generalised linear mixed models to determine the association of access to MAR water on blood pressure of the participants. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Informed written consent will be taken from all the participants. This study is funded by Wellcome Trust, UK. The study findings will be disseminated to the government partners, at research conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02746003; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  6. Crescimento e acúmulo de N, P e K pelo meloeiro irrigado com água salina Growth and N, P and K accumulation by melon irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francismar de Medeiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação é muito comum em cultivos de melão em regiões semi-áridas, o que pode resultar na salinização do solo e redução de rendimento se o manejo da irrigação não for adequado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de N, P e K em plantas de melão (Cucumis melo, L. irrigadas com água salina. Os tratamentos estudados resultaram da combinação de dois fatores: salinidade da água de irrigação (1,1; 2,5 e 4,5 dS m-1 e materiais de melão (híbrido Trusty e cultivar Orange Flesh. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições, com tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. A época de coleta de plantas foi analisado como outro fator e os resultados interpretados por análise multivariada. As plantas amostradas foram fracionadas em folhas + ramos e frutos, determinaram-se as produções de matérias secas e os conteúdos de N, P e K nestes materiais. Os acúmulos dos nutrientes nos frutos e de fitomassa seca na planta diminuíram com o incremento da salinidade da água de irrigação. Os frutos exportaram, em média, 57,1%, 67,1% e 70,0% dos totais de N, P, K, absorvidos pela planta e alocados na parte aérea, mostrando, portanto, que foram o principal dreno para estes nutrientes na planta.The use of saline water for irrigation is very common in cultivation of melon in semiarid zones, which can result in the soil salinization if irrigation management is not appropriate. The growth and accumulation of N, P and K by melon (Cucumis melo, L. irrigated with saline water was evaluated. Treatments resulted from the combination of the factors irrigation water salinity levels (1.1; 2.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and melon materials (hybrid Trusty and cultivar Orange Flesh. Treatments were arranged following a completely randomized block design with four replications, arranged in 3 x 2 factorial. Another factor analyzed was time of

  7. The Sulfate-Rich and Extreme Saline Sediment of the Ephemeral Tirez Lagoon: A Biotope for Acetoclastic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Montoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA and sulfate-reducing (SRP and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain. Thus, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS reductase α (aprA and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible “salt-in” signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA.

  8. The Sulfate-Rich and Extreme Saline Sediment of the Ephemeral Tirez Lagoon: A Biotope for Acetoclastic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Lilia; Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Amils, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Nuria; Marín, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA) and sulfate-reducing (SRP) and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP) prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain). Thus, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase α (aprA) and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA) gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible “salt-in” signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA. PMID:21915180

  9. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  10. Understanding the performance of sulfate reducing bacteria based packed bed reactor by growth kinetics study and microbial profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Subhabrata; Roy, Shantonu; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2016-07-15

    A novel marine waste extract (MWE) as alternative nitrogen source was explored for the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Variation of sulfate and nitrogen (MWE) showed that SRB growth follows an uncompetitive inhibition model. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax) of 0.085 and 0.124 h(-1) and inhibition constants (Ki) of 56 and 4.6 g/L were observed under optimized sulfate and MWE concentrations, respectively. The kinetic data shows that MWE improves the microbial growth by 27%. The packed bed bioreactor (PBR) under optimized sulfate and MWE regime showed sulfate removal efficiency of 62-66% and metals removal efficiency of 66-75% on using mine wastewater. The microbial community analysis using DGGE showed dominance of SRB (87-89%). The study indicated the optimum dosing of sulfate and cheap organic nitrogen to promote the growth of SRB over other bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth and production kinetics of human x mouse and mouse hybridoma cells at reduced temperature and serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, N; Heider, R; Assadian, A; Katinger, H

    1992-09-01

    The growth and production kinetics of a mouse hybridoma cell line and a human-mouse heterohybridoma were analyzed under conditions of reduced temperature and serum content. The mouse hybridoma P24 had a constant cell specific production rate and RNA content, while the heterohybridoma 3D6-LC4 showed growth associated production kinetics and an increased RNA content at higher growth rates. This behaviour of 3D6-LC4 cells can be explained by the unusual cell cycle kinetics of this line, which can be arrested in any phase under growth limiting conditions, so that a low growth rate does not result in a greater portion of high producing G1-phase cells. Substrate limitation changes the cell cycle distribution of this cell line to a greater extent than low temperature or serum content, which indicates that this stress factor exerts a greater physiological control than assumed.

  12. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  13. Growth and cations accumulation in moringa plants cultivated in saline soils Crescimento e acúmulo de cátions em plantas de moringa mantidas em solos salinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucineudo Oliveira Freire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the salinity effects on growth and dry matter and cations accumulation in moringa plants (Moringa oleifera. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, with four treatments, consisting of four soils (electrical conductivity (EC 0.49 (control, 4.15, 6.33, 10.45 dS m-1 with four replications. Initially the plants were grown in rigid tubes, and 30 days after emergence, were transferred to pots containing 10 kg of soil, according to the salinity treatment. The parameters evaluated were plants height and dry matter and N, K, Ca, Mg and Na accumulation in shoots and roots. The salinity is detrimental to initial plant growth and cation accumulation in shoots and roots plants. Young moringa plants were not effective in inhibiting the absorption of Na and its translocation to the shoot.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.45

    Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da salinidade no crescimento e acúmulo de massa seca e cátions em plantas jovens de moringa (Moringa oleifera, testaram-se quatro tipos de solos, nas condutividades elétricas (C.E. 0,49 (controle, 4,15, 6,33 e 10,45 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas cresceram inicialmente em tubetes rígidos e, aos 30 dias após a emergência, foram transferidas para vasos contendo 10 kg de solo, de acordo com o tratamento de salinidade. A salinidade prejudica o crescimento inicial das plantas e acúmulo de cátions na parte aérea e nas raízes das plantas. Na fase inicial de crescimento, as plantas de moringa não inibem a absorção de Na e sua translocação para a parte aérea.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.45

  14. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  15. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Felipe Elli; Braulio Otomar Caron; Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros; Elder Eloy; Gean Charles Monteiro; Denise Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú), five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1), and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteri...

  16. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-03-01

    A 45-day feeding trial followed by an acute stress test of low salinity was done to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and anti-stress capability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (100 shrimp per tank) and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replicates. Triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different treatments of L. plantarum (fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB) and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were determined after feeding 45 days. Anti-stress capacity was evaluated by determining the gene expression of ProPO, SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at 96 h post-stress test. Results indicated that supplementation of L. plantarum into diet had significantly improved growth performance of L. vannamei. On the other hand, L. plantarum supplementation had no significant effects on the gene expression of SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 45 days. Supplementation of L. plantarum had increased survivability of L. vannamei having higher survival rates compared to the control group. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the control group and treatments. Compared with the control group, supplementation of L. plantarum significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the stress of acute low salinity, as indicated by higher survival rate as well as higher transcript levels of ProPo, SOD and Lys gene. Our findings suggested that L. plantarum, especially cell-free extract of L. plantarum has improved the anti-stress capacity of L. vannamei and could serve as a potential feed additive that helps shrimp to overcome environmental stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean T; Birtles, Robert; Dickens, Kathryn; Walker, Richard G; Spearpoint, Michael J; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard

    2018-04-01

    This paper uses fire statistics to show the importance of fire toxicity on fire deaths and injuries, and the importance of upholstered furniture and bedding on fatalities from unwanted fires. The aim was to compare the fire hazards (fire growth and smoke toxicity) using different upholstery materials. Four compositions of sofa-bed were compared: three meeting UK Furniture Flammability Regulations (FFR), and one using materials without flame retardants intended for the mainland European market. Two of the UK sofa-beds relied on chemical flame retardants to meet the FFR, the third used natural materials and a technical weave in order to pass the test. Each composition was tested in the bench-scale cone calorimeter (ISO 5660) and burnt as a whole sofa-bed in a sofa configuration in a 3.4 × 2.25 × 2.4 m 3 test room. All of the sofas were ignited with a No. 7 wood crib; the temperatures and yields of toxic products are reported. The sofa-beds containing flame retardants burnt somewhat more slowly than the non-flame retarded EU sofa-bed, but in doing so produced significantly greater quantities of the main fire toxicants, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. Assessment of the effluents' potential to incapacitate and kill is provided showing the two UK flame retardant sofa-beds to be the most dangerous, followed by the sofa-bed made with European materials. The UK sofa-bed made only from natural materials (Cottonsafe ® ) burnt very slowly and produced very low concentrations of toxic gases. Including fire toxicity in the FFR would reduce the chemical flame retardants and improve fire safety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields......Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...

  19. Ectopic expression of phloem motor protein pea forisome PsSEO-F1 enhances salinity stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Raikwar, Shailendra; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    PsSEOF-1 binds to calcium and its expression is upregulated by salinity treatment. PsSEOF - 1 -overexpressing transgenic tobacco showed enhanced salinity stress tolerance by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays important role in growth, development and stress tolerance in plants. Cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is achieved by the collective action of channels, pumps, antiporters and by Ca(2+) chelators present in the cell like calcium-binding proteins. Forisomes are ATP-independent mechanically active motor proteins known to function in wound sealing of injured sieve elements of phloem tissue. The Ca(2+)-binding activity of forisome and its role in abiotic stress signaling were largely unknown. Here we report the Ca(2+)-binding activity of pea forisome (PsSEO-F1) and its novel function in promoting salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Native PsSEO-F1 promoter positively responded in salinity stress as confirmed using GUS reporter. Overexpression of PsSEO-F1 tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance by alleviating ionic toxicity and increased ROS scavenging activity which probably results in reduced membrane damage and improved yield under salinity stress. Evaluation of several physiological indices shows an increase in relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation and chlorophyll content in transgenic lines as compared with null-segregant control. Expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsSEO-F1 overexpression. These findings suggest that PsSEO-F1 provides salinity tolerance through cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis which in turn modulates ROS machinery providing indirect link between Ca(2+) and ROS signaling under salinity-induced perturbation. PsSEO-F1 most likely functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving antioxidant machinery and mitigating ion toxicity in transgenic lines. This finding should make an important contribution in our better

  20. Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) elevates mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) associated with reduced tumor growth of liver metastases compared to hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, Christoph; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Roggan, André; Schuppan, Detlef; Ajubi, Navid; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Hohenberger, Werner; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation and synthesis of hepatocellular tissue after tissue damage are promoted by specific growth factors such as hepatic tissue growth factor (HGF) and connective growth factor (CTGF). Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of liver metastases is deemed to be a parenchyma-saving procedure compared to hepatic resection. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of LITT and hepatic resection on intrahepatic residual tumor tissue and expression levels of mRNA HGF/CTGF within liver and tumor tissue. Two independent adenocarcinomas (CC531) were implanted into 75 WAG rats, one in the right (untreated tumor) and one in the left liver lobe (treated tumor). The left lobe tumor was treated either by LITT or partial hepatectomy. The control tumor was submitted to in-situ hybridization of HGF and CTGF 24-96 hours and 14 days after intervention. Volumes of the untreated tumors prior to intervention were 38+/-8 mm(3) in group I (laser), 39 +/- 7 mm(3) in group II (resection), and 42 +/- 12 mm(3) in group III (control) and did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Fourteen days after the intervention the mean tumor+/-SEM volume of untreated tumor in group I (laser) [223 +/- 36] was smaller than in group II (resection) [1233.28 +/- 181.52; P tumor growth in comparison to hepatic resection. Accelerated tumor growth after hepatic resection is associated with higher mRNA level of HGF and reduced tumor growth after LITT with higher mRNA level of CTGF. The increased CTGF-mediated regulation of ECM may cause reduced residual tumor growth after LITT. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  2. Reduced streamflow lowers dry-season growth of rainbow trout in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto; Jason L. White

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of resource management activities can affect surface discharge in small streams. Often, the effects of variation in streamflow on fish survival and growth can be difficult to estimate because of possible confounding with the effects of other variables, such as water temperature and fish density. We measured the effect of streamflow on survival and growth...

  3. The effects of salinity in the soil water balance: A Budyko's approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Viola, F.; Molini, A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil degradation and water scarcity pose important constraints on productivity and development of arid and semi-arid countries. Among the main causes of loss of soil fertility, aridification and soil salinization are deeply connected threats enhanced by climate change. Assessing water availability is fundamental for a large number of applications especially in arid regions. An approach often adopted to estimate the long-term rainfall partitioning into evapotranspiration and runoff is the Budyko's curve. However, the classical Budyko framework might not be able to properly reproduce the water balance in salt affected basins, especially under elevated soil salinization conditions. Salinity is a limiting factor for plant transpiration (as well as growth) affecting both short and long term soil moisture dynamics and ultimately the hydrologic balance. Soluble salts cause a reduction of soil water potential similar to the one arising from droughts, although plant adaptations to soil salinity show extremely different traits and can vary from species to species. In a similar context, the salt-tolerance plants are expected to control the amount of soil moisture lost to transpiration in saline soils, also because salinity reduces evaporation. We propose a simple framework to include the effects of salinization on the surface energy and water balance within a simple Budyko approach. By introducing the effects of salinity in the stochastic water balance we are able to include the influence of vegetation type (i.e. in terms of salt-tolerance) on evapotranspiration-runoff partitioning under different climatic conditions. The water balance components are thus compared to data obtained from arid salt-affected regions.

  4. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  5. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, B A

    1988-11-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O(2) evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  6. A MapReduce-Based Parallel Frequent Pattern Growth Algorithm for Spatiotemporal Association Analysis of Mobile Trajectory Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is an effective approach for spatiotemporal association analysis of mobile trajectory big data in data-driven intelligent transportation systems. While existing parallel algorithms have been successfully applied to frequent pattern mining of large-scale trajectory data, two major challenges are how to overcome the inherent defects of Hadoop to cope with taxi trajectory big data including massive small files and how to discover the implicitly spatiotemporal frequent patterns with MapReduce. To conquer these challenges, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Frequent Pattern growth (MR-PFP algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of taxi operating using large-scale taxi trajectories with massive small file processing strategies on a Hadoop platform. More specifically, we first implement three methods, that is, Hadoop Archives (HAR, CombineFileInputFormat (CFIF, and Sequence Files (SF, to overcome the existing defects of Hadoop and then propose two strategies based on their performance evaluations. Next, we incorporate SF into Frequent Pattern growth (FP-growth algorithm and then implement the optimized FP-growth algorithm on a MapReduce framework. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of taxi operating in both spatial and temporal dimensions by MR-PFP in parallel. The results demonstrate that MR-PFP is superior to existing Parallel FP-growth (PFP algorithm in efficiency and scalability.

  7. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of sodium chloride salinity on germination and productivity of mung bean (Vigna Mungo Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, M.; Azim, F.; Ibrar, M.; Hussain, F.; Ilahi, I.

    2003-01-01

    The germination was significantly declined at salinity levels of 5.0 dSm/sup -1/ and above in the laboratory experiment while in the pot experiment germination significantly reduced at salinity levels of 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and above. Radicle and plumule lengths were also significantly reduced at 5.0 dSm/sup -1/ and higher levels of NaCl. Plant height, number of branches and number of leaves significantly decreased at 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ and higher levels of salinity. The number of seeds was significantly dwindled at 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and above. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were also significantly low at 7.5 dSm/sup -1/ and higher concentrations. It was concluded that Vigna mungo might not show promising growth and productivity in saline habitats. However, under mild saline conditions it might be grown not only to supplement the crop yield, but also as a source of fodder and soil reclamation measure. (author)

  9. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  10. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. F., E-mail: wang-lifeng@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, W. H.; Liu, Jie [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Wu, J. F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhang, W. Y. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  11. Crescimento e floração do girassol sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada Growth and flowering of sunflower under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gomes Nobre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do girassol (Helianthus annuus L. como fonte potencial de energia renovável e a carência de resultados de pesquisas relativos a seu cultivo, avaliaram-se com este trabalho variáveis de crescimento e de floração do girassol cv. Embrapa 122/V-2000 sob diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (CEa e doses de adubação nitrogenada, em experimento conduzido em ambiente protegido da UFCG, entre julho e outubro de 2009. Usou-se a aleatorização em bloco, testando 5 níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,5 - controle; 1,6; 2,7; 3,8 e 4,9 dS m-1 e 4 doses de adubação nitrogenada (50; 75; 100 e 125% da dose indicada para ensaio em vaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com 3 repetições. O aumento da CEa a partir de 0,5 dS m-1 promoveu redução na altura de planta, no diâmetro caulinar, na fitomassa seca da parte aérea, e nos diâmetros externo e interno do capítulo, além de retardar o início do florescimento das plantas. O diâmetro interno do capítulo, por ter sido a variável mais afetada pela salinidade, com redução linear de 7,6% por aumento unitário da CEa (dS m-1, é a que melhor expressa os efeitos da salinidade da água sobre o girassol. Doses de nitrogênio variando de 0,46 a 0,64 g kg-1 de solo não promoveram efeito significativo sobre as variáveis estudadas de crescimento e floração do girassol cv. Embrapa 122/V-2000.Considering the importance of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a potential source of renewable energy and the lack of information regarding its cultivation. In this study the growth variables and flowering of sunflower cv. Embrapa 122/V-2000 were evaluated under different levels of salinity of irrigation water (ECw and doses of nitrogen. The experiment was conducted in protected environment at UFCG, between July and October 2009. Randomized block design was used to test 5 levels of salinity of irrigation water - ECw (0.5 - control, 1.6; 2.7; 3.8 and 4

  12. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Q

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Yuan,1 Jing Han,1,2 Wenshu Cong,1 Ying Ge,3 Dandan Ma,1,3,4 Zhaoxia Dai,3,4 Yaping Li,5 Xiaolin Bi1,3,4 1CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 2School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, 3Cancer Center, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 4Graduate School, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 5Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere® and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly

  13. Study of graphene growth on copper foil by pulsed laser deposition at reduced temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elhamid, Abd Elhamid M.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Aboulfotouh, Abdelnaser M.; Azzouz, Iftitan M.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has been successfully grown on commercial copper foil at low temperature of 500 °C by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction patterns showed that films have been grown in the presence of Cu(111) and Cu(200) facets. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study the effects of temperature, surface structure, and cooling rate on the graphene growth. Raman spectra indicate that the synthesis of graphene layers rely on the surface quality of the Cu substrate together with the proper cooling profile coupled with graphene growth temperature. PLD-grown graphene film on Cu has been verified by transmission electron microscopy. Surface mediated growth of graphene on Cu foil substrate revealed to have a favorable catalytic effect. High growth rate of graphene and less defects can be derived using fast cooling rate.

  14. Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleda, Laila; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Min Gab; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2017-12-31

    Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

  15. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  16. Desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de mamoneira sob estresse salino Growth and production of two cultivars of castor bean under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvulo M. S. Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o comportamento de duas cultivares BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Energia de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., irrigadas com quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,7; 2,7; 4,7 e 6,7 dS m-1, a 25 °C, conduziu-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2. As variáveis avaliadas foram altura de planta, diâmetro de caule, número de folhas, área foliar e consumo diário de água pela planta aos 80 e 100 dias após semeadura, número de dias para 1ª inflorescência, altura do 1º racemo aos 100 dias após semeadura, dias para colheita, número de frutos no 1º cacho, peso dos frutos, das sementes e de 10 sementes aos 150 DAS. A salinidade da água de irrigação interferiu na altura de planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar e consumo de água, a partir de 4,7 dS m-1 aos 80 e 100 DAS, nas duas cultivares. Verificou-se, na cultivar BRS Energia maior precocidade na emissão da 1ª inflorescência e maior altura do racemo, enquanto na cultivar BRS Paraguaçu se obteve menor produção de frutos e de sementes e maior peso de 10 sementes.With the objective of studying the behavior of two cultivars BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Energy of castor bean (Ricinus communis L., irrigated with four levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7; 2.7; 4.7 and 6.7 dS m-1, at 25 °C, an experiment was conducted in a randomized design with 3 replications, in a factorial scheme of 4 x 2. The variables measured were: plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and water consumption by plant at 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS, number of days for emission of first inflorence and height of first cluster at 100 DAS, days to harvest, number of fruits in the 1st cluster, weight of fruits, and 10 seeds at 150 DAS. The salinity of the irrigation water significantly affected the plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf

  17. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs...... are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module...

  18. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  19. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  20. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  1. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso

    2018-05-02

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous member of marine biofilm, and reduces thiosulfate to produce toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, lytic bacteriophages were isolated and applied to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in planktonic mode at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P. aeruginosa exhibited significantly longer lag phase and lower specific growth rates upon exposure to bacteriophages. Bacteriophages were subsequently applied to P. aeruginosa-enriched biofilm and were determined to lower the relative abundance of Pseudomonas-related taxa from 0.17 to 5.58% in controls to 0.01–0.61% in treated microbial communities. The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, and Planococcaceae decreased, possibly due to the phage-induced disruption of the biofilm matrix. Lastly, when applied to mitigate biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes, bacteriophages were determined to reduce the transmembrane pressure increase by 18% when utilized alone, and by 49% when used in combination with citric acid. The combined treatment was more effective compared with the citric acid treatment alone, which reported ca. 30% transmembrane pressure reduction. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that bacteriophages can be used as a biocidal agent to mitigate undesirable P. aeruginosa-associated problems in seawater applications.

  2. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  3. Crescimento absoluto e relativo de mudas de maracujazeiro sob biofertilizante e águas salinas Absolute and relative growth of yellow passion seedlings over salines waters and bovine biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em abrigo telado no DSER/CCA/UFPB, no período de Maio/Julho de 2008, para avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação e do biofertilizante bovino no crescimento das mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos no DIC e 12 plantas por parcela, com três repetições, usando o arranjo fatorial 5 x 2 x 2, referente aos níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação: 0.5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, no solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, avaliando aos 25 e 65 dias após emergência das plântulas. Determinando a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, massa seca da parte aérea, raiz e total. O aumento da salinidade das águas inibiu o crescimento absoluto e relativo das plantas avaliado pela altura, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea, raízes e total, mas, em qualquer situação, com menor intensidade nos tratamentos com o biofertilizante.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse in DSER/CCA/UFPB, in period May-July 2008, Paraiba state, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effects of salinity water irrigation and bovine biofertilizer on inittial growth of passion fruit Passiflora edulis Sims seedlings. The treatments were distributed competed randomized design, with three repetitions, in factorial arrangement 5 x 2 x 2, refering at levels of irrigation water salinity: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1, in soil without and with bovine biofertilizer and evaluations made at ages of 25 and 65 days after seedling emergence. For assessing growth the plants’s height, stem diameter, dry matter of the part aerea, roots and dry matter total of the yellow passion fruit plants, but in every condition with low intensity in treatment with bovine biofertilizer.

  4. Germination and initial growth of guava plants irrigated with saline water Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial da goiabeira irrigada com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival F. Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried in order to evaluate the effect of saline water irrigation with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.5; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1, on germination and some growth variables during the seedling formation process of four guava cultivars (Psidium guajava L.: Pentecoste, Paluma, Surubim and IPA B-38. Water salinity inhibited the germination process, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and dry matter production of roots, stems and leaves, independently of cultivar. After germination, the seedlings did not survive due to saline water effects of ECw 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1. After 180 days of sowing, the seedlings irrigated with ECw more than 1.5 dS m-1 did not present agronomic quality for planting. Dry matter production sequence of different parts of plants was as follows: leaves > roots > stems, without significant differences among cultivars especially when irrigated with saline water of ECw > 3.0 dS m-1.Avaliou-se o efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação, através dos níveis de condutividade elétrica (CEa de 0,5; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, sobre a germinação de sementes e algumas variáveis de crescimento, durante a formação de mudas de quatro cultivares de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. Pentecoste, Paluma, Surubim e IPA B-38. A salinidade da água inibiu a germinação, o crescimento em altura, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e fitomassa das raízes, caules e folhas das plantas, independente da cultivar. Após a germinação, as plântulas não sobreviveram aos efeitos salinos das águas de condutividade elétrica CEa 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1. Ao final do ensaio, 180 dias após a semeadura, não se obtiveram mudas com qualidade agronômica nos tratamentos irrigados com água de salinidade superior a 1,5 dS m-1. A ordem de produção de matéria seca pelos distintos órgãos das plantas, foi: folhas > raízes > caules, mas sem diferir entre cultivares, principalmente quando irrigadas com água de maior salinidade > 3

  5. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  6. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, B.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  7. Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sarneel, J.M.; Ravensbergen, Lone; Huig, N.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing

  8. Long-term resource limitation reduces insect detritivore growth in a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent R. Johnson; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    We measured larval growth rates of 2 dominant stream detritivore groups to assess the mechanism underlying declines in invertebrate production following exclusion of terrestrial litter inputs to a forested headwater stream. Larval Tallaperla spp. (P1ecoptera:Peltoperlidae) were chosen as representative shredders and non-Tanypodinae Chironomidae (...

  9. Grass or fern competition reduce growth and survival of planted tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry H. McCormick; Todd W. Bowersox

    1997-01-01

    Bareroot seedlings of northern red oak, white ash, yellow-poplar and white pine were planted into herbaceous communities at three forested sites in central Pennsylvania that were clearcut 0 to 1 year earlier. Seedlings were grown 4 years in the presence and absence of either an established grass or hay-scented fern community. Survival and height growth were measured...

  10. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  11. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  12. Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For plants growth and physiological responses, seedlings were individually cultivated in plastic bags (25×12 cm) containing non-sterile soil and watered with four salt solutions (0, 86, 171 and 257 mM NaCl). Four months after the plants' cultivation, the results showed that for all species, the salinity reduced significantly the ...

  13. Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-10-01

    Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species ( Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis ) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates. The AMF community was measured in multiple ways: as percent colonization of host tree roots, by DNA isolation of the fungal species associated with the roots, and through spore density, volume, and identity in both the wet and dry seasons. Consistent with prior tropical restoration research, the majority of fungal species belonged to the genus Glomus and genus Acaulospora , accounting for more than half of the species and relative abundance found on trees roots and over 95% of spore density across all sites. Greater AMF diversity correlated with lower soil organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations and longer durations of prior pasture use across sites. Contrary to previous literature findings, AMF species diversity and spore densities were inversely related to tree growth, which may have arisen from trees facultatively increasing their associations with AMF in lower soil fertility sites. Changes to AMF community composition also may have led to variation in disturbance susceptibility, host tree nutrient acquisition, and tree growth. These results highlight the potential importance of fungal-tree-soil interactions in forest recovery and suggest that fungal community dynamics could have important implications for tree growth in disturbed soils.

  14. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  15. Constitutive over-expression of rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 results in enhanced growth, salinity and osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Mittal, Dheeraj; Chandra Mishra, Ratnesh; Grover, Anil

    2015-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are involved primarily in defense against pathogens. In recent years, these proteins have also been widely implicated in response of plants to diverse abiotic stresses. Rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is highly induced under salt and osmotic stresses. The construct containing the complete coding sequence of OCPI2 cloned downstream to CaMV35S promoter was transformed in Arabidopsis and single copy, homozygous transgenic lines were produced. The transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to NaCl, PEG and mannitol stress as compared to wild type plants. Importantly, the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic plants under unstressed, control conditions was also enhanced: transgenic plants were more vigorous than wild type, resulting into higher yield in terms of silique number. The RWC values and membrane stability index of transgenic in comparison to wild type plants was higher. Higher proline content was observed in the AtOCPI2 lines, which was associated with higher transcript expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and lowered levels of proline dehydrogenase genes. The chymotrypsin protease activities were lower in the transgenic as against wild type plants, under both unstressed, control as well as stressed conditions. It thus appears that rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is a useful candidate gene for genetic improvement of plants against salt and osmotic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  17. Effects of salinity on the physiology of the red macroalga, Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Tomazi Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salinity is an important abiotic factor since it is responsible for the local and/or regional distribution of algae. In coastal regions, salinity changes with prevailing winds, precipitation and tide, and particularly in extreme intertidal conditions. Acanthophora spicifera is a red seaweed that occurs in the supratidal region in which changes in abiotic conditions occur frequently. This study evaluated the effects of salinity on the metabolism and morphology of A. spicifera. Algae were acclimatized under culture conditions with sterilized seawater for seven days. Experiments used different salinities (15 to 50 psu for seven days, followed by metabolic analyses. This study demonstrates that extreme salinities affect physiological parameters of A. spicifera, such as decrease in growth rate, as well as morphological parameters and concentrations of secondary metabolites. Acanthophora spicifera exhibited high tolerance to 25 to 40 psu, with little change in physiology, which favors the occurrence of this species in diverse environments. However, 15, 20, 45 and 50 psu were the most damaging and led to loss of biomass, depigmentation of apices, and the highest concentrations of antioxidant metabolites. The 50 psu treatment caused the greatest changes in general, greatly reducing a biomass and chlorophyll content, and facilitating the presence of endophytes.

  18. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Domínguez-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  19. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J.; Duncan, William C.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB ...

  20. Ribavirin and boceprevir are able to reduce Canine distemper virus growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanave, Gianvito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Fontana, Tommaso; Losappio, Ruggero; Tempesta, Maria; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Camero, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major infectious disease of dogs. Although vaccines were successful to control CDV spread in canine population, the disease is still common and may pose a threat to unvaccinated dogs. In the attempt to develop specific anti-viral therapeutic tools, the efficacy of several molecules against CDV has been investigated in vitro. In this study the antiviral efficacy in vitro against CDV of ribavirin and boceprevir alone or in combination was evaluated. CDV growth in VERO cells was inhibited by ribavirin, by boceprevir and by a combination of the two molecules at non-cytotoxic concentrations, as evaluated by end-point viral titration in cell monolayers and by quantification of viral RNA using quantitative RT-PCR. By end-point titration, a statistically significant reduction in CDV replication was observed only using ribavirin and boceprevir in combination. By quantitative RT-PCR, a significant reduction of viral growth was observed either in cells treated with ribavirin or boceprevir or with both the two molecules. The association of ribavirin or boceprevir was able to decrease CDV growth by up to 3.4458 logs with respect to untreated infected cells, chiefly at the highest virus dilutions. The results obtained in this study may constitute an important basis for the development of CDV therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Laísa N; Gomes, Anabele S; Borghetti, Fabian

    2014-12-01

    Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  2. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÍSA N. ALLEM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  3. Fetoscopic laser coagulation of intertwin anastomoses reduces discordant placental autophagic activities in discordant twin growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Lung Chang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The discordance of placenta autophagic activity in the monochorionic twin with sIUGR was reduced after laser coagulation of the intertwin anastomoses, which may result from the effect of correction of the discordant intertwin placenta perfusion.

  4. Combination of U.V.-B and ozone reduces pollen tube growth more than either stress alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, W.A.; Shrier, R.

    1990-01-01

    The rate of in vitro Nicotiana tabacum L. “Bel-W3” pollen tube growth was reduced 62 and 44%, respectively, when pollen tubes were exposed to 120 ppb ozone (O 3 ) for 3 hr or 300 μW/cm 2 ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation for 30 min. Petunia hybrida Vilm. “White Cascade” pollen tube growth was reduced 34 and 59%, respectively, upon exposure to O 3 or u.v.-B at the above doses. The combination of u.v.-B at 300 μW/cm 2 for 30 min, followed by O 3 at 120 ppb for 3 hr, reduced pollen tube growth by 79% for “Bel-W3” and 75% for “White Cascade”. The effect appeared to be additive, implying that different target areas may be affected by the two stressors. In the Northeast, plants are exposed to both u.v.-B and O 3 during the normal growing season. This may result in an unexpectedly higher stress on the reproductive system than had been previously suspected based on these two stressors acting individually. (author)

  5. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  6. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... improve plant growth and enhance stress tolerance (Piccolo et al., 1992). ..... shoot of pepper seedling, but the reverse was the case with Na, Fe and Zn of .... salinity, and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for.

  7. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  8. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. ... It consequently affects plant growth and yield and ameliorates the deleterious effects of salt stress. The objective of the study ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  9. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of f