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Sample records for saline ponds christmas

  1. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  2. Christmas party

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  3. Dietary flexibility in three representative waterbirds across salinity and depth gradients in salt ponds of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Tsao-Melcer, D. C.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fregien, S.; Athearn, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have existed in San Francisco Bay, California, for more than a century. In the past decade, most of the salt ponds have been retired from production and purchased for resource conservation with a focus on tidal marsh restoration. However, large numbers of waterbirds are found in salt ponds, especially during migration and wintering periods. The value of these hypersaline wetlands for waterbirds is not well understood, including how different avian foraging guilds use invertebrate prey resources at different salinities and depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary flexibility of waterbirds by examining the population number and diet of three feeding guilds across a salinity and depth gradient in former salt ponds of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes. Although total invertebrate biomass and species richness were greater in low than high salinity salt ponds, waterbirds fed in ponds that ranged from low (20 g l-1) to very high salinities (250 g l -1). American avocets (surface sweeper) foraged in shallow areas at pond edges and consumed a wide range of prey types (8) including seeds at low salinity, but preferred brine flies at mid salinity (40-80 g l-1). Western sandpipers (prober) focused on exposed edges and shoal habitats and consumed only a few prey types (2-4) at both low and mid salinities. Suitable depths for foraging were greatest for ruddy ducks (diving benthivore) that consumed a wide variety of invertebrate taxa (5) at low salinity, but focused on fewer prey (3) at mid salinity. We found few brine shrimp, common in higher salinity waters, in the digestive tracts of any of these species. Dietary flexibility allows different guilds to use ponds across a range of salinities, but their foraging extent is limited by available water depths. ?? 2009 USGS, US Government.

  4. [Christmas seals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loytved, G

    2006-11-01

    Christmas seals, i. e., special stamps used to decorate or seal Christmas and New Year's mail, were created by the Danish post office clerk E. Holboell. The proceeds from the sale of the stickers were meant to alleviate the suffering of children sick with tuberculosis. The first Christmas seal, showing a portrait of Queen Louise of Denmark, was issued on December 10, 1904. The demand at the post office was enormous. The funds raised exceeded all expectations and made it possible to finance the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis children. The idea of Christmas seals spread quickly around the world and ended up being copied in 130 countries. At the beginning of the 20 (th) century, the small stamp with the red double-barred cross became a banner for the crusade against tuberculosis. For many patients, it also represented a symbol of hope for recovery even though this hope, given the cure rates of a sanatorium treatment, only became a reality for a few. Worldwide, Christmas seals were and are colourful and imaginatively designed, mostly with Christmas symbols or motives relating to the fight against tuberculosis. The funds raised through the sale of the seals initially helped to build hospitals and were later also used to screen persons at risk for tuberculosis, to improve housing conditions of patients and for other measures of support. With the decrease of tuberculosis, some organisations discontinued fundraising through Christmas seals while others widened their intended purpose and supported, for example, the prevention of and research on lung diseases. In Germany, Christmas seals are closely connected with the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis. Today the "Kuratorium Tuberkulose in der Welt" is the only organisation in this country that still raises funds by this means. The funds are mostly used to assist developing countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.

  5. Experimental Analysis of Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger for Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Solar Pond Using Low-Grade Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Baharin, Nuraida `Aadilia; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Oberoi, Amandeep; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-05-01

    Salinity gradient solar ponds act as an integrated thermal solar energy collector and storage system. The temperature difference between the upper convective zone and the lower convective zone of a salinity gradient solar pond can be in the range of 40-60°C. The temperature at the bottom of the pond can reach up to 90°C. Low-grade heat (solar ponds is currently converted into electricity by organic Rankine cycle engines. Thermoelectric generators can operate at very low temperature differences and can be a good candidate to replace organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation from salinity gradient solar ponds. The temperature difference in a solar pond can be used to power thermoelectric generators for electricity production. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a thermoelectric generators heat exchanger system designed to be powered by the hot water from the lower convective zone of a solar pond, and cold water from the upper convective zone of a solar pond. The results obtained have indicated significant prospects of such a system to generate power from low-grade heat for remote area power supply systems.

  6. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates from ponds of different salinity in the solar saltwork of Sfax, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Jannet; Carrias, Jean-François; Ayadi, Habib; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Boukhris, Mekki; Bouaïn, Abderrahmen

    2006-03-01

    The planktonic ciliated protozoa of 14 ponds of increasing salinity were investigated in the saline of Sfax, Tunisia. Taxa of the classes of Spirotrichea and Heterotrichea were the numerous ciliates. Abundance of the community ranged from 0.0 to 11.8 × 10 4 ciliates per litre. Values decrease significantly with salinity gradient, as species richness does. Based on the range of salinity over which ciliate taxa appeared, we distinguished three groups of ciliates. The first group is mainly composed of oligotrichs and choreotrichs that are commonly found in marine coastal waters. Small ciliates belonging to the order Prostomatida were found in a large range of salinity values, but their densities also decreased with salt concentration. In contrast, large-size species of heterotrichous ciliates were found in ponds with high salinity values only. In these ponds, the presence of prey appeared as an important factor in controlling the abundances of these halotolerant ciliates. Our data also suggest that Fabrea salina, a common halophile ciliate, acts as a competitor of the brine shrimp Artemia salina in the saline of Sfax. Salinity, prey availability, and the presence of competitors seem to be the main factors for the distribution of ciliate taxa in this hypersaline environment.

  7. Metagenomic sequence of prokaryotic microbiota from an intermediate-salinity pond of a saltern in isla cristina, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana B; León, María José; Vera, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-02-13

    Marine salterns are artificial multipond systems designed for the commercial production of salt by evaporation of seawater. We report here the metagenomic sequence of the prokaryotic microbiota of a pond with intermediate salinity (21% total salts) of a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, southwest Spain.

  8. A Christmas Carol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Christmas Carol was an overnight success when first published in 1843, and was followed by two further Christmas books, The Chimes and The Cricket on the Hearth, also included in this volume. But A Christmas Carols Ebenezer Scooge is one of Dickenss most unforgettable characters, a miserable

  9. The influence of fish ponds and salinization on groundwater quality in the multi-layer coastal aquifer system in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, A.; Weinstein, Y.; Yechieli, Y.; Borisover, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on the impact of surface reservoirs (fish ponds) on a multi aquifer coastal system, and the relation between the aquifer and the sea. The study was conducted in an Israeli Mediterranean coastal aquifer, which includes a sandy phreatic unit and two confined calcareous sandstone units. The geological description is based on 52 wells, from which 33 samples were collected for stable isotope analysis and 25 samples for organic and inorganic parameters. Hydraulic head and chemical measurements suggest that there is an hydraulic connection between the fish ponds above the aquifer and the phreatic unit, whereas the connection with the confined units is very limited. The phreatic unit is characterized by a low concentration of oxygen and high concentrations of ammonium and phosphate, while the confined units are characterized by higher oxygen and much lower ammonium and phosphate concentrations. Organic matter fluorescence was found to be a tool to distinguish the contribution of the pond waters, whereby a pond water signature (characterized by proteinaceous (tryptophan-like) and typical humic-matter fluorescence) was found in the phreatic aquifer. The phreatic unit is also isotopically enriched, similar to pond waters, with δ18O of -1‰ and δD of -4.6‰, indicating enhanced evaporation of the pond water before infiltration, whereas there is a depleted isotopic composition in the confined units (δ18O = -4.3‰, δD = -20.4‰), which are also OM-poor. The Phreeqc model was used for quantitative calculation of the effect of pond losses on the different units. The Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the upper unit increases downstream from the ponds toward the sea, probably due to organic matter degradation, suggesting contribution of DIN from shallow groundwater flow to the sea. 87Sr/86Sr and Mg/Ca in the brackish and saline groundwater of the lower confined units increase toward seawater value, suggesting that the salinization process in the region

  10. [The sweet Christmas rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P; Faurschou, Annesofie

    2013-12-02

    Christmas tree hypersensitivity is a rare condition, which has so far obtained scarce attention in the medical literature. We present two clinical cases of hypersensitivity associated with Christmas tree exposure, a 51-year-old woman with allergic contact dermatitis and a 41-year-old man with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas.

  11. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a coastal saline aquifer: A case study on the criteria for site selection and its impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Raicy Mani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-07-01

    Percolation ponds have become very popular methods of managed aquifer recharge due to their low cost, ease of construction and the participation and assistance of community. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a percolation pond in a saline aquifer, north of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, to improve the storage and quality of groundwater. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods were used to understand the subsurface conditions of the area. From these investigations, a suitable location was chosen and a percolation pond was constructed. The quality and quantity of groundwater of the nearby area has improved due to the recharge from the pond. This study indicated that a simple excavation without providing support for the slope and paving of the bunds helped to improve the groundwater quality. This method can be easily adoptable by farmers who can have a small pond within their farm to collect and store the rainwater. The cost of water recharged from this pond works out to be about 0.225 Re/l. Cleaning the pond by scrapping the accumulated sediments needs to be done once a year. Due to the small dimension and high saline groundwater, considerable improvement in quality at greater depths could not be achieved. However, ponds of larger size with recharge shafts can directly recharge the aquifer and help to improve the quality of water at greater depths.

  12. Impacts of saline water irrigation and shrimp pond discharges on the surrounding waters of a coastal district in the Mekong delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, N.; R. Merckx; Ut, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses impacts of saline water irrigation and shrimp pond discharges on the surrounding waters in the coastal Cai Nuoc district, Mekong delta of Vietnam where the landscape was re-shaped by shrimp aquaculture since 2000. Sampling took place at the end of the wet season of 2009 in the district (as aquaculture sites) and a nearby freshwater-dominated reference site. The aquaculture sites showed significantly higher salinities and organic loadings (biochemical oxygen demand, chemic...

  13. Antioxidant responses in Mesopodopsis zeylanica at varying salinity to detect mercury influence in culture ponds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Das, P.B.; Jena, K.; Maharana, D.; Desai, S.R.

    addition. CAT increased significantly from 5 to 15 psu before Hg influence, and GST increased after addition of the metal. However, a reduction in both these enzymes is evident at higher salinities (25 psu) with or without Hg. The energy cost involved...

  14. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Restaurants closed over Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The restaurants will be closed during the Christmas holiday period : please note that all three CERN Restaurants will be closed from 5 p.m. on Wednesday, 21 December until Wednesday, 4 January inclusive. The Restaurants will reopen on Thursday, 5 January 2012.

  16. Christmas Tree Pest Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Entomology Michigan State University

    1998-01-01

    This manual can help you identify and control damaging Christmas tree pests in the North Central region of the United States. Most of the information also applies to the northeastern states and to the southern portions of the Canadian Provinces that border these states. You do not have to be a pest specialist to use this information; we wrote the manual in everyday...

  17. Images in Christmas Balls

    OpenAIRE

    van Beveren, Eef; Kleefeld, Frieder; Rupp, George

    2005-01-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, like balls in the Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham -- alias Alhazen -- more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being stil...

  18. [Christmas from an allergist's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, Bettina

    2016-12-01

    The customs and traditions associated with Christmas may result in allergic reactions to allergens that are typical for this period. On the one hand the rise in prevalence of allergic diseases has continued in the industrialized world for the last decades and allergies are regarded as widespread diseases. On the other hand the 21th century is a time of "allergy delusion". This review summarizes the facts about allergic reactions to Christmas typical decoration, food and behavior. Taken together, allergic reactions to Christmas tree, poinsettia, Christmas cactus, perfumed candles, Christmas typical food, common gifts like mobile phones and laptops, frankincense, myrrh and pollens have been described but in very rare instances. The chance to survive Christmas without allergic symptoms is high, particularly for non-atopics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A new hybrid Christmas tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Critchfield

    1965-01-01

    A hybrid pine developed in the course of forest-tree improvement research. by the U. S. Forest Service has caught the interest of Christmas tree growers. It is a hybrid between two races of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) produced at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Placerville, California, and has some desirable attributes for use as a Christmas...

  20. Mystery photos: Christmas edition

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Paraphrasing George R.R. Martin's novel Game of Thrones’ most famous quote: “Christmas is coming”. According to tradition, we’ve themed our last issue of the year to share the spirit of the festivities with our readers. We’ve collected some pictures of snowy scenes and Christmas parties at CERN from our archives.   Identifying pictures and albums in the CERN photo archive continues apace and we still need your help. However, in keeping with the holiday spirit, we’ve set you some Christmassy challenges. Were you at any of the events shown below, or do you recognise anyone in the pictures? Get in touch by email: photo.archive@cern.ch or use the “suggest a caption” link on each picture’s page. So far, more than 33,000 pictures have been uploaded, with nearly 1,000 old album records inspected and about 150 new ones created. We’ve had contact from an ever-increasing number of reti...

  1. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Document Server

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  2. Images in Christmas baubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beveren, Eef; Kleefeld, Frieder; Rupp, George

    2006-03-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, such as baubles on a Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham—alias Alhazen—more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well-known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being still of great relevance, e.g., for the aberration-free construction of telescopes. We do not attempt to perform an exhaustive survey of the rich historical and engineering literature on the subject, but develop a simple pedagogical approach to the issue, which we believe to be of continuing interest in view of its maltreatment in many high-school textbooks.

  3. Images in Christmas baubles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveren, Eef van [Centro de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Kleefeld, Frieder [Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, EdifIcio Ciencia, P-1049-001 Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Rupp, George [Centro de Fisica das Interaccoes Fundamentais, Instituto Superior Tecnico, EdifIcio Ciencia, P-1049-001 Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2006-03-01

    We describe light-reflection properties of spherically curved mirrors, such as baubles on a Christmas tree. In particular, we study the position of the image which is formed somewhere beyond the surface of a spherical mirror, when an eye observes the image of a pointlike light source. The considered problem, originally posed by Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham-alias Alhazen-more than a millennium ago, turned out to have the now well-known analytic solution of a biquadratic equation, being still of great relevance, e.g., for the aberration-free construction of telescopes. We do not attempt to perform an exhaustive survey of the rich historical and engineering literature on the subject, but develop a simple pedagogical approach to the issue, which we believe to be of continuing interest in view of its maltreatment in many high-school textbooks.

  4. CERN Shop Christmas Sale

    CERN Document Server

    Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

    2001-01-01

    11-13.12.2001 Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 11 to Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Calendar 10.- CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt (M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 25.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- CERN watch 25.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'How the web was born' (English) 25.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German) 40.-   If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs.

  5. CERN SHOP CHRISTMAS SALE

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2000-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 December from 10.00 to 16.00.   Sweat-shirt col zippé, grey, blue, black (M, L, XL) 30.- Sweat-shirt col polo, grey, collar blue (M, L, XL) 30.- T-shirt, black, (M, L, XL) 15.- WWW T-shirt, white, bordeau (M, L, XL) 15.- CERN silk tie (3 colours) 33.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau 25.- Silk scarf (blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- New model of CERN watch 25.- New CERN baseball cap 10.- Antimatter (English/anglais) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English,) 35.- Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen 45.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs (Shop will be closed at 12.00 on 22.12.).

  6. A working Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The repair of faulty elements in the cryogenic distribution line is making great progress in building 927 at CERN. While many of us were relaxing over the two-week Christmas break, the team repairing elements of the LHC cryogenic distribution line - or QRL - continued working, keeping the repair schedule on course for completion by the end of March. Pipe elements with faulty sliding tables are being repaired by the ICS consortium, in charge of installing the cryo-magnets in their cryostats. This team began repairs at the beginning of November, fixing 10 elements a week (See Bulletin 42/2004 from 11 October 2004). However, during the five-week winter shutdown of the magnet test facility they are being assisted by 20 personnel who normally work on magnet testing. With the extra help a repair rate of five pipe elements a day has been reached - 25 elements a week - thanks to the remarkable effort of the ICS personnel led by Patrick Voisin, the DBS personnel assuring the transport and handling of the elements, an...

  7. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  8. The christmas effect on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-12-01

    Urban legend suggests that psychopathology tends to increase around the holidays, including Christmas. To explore this issue, we undertook a literature search of the PsycINFO and PubMed databases for empirical studies relating to this phenomenon. According to our findings, the general mood of individuals may worsen and the number of alcohol-related fatalities may increase around the Christmas holiday; however, overall utilization patterns by psychiatric patients in emergency rooms and in inpatient wards is lower as is the prevalence of self-harm behavior and suicide attempts/completions. Following the Christmas holiday, there appears to be a rebound phenomena with these latter behaviors-a concerning pattern that is relevant for both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  9. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but…

  10. [A peaceful Christmas Eve at the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2011-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping"). A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months. During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p Christmas (p Christmas Eve. No increased admittance among the elderly at the end of Christmas was observed in our data. We conclude that overeating during the festivities of Christmas probably results in increased admittance rates in Danish hospitals. Christmas Eve is the day on which doctors can expect the lowest workload. Although the rate of admission due to lack of care at home was high, we could find no evidence of "granny dumping".

  11. Outdoor cultivation of Dunaliella salina KU 11 using brine and saline lake water with raceway ponds in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhe; Dejtisakdi, Wipawee; Kermanee, Prasart; Ma, Chunhong; Arirob, Wallop; Sathasivam, Ramaraj; Juntawong, Niran

    2016-10-03

    To evaluate the potential of algal biotechnology to replace traditional agriculture in northeastern Thailand, an open raceway cultivation system was developed to produce biomass and beta-carotene. Dunaliella salina KU 11 isolated from local saline soil was cultured in open raceway tanks using brine and saline lake water. Grown in modified Johnson's medium (with 2-3.5 M NaCl), the algae reached a maximum cell density on the fourth day (1.8 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) ). Increasing KNO3 and NaHCO3 from 0.5 and 0.043 g L(-1) to 1 and 2.1 g L(-1) , respectively, significantly improved the yields of biomass (0.33 g L(-1) ) and beta-carotene (19 mg L(-1) ). Expected profits for algal production were evaluated, and it was found that this strain was suitable for outdoor cultivation and the developing algal industry in northeastern Thailand could produce high economic benefits (at least $64,120 per year per 0.16 ha). © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year...

  13. A silicon tracker for Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment installed the world’s largest silicon tracker just before Christmas. Marcello Mannelli: physicist and deputy CMS project leader, and Alan Honma, physicist, compare two generations of tracker: OPAL for the LEP (at the front) and CMS for the LHC (behind). There is quite a difference between 1m2 and 205m2.. CMS received an early Christmas present on 18 December when the silicon tracker was installed in the heart of the CMS magnet. The CMS tracker team couldn’t have hoped for a better present. Carefully wrapped in shiny plastic, the world’s largest silicon tracker arrived at Cessy ready for installation inside the CMS magnet on 18 December. This rounded off the year for CMS with a major event, the crowning touch to ten years of work on the project by over five hundred scientists and engineers. "Building a scientific instrument of this size and complexity is a huge technical a...

  14. A Christmas Book from 1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This is a story about a book that I found in my collection, its author, and the boy who owned it. The book is "The Boy's Playbook of Science", first published in 1860 by John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). On the flyleaf is written "Arthur G. Webster; Christmas/75; from Mama." Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923) was one of the founders of the American…

  15. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  16. Tourism Product Development : Case: Christmas Tourism - Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas Village

    OpenAIRE

    Golotina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas Village offers to its customers the experience of local folklore as a unique possibility for a Christmas adventure, taking place in winter season. All year around, Kalevala Spirit Oy offers services mainly for foreigners, but for local customers, as well. In winter season it attracts Russian tourists, who visit Vuokatti, with this Christmas adventure for families. The purpose of this thesis was to identify gaps in services of Kuhmo Kalevala Spirit Christmas...

  17. Christmas: an event driven by our hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, M

    2011-12-01

    No other event in the Christian calendar has such a deep impact on our behaviour as the annual event called Christmas. Christmas is not just 'Christmas Day'; indeed, it is a long developmental rhythm with a period of almost exactly 365 days. Here, I describe the neuronal and hormonal changes and their effects on our behaviour during the preparation and the execution of the event(1) . © 2011 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2009 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  19. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2007 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  20. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2005 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  1. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2008 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  2. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2004 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  3. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2010 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  4. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Self Monitoring Program for Alviso Ponds Within South San Francisco Bay Low Salinity Salt Ponds Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, California : 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report summarizes the results of the 2006 water quality sampling conducted at the Alviso Ponds in Santa Clara County, California, which are part of the...

  5. The sweet Christmas rash (case series)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas....

  6. Factors that influence Christmas tree sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the metropolitan Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N. C., shows that to sell more trees, Christmas tree retailers should locate their lots on heavily traveled streets in business areas, have adequate parking facilities, advertise, and have attractive displays of trees. Retailers who follow these practices can expect to receive higher prices for...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.306 - Christmas tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree crops. 1437.306 Section 1437.306... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.306 Christmas tree crops. (a) A Christmas tree is a value loss crop... commercial use as a Christmas tree, and only if other requirements of this section are met. (b) The unit of...

  8. Christmas feast in Prévessin

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Restaurant No3 was invaded by a happy bunch of Santa Clauses last Wednesday. It has become a tradition for the restaurant staff to dress up to serve a real Christmas feast. In the menu : Foie gras des Landes, scallops, salmon tartar and of course the traditional Christmas turkey. And a special extra - an aperitif graciously offered by the restaurant. Places were laid for 450 people for this exceptional lunch.

  9. The Christmas tree industry in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Sidebottom

    2009-01-01

    Christmas tree production has grown in the last 50 years to one of the major farming enterprises in western North Carolina. The history, importance, and challenges to the Christmas tree industry are reviewed.

  10. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  11. Phytobenthic Communities in Earthen Ponds {at Makoba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zanzibar. Among the zooplankton, rotifer abundance peaked during the rainy period (salinity .... time for all the ponds, thus, the monthly averages ..... ponds and the role of plankton in their survival and growth. Indian J. Fish. 2: 257-313. Bryceson, I. (1977) An ecological study of phytoplankton of the coastal waters of Dar es.

  12. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  13. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for...

  14. 29 CFR 780.208 - Forest and Christmas tree activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest and Christmas tree activities. 780.208 Section 780... Christmas tree activities. Operations in a forest tree nursery such as seeding new beds and growing and transplanting forest seedlings are not farming operations. The planting, tending, and cutting of Christmas trees...

  15. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a "Christmas...

  16. CHRISTMAS – FROM RELIGIOUS TO LAIC. THE STIMULI THAT “SELL” CHRISTMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Romania has been a country with a strong cultural background since ancient times. The Romanian people, born Christian, cherished holy days as part of its daily life, Christmas included. From a religious viewpoint, Christmas is one of the twelve holy days celebrated by the rulers of Byzantine Churches, being considered the third great holy day after Easter and Pentecost. However, in relation to the field of marketing, Christmas is a popular holy day, hence an occasion to increase sales. At the level of financial advantages provided, this holy day is the most important one, not only for retailers, but also for the other categories of merchandisers. There are various ways to celebrate this feast: parties, family gatherings, going to church and gifts. Christmas is a religious feast, supported by some people and rejected by others for having been turned into an occasion to spend money and party, thus ignoring its sacred character. Based on the aspects above as premises, this paper aims at shaping the buyer’s behaviour during Christmas time. Therefore, our aims are the identification of those in-store stimuli that create the atmospherics desired by customers when they take the decision to shop in a Christmas context. Another aim is to shape the buyer’s behaviour in choosing Christmas gifts, considering two variables: gender and age. Last but not least, we aim at highlighting the period in which in-store Christmas stimuli have been perceived, whether this coincides with the one when first gifts are bought or not, which was the average budget allocated or the moment people became aware they had to do the shopping for this holy day. The methodological approach includes both a qualitative approach, by using the structured interview and a quantitative approach by conducting a survey based on the snowball sampling method. The population investigated is aged between 25 and 65, lives in the urban area, is married and it was compulsory for the respondents

  17. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  18. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give the CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Friday 11.12.2009 to Thursday 17.12.2009. Come to visit the CERN Shop at the Reception, Building 33. PH-EDU-PO

  19. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Monday 13.12.2010 to Saturday 18.12.2010. Come and visit the CERN Shop in the Reception Building 33.

  20. The Five Senses of Christmas Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the organic chemistry of five compounds that are directly associated with the Christmas season. These substances and related materials are presented within the framework of the five senses: silver fulminate (sound), alpha-pinene (sight), sodium acetate (touch), tryptophan (taste), and gingerol (smell). Connections with the…

  1. Generosity and Hospitality in Christmas Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, T.

    2013-01-01

    This short subject discusses what might be understood as Santa Claus’ essence, which is the logic of and limits to his overarching generosity, as depicted in the film Christmas Story (Wuolijoki, 2007). The plot centres on the orphan Nikolas, who grew up to be Santa Claus. Young Nikolas moves to a

  2. STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarsih Sunarsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for natural syst ems used in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP Sewon Bantul. The model is m odeling development, derived from the physical and biochemical phenomena involved in the biological treatment process. The numerical solution of the resulting on 13 simultaneous systems of nonlinear equations by the Quasi_Newton. Data validation is measured by facultative pond at the inlet and outlet of the pond to the concentration of b acteria, algae, zooplankton, organic matter, detritus, organic nitrogen, NH3, organi c phosphor, dissolved phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, total coliform, faecal coliform and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD. A simulation model is presented to predict performance regime steady state of domestic wastewater treatment facultative stabilization pond. The high degree of significant of at least 10% indicates that the effluent parameters can be reasonably accurately predicted.

  3. Pond sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, G.; Laborde, M.

    1980-09-16

    A method of providing a substantially impermeable lining to the bottom of an earthen pond using native soil. Such soil is classified and formed into a slurry containing fine particles of predominately five or less micron size. The pond bottom is covered with a first layer of the slurry which is allowed to dry to a point where large crack patterns develop. The cracks are filled with a second layer of the slurry. More layers may be applied to form a final lining having the desired permeability for the particular application.

  4. [Remarks on the ecological adaptation of the snail aquatic fauna in saline medium of the Dallol ponds. (Republique du Niger) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretillat, S; Gaston, G

    1975-01-01

    Human vesical and intestinal bilharziasis, bovine fasciolosis and paramphistomosis, equine gastrodiscosis and ovine carmyeriosis, are frequent in the Dallols'region, (12 degrees - 13 degrees 30 N. lat. ; 3 degrees E. long.), Republique du Niger, Africa. Dallols are fossil valleys pouring water from late Saharian lakes. They are also tributaries of the Niger River. During the dry season, they become dry and many residual ponds of varied dimensions; from tens feet to one or two miles long, are lying along the valley bottom. The water is sometimes fresh but more frequently salt, (sodium, calcium and potassium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and bicarbonate), are in solution of variable proportions. From november to april, the total salt concentration is increasing by high evaporation and the medium becomes non likely to live for aquatic vector snails, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis and Afrogyrus coretus.

  5. Christmas Sale on 11 and 12 December

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    CERN Shop Are you short of ideas for Christmas presents? If so, come and have a look at the stall the CERN shop will be setting up outside Restaurant No. 1 in the Main Building on the Meyrin site on Thursday 11 and Friday 12 December from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Various new items will be on sale, including a new LHC booklet for the general public. In the style of a travel log, it recounts the fabulous voyage of a proton inside the accelerator. The text is complemented by eye-catching photos and illustrations and is available in English or French. The 2009 calendar, based on the same theme, will also be on sale at 10 CHF. Special reductions will be available on certain items. So come and stock up on your Christmas presents at the CERN shop. Bookshop If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, ...

  6. "Christmas Balls": a Christmas carol by the adolescent cancer patients of the Milan Youth Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Signoroni, Stefano; Silva, Matteo; Gaggiotti, Paola; Veneroni, Laura; Magni, Chiara; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Capelletti, Mirko; Lapidari, Pietro; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Massimino, Maura

    2017-03-24

    The Youth Project is a program developed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents and young adults with cancer. Among its various goals, the Youth Project organizes structured creative activities with the support of professionals, with the objective of offering young people a new way to express their hopes and fears. This article describes a project centered around music: patients created a Christmas carol with the help of musicians and authors. The adolescents explained with their own words the meaning of the lyrics, telling the story of a Christmas spent in a cancer hospital ward.

  7. Microalgal assemblages in a poikilohaline pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyi; Lambert, William; Giang, Sophia; Goericke, Ralf; Palenik, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Microalgal strains for algal biofuels production in outdoor ponds will need to have high net growth rates under diverse environmental conditions. A small, variable salinity pond in the San Elijo Lagoon estuary in southern California was chosen to serve as a model pond due to its routinely high chlorophyll content. Profiles of microalgal assemblages from water samples collected from April 2011 to January 2012 were obtained by constructing 18S rDNA environmental clone libraries. Pond assemblages were found to be dominated by green algae Picochlorum sp. and Picocystis sp. throughout the year. Pigment analysis suggested that the two species contributed most of the chlorophyll a of the pond, which ranged from 21.9 to 664.3 μg · L(-1) with the Picocystis contribution increasing at higher salinities. However, changes of temperature, salinity or irradiance may have enabled a bloom of the diatom Chaetoceros sp. in June 2011. Isolates of these microalgae were obtained and their growth rates characterized as a function of temperature and salinity. Chaetoceros sp. had the highest growth rate over the temperature test range while it showed the most sensitivity to high salinity. All three strains showed the presence of lipid bodies during nitrogen starvation, suggesting they have potential as future biofuels strains. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses...... sources. This implies that any future warming of the climate may result in nonlinear CH4 emission behavior in tundra ecosystems....... to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect...

  9. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-06-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year. We aimed to replicate this effect for Austria. The analyses were based on the official suicide statistics 2000-13 using Poission regression and Bayesian changepoint analysis. We also investigated changes of suicide rates during other major holidays and weekends. Seasonal effects were controlled for by using restricted control periods. Suicide rates declined before Christmas and were minimal on December 24th, remained low until the end of the year, peaked on New Year's day, but remained at average level in New Year's week. In contrast, suicide rates increased in the week after Easter and on Mondays/Tuesdays after weekends. No significant effects were found in the week after Whitsun and summer holidays. Compared with other holidays, Christmas time is clearly associated with fewer suicides in Austria, too, and may even counteract the 'broken promise' effect. This finding may help clarifying common myths in suicide prevention and may enhance the proper timing of preventive efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Christmas, consumption and materialism: discourse analysis of children’s Christmas letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Luna Batinga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article reports the results of an empirical research that sought to understand the many meanings referring to Christmas that appear in letters written by children and sent to Santa Claus. It is based on the idea that, by means of a playful activity such as writing Christmas letters, children would be able to bring up a variety of issues referring to their daily lives. Design/methodology/approach – This research, which is of interpretative nature, made use of elements belonging to discourse analysis. Discourse analysis is a theoretical and methodological field linked to Linguistics, which studies language in movement, producing meaning since it is a social practice. Findings – The results point to discursive marks that suggest traces of materialism and secularism in the narratives and stories created by children concerning Christmas. Moreover, Santa Claus is directly associated with the date and stands out as an emblematic figure in children’s imagination. Originality/value – Reporting Christmas imagery and the creation of its meanings by children can help unveil essential issues, or at least point out “clues” referring to the degree of symbolism that is present in the various social and cultural manifestations of contemporary society

  11. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  12. Goal Programming: A New Tool for the Christmas Tree Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen

    1977-01-01

    Goal programing (GP) can be useful for decision making in the natural Christmas tree industry. Its usefulness is demonstrated through an analysis of a hypothetical problem in which two potential growers decide how to use 10 acres in growing Christmas trees. Though the physical settings are identical, distinct differences between their goals significantly influence the...

  13. And All the Dark Make Bright Like Day: Christmas Books 1960-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sidney

    This annotated bibliography is prefaced by a brief introduction emphasizing the effect of social and cultural change in the past decade as reflected in Christmas books for children. Ten sections deal with the nights before Christmas, the Nativity, miracles and legends, carols, children and Christmas in other lands, Christmas in America, Christmas…

  14. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    dissolved carbon dioxide and chemical oxygen demand (COD) on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in fish ponds. The effects of organic feeds, ... and algae biomass data measured from RETCO fish ponds in Dar es Salaam; and light intensity data were adopted from ... temperature, atmospheric pressure, and salinity. According to ...

  15. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...... in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal...

  16. The ``Christmas burst'' GRB 101225A revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Kann, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Long GRBs are related to the death of massive stars and reveal themselves through synchrotron emission from highly relativistic jets. The `Christmas Burst' GRB 101225A was an exceptionally long GRB with a thermal afterglow, very different from the standard GRB. Initially, no spectroscopic redshift could be obtained and SED modeling yielded z=0.33. A plausible model was a He-NS star merger where the He-star had ejected part of its envelope in the common envelope phase during inspiral. The interaction between the jet and the previously ejected shell can explains the thermal emission. We obtained deep spectroscopy of the host galaxy which leads to a correction of the redshift to z=0.847. Despite the higher redshift, our model is still valid and theoretically better justified than the alternative suggestion of a blue supergiant progenitor proposed by Levan et al. (2014) for several ``ultra-long'' GRBs.

  17. Green Christmas kasvas suureks / Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Suurbritannia rockansambli Paradise Lost' kontsertidest 18. dets. Rakvere spordihallis ja Riias Kipsala hallis, rockfestivali Green Christmas korraldamisest Gunnar Viese ja Oleg Knjazevi ühisfirma Baltic East Machine poolt

  18. Christmas Bird Counts from Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historical bird data set comprised of bird counts conducted at Loess Bluffs NWR around the Christmas season. Weather data was collected in conjunction with these...

  19. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...... spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further research is necessary...

  20. Christmas and New Year as risk factors for death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David; Barker, Gwendolyn E; Brewer, Kimberly M

    2010-10-01

    This paper poses three questions: (1) Does mortality from natural causes spike around Christmas and New Year? (2) If so, does this spike exist for all major disease groups or only specialized groups? (3) If twin holiday spikes exist, need this imply that Christmas and New Year are risk factors for death? To answer these questions, we used all official U.S. death certificates, 1979-2004 (n = 57,451,944) in various hospital settings to examine daily mortality levels around Christmas and New Year. We measured the Christmas increase by comparing observed deaths with expected deaths in the week starting on Christmas. The New Year increase was measured similarly. The expected number of deaths was determined by locally weighted regression, given the null hypothesis that mortality is affected by seasons and trend but not by holidays. On Christmas and New Year, mortality from natural causes spikes in dead-on-arrival (DOA) and emergency department (ED) settings. There are more DOA/ED deaths on 12/25, 12/26, and 1/1 than on any other day. In contrast, deaths in non-DOA/ED settings display no holiday spikes. For DOA/ED settings, there are holiday spikes for each of the top five disease groups (circulatory diseases; neoplasms; respiratory diseases; endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases; digestive diseases). For all settings combined, there are holiday spikes for most major disease groups and for all demographic groups, except children. In the two weeks starting with Christmas, there is an excess of 42,325 deaths from natural causes above and beyond the normal winter increase. Christmas and New Year appear to be risk factors for deaths from many diseases. We tested nine possible explanations for these risk factors, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Unusual Stellar Death on Christmas Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Mimica, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, usually associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets producing non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the peculiar GRB 101225A (the "Christmas burst"). Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long and followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical couuterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling blackbody after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We determine its distance to 1.6 Gpc by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a helium star-neutron star merger that underwent a common envelope phase expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which gets thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material and thus creating the observed black-body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star io the Galaxy

  2. Christmas cards workshop in a Restricted Access Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Christmas cards workshop is an intervention study made in the Restricted Access Ward (RAW of Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, in December 2001, from the 5th to the 22nd. The object of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this workshop to improve the quality of the RAW patients´ hospital day, through their participation. They made 47 cards, the mean per patient was 1,52. Participation: 91,2% of the patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Drawings and texts alluded to the convict´s perspective of Christmas time, from their own experience. The Christmas cards were exhibited in the hospital and they also were sent to different penitentiary institutions in Madrid, to make the RAW known. The course “Education for health for interdisciplinary projects in penitentiary institutions” was the frame of this workshop.

  3. 76 FR 69110 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... whether the continuation ] of the Christmas Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) is favored by domestic producers and importers of Christmas trees. This program will be implemented under the...

  4. 29 CFR 778.212 - Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses. 778.212... COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Bonuses § 778.212 Gifts, Christmas and... Christmas time or on other special occasions, as a reward for service, the amounts of which are not measured...

  5. 76 FR 71241 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Stay of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...) establishing an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh cut Christmas trees... interested persons, including the Christmas tree industry and the general public, an opportunity to become...

  6. 76 FR 9695 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... information program for fresh cut Christmas trees is reopened and extended. The comment period is also reopen and extended for the new Christmas tree information collection requirements by the Office of...

  7. Christmas Tree Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with Christmas tree production and marketing. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by four topics: introduction, starting a Christmas tree plantation, maintaining the plantation, and marketing Christmas trees. For each topic, objectives, an…

  8. Revisiting the "Christmas Holiday Effect" in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Schilling, Chris; Barnett, Adrian; Jackson, Rod; Clarke, Phillip

    2016-12-22

    A "Christmas holiday effect" showing elevated cardiovascular mortality over the Christmas holidays (December 25 to January 7) was demonstrated previously in study from the United States. To separate the effect of seasonality from any holiday effect, a matching analysis was conducted for New Zealand, where the Christmas holiday period falls within the summer season. New Zealand mortality data for a 25-year period (1988-2013) was analyzed based on the same methodology used in the previous study. Locally weighted smoothing was used to calculate an "expected" number of deaths for each day of the year. The expected value was compared with the actual number of deaths. In addition, mean age at death was estimated and used to assess the life-years lost due to excess mortality. There were 738 409 deaths (197 109 coded as cardiac deaths) during the period. We found evidence of a Christmas holiday effect in our of medical facility's cardiac deaths, with an excess event rate of 4.2% (95% CI 0.7-7.7%) leading to ≈4 additional deaths per annum. The average age of those with fatal cardiac deaths was 76.8 years (SD 13.5) during the Christmas holiday period, resulting in 148 to 222 years of life lost per annum. Cardiac mortality is elevated during the Christmas holiday period relative to surrounding time periods. Our findings are consistent with a previously reported study conducted in the United States, suggesting that cardiac mortality does not take a "summer break." © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Metagenome sequencing of prokaryotic microbiota from two hypersaline ponds of a marine saltern in santa pola, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana B; Ghai, Rohit; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana Belen; Sanchez-Porro, Cristina; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ventosa, Antonio

    2013-11-14

    Marine salterns are composed of several shallow ponds with a salinity gradient, from seawater to salt saturation, with gradually changing microbial populations. Here, we report the metagenome sequencing of the prokaryotic microbiota of two ponds with 13% and 33% salinity from a saltern in Santa Pola, Spain.

  10. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  11. Can We Still Sing Christmas Carols in Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the arguments and the court decisions, particularly in relation to school Christmas programs, that are a part of the social concern on the place of religious music in the large issue of the separation of Church and State. (Editor/RK)

  12. Women's club - Christmas Sale - Solidarité Femmes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday, 25 November from 9am to 3pm Main Building 60, Ground floor All proceeds from the sale will be given to the charity Solidarité Femmes Numerous items for sale: Christmas wreaths, Cakes and Biscuits, Coffee, Preserves, Paintings, Books, Embroidery, Patchwork, Painting on porcelain... Tombola! Win a patchwork quilt, handmade by CWC members. All are welcome!

  13. Christmas Messages by heads of state Multimodality and media adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, C.L.A.; Fetzer, A.; Lauerbach, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter investigates the multimodal quality of Christmas Messages by European heads of state on TV from a functional-pragmatic and semiotic angle. It defines them as dealing with multiple types of materialities from different modes and sub-modes. Section 1 develops the central concept of

  14. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  15. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  16. Christmas advice to pass on to pet owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Pre-empting pet owners' Christmas pitfalls, BVA Media Officer Girija Duggal shares statistics from BVA's Voice of the Veterinary Profession survey and some top tips to help your clients avoid having to use the out-of-hours number. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Developing Models to Forcast Sales of Natural Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett; Thomas H. Pendleton

    1977-01-01

    A study of practices for marketing Christmas trees in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and Denver, Colorado, revealed that such factors as retail lot competition, tree price, consumer traffic, and consumer income were very important in determining a particular retailer's sales. Analyses of 4 years of market data were used in developing regression models for...

  18. Wie was Scrooge? De dubbele bodem van 'A Christmas Carol'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Ieder jaar komt op televisie wel een verfilming van de kerstvertelling A Christmas Carol van Charles Dickens (1812-1870) langs. En wie het niet kent van de beeldbuis heeft het ongetwijfeld voor zijn boekenlijst op de middelbare school gelezen. Oppervlakkige lezing van het boek doet vermoeden dat we

  19. 'This Is Our Sport!' Christmas Band Competitions And The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The children are restless, playing with each other, running around and the men shout at them to stop running and to keep their uniforms clean. There is much excitement in the air as they prepare for the City & Suburban Christmas Bands' Union's Annual Competition. South African Music Studies Vol. 26-27 2006/7: pp. 109- ...

  20. [The cerebral representation of the Christmas spirit. A transcultural functional magnetic resonance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Lindberg, Ulrich; Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta; Hougaard, Anders

    2012-12-03

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to detect specific cognitive functions of the human brain. To our knowledge, no attempt has yet been made to localize the Christmas spirit using this technique. We used a 3 tesla MR scanner and a visual stimulation paradigm consisting of Christmas-associated images and matched neutral images. We studied two healthy subjects with and two healthy subjects without a Christmas celebrating cultural background. In the Christmas celebrating group we observed an extensive cerebral response to Christmas associated stimulation comprising frontal, parieto-occipital and subcortical areas. In the control group we found a small response limited to visual association areas. Christmas-associated cerebral activation comprises a network involving areas of sensory, motor and emotional processing. The applied method is appropriate for the detection of Christmas-related areas of the brain but the results of the study should be verified in a larger sample size.

  1. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud; Haddock, Bryan T

    2015-12-16

    To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas theme. Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises Christmas. After scanning, participants answered a questionnaire about their Christmas traditions and the associations they have with Christmas. Brain activation maps from scanning were analysed for Christmas related activation in the "Christmas" and "non-Christmas" groups individually. Subsequently, differences between the two groups were calculated to determine Christmas specific brain activation. Significant clusters of increased BOLD activation in the sensory motor cortex, the premotor and primary motor cortex, and the parietal lobule (inferior and superior) were found in scans of people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. There is a "Christmas spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further

  2. Unintended Consequences of Management Actions in Salt Pond Restoration: Cascading Effects in Trophic Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Arriana Brand, L.; Tanya R Graham; Collin A. Eagles-Smith; Herzog, Mark P.; Topping, Brent R.; Gregory G Shellenbarger; Kuwabara, James S.; Eric Mruz; Sara L Piotter; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequence...

  3. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  4. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations...

  5. Unintended Consequences of Management Actions in Salt Pond Restoration: Cascading Effects in Trophic Interactions: e0119345

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Y Takekawa; Joshua T Ackerman; L Arriana Brand; Tanya R Graham; Collin A Eagles-Smith; Mark P Herzog; Brent R Topping; Gregory G Shellenbarger; James S Kuwabara; Eric Mruz; Sara L Piotter; Nicole D Athearn

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations...

  6. Studies on the environmental conditions of tidal ponds in the Ramanthuruth Island (Cochin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Environmental characteristics of certain enclosures and tidal ponds in Ramanthuruth Island, Kerala, India where prawns grow in abundance were studied. Various parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll...

  7. Phase and coherence analysis of VHF scintillation over Christmas Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shume

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This short paper presents phase and coherence data from the cross-wavelet transform applied on longitudinally separated very high frequency (VHF equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations over Christmas Island. The phase and coherence analyses were employed on a pair of scintillation observations, namely, the east-looking and west-looking VHF scintillation monitors at Christmas Island. Our analysis includes 3 years of peak season scintillation data from 2008, 2009 (low solar activity, and 2011 (moderate solar activity. In statistically significant and high spectral coherence regions of the cross-wavelet transform, scintillation observations from the east-looking monitor lead those from the west-looking monitor by about 20 to 60 (40 ± 20 min (most frequent lead times. Using several years (seasons and solar cycle of lead (or lag and coherence information of the cross-wavelet transform, we envisage construction of a probability model for forecasting scintillation in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere.

  8. Enhancing the scientific value of the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erica H.; Francis, C.M.; Blancher, P.J.; Drennan, S.R.; Howe, M.A.; Lepage, D.; Robbins, Chandler S.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Sauer, J.R.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    2005-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC), conducted by the National Audubon Society (NAS) since 1900, constitutes the longest-running and geographically most widespread survey of bird life in the Western Hemisphere. Starting with 25 count locations in its first year, the program has grown continuously ever since, with 20–30 locations currently being added annually. Each CBC consists of a tally of all birds detected within a circle 24.1 km (15 miles) in diameter, on a single day within a few weeks around Christmas (current allowable dates are 14 December through 5 January). More than 50,000 observers now take part each year, in close to 2,000 count circles spread across the U.S. and its territories, southern Canada, and, increasingly, Latin America.

  9. Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to Christmas cacti has been reported as a cause of type I allergy. Therefore, the prevalence of immediate-type mucosal and skin reactions related to cactus exposure was studied in 103 employees in a cactus nursery. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire...... HRT/ Refix to cactus, 8% of the cactus workers were allergic to cacti. No noncactus workers or controls were allergic to cacti by these criteria. Testing with fresh cactus material elicited positive SPT and negative HRT/Refix in 27 nursery workers and controls, of whom 12 had immediate-type skin...... and mucosal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Christmas and Easter cacti seemed to be able to induce contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis on both an immunologic and a nonimmunologic basis. Personal atopy was associated with positive reactions to cacti....

  10. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...... grass vegetation and low salinity. Regular removal of emergent grass along the margins of the anaerobic ponds and changes in the concrete design of the ponds are likely to reduce the mosquito production, especially of Culex species....

  11. Development of a Christmas Menu for a Finnish restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Mishcheriakova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The choice of topic is based on personal interest of organization of the restaurant business in the hotel and creation of menu. The main goal of diploma project is development of the concept of the Christmas menu, that based on the Russian cuisine of the Huviretki restaurant in the Cumulus hotel. In this project I also explore the work cycle of the Huviretki restaurant and organization of food services in the hotel. The main methods of explore were interviews, analysis of information that...

  12. Is a White Christmas becoming rarer in southern parts of Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Jesper

    2015-07-01

    The notion of White Christmas, for instance snow conditions at Christmas Day, is occasionally discussed among people in certain countries in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the state of snow occurrence at Christmas Day at locations in Sweden are primarily considered binary events and methodology for statistical analysis of time series with binary responses is employed to investigate trend over time. None of the six locations studied showed a significant change over time.

  13. Global and Local Features in Romanian Commercials broadcast at Christmas Time

    OpenAIRE

    Mădălina MORARU (BUGA)

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to research how global and local brands managed their image according to traditions and values shared by Romanian target during the Christmas Holiday, a special time for everyone all over the world. Our research focuses on TV ads broadcast (40 spots) in Romania in December 2010, namely winter campaigns developed before Christmas and dedicated to the Christmas spirit. The questions we will answer in the following study regard some important aspects such as: which product cate...

  14. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud; Haddock, Bryan T

    2015-01-01

    Objective?To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Design?Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting?Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. Participants?10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Main outcome measures?Brain activation uniqu...

  15. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation = Impacto do consumo de oxigênio do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em relação ao peso corporal, temperatura, salinidade na aeração do viveiro: uma simulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vinatea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by thecombination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g. Baseado em estudos de respiração de Litopenaeus vannamei (mg O2 camarão-1 h-1, comportamento do Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR, kg O2 h-1 de aeradores mecânicos em função da salinidade, assim como as taxas de respiração da água e do solo (mg O2 L-1 h-1, uma simulação foi realizada a fim de determinar o impacto que estas três variáveis juntas têm sobre a aeração de viveiros (1, 10, 50 e 100 ha, estocados com diferentes densidades (10, 40 e 120 camarões m-2 em salinidades de 1, 13, 25 e 37 ppm, temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30°C e peso úmido dos camarões de 5, 10, 15 e 20 g. Os resultados mostraram que em salinidades mais baixas, com animais maiores e maiores densidades de estocagem, maior será a quantidade de aeradores de 2 cvnecessários para manter o oxigênio dissolvido acima de 50% da saturação. Igualmente, em baixas salinidades e com camarões de 5 e 10 g, independente da densidade de estocagem, mais aeradores

  16. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  17. When Christmas decoration goes hand in hand with bronchial aspiration ….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Baravalle-Einaudi, Mélisande; Dubus, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 14-month-old girl suffering from cough and wheeze around Christmas. She was treated with anti-asthmatic drugs with no success, and 3 weeks later a chest X-ray revealed a LED bulb in the left main bronchus. This LED bulb came from a Christmas light garland decorating the Christmas tree. We discuss the different Christmas objects that can be inhaled by young children, the challenge to diagnose bronchial inhalation during this winter period, and the emergence of new foreign bodies, such as LED bulbs, with a particularly aerodynamic shape.

  18. When Christmas decoration goes hand in hand with bronchial aspiration …

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Carsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-month-old girl suffering from cough and wheeze around Christmas. She was treated with anti-asthmatic drugs with no success, and 3 weeks later a chest X-ray revealed a LED bulb in the left main bronchus. This LED bulb came from a Christmas light garland decorating the Christmas tree. We discuss the different Christmas objects that can be inhaled by young children, the challenge to diagnose bronchial inhalation during this winter period, and the emergence of new foreign bodies, such as LED bulbs, with a particularly aerodynamic shape.

  19. The Stuff of Christmas Homemaking: Transforming the House and Church on Christmas Eve in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic burning of Yule logs on Christmas Eve is an archaic tradition characteristic of the Christian population in the central Balkans. In the fifty years following World War Two, the socialist state suppressed these and other popular religious practices. However, ethnographic research in Serbia and Montenegro in the late 1980s showed that many village households, nevertheless, preserved their traditional Christmas rituals at home, in contrast to the larger towns, in which they were practically eradicated. Even in the micro-regions, such as the Bay of Kotor, there were observable differences between more secluded rural communities, in which the open hearth is still the ritual center of the house (on which the Yule logs are burned as many as seven times during the Christmas season, and the towns in which only a few households continued with the rite (burning small logs in the wood-stove. In the early 1990s, however, a revival of domestic religious celebrations as well as their extension into the public realm has occurred. This study shows how on Christmas Eve, houses and churchyards (as well as townsquares are being transformed into sacred places. By analyzing the temporal and spatial aspects of this ritual event, the roles that the key actors play, the actions they undertake and artifacts they use, I attempt to demonstrate how the space of everyday life is transformed into a sacred home. In the end, the meanings and functions of homemaking are discussed in a way that confronts the classic distinction between private and public ritual environs.

  20. Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree......Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree...

  1. Should Ramadan be prescribed after Christmas? Obesity in the healthcare profession and the health benefits of fasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hankir, Ahmed; Hankir, Mohammed; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    .... Religious periods such as Christmas and Ramadan are associated with weight changes. Weight gain has been reported during the Christmas period albeit not as much as was traditionally believed according to the results of recent research...

  2. 75 FR 68512 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... years, Christmas trees have been farmed and harvested as an agricultural row crop. Most Christmas trees.... During those years, imports from Canada accounted for 99.72 percent of the total imports. Italy, Colombia... 1214.5 would define the term ``crop year'' to mean August 1 through July 31. Section 1214.6 would...

  3. 78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San... Juan, Puerto Rico during the Christmas Boat Parade, a Boat Parade. The event is scheduled to take place on Saturday, December 14, 2013. Approximately 35 boats are anticipated to participate in the Boat...

  4. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... horticultural commodities such as the following are employed in agriculture: (1) Planting seedlings in a nursery...

  5. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham

    1960-01-01

    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  6.   Biotechnology in Danish forestry - Christmas trees and Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Clonal propagation of elite trees by somatic embryogenesis (SE) can shorten periods needed for breeding of trees, and can ensure a stable production of high quality plants for the forestry sector. SE has special interest as a breeding tool, because it for many species is the preferred basis for d...... methods developed at the University of Copenhagen for SE in nordmanns fir and sitka spruce. Nordmanns fir has special interest in Denmark for production of Christmas trees and sitka spruce has gained renewed interest for production of biofuels.  ...

  7. The thematic framework of Christmas orations by Venclović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Maja M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Christmas orations delivered by Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović to Komoran congregation from 1739 to 1743, the records of which are to be found in the anthology of orations, entitled Slova izbrana (1743. Particular attention has been paid to the thematic framework and to defining thematic layers, but in their correlation. In addition to that, the integral part of the analysis is identifying the Church Fathers' notional concepts as patterns to orations by Venclović.

  8. Christmas Disease (Hemophilia –B – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rafiqul Alam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 25 years old man developed Haemarthrosis of left hip joint with a history of recurrent swelling and pain in multiple joints and prolonged bleeding following minor trauma since childhood. Subsequent investigations revealed Christmas disease (Haemophilia B. Hemophilia B is an X-linked bleeding disorder. This case emphasises the importance of considering a diagnosis of haemophilia in a man with unexplained bleeding, even in the absence of a positive family history. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4766 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 90-91

  9. Kealia Pond - Ungulate Exclusion Fence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will contribute to the building of a fence around the Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge. Kealia Pond NWR is home to two endangered waterbird species,...

  10. Father Christmas came to CERN on Saturday, 2 December!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Every year, ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised the CERN Children’s Christmas Party, bringing together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. The success of the party continues to motivate the organizers of the Staff Association. This year, the party took place on Saturday, 2 December, and no less than 240 children were welcomed in two sessions, at 13.30 and at 15.30. The children attended a show with music, tales and a speaking puppet: “Zéphirine et les légendes de Noël”. After the show, they enjoyed a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their valuable help and generous contribution. Then, Father Christmas himself came to give the children their presents. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for taking the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and big ones alike during the busy season! We would also like to thank all the parents for their valuable c...

  11. Bioaccumulation Study at Puffer Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Parameters for Fish Tissue Samples 3-6 4-1 Total Number of Fish Caught by Species 4-2 4-2 Fish Sample Collection Data from Puffer Pond 4...Results for Ministers Pond 4-7 4-6 Summary of Analytical Results for Puffer Pond 4-9 4-7 Comparison of Mercury Concentrations of Sampled Fish ...Comparison of Zinc Concentrations of Sampled Fish 4-14 4-11 Puffer Pond and Ministers Pond Water Quality Parameters 4-17 5-1 Mercury in Fish

  12. "The moment is all we have": patients and visitors reflect on a staff Christmas choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; Hornby, Colin J; Pearson, Elizabeth J; Ball, David L

    To examine how performances by the Staff Christmas Choir of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre ("Peter Mac") affected inpatients, outpatients and visitors in 2008. During the Christmas season 2008, the Peter Mac Staff Christmas Choir gave seven performances at the Centre. Locations included inpatient wards, outpatient waiting areas and a cafeteria. To assess their response to the choir, oncology inpatients, outpatients and visitors (including early-departing bystanders) were given anonymous, semi-structured questionnaires during and after performances. To analyse the responses, we used a constructivist research approach informed by grounded theory. Participants' descriptions of the choir's effects on them. Questionnaires were returned by 111 people. The performances were received favourably by 93.7% of respondents, including nine from Jewish, Hindu or atheist backgrounds. Many said the music aroused positive emotions and memories. Several described transformative thoughts and physical reactions, felt affirmed by the Christmas spirit or message, and/or appreciated the peaceful or enlivened and social atmosphere. The choir also elicited personal perspectives about Christmas and Judaism, and the importance of "enjoying the moment". Only three respondents (2.7%) reported adverse effects, relating to emotional and audible intrusiveness. The Staff Christmas Choir created a supportive and uplifting atmosphere for many oncology patients and their visitors. However, responses from people from non-Christian backgrounds were limited, and further investigation is warranted to extend our understanding of the effect of Christmas music in Australian public health settings.

  13. Indicators: Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  14. Comparaison de l'altérabilité au brouillard salin des deux pierres calcaires de construction au moyen des mesures pondérales acoustiques et par traitement d'images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birginie, J. M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio comparativo de la resistencia a la alteración en atmósfera de niebla salina de dos rocas calizas utilizadas en la construcción de monumentos en Francia y en España. Las modificaciones experimentadas por las probetas durante este ensayo se han valorado utilizando tres métodos: la medida de la evolución del peso, la medida de la velocidad de propagación de ultrasonidos y el análisis visual de las modificaciones superficiales por un sistema de barrido mediante luz láser de las superficies (método de triangulación luz láser-cámara y posterior tratamiento de imágenes. La comparación de los resultados obtenidos muestra que los tres métodos ofrecen una información complementaria que permite caracterizar de manera precisa el proceso de alteración y su evolución durante el ensayo. Es, sin embargo, el método de análisis mediante el sistema láser-cámara el que ofrece más posibilidades para describir y comparar de manera objetiva la morfología y la evolución de la desagregación arenosa observada sobre las dos rocas calizas alteradas artificialmente. [fr] Nous présentons les résultats d'une étude comparative de la résistance à l'altération au brouillard salin de deux pierres utilisées dans la construction de monuments en France et en Espagne. Les transformations subies par les échantillons au cours de l'essai de vieillissement ont été évaluées eu utilisant trois méthodes: l'évolution de la masse, la mesure de la vitesse de propagation d'ultrasons et l'analyse visuelle automatisée des désagrégations superficielles au moyen d'un système de balayage par plan laser de la surface (triangulation laser-caméra. La comparaison de l'ensemble de ces résultats démontre que les trois méthodes non destructives fournissent des informations complémentaires qui permettent de caractériser les processus d'altération et leur évolution. C'est néanmoins l

  15. News from the Library: CERN Bookshop Christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, CERN's Central Library Bookshop offers a wide choice of titles in physics, mathematics, computing and popular science.   The Bookshop will have a stand on the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Building 500) from 4 to 5 December 2012. You are welcome to come by, and browse and buy books at very competitive prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052, and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. You can contact the Bookshop by e-mail. Accepted forms of payment in the Bookshop are: cash, credit card and budget code. You can also purchase books using your budget code via the CERN Stores: "Catalogue - CERN Stores" > "BOOKS - PUBLICATIONS" (category 90).

  16. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale 15-17.12.2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand: in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Monday 15 to Wednesday 17 December from 10:30 to 16:00 hrs. CERN Sweat-shirts (M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt, (M, L, XL) 20.- CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 20.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN/Atlas watch 40.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15,- Mouse mat 10,- CERN Calendar 5,- Books: - "Antimatter" (English) 35.- - "How the web was born" (English, Italian) 30,- - "The Search for Infinity" (French, Italian, English, German) 40.- - "World of Particles/le monde de particules" 6,- - "Facts and Mysteries" (English) 28,- - "Nucleus" (English) 50,- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Buildin...

  17. CERN SHOP - CHRISTMAS SALE - 11-12.12.2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2002-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Wednesday 11 to Thursday 12 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt,(M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Blue silk tie 15.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 20.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN watch 20.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'Particle Odyssey' (English) 60.- Book 'How the web was born' (English, Italian) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German)  40.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

  18. Suppression of Phonon Transport in Molecular Christmas Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famili, Marjan; Grace, Iain; Sadeghi, Hatef; Lambert, Colin J

    2017-05-19

    Minimising the phonon thermal conductance of self-assembled molecular films, whilst preserving their electrical properties, is highly desirable, both for thermal management at the nanoscale and for the design of high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Here we highlight a new strategy for minimising the phonon thermal conductance of Christmas-tree-like molecules composed of a long trunk, along which phonons can propagate, attached to pendant molecular branches. We demonstrate that phonon transport along the trunk is suppressed by Fano resonances associated with internal vibrational modes of the branches and that thermal conductance is suppressed most-effectively in molecules with pendant branches of different lengths. As examples, we use density functional theory to demonstrate the reduction in phonon transport in tree-like molecules formed from alkane or acene trunks with various pendant branches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. News from the Library: CERN Bookshop Christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in physics, mathematics, computing and popular science.   The Bookshop will have a stand on the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Bldg 500) from 12 to 13 December 2011. You are welcome to come, browse and buy books at very interesting prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052, and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. You can contact the Bookshop by e-mail at bookshop@cern.ch. Accepted forms of payment in the Bookshop are: cash, credit card and budget code. You can also purchase books using your budget code via the CERN Stores: http://edh.cern.ch > "Catalogue - CERN Stores" > "BOOKS - PUBLICATIONS" (category 90).

  20. News from the library: CERN Bookshop christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, Mathematics and Computing.   It will have a stall in the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Bldg 500) from 7 to 8 December 2010. You are welcome to come, browse and buy books at very interesting prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052 and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. It can be contacted by e-mail at bookshop@cern.ch. CERN Users can buy books and CDs at discount prices.

  1. Health assessment of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

    2014-07-01

    During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox.

  2. The Christmas season as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Neil W; McIvor, Andrew; Lambert, Kim; Greene, Justina M; Hussack, Pat; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Higenbottam, Tim; Lewis, Jonathan; Newbold, Paul; Herath, Athula; Jenkins, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections. To compare the incidence and determinants of COPD exacerbations occurring between the Christmas holiday period and the remainder of the winter season. Seventy-one subjects with COPD of mixed severity faxed daily symptom diaries to a computer monitoring system from December 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007. Possible exacerbations prompted a home visit for assessment, spirometry and specimen collection for virological testing. Study subjects submitted a total of 95.4% of possible daily symptom diary sheets by fax. Of 114 possible COPD exacerbations detected using the faxed diaries, 110 met the Anthonisen criteria for true exacerbations. A total of 47 exacerbations (mean 6.7/week) occurred during the Christmas holiday period, while 63 exacerbations (mean 4.3/week) occurred during the remainder of winter. Of the Christmas period exacerbations and of those in the balance of winter, 21 (44%) and 20 (32%), respectively, coincided with respiratory viral infections. The incidence of COPD exacerbations during the Christmas period was greater than during the rest of winter in 2006/2007 and peaked immediately before Christmas - in contrast to hospital presentation for COPD, which peaked during the Christmas week. No clear role of respiratory viral infections in the increased rate of exacerbations during the Christmas period was established in the present study. COPD patients were highly compliant with daily symptom reporting using faxed daily diaries, which permitted nearly complete detection of all exacerbations that occurred at incidence.

  3. Sentiment and Vision in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol and The Cricket on the Hearth

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Tilley

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the ways in which sentimentality is manifested through the visible, and through associative functions of the eye, in two of Dickens's Christmas books of the 1840s. I situate the relationship between vision and sentiment within discourses from eighteenth-century moral philosophy, as Adam Smith's figure of the “Impartial Spectator” (of central importance to the development of ideas around sympathy) is constructed mainly through the visual. I focus on two of the Christmas Boo...

  4. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  5. 'It pushed me back into the human race': evaluative findings from a community Christmas event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracy; Kenney, Christine; Hesk, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    Many older people in Britain spend Christmas day alone. The Christmas period may be especially difficult for older people who are socially isolated, living with dementia or who have physical impairments, and may feel particularly marginalised at this time of year. This paper draws on evaluative research findings from a community Christmas event held in December 2014 at the University of Salford for older people and their carers who would be on their own on Christmas day. A multi-method approach was employed, seven guests took part in semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences and perceptions of the event, seven staff and student volunteers participated in a group interview to explore and discuss their participation in the event. Data collection took place during April and May 2015. Interview transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews: 'reasons for participants attending the event', 'a different Christmas day: the impact on guests and volunteers', and 'learning, planning and moving forwards'. The findings illustrate that a range of people participated in the Christmas day event for a variety of reasons. The event itself had a positive impact, including the shared experience of social belonging, for all involved. There are tangible longer term benefits as a result of the event, such as ongoing contact between participants and the development of supportive networks in the local community. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oncology staff reflections about a 52-year-old staff Christmas choir: constructivist research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; Hornby, Colin J; Pearson, Elizabeth J M; Ball, David L

    2010-12-01

    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre has one of the world's most enduring staff Christmas choirs. Commencing in 1956, the choir performs in a cafeteria, patient wards, and outpatient waiting areas before each Christmas. With recent emphasis on oncology staff support needs the choir's relevance warranted investigation. This constructivist research examined what effect the staff Christmas choir had on the choir members and staff bystanders in 2008. Sampling was convenience and purposive. Staff choir members were invited to participate during rehearsals, and staff bystanders were invited at seven choir performances in the hospital. Respondents completed anonymous and semistructured questionnaires and the conductor (of 29 years) was interviewed. The inductive, comparative, and cyclic data analyses were informed by grounded theory and qualitative interrater reliability was performed. Questionnaires from 64 staff were returned. The choir elicited positive emotions, memories, Christmas spirit, hospital community and/or work-life effects for many staff, in a cancer context described as sometimes "overwhelming" and "stressful." Choir members' reactions included stress relief, friendship and feeling rewarded. Bystanders' reactions included feeling uplifted, inspired and moved. Suggestions for future performances were offered, including musical acknowledgement of other religious festivals. Two respondents were concerned about intrusive effects on patients and work practices. A staff Christmas choir supported most choir member and staff bystander respondents in an oncology hospital and is recommended in comparable contexts. Further investigation is warranted to extend understanding about Christmas music's effects in palliative care settings.

  7. Under-ice melt ponds in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naomi; Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In the summer months, melt water from the surface of the Arctic sea ice can percolate down through the ice and flow out of its base. This water is relatively warm and fresh compared to the ocean water beneath it, and so it floats between the ice and the oceanic mixed layer, forming pools of melt water called under-ice melt ponds. Double diffusion can lead to the formation of a sheet of ice, which is called a false bottom, at the interface between the fresh water and the ocean. These false bottoms isolate under-ice melt ponds from the ocean below, trapping the fresh water against the sea ice. These ponds and false bottoms have been estimated to cover between 5 and 40% of the base of the sea ice. [Notz et al. Journal of Geophysical Research 2003] We have developed a one-dimensional thermodynamic model of sea ice underlain by an under-ice melt pond and false bottom. Not only has this allowed us to simulate the evolution of under-ice melt ponds over time, identifying an alternative outcome than previously observed in the field, but sensitivity studies have helped us to estimate the impact that these pools of fresh water have on the mass-balance sea ice. We have also found evidence of a possible positive feedback cycle whereby increasingly less ice growth is seen due to the presence of under-ice melt ponds as the Arctic warms. Since the rate of basal ablation is affected by these phenomena, their presence alters the salt and freshwater fluxes from the sea ice into the ocean. We have coupled our under-ice melt pond model to a simple model of the oceanic mixed layer to determine how this affects mixed layer properties such as temperature, salinity, and depth. In turn, this changes the oceanic forcing reaching the sea ice.

  8. Shallow ponds are heterogeneous habitats within a temperate salt marsh ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Amanda C.; Gosselin, Kelsey; Howard, Evan; Mariotti, Giulio; Forbrich, Inke; Stanley, Rachel; Sylva, Sean P.

    2017-06-01

    Integrating spatial heterogeneity into assessments of salt marsh biogeochemistry is becoming increasingly important because disturbances that reduce plant productivity and soil drainage may contribute to an expansion of shallow ponds. These permanently inundated and sometimes prominent landscape features can exist for decades, yet little is known about pond biogeochemistry or their role in marsh ecosystem functioning. We characterized three ponds in a temperate salt marsh (MA, USA) over alternating periods of tidal isolation and flushing, during summer and fall, by evaluating the composition of plant communities and organic matter pools and measuring surface water oxygen, temperature, and conductivity. The ponds were located in the high marsh and had similar depths, temperatures, and salinities. Despite this, they had different levels of suspended particulate, dissolved, and sediment organic matter and abundances of phytoplankton, macroalgae, and Ruppia maritima. Differences in plant communities were reflected in pond metabolism rates, which ranged from autotrophic to heterotrophic. Integrating ponds into landcover-based estimates of marsh metabolism resulted in slower rates of net production (-8.1 ± 0.3 to -15.7 ± 0.9%) and respiration (-2.9 ± 0.5 to -10.0 ± 0.4%), compared to rates based on emergent grasses alone. Seasonality had a greater effect on pond water chemistry, organic matter pools, and algal abundances than tidal connectivity. Alternating stretches of tidal isolation and flushing did not affect pond salinities or algal communities, suggesting that exchange between ponds and nearby creeks was limited. Overall, we found that ponds are heterogeneous habitats and future expansion could reduce landscape connectivity and the ability of marshes to capture and store carbon.

  9. CERN Shop: Christmas Sale, 10 & 16.12.2004

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, on Friday 10 and/or on Thursday 16 December from 10:30 to 16:00. CERN 50th Anniversary sweat-shirt (grey in M, L, XL) 30.- CERN 50th Anniversary T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- CERN 50th Anniversary silk tie (2 colours) 30.- Einstein silk tie (blue, grey) 45.- Silk scarf 40.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo-Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN 50th Anniversary watch (2 models) 40.- CERN pens (2 models) 5.- Small Open Day souvenirs (a few different items) 2.- CERN 50th Anniversary Book (English & French) 70.- "Prestigious Discoveries" at CERN (English/anglais) 32.- "Particle Odyssey" soft cover (English/anglais) 35.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08:30 and 17:00 hrs. Education and Communica...

  10. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karrie; Agius, Jessica; Hall, Jane; Thompson, Paul; Eden, John-Sebastian; Srivastava, Mukesh; Tiernan, Brendan; Jenkins, Cheryl; Phalen, David

    2017-01-01

    Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  11. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrie Rose

    Full Text Available Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  12. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  13. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  14. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Brand, Arriana; Graham, Tanya R.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Kuwabara, James S.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L.; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  15. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Y Takekawa

    Full Text Available Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus, and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri. Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction

  16. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE GENRE OF THE CHRISTMAS STORY IN MODERN LITERATURE (D. BYKOV, L. PETRUSHEVSKAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yur'evna Danilenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the transformation of the genre of the Christmas story in modern literature. Th e article analyzes the infl uence of the classic Christmas story by Hans Christian Andersen Th e Little Match Girl on the structure of modern texts of mass and elite literature. (D. Bykov Th e Little Match Girl gives a light, L. Petrushevskaya Black Coat. Th e subject of the study is a strategy of rethinking, recoding the source of the original content in the fabric of a new product. Th e structural and semiotic analysis of the texts revealed some tricks to updates-the-genre: fi lling-up with the new semantics, complicating a genre model of a Christmas story. Analysis showed that referring to the genre of a Christmas story, modern authors have diff erent purposes, using diff erent artistic strategies and methods. Some of them tend to reproduce the canon, appealing to the reader's memory (D. Bykov. Others develop the genre of a Christmas story, enriching it with new structural elements, interlacing it with other genres (L. Petrushevskaya.

  17. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M

    2015-03-31

    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  18. Salinity Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  19. A Christmas comet falling onto a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.

    The Sun and the planets are the main, but not the only, bodies of the Solar System. There are thousands of asteroids and several tens of comets, many of which are still unknown. They are the remnants of the planetesimals that formed at the origin of our Solar System, and they are rocky objects of different dimensions and irregular shape. Sometimes these minor bodies fall onto the Sun or onto planets, like Jupiter. Less dramatic events occur when the infalling bodies do not directly impact onto the target but are tidally disrupted. The tidal disruption of solar mass stars around supermassive black holes has been extensively studied analytically and numerically. In these events the star, as it approaches the black hole, develops into an elongated banana-shaped structure, the most tightly bound debris being at the closer end to the compact object. After completing an (few) eccentric orbit(s), these bound debris fall onto the black hole, emitting energy. Orbital precession may lead to the crossing of the debris orbits producing an accretion disk. Observationally, these events will give rise to luminous events with different temporal decays in different energy bands. Tidal break-up events occur also in planetary systems around normal stars but these events are too faint to be detected. Things change when the star is a compact object. Indeed planets have been discovered around radio pulsars, making likely the existence also of orbiting minor bodies. The direct impact of minor bodies onto neutron stars has been studied in the past and it has been envisaged as a possible (local) explanation for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), producing short-duration (˜ seconds) events. To explain the peculiarities of GRB 101225A (Christmas burst) we propose that it resulted from the tidal disruption event of a minor body around a neutron star in our Galaxy.

  20. Using Christmas Bird Count data in analysis of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific credibility of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) results depend on the development and implementation of appropriate methods of statistical analysis. The key to any successful analysis of CBC data is to begin with a careful review of how the limitations of the data are likely to influence the results of the analysis, then to choose methods of analysis that accommodate as much as possible the limitations of the survey. For our analyses of CBC data, we develop a flexible model for effort adjustment and use information from the data to guide the selection of the best model. We include geographic structuring to accommodate the regional variation in number of samples, use a model that allows for overdispersed poisson data appropriate for counts, and employ empirical Bayes procedures to accommodate differences in quality of information in regional summaries. This generalized linear model approach is very flexible, and can be applied to a variety of studies focused on factors influencing wintering bird populations. In particular, the model can be easily modified to contain covariates, allowing for assessment of associations between CBC counts and winter weather, disturbance, and a variety of other environmental factors. These new survey analysis methods have added value in that they provide insights into changes in survey design that can enhance the value of the information. The CBC has been extremely successful as a tool for increasing public interest in birding and bird conservation. Use of the information for bird conservation creates new demands on quality of information, and it is important to maintain a dialogue between users of the information, information needs for the analyses, and survey coordinators and participants. Our work as survey analysts emphasizes the value and limitations of existing data, and provides some indications of what features of the survey could be modified to make the survey a more reliable source of bird population data. Surveys

  1. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This... marine event sponsored by the London Bridge Yacht Club. The annual Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade...

  2. Diffusion of single oxidation pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic characteristic of an oxidation pond was studied by the tracer experiment, and an empirical formula of Peclet number was obtained, which can be well applied to the model of plug flow reactor with longitudinal diffusion.

  3. Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Meek, Paul D; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2014-04-01

    The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  5. What proof is in your Christmas pudding? Is caring under the influence possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Daniel G; Amir, Amaleena B; Punch, Gratian J; Lim, Christopher S H; Toh, James

    2014-12-11

    To determine the ethanol concentration of commonly available Christmas puddings, and to extrapolate the blood alcohol content (BAC) of typical health care professionals after Christmas lunch at the hospital. We conducted fractional distillation of Christmas puddings and analysed the distillate for ethanol content. We then applied standard pharmacological and physiological assumptions to assess predicted BAC in typical male and female health care professionals at our hospital. Ethanol concentration of each pudding; estimated BAC of health care professionals after ingestion and at the end of a 30-minute lunch break. The concentration of ethanol in common Christmas puddings ranged from 0.260 to 1.685 g per 125 mg slice. The concentration of ethanol per pudding was not greater than the stipulated specifications on the packaging, where shown. After pudding ingestion, the theoretical BAC of a typical 70 kg male and 60 kg female health care professional ranged from 0.001 to 0.004 g/dL and from 0.001 to 0.006 g/dL, respectively. Neither male nor female staff had a predicted BAC > 0.000 g/dL by the end of the lunch break. Christmas puddings contain ethanol that does not all evaporate during the cooking process. However, the rise in BAC after ingestion of a typical slice of Christmas pudding was negligible and unlikely to affect work performance or safety or impair a health care worker's ability to make complex decisions.

  6. CHRISTMAS AND EASTER THEMES IN THE LITERARY HERITAGE OF YURIY MIROLYUBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Dmitrenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A  Russian emigrant writer Yuri Mirolyubov (1892—1970 wrote a  lot about Slavic antiquities. His name is associated with the origin of a  legendary “The book of Veles”  (Velesova kniga. This article studies his literary works in a historical and literary context, thematically associated with Christmas and Easter. The son of a priest, Mirolyubov was able to create original Christmas and Easter tales. As a priest’s son Mirolyubov managed to create indigenous Christmas and Easter stories. He brought back an already existing genre tradition of Christmas and Easter literature to its folklore origins, freed it from absolutely literary accretions and narrative stereotypes. Yuri Mirolyubov strived to put the Christmas and Easter stories beyond moral (much less entertaining literature, put them in the mainstream of a  folk, “Russian epic” (Ivan Shmelyov. That was a defi nition given by an author Ivan Shmelyov to his writing “The Lord’s summer”  (Leto Gospodne, who also updated the Canon of Russian calendar (Christmas and Easter literature in his own way. In fictional prose Yuri Mirolyubov acted as a scientist-ethnographer, a  sensitive receptionist of  everyday phenomena and psychological states. But in the works defi ned as scientific, he became a true artist, who felt free to deal with the most complicated and poorly studied material, however, existing in the depths of people’s consciousness.

  7. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single-centre bli......Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single...

  8. Device for protection of wellhead Christmas tree; Anordning for beskyttelse av ventiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Volden, A.

    1995-01-23

    The invention relates to a device for physical protection of a wellhead Christmas tree underwater. The circular type of device consists of a weight-increased pipe trusswork including an upper and lower section. These sections can be lowered rapidly down into the sea bed in advance of well drilling. In addition, scavenging water can be used to remove masses of soil alongside the outer edge of trusswork section. At the upper end of trusswork section there is connected a trusswork structure for protection of the Christmas tree which can be removed including the upper section. 2 figs.

  9. Primary production and biochemical compositions in Arctic melt ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Areal extent of melt ponds within sea ice recently have increased during the arctic summer but the biological impacts of these changes on the arctic marine ecosystem have rarely been studied. Our survey of environmental conditions in melt ponds was conducted in 22 at sea ice camp 1 and 11 ponds at camp 2, respectively during the Korean Arctic expedition in 2014. The temperature range of melt ponds showed low variability at sea ice camp 1 (-1.3~0.8 °C) and camp 2 (-1.5~0.4 °C). In contrast, the salinity represented high variations ranging from 0.1 to 26.8 (mean ± S.D. = 16.7 ± 10.8) and 0 to 26.9 (mean ± S.D. = 12.3 ± 11.6), respectively. The average chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations were 0.124 mg m-2 (S.D. = ± 0.121 mg m-2) and 0.158 mg m-2 (S.D. = ± 0.067 mg m-2) in melt ponds, respectively at camp 1 and camp 2. Middle sized cells of phytoplankton (2-20 μm) were predominant in melt ponds accounting for 78 % and 63 % of total chl-a concentration at camp 1 and 2, respectively. The carbon uptake rates of phytoplankton in melt ponds ranged from 0.001 to 0.080 mg C m-3 h-1 (mean ± S.D. = 0.025 ± 0.024 mg C m-3 h-1) at camp 1 and 0.022 to 0.21 mg C m-3 h-1 (mean ± S.D. = 0.077 ± 0.006 mg C m-3 h-1) at camp 2 which is about three times higher than those of camp 1. The biochemical compositions averaged from various melt ponds were 35% (S.D. = ± 14.9%), 40% (S.D. = ± 13.2%), and 25% (S.D. = ± 12.9%), respectively for lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins at camp 1. In comparison, the overall average compositions of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins were 29% (S.D. = ± 11.4%), 51% (S.D. = ± 9.8%), and 20% (S.D. = ± 7.9%), respectively at camp 2.

  10. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  11. Dissolved Oxygen Availability on Traditional Pond Using Silvofishery Pattern in Mahakam Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Fahmy Almadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of aquaculture system should meet the community’s basic need economically by taking into account the carrying capacity and environmental sustainability. The development of the environmentally friendly system such as silvofishery is being promoted by government however its yield has not reached the target yet. Dissolved oxygen availability is an important indicator which determines the success of the aquaculture system. The objective of the research was to determine dissolved oxygen availability on traditional pond systems using silvofishery pattern. Time series data collection was conducted once in 14 days with 2 measuring times; in the morning (06.00 am and in the evening (06.00 pm for 112 days. The research was conducted at four different silvofishery pond patterns, Pond Pattern 1 (0% mangrove canopy covered, Pond Pattern 2 (35% mangrove canopy covered, Pond Pattern 3 (67% mangrove canopy covered, and Pond Pattern 4 (75% mangrove canopy covered. Measurement was observed openly in the pond (in situ with parameters: dissolved oxygen, temperature, Water pH, Salinity, Transparency, Wind Speed, and Depth of Water Table, while chlorofil-a was ex-situ measured. The result from each parameter was compared to optimum concentration rate for shrimp growth. From the experiment, Pond Pattern 1 showed the most satisfaction results. Its dissolved oxygen availability during the research was ≥ 4 mg/L which was 5.88 mg/L ±0.48 mg/L in the evening (06.00 pm and 4.33 mg/L ±1.24 mg/L in the morning (06.00 am. It was also supported by optimum condition of other parameters such as temperature, Water pH, Salinity, Wind Speed, and Depth of Water Table. However, it was not supported by fertility and transparency of water. Thus, the traditional pattern of conservation still needs additional technology to maintain adequate dissolved oxygen availability for optimum shrimp growth.

  12. "Oh the weather outside is frightful": Severe injury secondary to falls while installing residential Christmas lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Michael R; Gupta, Arjun; Wells, Bryan; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G

    2016-01-01

    Falls are an increasingly common source of severe traumatic injury. They now account for approximately 40% of both overall trauma volumes and injury-related deaths within Canada. In northern climates, the risk of all types of falls may increase during the fall/winter months when conditions become increasingly dangerous. The purpose of this study was to define the injury and patient demographics of severe trauma that occurs during falls associated with the installation of Christmas lights. All patients who were admitted to a referral level 1 trauma center (2002-2012) with severe injuries (ISS≥12) caused during Christmas light installation were retrospectively reviewed. Standard statistical methodology was utilised (pChristmas lights. Injuries included: neurologic (68%), thoracic (68%), spinal (43%), extremity (40%), and multiple other sites. Fall mechanisms were: ladder (65%), roof (30%), ground (3%) and railing (3%). Interventions included intubation and critical care (20%), as well as orthopaedic and neurosurgical operative repairs (30%). The median length of hospital stay was 15.6 days (range: 2-165). The fall-related morbidity (28%) and mortality (5%) were significant with a total of 12.5% patients requiring transfer to a long-term care or rehabilitation facility. Falls while installing Christmas lights during the fall/winter seasons can result in severe life-altering injuries with considerable morbidity and mortality. Caution should be employed when installing lights at any height. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Shoot-Feding Characteristics and Overwintering Behavior in Scotch Pine Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Robert K. Lawrence; George C. Heaton

    2001-01-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were...

  14. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play "Like a Christmas Tree"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashqar, Hossam Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, "Like a Christmas Tree." The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of "binary opposition," transcultural…

  15. Waarom ‘A Christmas Carol’ verplichte kost voor economen is

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Ieder jaar komt op televisie de verfilming van het boek A Christmas Carol van Charles Dickens (1812-1870) langs. En als men het niet kent van de beeldbuis dan heeft men het ongetwijfeld voor zijn boekenlijst op de middelbare school gelezen. En kinderen die wekelijks de Donald Duck lezen zullen

  16. Merry Christmas Jeffrey Kaplan: A Review of Adolescent Literature about Contemporary Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the author's childhood experiences of being Jewish at Christmas time. Presents and discusses 30 adolescent novels which deal with the difficulties of growing up Jewish in a Gentile world. Discusses being different, religious practices, interdating and intermarriage, anti-Semitism, and the holocaust. (SR)

  17. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  18. Sede Boqer shallow pond project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, A.

    1981-03-01

    The use of shallow solar ponds for the conversion of solar energy into low grade thermal energy is examined at Sede Boqer, Israel with an emphasis placed upon the utilization of locally manufactured components. The daily performance of four small-module shallow solar ponds was monitored almost continuously between Aug 1978 and May 1979. The ponds all used PVC lower film but differed in the type of transparent upper film, glazing material or glazing angle. The daily performance is characterized by the maximum daily water temperature achieved, the total daily thermal energy collected, and the daily efficiency. The results indicate that the SSP system can supply approximately 3 GJ per square meter of thermal energy a year under semi-arid climatic conditions. The economic feasibility of the system is analyzed in comparison with oil (heavy fraction), natural gas, and electrical sources of energy.

  19. Stratification in Waste Stabilization Ponds I: Effects on Pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stratification studies were carried out on the waste stabilization pond system at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Analysis of the samples collected with a water column sampler at 5cm and 0.1m apart showed some stratification of temperature, algae, pH, dissolved oxygen, coliform bacteria, chemical oxygen ...

  20. STRATIFICATION IN WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS II: MODELLING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria,. Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The occurrence of thermal stratification in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) alters the flow pattern of the pond. Hence, its study is important for complete and accurate modelling of the waste stabilization pond. In this study, a ...

  1. Inorganic carbon dynamics of melt pond-covered first year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, R.J.; Crabeck, O.

    2014-01-01

    Melt pond formation is a common feature of the spring and summer Arctic sea ice. However, the role of the melt ponds formation and the impact of the sea ice melt on both the direction and size of CO2 flux between air and sea is still unknown. Here we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of melting...... sea ice, melt ponds and the underlying seawater associated with measurement of CO2 fluxes across first year landfast sea ice in the Resolute Passage, Nunavut, in June 2012. Early in the melt season, the increase of the ice temperature and the subsequent decrease of the bulk ice salinity promote...... a strong decrease of the total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) within the bulk sea ice and the brine. Later on, melt pond formation affects both the bulk sea ice and the brine system. As melt ponds are formed from melted snow the in situ melt pond...

  2. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  3. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2017-03-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  4. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  5. Road salts as environmental constraints in urban pond food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May - July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low = 177 mg L(-1 Cl(-/high = 1067 mg L(-1 Cl(-, gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor tadpoles (presence/absence and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L(-1 in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (P<0.001 and in the high chloride treatment (P = 0.046, whereas periphyton biomass was significantly lower in the high chloride treatment (P = 0.049. Gray treefrog tadpole time to metamorphosis did not vary significantly between treatments. However, mass at metamorphosis was greater among tadpoles that experienced a faster than average time to metamorphosis and exposure to high chloride concentrations (P = 0.039. Our results indicate differential susceptibility to chloride salts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities.

  6. [The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne B; Lauridsen, Mette H; Ilkjær, Susanne; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2016-12-12

    Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. We performed a single-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p Christmas atmosphere tended to increase DGH at the morning conferences. JN tended to have an additive effect. JN exposure may be beneficial. The study did not receive any funding. The trial was not registered and was kept secret for the participants in accordance with the tradition of Santa's elves.

  7. Kuu kultuurikulgur : Noaga tehtud plaadikaaned. Chungini jõulupidu : Hare Christmas! 6 miljonit digitaalaaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pastaca uue heliplaadikogumiku "Remiksid" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas klubis Juuksur ja 20. dets. Tartus klubis Maailm (kaasa mängivad Galaktlan ja Hannes Praks). 16. dets. avab Tartus Lastekunstikooli galeriis uksed muusiku ja usuteaduslase Chungini kuraatoriprojekt "Hare Christmas/Guten Weichnachten". 20. nov. avati sait www. europeana.eu, mille eesmärgiks anda allalaadimiseks Euroopa kultuuriväärtusi (sümfooniad, poeemid ja maalid digitaliseeritud kujul)

  8. Fuss over function: In case you missed the annual IP-World Christmas party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2016-01-01

    ahead in bright mood to how the future might pan out (as I try to do at this time of year). It might be that this essay can be compared to Christmas: festive and fun at the surface, with a sober side beneath all the decoration. This essay’s content and style comprises an informal, non-technical, tongue...... have tried to weave a familiar legal discussion into a festive setting. Hence, I stage an office IP party and place it (and the legal discussion) loosely in the ‘happiest’ of settings, Denmark, and at Christmas time (well, just after). A promising start, perhaps. What emerges is a look at the main...... somehow finding this essay without the help of IPKat’s mitts, you will need to attend the Christmas party in Part I, otherwise Part II will not make as much sense as I intend. Readers who have has the misfortune to attend the office IP party already via the IPKat on 29 December 2016 may wish to skip...

  9. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Nitrification and denitrification in pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Puji Pujihastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More of waste than pond aquacultutre system produced, will increase sedimentation in the bottom.  Ammonium and nitrite compounds are other forms of inorganic nitrogen in the pond. Nitrogen anorganic consist of ammonia, ammonium, nitrit, nitrat and nitrogen. Degradation of process metabolic biota culture waste can biologically be nitrat compound one of the forms that are not toxic in the nitrification process.  Five process of nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the container cultivation is the amonification, nitrification, nitrogen assimilation, denitrification and nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen is the one of the compound in the overlay/ top stratification sediment.  Improvement of speed degradation will be success if the pond bottom on aerobic condition. Survival rate of tiger shrimp in the laboratory scale can be increase by administration of nitrification and denitrification bacteria should not just in the water kolom of pond engineering but also at the bottom pond layer at the preparation step.  Depht of the sediment 15 cm in day zero, intensive pond have been produced of nitrit and ammonium with the producing bacteria.  Application of nitrification and denitrification bacteria in the sediment and water coloum can be performed as the measurenment and evaluation nitrit, nitrat and ammonium abudance. Key words:  ponds, nitrogen inorganic, nitrification, denitrification   ABSTRAK Semakin banyak limbah kegiatan yang dihasilkan dalam sistem budidaya tambak, akan meningkatkan sedimentasi dalam dasar tambak.  Senyawa amonium dan nitrit merupakan bentuk lain dari nitrogen anorganik dalam tambak. Nitrogen anorganik terdiri terdiri dari amonia (NH3-, amonium (NH4+, nitrit (NO2-, dan nitrogen (N2. Secara biologis, proses perombakan sisa metabolisme biota budidaya dapat menjadi nitrat (NO3, suatu bentuk yang tidak berbahaya dalam proses nitrifikasi.  Lima proses siklus biogeokimia nitrogen yang terjadi di wadah budidaya adalah amonifikasi

  11. Drought-induced recharge promotes long-term storage of porewater salinity beneath a prairie wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Zeno F.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Moucha, Robert; Mushet, David M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; LaBaugh, James W.; Fiorentino, Anthony J.; Siegel, Donald I.

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface storage of sulfate salts allows closed-basin wetlands in the semiarid Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America to maintain moderate surface water salinity (total dissolved solids [TDS] from 1 to 10 g L-1), which provides critical habitat for communities of aquatic biota. However, it is unclear how the salinity of wetland ponds will respond to a recent shift in mid-continental climate to wetter conditions. To understand better the mechanisms that control surface-subsurface salinity exchanges during regional dry-wet climate cycles, we made a detailed geoelectrical study of a closed-basin prairie wetland (P1 in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, North Dakota) that is currently experiencing record wet conditions. We found saline lenses of sulfate-rich porewater (TDS > 10 g L-1) contained in fine-grained wetland sediments 2-4 m beneath the bathymetric low of the wetland and within the currently ponded area along the shoreline of a prior pond stand (c. 1983). During the most recent drought (1988-1993), the wetland switched from a groundwater discharge to recharge function, allowing salts dissolved in surface runoff to move into wetland sediments beneath the bathymetric low of the basin. However, groundwater levels during this time did not decline to the elevation of the saline lenses, suggesting these features formed during more extended paleo-droughts and are stable in the subsurface on at least centennial timescales. We hypothesize a "drought-induced recharge" mechanism that allows wetland ponds to maintain moderate salinity under semiarid climate. Discharge of drought-derived saline groundwater has the potential to increase the salinity of wetland ponds during wet climate.

  12. Practically Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schroeder MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2, and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak.

  13. Gracilaria spp. morphology cultured in brackish water pond Pantai Sederhana Village, Muara Gembong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gracilaria spp. is a euryhaline species of seaweed which can live in the marine and brackish water. Development of Gracilaria spp. culture in Bekasi is potential because this seaweed can be cultured in ex shrimp pond by polyculture system. The objective of this research was to evaluate the phenotype morphological characteristic of Gracilaria spp. based on and its relationship with shrimp pond water quality. Sampling was done at three shrimp ponds with a salinity range at 13.7–19.2 g/L. Phenotypical characteristics of Gracilaria spp. consisted of colour and thallus morfometrics, while measurement of water quality consisted of physical and chemical charactersof shrimp pond. The result showed that Gracilaria spp. generally had light brown colour. At salinity higher than 13.7 g/kg, the number of secondary thalli increased, the distance among internode tertiary thalli declined, and the number of ramification index increased. Salinity showed a positive correlation with remification index which was 0.571. Keywords: Gracilaria spp., remification index, phenotype, salinity, brackishwater culture  ABSTRAK Gracilaria spp. merupakan spesies rumput laut eurihalin yang dapat hidup di laut dan di perairan payau. Pengembangan budidaya Gracilaria spp. di Bekasi potensial dilakukan karena memanfaatkan tambak bekas budidaya udang dengan sistem polikultur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik fenotipe morfologi Gracilaria spp. dan hubungannya dengan kualitas air di tambak budidaya. Sampling dilakukan pada tiga tambak dengan kisaran salinitas 13,7–19,2 g/L. Karakterisasi fenotipe meliputi warna dan morfometrik talus Gracilaria spp., sedangkan parameter kualitas air meliputi karakter fisika dan kimia air tambak. Hasil menunjukkan talus Gracilarias spp. umumnya berwarna coklat muda dan pada salinitas di atas 13,7 g/L menunjukkan jumlah talus sekunder meningkat, jarak internode talus tersier menurun, dan indeks percabangan

  14. Deep sequencing uncovers protistan plankton diversity in the Portuguese Ria Formosa solar saltern ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filker, Sabine; Gimmler, Anna; Dunthorn, Micah; Mahé, Frédéric; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    We used high-throughput sequencing to unravel the genetic diversity of protistan (including fungal) plankton in hypersaline ponds of the Ria Formosa solar saltern works in Portugal. From three ponds of different salinity (4, 12 and 38 %), we obtained ca. 105,000 amplicons (V4 region of the SSU rDNA). The genetic diversity we found was higher than what has been described from solar saltern ponds thus far by microscopy or molecular studies. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be assigned to 14 high-rank taxonomic groups and blasted to 120 eukaryotic families. The novelty of this genetic diversity was extremely high, with 27 % of all OTUs having a sequence divergence of more than 10 % to deposited sequences of described taxa. The highest degree of novelty was found at intermediate salinity of 12 % within the ciliates, which traditionally are considered as the best known and described taxon group within the kingdom Protista. Further substantial novelty was detected within the stramenopiles and the chlorophytes. Analyses of community structures suggest a transition boundary for protistan plankton between 4 and 12 % salinity, suggesting different haloadaptation strategies in individual evolutionary lineages as a result of environmental filtering. Our study makes evident the gaps in our knowledge not only of protistan and fungal plankton diversity in hypersaline environments, but also in their ecology and their strategies to cope with these environmental conditions. It substantiates that specific future research needs to fill these gaps.

  15. Mercury assessment of Brandy Pond T39 MD, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brandy Pond is a remote, shallow, pond in east‐central Maine. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nest territory has existed on the pond since the mid-1960s....

  16. Temporal variations in water quality in a brackish tidal pond: Implications for governing processes and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenhui; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-05-15

    Brackish tidal ponds have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world for aquaculture, including some Ramsar Sites. Such ponds are considered a sustainable, wise use of wetlands if managed properly, but they can also pose serious environmental problems if mismanaged. To understand the governing processes and to promote sustainable management strategies, this study examines the different temporal variations in water quality parameters in a brackish tidal pond located within the wetland complex of the Mai Po Ramsar Site in Hong Kong, China. The variations are compared with those of the receiving bay, and the water channel that connects the pond and the bay. Equations are then developed to link the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the pond with the governing processes, and to analyze their relative contributions to DO levels. Field data show seasonal patterns in water temperature and salinity in response to the seasonal variations in solar radiation and rainfall. For the pond and the channel, DO, chlorophyll and pH exhibit fortnightly variations due to the bi-weekly water exchange between the pond and the bay. There were also diurnal variations in water temperature and DO in response to changes in solar radiation for both locations, and the tidal flushing for the water channel. Analysis of the findings indicates that water exchange influences the DO concentration more strongly than solar radiation. The DO equation links pond water quality with the time of day, and the time in a water exchange cycle, and thus provides some guidance for determining water exchange and water sampling schedules. The study sheds light on the governing processes and management strategies related to the sustainable management of a brackish tidal pond. The results are thus beneficial in elucidating and promoting the sustainable management and wise use of wetlands in other locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pond of Illusion: Interacting through Mixed Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    to a large display in either of the real spaces by allowing them to feed virtual fish swimming in the pond. Figure 1(middle) shows how a Microsoft Kinect mounted on top of the display is used for detecting throw motions, which triggers virtual breadcrumbs to be thrown into the pond for feeding the nearby...

  18. Emhanced pond efficiency through solar radiation | Agunwamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of enhanced solar radiation on the performance of waste stabilization pond (WSP) was investigated in this study. The analysis was performed with data collected from four pilot ponds operated in parallel; one without enhanced solar radiation and the rest with solar irradiation. The latter gave higher efficiency.

  19. Associations between stormwater retention pond parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database. Included are ...

  20. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  1. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  2. Inlet Processes at Eel Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    reversed fillets east of Green Pond suggest that this may have been a seasonal shift in direction. The result of this local reversal in net transport...been constructed at the entrance to Green Pond (completed in 1953; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1962), and a dredged entrance channel is discernible

  3. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial ...

  4. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  5. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  6. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of specific aquaculture systems and the impacts of their management practices leads to sound and cost-effective policies to protect the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected in 2009 from fish ponds, streams that receive effluents directly from ponds and reference streams in Ghana to assess ...

  7. Mean winds and the semiannual oscillation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Avery, S. K.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we analyze mesospheric wind data collected from August 1988 to November 1989 and January 1991 to December 1991 at Christmas Island (1.95°N, 157.30°W) using the Meteor Echo Detection and Collection system. A brief overview of the data analysis techniques used on these data sets and meteor arrival statistics are presented. The mean winds are computed for 80 to 100 km and compared with the CIRA(86) model of mesospheric equatorial mean winds. Examination of the zonal mean winds and a Fourier decomposition of the zonal wind field shows a strong semiannual oscillation (SAO). To determine the vertical characteristics of the zonal SAO, a least squares fit was computed at each height. The results show a semiannual oscillation that peaks in amplitude at 84 km and decreases with increasing height. The SAO at Christmas Island is compared with data collected at Ascension Island and Kwajalein Island and with the CIRA(86) model. This comparison shows good phase agreement between the sites and some variability in the amplitudes. To fully understand the SAO in the context of the theory presented by Delisi and Dunkerton (1988), the tropospheric mean winds and wind variances are computed to determine the extent of tropospheric gravity wave activity present. Finally, the amplitude and phase of the SAO in temperature are computed indirectly from the Christmas Island wind data and compared to temperature results from SME data. Our results show reasonable agreement below 87 km and a divergence in amplitude near 90 km. One probable reason for this difference is contamination of the SME data from the diurnal tide as noted by Garcia and Clancy (1990).

  8. Convenient synthesis of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals and their photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Li-Li; Tang, Ying; Wu, Huijie

    2017-06-01

    Novel twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals have been prepared via a convenient aqueous solution route at room temperature under the assistance of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The product was characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis and PL and BET techniques. It was found that β-CD plays an important role in the forming of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals. A five-step growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of such twin-Christmas tree-like structures. The photocatalytic performance of PbWO4 microcrystals was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) solution under the UV irradiation, and the photocatalytic results indicated that as-prepared PbWO4 microcrystals exhibit good and versatile photocatalytic activity as well as excellent recyclability.

  9. Comparison of noble fir progeny from US Pacific Northwest collection regions and Denmark for Christmas tree traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Chal; Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Chastagner, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Noble fir is the leading Christmas tree produced in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW). This study is based on evaluations of 24,721 trees collected from five native collection regions in Oregon and Washington plus imported seed from Denmark. The major collection areas were further subdivided...... into provenances utilizing 16 in the PNW and 6 from Denmark. A total of 22 test sites were evaluated from progeny trials planted between 1996 and 2007. Traits important for commercial Christmas tree production were evaluated and include commercial height, tree grade, value and colour. Tree height and quality were...... positively correlated while colour showed little correlation with either trait. Provenances from the Oregon Coast and Willapa Hills, Washington provided the highest potential gain for Christmas tree market value. Provenances from Denmark exhibited superior colour and slow growth. For breeding purposes...

  10. Did Winston Churchill suffer a myocardial infarction in the White House at Christmas 1941?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, J Allister; Scadding, John W

    2017-01-01

    While staying in the White House over Christmas 1941, Churchill developed chest pain on trying to open a window in his bedroom. Sir Charles Wilson, his personal physician, diagnosed a 'heart attack' (myocardial infarction). Wilson, for political and personal reasons, decided not to inform his patient of the diagnosis or obtain assistance from US medical colleagues. On Churchill's return to London, Wilson sought a second opinion from Dr John Parkinson who did not support the diagnosis of coronary thrombosis (myocardial infarction) and reassured Churchill accordingly.

  11. Fruitcake Weather: Queer/Disabled Community in Truman Capote's "A Christmas Memory"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott St. Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues for a politically-inflected re-evaluation of Truman Capote’s classic holiday story “A Christmas Memory.”  It proposes, in contrast to prevailing readings of the tale as a de-politicized, nostalgic children’s story, that the text makes a compelling case for politically engaged, resistant community building by its disabled and queer characters, an important action rooted in the shared political interests of queer and disabled people.   Keywords: intellectual disability, sexuality, community action, nostalgia, literary criticism

  12. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  13. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  14. URBAN POND AS A RAINWATER RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stachowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the functioning of a closed pond as a small storage reservoir in the urban catchment area located in the Wilda district of Poznań. It presents the natural, hydro-geological and urban conditions and the factors conditioning the water level in the pond. Particular attention was focused upon on the pond as a rainwater receiver. The total catchment area and partial catchment area were determined. The inflow of water into the pond, with varying degrees of probability of occurrence, was calculated based on metrological data. The example of a pond in the John Paul II Park shows that this reservoir may be effectively used as rainwater receiver, without underestimating their other functions. They contribute to the increase of the underground water resources, increase the attractiveness of the recreational area and provide a natural value. However, the continuous urbanization, sealing the soil surface and the occurrence of extreme weather conditions necessitate a comprehensive look at the management of rainwater in urban areas. Calculations showed that the largest inflow of rain water occurs after a day’s rain with the probability p = 100%, and would amount to 3365 m3, and the water level in the pond would rise by only 0.25 m to a capacity of about 7000 m3. This represents 57% of the total capacity of the pond. If such an increase in the water level had occurred during the period of high water levels in the pond, it could not have damaging consequences of flooding. Only the occurrence of a day’s rain with the probability p = 10%, and capacity around 4700 m3, would completely fill the pond. Such a situation can be avoided by recultivation and desilting the bottom of the pond, where the slime collects with a capacity of 1300 m3.

  15. Sentiment and Vision in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol and The Cricket on the Hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Tilley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which sentimentality is manifested through the visible, and through associative functions of the eye, in two of Dickens's Christmas books of the 1840s. I situate the relationship between vision and sentiment within discourses from eighteenth-century moral philosophy, as Adam Smith's figure of the “Impartial Spectator” (of central importance to the development of ideas around sympathy is constructed mainly through the visual. I focus on two of the Christmas Books as they offer an interesting local study to test these ideas, coming at a critical juncture within the development of Dickens's own writing style, and also at an important historical moment within an investigation into Victorian sentimentality. Within Dickens's writing, sentimentality is typically associated with the exaggerated emotional portrayal of pathetic scenes (particularly the deaths of children, designed to elicit emotional responses from the reader. However, behind the hyperbole rests a concern with the self's need to take social, ethical and moral care of others, and the role of literature and art in tutoring the reader's emotional response, with the eye playing a crucial role in this act. I further explore the way in which Dickens's interest in blindness both reinforces, and points to certain disturbances, in his sentimental vision.

  16. Ethno linguistic material regarding Christmas rituals among the Serbs in Bela Krajina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the current ethno linguistic situation in four Orthodox Serbian villages in the Bela Krajina region of Slovenia. Ethno linguistic material collected in these villages enables the synchronic state of traditional culture to be established. Special attention is payed to the way the interviewees describe Christmas rituals and interpret and evaluate then-present state; apart from description of Christmas interviewees' statements (here named ethno linguistic texts also carry precious information about attitudes of carriers of a certain culture towards its values, and indicate in- and out-group relations, establishing oppositions such as then vs. now, me vs. them, us vs. them. These subjective comments provided by the interviewees help obtain a complete, multilevel picture of a traditional culture, with all interactions that characterize it, both within the ethno linguistic community and in relation to other communities. It is especially important that these interactions be taken into account for isolated ethnic and linguistic groups such as the Orthodox Serbs in Bela Krajina.

  17. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001Christmas sack with 20kg of presents. Cognitive loads also impair his neuromuscular performance. It is recommended that Santa trains his strength and balance before Christmas and also to avoid filling his sack with more than 20kg of presents. Also, cognitive training may help to improve his dual task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  19. Microbial survey of fish ponds and mineral composition of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports on the microbial composition of stagnant fish ponds and mineral & metal composition of Clarias gariepinus from the fish ponds in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The fishes apparently thrived well in the fish ponds. Microbiological analysis of the different fish ponds as well as the mineral composition of the fish ...

  20. Stratification in Waste Stabilization Ponds Ii: Modelling | Ukpong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of thermal stratification in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) alters the flow pattern of the pond. Hence, its study is important for complete and accurate modelling of the waste stabilization pond. In this study, a mathematical model for prediction of thermal stratification and mixing in waste stabilization ponds ...

  1. Floristics of ephemeral ponds in east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara R. MacRoberts; Michael H. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph; David W. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2009, we surveyed the vegetation of ephemeral ponds in Sabine and Nacogdoches counties in east-central Texas. These ponds are shallow and flat-bottomed, with a small but distinct flora dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). The floras of these ponds are most similar to those of flatwoods ponds located on the lower coastal plain. Once more...

  2. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  3. No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

  4. Christmas in the "Valley of Praise": Intersections of the Rural Idyll, Heritage and Community in Lobethal, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Rofe, Matthew W.

    2005-01-01

    The village of Lobethal in the Adelaide Hills is synonymous with Christmas. Its annual Festival of Lights originated in the 1940s and now attracts over 250,000 visitors each year. In 1994, the Lobethal Lights Festival Committee took over the coordination of activities and gained serious corporate sponsorship. The formalisation of the Festival…

  5. Eating Christmas Cookies, Whole-wheat Bread and Frozen Chicken in the Kindergarten: Doing Pedagogy by Other Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here explores eating as a pedagogical practice by paying attention to arrangements of things such as Christmas cookies, whole-wheat and white bread, frozen chicken, plates, chairs, tables, and freezers. Through a series of ethnographic research examples from German and Brazilian

  6. National Audubon society's technology initiatives for bird conservation: a summary of application development for the Christmas bird count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Dale

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, Audubon's Christmas Bird Count (CBC) has been supported by an Internet-based data entry application that was initially designed to accommodate the traditional paper-based methods of this long-running bird monitoring program. The first efforts to computerize the data and the entry procedures have informed a planned strategy to revise the current...

  7. Two Ponds Canal Realignment Conceptual Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tetra Tech RMC has preformed storm routing calculations, prepared a conceptual grading plan, and developed a preliminary cost estimate. Additionally, pond sizing and...

  8. A Qualitative Analysis Of A Pond

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains the analysis of samples collected at a man made pond located east of Cochranton Road. The data includes temperature, oxygen content, pH and...

  9. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  10. The effect of salinity on growth rate and osmolyte concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthrospira strains were isolated from wastewater treatment ponds in Maputo, Mozambique, where they grow as a dense, almost unialgal population. Growth experiments were conducted in batch cultures under constant light and temperature, to assess growth response and tolerance of Arthrospira strains to salinity. Growth ...

  11. Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

  12. Comparison of prokaryotic community structure from Mediterranean and Atlantic saltern concentrator ponds by a metagenomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana B; Vera-Gargallo, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ghai, Rohit; Papke, R Thane; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the prokaryotic community structure of a saltern pond with 21% total salts located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, Southwest Spain, close to the Atlantic ocean coast. For this purpose, we constructed a metagenome (designated as IC21) obtained by pyrosequencing consisting of 486 Mb with an average read length of 397 bp and compared it with other metagenomic datasets obtained from ponds with 19, 33, and 37% total salts acquired from Santa Pola marine saltern, located in Alicante, East Spain, on the Mediterranean coast. Although the salinity in IC21 is closer to the pond with 19% total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS19), IC21 is more similar at higher taxonomic levels to the pond with 33% total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS33), since both are predominated by the phylum Euryarchaeota. However, there are significant differences at lower taxonomic levels where most sequences were related to the genus Halorubrum in IC21 and to Haloquadratum in SS33. Within the Bacteroidetes, the genus Psychroflexus is the most abundant in IC21 while Salinibacter dominates in SS33. Sequences related to bacteriorhodopsins and halorhodopsins correlate with the abundance of Haloquadratum in Santa Pola SS19 to SS33 and of Halorubrum in Isla Cristina IC21 dataset, respectively. Differences in composition might be attributed to local ecological conditions since IC21 showed a decrease in the number of sequences related to the synthesis of compatible solutes and in the utilization of phosphonate.

  13. Comparison of prokaryotic community structure from Mediterranean and Atlantic saltern concentrator ponds by a metagenomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz eFernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the prokaryotic community structure of a saltern pond with 21 % total salts located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, Southwest Spain, close to the Atlantic ocean coast. For this purpose, we constructed a metagenome (designated as IC21 obtained by pyrosequencing consisting of 486 Mb with an average read length of 397 bp and compared it with other metagenomic datasets obtained from ponds with 19, 33 and 37 % total salts acquired from Santa Pola marine saltern, located in Alicante, East Spain, on the Mediterranean coast. Although the salinity in IC21 is closer to the pond with 19 % total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS19, IC21 is more similar at higher taxonomic levels to the pond with 33 % total salts from Santa Pola saltern (designated as SS33, since both are predominated by the phylum Euryarchaeota. However, there are significant differences at lower taxonomic levels where most sequences were related to the genus Halorubrum in IC21 and to Haloquadratum in SS33. Within the Bacteroidetes, the genus Psychroflexus is the most abundant in IC21 while Salinibacter dominates in SS33. Sequences related to bacteriorhodopsins and halorhodopsins correlate with the abundance of Haloquadratum in Santa Pola SS19 to SS33 and of Halorubrum in Isla Cristina IC21 dataset, respectively. Differences in composition might be attributed to local ecological conditions since IC21 showed a decrease in the number of sequences related to the synthesis of compatible solutes and in the utilization of phosphonate.

  14. Christmas Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels John

    2010-01-01

    Matematiklærere er som regel altid på jagt efter emner og aktiviteter, der kan engagere, fascinere og udfordre eleverne på mange niveauer. At udforske og eksperimentere med design af stjerneformede polyedre er en af de mange muligheder....

  15. Plow Shop Pond Supplemental Investigation Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Landfill area of Fort Devens. The northern shore borders the MOLUMCO Industrial Park in Ayer. The pond is used by area residents for recreational fishing...Operable Unit and RI/FS activities for Grove Pond and the former Hartnett tannery addresses or will address controls to prevent further contamination...Minerals in I Anoxic Marine Sediments", Marim Chemitry, 1987, 22, 193-206. 9. Sax, NI. and RI Lewis, Sr. "Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials

  16. Role of volatile and non-volatile plant secondary metabolites in host tree selection by Christmas beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Mamoru; Foley, William J; Floyd, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Individual Eucalyptus trees in south-eastern Australia vary considerably in susceptibility to herbivores. On the one hand, studies with insect herbivores have suggested that variation in the concentrations of foliar monoterpenes is related to variation in susceptibility. On the other, studies with marsupial folivores have suggested that variation in the concentrations of sideroxylonals (a group of formylated phloroglucinol compounds) is responsible for variation in susceptibility. We examined relative importance of sideroxylonals and 1,8-cineole (a dominant monoterpene) in host tree selection by Christmas beetles (Anoplognathus species: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) by using no-choice experiments, choice/no-choice experiments, and manipulative experiments in which concentrations of sideroxylonals or 1,8-cineole were altered. We used two species of host Eucalyptus, one species of non-host Eucalyptus, and three species of non-host non-Eucalyptus trees. Leaf consumption by Christmas beetles was negatively correlated with the concentrations of sideroxylonals and 1,8-cineole. Artificial increases in the concentration of sideroxylonals or 1,8-cineole reduced leaf consumption by Christmas beetles. An artificial reduction in foliar monoterpenes had no effect on leaf consumption by the beetles when leaves contained high or very low concentrations of sideroxylonals. However, when the concentration of sideroxylonals was moderate, a reduction in the foliar monoterpenes increased leaf consumption by the beetles. Therefore, monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole may be used as a negative cue by Christmas beetles. The pattern of food consumption on non-host Eucalyptus species and non-host non-Eucalyptus species suggest that both positive and negative cues may be used by Christmas beetles to select host trees.

  17. Mantle heterogeneities beneath the Northeast Indian Ocean as sampled by intra-plate volcanism at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; Rushmer, Tracy; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Turner, Simon; O'Neill, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The intra-plate region of the Northeast Indian Ocean, located between the Ninetyeast Ridge and the North West Shelf of Australia, contains numerous submerged seamounts and two sub-aerially exposed volcanic island groups. While the Cocos (Keeling) Archipelago is a coral atoll, Christmas Island is the only sub-aerially exposed volcanic island and contains Late Cretaceous, Eocene and Pliocene lavas. The lavas are predominantly basaltic in composition, except for one sampled flow that is trachytic. Although the evolution of the western margin of Australia, and the seismicity in the intra-plate region, has received considerable attention, the origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean is still a matter of debate. In order to constrain the origin of volcanism on Christmas Island and the associated Seamount Province we analysed 14 Christmas Island samples for major and trace element abundances and 12 of these for Nd, Hf and Pb isotope compositions. The trace element patterns of the lavas are similar to many ocean island basalts, while high 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb suggest affiliation with the DUPAL anomaly. The reconstructed position of Christmas Island during the Eocene (44-37 Ma) places the island in close proximity to the (present-day) upper mantle low-seismic velocity anomalies. Moreover, an enriched mantle (EM-2) type component in addition to the DUPAL anomaly is observed in the Eocene volcanic phase. The younger Pliocene ( 4 Ma) sequences at Christmas Island are inferred to be the product of partial melting of existing material induced by lithospheric flexure.

  18. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STUDY ON IMPACT OF SALINE WATER INUNDATION ON FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN SUNDARBAN USING RISK ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K Chand

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of saline water inundation on freshwater aquaculture was evaluated through risk assessment tools. Fishponds in low-lying areas of Sagar and Basanti block are prone to saline water flooding. Respondents of Sagar block considered events like cyclone and coastal flooding as extreme risk; erratic monsoon, storm surge and land erosion as high risk; temperature rise, sea level rise, hot & extended summer and precipitation as medium risk. Likewise, in Basanti block the respondents rated cyclone as extreme risk; erratic monsoon, storm surge as high risk; temperature rise, hot & extended summer, land erosion, and precipitation as medium risk; coastal flooding and sea level rise as low risk. Fish farmers of Sagar block classified the consequences of saline water flooding like breach of pond embankment and mass mortality of fishes as extreme risk; escape of existing fish stock and diseases as high risk; entry of unwanted species, retardation of growth and deterioration of water quality as medium risk; and damage of pond environment as low risk. Farmers of Basanti block categorised breach of pond dyke, mass mortality of fishes and entry of unwanted species as extreme risk; escape of fish and diseases as high risk; retardation of growth as medium risk; deterioration of water quality and damage of pond environment as low risk. To reduce the threats against saline water ingression, farmers are taking some coping measures like increase in pond dyke height; repair and strengthening of dyke; plantation on dyke; dewatering and addition of fresh water; application of chemicals/ lime/ dung; addition of tree branches in pond for hide outs etc.

  20. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Redemption and the imagination of childhood: Dickens’s representation of children in A Christmas Carol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the representation of children in Dickens’s most famous Christmas book. Central to the article is a consideration of historical circumstances in which the book was written, as well as Dickens’s own childhood, and the possibility of redemption through the force of the imagination from the negative consequences of social circumstances and personal choices. The changing conception of the Victorian child, from a conception of sinfulness to that of innocence, provides historical and theoretical positioning of the literary work. The role of childhood memory and its influence on Dickens’s work is presented. The work of Edmund Wilson and the children’s literary scholar Adrienne Gavin is included in this consideration of the short novel.

  2. Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyatt, Kelly B; Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases...... having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. A case in point is the extinction of the endemic Christmas Island rat (Rattus macleari): although it has been argued that its disappearance ca. AD 1900 may have been partly or wholly caused by a pathogenic trypanosome carried...... by fleas hosted on recently-introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), no decisive evidence for this scenario has ever been adduced. Using ancient DNA methods on samples from museum specimens of these rodents collected during the extinction window (AD 1888-1908), we were able to resolve unambiguously sequence...

  3. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single......-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p ... from 0.02 in November to 0.03 in December (without JN) and further to 0.05 with JN. At one department, the rise was significant. At a department without morning coffee, the DGH level raised after JN intervention corresponding to the level at the departments with morning coffee before JN intervention...

  4. Advanced pond system: performance with high rate ponds of different depths and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Davies-Colley, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P

    2003-01-01

    Many domestic Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) or oxidation ponds in New Zealand require upgrading to reduce pollution of receiving waters. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond, High Rate Pond, Algae Settling Pond and Maturation Pond may provide a cost effective upgrade option. This paper presents the results of a 2-year study of the performance of two pilot APS systems with High Rate Ponds of different depths and areas. The HRPs of the APS systems both had the same flow rate (5 m3 d(-1)), volume (37.5 m3) and thus hydraulic retention time (7.5 d). However, the East HRP had an operating depth of 0.30 m and a surface area of 128 m2, and the West HRP had an operating depth of 0.45 m and a surface area of 85 m2. APS system performance was compared in terms of improvement of water quality. For nearly all parameters measured, there was little difference in performance between the two systems suggesting that the system with the smaller area could be used without affecting treatment. Comparison of final effluent with typical effluent of New Zealand WSPs showed that APS effluent was of higher quality and much less variable over time.

  5. [Diversity of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms from shrimp mariculture ponds in Zhanjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining

    2015-10-04

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are small-sized, parasitic bacteria that rely on other Gram-negative bacteria for survival. Our work aimed to characterize the community diversity of BALOs associated with tropical shrimp ponds. We collected water samples from eight shrimp ponds culturing Litopenaeus vannamei, in Zhanjiang, China, and extracted total DNA of the samples. Then the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed following PCR amplification with BALOs family-specific primers. The community composition and structure of BALOs were further analyzed based on phylogenetic analysis. A total of 726 and 664 valid clones were obtained from the 16S rRNA gene libraries of families Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae, respectively. Subsequently, they were respectively grouped into 68 and 44 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at 99.5% sequence similarity, and assigned into 37 and 28 clusters at 97% similarity. For the Halobacteriovoracaceae libraries, most clusters were so far uncultured with the exception of 5 members, which accounting for 43.5% clones. And the cultivable cluster IX and the uncultured cluster B28 were the first and second dominant ones respectively. For the Peredibacteraceae libraries, the cluster pa12 and the only cultivable cluster A3.12 were the first and second dominant ones respectively. Notably, the values of Shannon diversity indices of Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae tend to be reversed with the change of salinity, but the total BALOs diversities among the eight shrimp ponds were similar. Shrimp mariculture ponds in Zhanjinag harbor a high diversity of BALOs comprising of Halobacteriovoracaceae and Peredibacteraceae, and salinity affect their community structure and composition greatly.

  6. Charophytes, indicators for low salinity phases in North African sebkhet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg

    2008-05-01

    Among water plants of lakes and ponds, the charophytes are useful for palaeolimnology because they provide autochthonous fossils in the form of their calcified fructifications, termed gyrogonites. Particular species of the Characeae are adapted to brackish water and serve as a modern analogue to infer the salinity of salt lake sediments. Here we focus on Lamprothamnium papulosum whose significance in terms of palaeo-salinity is reviewed with particular attention to the ecological requirements for calcification. New data describe the finding of L. papulosum from Holocene sediments at Sebkha Mellala, Algeria. Previous Quaternary records of this species from North Africa (Mauritania, Libya (Fezzan), Sudan, Mali and Morocco) are discussed in terms of their significance for palaeolimnology. The present paper highlights the potential of fossil charophyte gyrogonites as indicators of former low salinity phases in present-day hypersaline environments.

  7. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  8. Monitoring of Water Quality and Microalgae Species Composition of Penaeus monodon Ponds in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Asma Liyana; Surif, Misni; Latiff, Faazaz Abd.; Omar, Wan Maznah Wan; Ahmad, Mohd Noor

    2011-01-01

    Many reports have revealed that the abundance of microalgae in shrimp ponds vary with changes in environmental factors such as light, temperature, pH, salinity and nutrient level throughout a shrimp culture period. In this study, shrimp cultivation period was divided into three stages (initial = week 0–5, mid = week 6–10 and final = week 11–15). Physical and chemical parameters throughout the cultivation period were studied and species composition of microalgae was monitored. Physical parameters were found to fluctuate widely with light intensity ranging between 182.23–1278 μmol photon m−2s−1, temperature between 29.56°C −31.59°C, dissolved oxygen (DO) between 4.56–8.21 mg/l, pH between 7.65–8.49 and salinity between 20‰–30‰. Ammonium (NH4+-N), nitrite (NO2−-N), nitrate (NO3−-N), and orthophosphate (PO43−-P) concentrations in the pond at all cultivation stages ranged from 0.017 to 0.38 mg/l, 0.24 to 2.12 mg/l, 0.06 to 0.98 mg/l and 0.16 to 1.93 mg/l respectively. Statistical test (ANOVA) showed that there were no significant difference (pmicroalgae species were found in the shrimp pond, with diatoms contributing up to 72% of the species followed by Chlorophyta (11%) and Cyanophyta (11%). However, weekly species abundance varied through the study period. At the initial stage, when there were no shrimps in the pond, Anabaena spp. and Oscillatoria spp. (Cyanophyta) were the dominant species, followed by Chlorella sp. and Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyta). When shrimps were introduced into the pond, Amphora sp., Navicula sp. Gyrosigma sp. and Nitzschia sp. (diatoms) started to exist. At the middle and towards the final stage of the shrimp culture period diatoms were the dominant species. The Chlorophyta (Chlorella sp.) domination took place only twice, which was at week 2 and 13. The absence of some of the coastal water microalgae species in the shrimp pond was most likely due to the fact that they could not tolerate the physicochemical

  9. Monitoring of Water Quality and Microalgae Species Composition of Penaeus monodon Ponds in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Asma Liyana; Surif, Misni; Latiff, Faazaz Abd; Omar, Wan Maznah Wan; Ahmad, Mohd Noor

    2011-05-01

    Many reports have revealed that the abundance of microalgae in shrimp ponds vary with changes in environmental factors such as light, temperature, pH, salinity and nutrient level throughout a shrimp culture period. In this study, shrimp cultivation period was divided into three stages (initial = week 0-5, mid = week 6-10 and final = week 11-15). Physical and chemical parameters throughout the cultivation period were studied and species composition of microalgae was monitored. Physical parameters were found to fluctuate widely with light intensity ranging between 182.23-1278 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1), temperature between 29.56°C -31.59°C, dissolved oxygen (DO) between 4.56-8.21 mg/l, pH between 7.65-8.49 and salinity between 20‰-30‰. Ammonium (NH4 (+)-N), nitrite (NO2 (-)-N), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N), and orthophosphate (PO4 (3-)-P) concentrations in the pond at all cultivation stages ranged from 0.017 to 0.38 mg/l, 0.24 to 2.12 mg/l, 0.06 to 0.98 mg/l and 0.16 to 1.93 mg/l respectively. Statistical test (ANOVA) showed that there were no significant difference (pmicroalgae species were found in the shrimp pond, with diatoms contributing up to 72% of the species followed by Chlorophyta (11%) and Cyanophyta (11%). However, weekly species abundance varied through the study period. At the initial stage, when there were no shrimps in the pond, Anabaena spp. and Oscillatoria spp. (Cyanophyta) were the dominant species, followed by Chlorella sp. and Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyta). When shrimps were introduced into the pond, Amphora sp., Navicula sp. Gyrosigma sp. and Nitzschia sp. (diatoms) started to exist. At the middle and towards the final stage of the shrimp culture period diatoms were the dominant species. The Chlorophyta (Chlorella sp.) domination took place only twice, which was at week 2 and 13. The absence of some of the coastal water microalgae species in the shrimp pond was most likely due to the fact that they could not tolerate the physicochemical factors of

  10. Benthic Oxygen Demand in Three Former Salt Ponds Adjacent to South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parcheso, Francis; Henderson, Kathleen D.; Piotter, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sampling trips were coordinated in the second half of 2008 to examine the interstitial water in the sediment and the overlying bottom waters of three shallow (average depth 2 meters). The water column at all deployment sites was monitored with dataloggers for ancillary water-quality parameters (including dissolved oxygen, salinity, specific conductance, temperature, and pH) to facilitate the interpretation of benthic-flux results. Calculated diffusive benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) oxygen was consistently negative (that is, drawn from the water column into the sediment) and ranged between -0.5 x 10-6 and -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second (site averages depicted in table 2). Assuming pond areas of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.3 square kilometers for ponds A16, A14, and A3W, respectively, this converts to an oxygen mass flux into the ponds' sediment ranging from -1 to -72 kilograms per day. Diffusive oxygen flux into the benthos (listed as negative) was lowest in pond A14 (-0.5 x 10-6 to -1.8 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second) compared with diffusive flux estimates for ponds A16 and A3W (site averages -26 x 10-6 to -35 x 10-6 and -34 x 10-6 to -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second, respectively). These initial diffusive-flux estimates are of the order of magnitude of those measured in the South Bay using core-incubation experiments (Topping and others, 2004), which include bioturbation and bioirrigation effects. Estimates of benthic oxygen demand reported herein, based on molecular diffusion, serve as conservative estimates of benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by multidisciplinary processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation, ground-water advection, and wind resuspension (Kuwabara and others, 2009).

  11. Microbiology could help clean up tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    This article reported on the discovery that populations of nitrate-reducing bacteria can promote sedimentation in oilsands tailings ponds and can at the same time reduce the production and release of harmful methane gas and allow more water from the ponds to be recycled, thereby lessening the amount of fresh water needed for the oil-extraction process. The evidence that this class of micro-organism contributes to tailings sedimentation opens up new possibilities for the future management of tailings ponds and the reduction of tailings pond toxicity. Methanogenic bacteria were already known to participate in tailings pond densification, but these organisms produce undesirable methane gas as a byproduct. Larger-scale experiments are needed to validate the laboratory results before appropriate field-scale applications can be designed. The findings could potentially lead to technologies that help oil sands companies reclaim land more effectively and in a shorter period of time. Microbiology was deemed to be an important aspect of tailings management. 1 ref.

  12. Models and observations of Arctic melt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a striking transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is largely determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a significant role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a challenge to improving climate projections. It has been found that as the ponds grow and coalesce, the fractal dimension of their boundaries undergoes a transition from 1 to about 2, around a critical length scale of 100 square meters in area. As the ponds evolve they take complex, self-similar shapes with boundaries resembling space-filling curves. I will outline how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics, such as percolation and Ising models, are being used to describe this evolution and predict key geometrical parameters that agree very closely with observations.

  13. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges...... calibrated one-dimensional transport model has been set up for describing the: 1. The build up of particulate pollution on highway surfaces. 2. The removal of particulate pollution on highway surfaces due to rain. 3. The transport of water and particulate pollution through the drainage system...... to the connected detention ponds. This model can be used for prediction of event loads on detention ponds for several years. Likewise a well calibrated three-dimensional transport model has been set up for describing the: 1. The transport of water, dissolved and particulate pollutants in wet detention ponds during...

  14. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  15. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively. The measur......Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively...

  16. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  17. Viscosity-stabilized solar ponds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-07

    Work previously completed on polymer-stabilized solar ponds is described. A detailed outline is provided of work proposed to expand upon and complete the work and to determine the feasibility, both technical and economic, of a polymer-stabilized solar pond. Information is presented on the polymers that have been reported in the literature and by the manufacturer of the polymer Carbopol. Proposed management and schedules and descriptions of the proposed personnel and facilities are included. A paper is included which describes some candidate organic materials, discusses data relating to solar input, the relationship between the total energy available, and the requirements for domestic heat, and present preliminary design ideas. (LEW)

  18. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...

  20. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  1. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The surprising benefit of passive-aggressive behaviour at Christmas parties: being crowned king of the crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B Emma; Clifford, David; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh

    2014-12-11

    To test the effects of technique and attitude in pulling Christmas crackers. A binomial trial conducted at a Christmas-in-July dinner party involving five anonymous dinner guests, including two of the authors. Number of wins achieved by different strategies, with a win defined as securing the larger portion of the cracker. The previously "guaranteed" strategy for victory, employing a downwards angle towards the puller, failed to differentiate itself from random chance (win rate, 6/15; probability of winning, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-0.65). A novel passive-aggressive strategy, in which one individual just holds on without pulling, provided a significant advantage (win rate, 11/12; probability of winning, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.00). The passive-aggressive strategy of failing to pull has a high rate of success at winning Christmas crackers; however, excessive adoption of this approach will result in a complete failure, with no winners at all.

  3. The Christmas tree foreheadplasty: a novel technique used in combination with a bandeau for fronto-orbital remodelling in craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Jonathan A; Gwanmesia, Ivo; Leshem, David

    2012-09-01

    Craniosynostosis of the coronal, metopic and frontosphenoidal sutures results in deformity of the forehead. This may cause both functional and psychological difficulties for patient and parent. We describe a novel surgical technique, the 'Christmas tree foreheadplasty', used in combination with a supraorbital bandeau to achieve fronto-orbital remodelling. Between November 2008 and September 2011, 32 patients with craniosynostosis underwent fronto-orbital remodelling with a supraorbital bandeau in combination with Christmas tree foreheadplasty. Indications for surgery, age at surgery, blood transfusion requirements, length of hospital stay and perioperative complications were assessed. A 'blinded', independent reviewer, age-matched controlled, panel photograph study was also undertaken to review results of the surgery. A parental satisfaction survey by telephone questionnaire was undertaken. Mean age at surgery was 16 months. Average hospital stay was 3 days. Mean follow up time to this report was 19.5 months. Indications for the procedure included unicoronal, frontosphenoidal, metopic and bicoronal synostosis. Thirty of the 32 patients required a blood transfusion. One patient has required revision surgery following extrusion of prosthetic fixation plate. Surgical outcome measured by 'blinded' independent reviewers indicated that a significantly different preoperative score from normal was rendered to no significant difference from age-matched normal controls postoperatively. Parental satisfaction score of forehead appearance was significantly improved by the technique. The Christmas tree foreheadplasty is a commendable and reproducible technique for forehead remodelling in combination with supraorbital bandeau and is now used more widely for forehead reconstruction for congenital cases.

  4. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Jarvie; Scott Arthur; Lindsay Beevers

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS) ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS), and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation) exceed...

  5. production of tilapia rendalli in weedy ponds receiving no external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-07-01

    Jul 1, 1993 ... ABSTRACT. T ilapia rendalli were stocked at a rate of one fish per square metre in six replicate 200 m2 ponds and grown for 104 days. At stocking, three ponds were weed~free while three ponds had an average weed cover of 65.5%. The weed-free ponds received locally» available inputs at rates ...

  6. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in

  7. Transfer of hexazinone and glyphosate through undisturbed soil columns in soils under Christmas tree cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Chauvin, C; Durlet, P; Thévenot, M

    2004-10-01

    Field studies monitoring pesticide pollution in the Morvan region (France) have revealed surface water contamination by some herbicides. The purpose of this study was to investigate in greater detail the transport of two herbicides, used in Christmas tree production in the Morvan, under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the leaching of hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-dimethyl-amino-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1H,3H) dione) and glyphosate (N-(phosphono-methyl-glycine)) through structured soil columns was studied using one loamy sand and two sandy loams from sites currently under Christmas tree cultivation in the Morvan. The three soils were cultivated sandy brunisol [Sound reference base for soils, D. Baize, M.C. Girard (Coord.), INRA, Versailles, 1998, 322 p] or, according to the FAO [FAO, World reference base for soil resources, ISSS-ISRIC-FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1998], the La Garenne was an arenosol and the two other soils were cambisols. The clay contents of the soils ranged from 86 to 156 g kg(-1) and the organic carbon ranged from 98 to 347 g kg(-1). After 160 mm of simulated rainfall applied over 12 days, 2-11% of the applied hexazinone was recovered in the leachate. The recovery was much higher than that of glyphosate, which was less than 0.01%. The greater mobility of hexazinone might be related to its much lower adsorption coefficient, K(oc), 19-300 l kg(-1), compared with 8.5-10231 l kg(-1) for glyphosate (literature values). Another factor that may explain the higher amounts of hexazinone recovered in the leachates of the three soil columns is its greater persistence (19.7-91 days) relative to that of glyphosate (7.9-14.4 days). The mobility of both herbicides was greater in the soils with higher gravel contents, coarser textures, and lower organic carbon contents. Moreover, glyphosate migration seems negatively correlated not only to soil organic carbon, but also to aluminium and iron contents of soils. This soil column study suggests that at the

  8. Re-modeling Chara action potential: II. The action potential form under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Beilby

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In part I we established Thiel-Beilby model of the Chara action potential (AP. In part II the AP is investigated in detail at the time of saline stress. Even very short exposure of salt-sensitive Chara cells to artificial pond water with 50 mM NaCl (Saline APW modified the AP threshold and drastically altered the AP form. Detailed modeling of 14 saline APs from 3 cells established that both the Ca2+ pump and the Ca2+ channels on internal stores seem to be affected, with the changes sometimes cancelling and sometimes re-enforcing each other, leading to APs with long durations and very complex forms. The exposure to salinity offers further insights into AP mechanism and suggests future experiments. The prolonged APs lead to greater loss of chloride and potassium ions, compounding the effects of saline stress.

  9. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  10. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, The Ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_ponds)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 2 polygons representing the ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The ponds were collected by a Trimble GeoXT...

  11. The algae of Gaborone wastewater stabilization ponds: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of algae found in the wastewater stabilization ponds in Gaborone were studied. Being the base of the food chain in any aquatic habitat, algae contribute significantly to the functioning and value of the ponds. The (liversit)' and abundance of the algae in the two pond systems at Broadhurst and Phakalane were ...

  12. Nitrogen mass balance in waste stabilization ponds at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen mass balance in waste stabilization pond system at the University of Dar es Salaam was determined using a dynamic mathematical model in order to elucidate the biological nitrogen transformation mechanisms that are effective for removal of nitrogen in this pond system. Results show that the pond system ...

  13. Salinity in rose production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rose is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. However, the cultivation systems used for roses often impose salt stress. Saline conditions occur naturally in some regions or by human activity in others with use of low quality water or excessive fertilizer application. In general, roses are considered sensitive to salinity. However, tolerance levels can be different among roses species and cultivars. Therefore, studies are needed that take into account characteristics of each species and how the exposure to salinity occurs. Management of water and nutrients can be important tools for mitigating the effects of high salt concentrations. Also, advances in biotechnology can be used for a better understanding of the physiological responses to salinity and to develop more salt tolerant rose cultivars. Thus, this paper aims to review the progress made and future prospects of salinity tolerance in commercial rose production.

  14. Remote sensing of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  15. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  16. Scenario evaluation of open pond microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Lösing, M.B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate microalgae production in large scale open ponds under different climatologic conditions, a model-based framework is used to study the effect of light conditions, water temperature and reactor design on trends in algae productivity. Scenario analyses have been done for two algae species

  17. Environmental impact of seasonal integrated aquaculture ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of fingerponds, particularly on hydrology and biodiversity, was low, although land-use changes at the immediate site where the ponds were dug had direct impacts. Whereas this study was based on short-term monitoring of experimental fingerponds, scaling up of these systems may increase their ...

  18. STRATIFICATION IN WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS I: EFFECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    45.No; 1,2002, pp. 41- 48. [2] Fritz, J.J., Middleton, A. C. and Meredith,. D. D. Dynamic .process modelling of wastewater stabilization ponds. Journal water pollution control Fed. 1(11),1979, pp. 2724- 2743. [3] Soler, A., Saez, J., Liorens, M., Martinez,. I., Berna, L.M. and Torrella, F. Changes in physicochemical parameters.

  19. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a...

  20. Historical Mammal Extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Kelly B.; Campos, Paula F.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Hynes, Wayne H.; DeSalle, Rob; Daszak, Peter; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. A case in point is the extinction of the endemic Christmas Island rat (Rattus macleari): although it has been argued that its disappearance ca. AD 1900 may have been partly or wholly caused by a pathogenic trypanosome carried by fleas hosted on recently-introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), no decisive evidence for this scenario has ever been adduced. Using ancient DNA methods on samples from museum specimens of these rodents collected during the extinction window (AD 1888–1908), we were able to resolve unambiguously sequence evidence of murid trypanosomes in both endemic and invasive rats. Importantly, endemic rats collected prior to the introduction of black rats were devoid of trypanosome signal. Hybridization between endemic and black rats was also previously hypothesized, but we found no evidence of this in examined specimens, and conclude that hybridization cannot account for the disappearance of the endemic species. This is the first molecular evidence for a pathogen emerging in a naïve mammal species immediately prior to its final collapse. PMID:18985148

  1. Christmas tree worms of Indo-Pacific coral reefs: untangling the Spirobranchus corniculatus (Grube, 1862) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A.; Iñiguez, Abril R.; Kupriyanova, Elena K.; Starger, Craig J.; Varman, Tristan; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Maralit, Benedict A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2015-09-01

    Christmas tree worm is the common name of a group of colorful serpulid polychaetes from the genus Spirobranchus that are symbionts of hermatypic corals. As is increasingly common with reef-associated organisms, Spirobranchus is arranged as a complex of species with overlapping geographic ranges. Current species delimitations based largely on opercular morphology are problematic because of high intraspecific variation. Here, a multi-gene phylogeny of the Spirobranchus corniculatus complex, which tentatively includes S. corniculatus, S. cruciger, and S. gaymardi, sampled from the Coral Triangle, Australia, and Fiji, was reconstructed to test whether the complex includes three genetically distinct lineages identifiable by their opercula. Maximum-likelihood analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed a single, monophyletic clade for the S. corniculatus complex. Furthermore, the genetic and morphological variation observed is not geographically based, indicating that the former S. corniculatus complex of three morphospecies is a single, morphologically variable species across the Central Indo-Pacific. Resolving the taxonomy of S. corniculatus presents novel opportunities to utilize this tentative bio-indicator species for monitoring reef health.

  2. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play Like A Christmas Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mahmoud Alashqar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, Like a Christmas Tree. The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of 'binary opposition', transcultural misunderstanding, and colonial hegemony versus native resistance. Supposedly, an American Journalist, Jim, is expected to dominate the discourse by force of his cultural and professional background, but sarcastically enough, the Iraqi butcher, Badr is the part who represents power and domination throughout the play. The current paper depends on more than one tool of analysis: Norman Fairclough's (2001 and Foucault's(2004 concepts of power and discourse, Grice's theory of 'cooperative principles'(1989, Brown and Gilman's study of 'address forms' (1972, and Georgia Green's contribution in the process of 'turn-taking' (1989.The study celebrates an analysis of data which uncovers the power of discourse in the exchanges of both characters and sheds light on the identity of both of them in an attempt to affirm that 'power' is not necessarily on the side of the stronger. Keywords: discourse, power, address forms, turn-taking, interruption, topic control

  3. Can we spice up our Christmas dinner? : Busting the myth of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, N W E; Neefs, J; Berger, W R; Baalman, S W E; Meulendijks, E; Kawasaki, M; Kemper, E M; Piersma, F R; Veldkamp, M W; Wesselink, R; Krul, S P J; de Groot, J R

    2017-12-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also referred to as Vetsin or E621, is a flavour enhancer frequently used in Asian cuisine and abundantly present in the famous Chinese dish Peking duck. MSG is notorious for triggering the onset of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' (CRS), a complex of unpleasant symptoms, which might include flushing, sweating and the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aims to determine the effects of MSG on the occurrence of AF. We conducted a placebo self-controlled single-arm study in the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam. We included paroxysmal AF patients who reported a consistent onset of AF upon MSG intake. During three admissions, participants were subsequently administered: placebo, 1.5 g and 3 g MSG. If AF was recorded after the dose of 1.5 g MSG, patients were given another placebo instead of 3 g MSG. The primary outcome was the onset of AF registered by 24-hour Holter monitoring. The secondary outcomes were any other arrhythmia and the onset of CRS defined as two or more symptoms of CRS after MSG intake. Six men participated in the study. Both 1.5 g and 3 g MSG were unrelated to CRS, arrhythmias or AF occurrence. Peking duck can be put on the Christmas menu without risking guests to be admitted to the emergency department with new episodes of AF.

  4. Population trends of North American sea ducks as revealed by the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Butcher, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to other waterfowl, sea ducks are not well understood, yet evidence from a variety of analyses suggests that as many as 10 of the 15 species of North American sea ducks may be declining in population. However, because of the difficulty of conducting surveys of breeding populations and the lack of range-wide winter surveys, few data are available to assess the population trends of sea ducks with confidence. We analyze Audubon Christmas Bird Count data using hierarchical modeling methods that control for varying effort among circles and over time. These procedures allow us to assess early-winter relative density patterns among states and Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) while also assessing trends in these regions and across the species North American range. Over the interval 1966 - 2003, continent-wide declines were observed in 1 of 11 species (the White-winged Scoter; -3.7%/yr). We compare CBC results to estimates of population change derived from the midwinter waterfowl survey conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The CBC does not effectively sample offshore populations of sea ducks; however, the CBC data can be used to assist in development of species-specific surveys, and CBC data can be used in combination with additional offshore sampling programs to better sample sea duck species.

  5. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer.

  6. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  7. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  8. A palaeoecological evaluation of the acidification of Cranmer Pond, Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flower, R.J.; Battarbee, R.W.; Stevenson, A.C.; Patrick, S.T.; Appleby, P.G.; Beebee, T.J.C.; Fletcher, C.; Marsh, C.; Natkanski, J. (University College London, London (UK). Palaeoecology Research Unit, Dept. of Geography)

    1988-01-01

    Cranmer Pond is acidic and situated in an area of southern England where the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) population has experienced a major decline. The pond was formed in 1895 through the flooding of a peat excavation. Palaeoecological techniques have been utilized to examine the acidification history of Cranmer Pond, in order to assess whether the decline could have resulted from acidification. The decline in pond-water pH at both Cranmer Pond and Woolmer Pond in parallel with increases in fossil-fuel-derived atmospheric contamination strongly suggests that the decline in natterjack toad populations is due to acid rain and the acidification of numerous small ponds and pools in the area. 51 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs., 4 apps.

  9. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  10. Living up to its name? The effect of salinity on development, growth, and phenotype of the "marine" toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The highly permeable integument of amphibians renders them vulnerable to chemical characteristics of their environment, especially during the aquatic larval stage. As the cane toad (Rhinella marina, Bufonidae) invades southwards along the east coast of Australia, it is encountering waterbodies with highly variable conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity. Understanding the tolerance of toads to these conditions can clarify the likely further spread of the invader, as well as the adaptability of the species to novel environmental challenges. We measured salinity in waterbodies in the field and conducted laboratory trials to investigate the impacts of salinity on toad viability. Eggs and tadpoles from the southern invasion front tolerated the most saline conditions we found in potential spawning ponds during surveys [equivalent to 1200 ppm (3.5 % the salinity of seawater)]. Indeed, high-salinity treatments increased tadpole body sizes, accelerated metamorphosis, and improved locomotor ability of metamorphs (but did not affect metamorph morphology). At very low salinity [40 ppm (0.1 % seawater)], eggs hatched but larvae did not develop past Gosner stage 37. Our study shows that the egg and larval life stages of cane toads can tolerate wide variation in the salinity of natal ponds and that this aspect of waterbody chemistry is likely to facilitate rather than constrain continued southward expansion of the toad invasion front in eastern Australia.

  11. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  12. Long-Term Soil Productivity in Christmas Tree Farms of Oregon and Washington: A Comparative Analysis between First- and Multi-Rotation Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christmas tree production removes organic matter and associated nutrients from a site and can change soil physical properties, reduce mycorrhizal populations, and result in pesticide over-use/accumulation. These impacts have been implicated in potential field productivity declines. Assessing Christmas tree productivity is complicated by genetics, management, and market forces. We approached the perceived or possible productivity decline by examining soil properties on 22 pairs of sites. Each pair was comprised of an early rotation and late rotation plot with 1 and 3 or more rotations of Christmas trees, respectively. All sites were located on commercial Christmas tree plantations from the major production areas in Washington and Oregon. Chemical properties assessed to 45cm included pH, total C and N, and extractable P, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil physical properties assessed included aggregate stability and soil resistance. In general, we found little impact on soil resources that would impact long term production of Christmas trees. These impacts may have been mitigated by farmers following extension service recommendations. Nitrogen, K, and Ca appeared to be primarily affected by harvesting, but replacement by fertilizer application was probably adequate.

  13. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn....... The concentrations varied considerably depending on the catchment type, with the highest concentrations coming from industrial areas and the lowest from uncultivated and rural areas. Ponds can effectively remove heavy metals in particulate forms through sedimentation processes, but the dissolved forms are more...... difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds...

  14. Stability of tailings ponds in the mining district of Mazarron (SE Spain): potential risks for the Moreras Rambla; Estudio de estabilidad en depositos de lodos del Distrito Minero de Mazarron (SE Espana): Riesgos potenciales sobre la Rambla de Las Moreras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.; Martinez-Pagan, P.; Zornoza, R.; Carmona, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have used geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical techniques to identify and quantify the environmental risks of the San Cristobal and Las Moreras tailing ponds, which have been left since the closing down of Pb-Zn mining activities in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. The results show that the tailings ponds present a potential risk to nearby ecosystems because of their high acidity, high salinity and high concentrations of metals, especially Pb and Zn contain. If the pond dams were to fail or if erosion carried dry sludge to the surrounding areas, the result would be pollution, acidification, salinization, compaction and nutrient depletion of the soil, thus reducing the biodiversity of the area. Geoelectrical tomography has shown the depth of the deposits, their volume and the geomorphology of the basement. The profiles reveal that in none of the pseudo-sections are there any regions betraying cracks that might affect the stability of the structures. In fact, geotechnical studies indicate that on a large scale both ponds are stable. Nevertheless, if we contemplate circular rupture and seismic action in the San Cristobal pond, the safety factor values become critical. It is recommended, therefore, that periodic inspections should be carried out to assess moisture, upsurges and settlements in the dam. To reduce erosion of the surface sludge in the tailing ponds we suggest the application of alkaline and organic remediation so as to improve their geochemical characteristics and encourage the establishment of natural vegetation. (Author) 48 refs.

  15. Relationship between cyanobacteria community and water quality parameters on intertidal zone of fish ponds, Blanakan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Wardhana, W.

    2017-07-01

    The presence of cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone is strongly influenced by changes in physical and chemical parameters. In milkfish ponds, cyanobacteria community had been indirectly affected by the mixing of sea water and fresh water during low tides. To determine the relationship between the cyanobacteria community and water quality parameters, phytoplankton samples were taken both vertically and horizontally in three fish ponds at Blanakan Village on July and August 2016. The water quality parameters measured were temperature, DO, salinity, and pH. Based on the enumeration results of 36 samples of phytoplankton, 5 genus Cyanobacteria (Merismopedia, Microcystis, Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Trichodesmium) were obtained. Cyanobacteria is a subdominant group after diatomae with dominance index between 2-21 %. Average of density ranged between 128-3563 plankters /10 dm3. High dominance level (97-99 %) between cyanobacteria and diatoms cause phytoplankton diversity indices in all three fish ponds were very small (0.0851 to 0.8734). Based on the analysis of the three main components (Principle Component Analysis) it was known that the presence of five cyanobacteria genus was determined by the differences of water quality parameters observed. Merismopedia was more affected by salinity and DO fluctuations. Oscillatoria, Trichodesmium and Lyngbya were determined by changes in temperature, whereas Microcystis was more affected by pH.

  16. Sea lice, Caligus rotundigenitalis infestations and its management in pond cultured pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis in Gujarat: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Haresh G; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Vanza, Jesing G; Patel, Pritesh; Sethi, Satyanarayana; Gopal, Chavali

    2016-06-01

    Highly popular and delicious fish of Kerala (India), pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis is known for its ability to tolerate wide range of salinity, omnivorous feeding behavior. Present report documents the occurrence and management of Caligus rotundigenitalis in brackishwater pond meant for culture demonstration of pearlspot in Gujarat, (India). A brackishwater aquaculture pond (1,500 sq m) was stocked with pearlspot fry (2.60 ± 0.83 g; 4.31 ± 0.82 cm) @ 25,000 ha(-1). On the 46th day of culture couple of dead fish were observed which gradually increased to 120 per day by 52nd day. Following the close observation parasitic infestation was noticed on gills cavities ranging from 15 to 20 numbers per fish. These characteristic features confirmed the parasite as C. rotundigenitalis. As a therapeutic measure the infested pond was successfully treated with Butox(®) @ 300 ml/ha (Deltamethrin 12.5 mg) and repeat dose was administered 2 weeks later. The results of the study suggest the possible therapeutic value of Deltamethrin in treatment of caligid infestation in pond cultured pearlspot.

  17. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

  18. The recurrent campylobacteriosis epidemic over Christmas and New Year in European countries, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Philipp Justus; Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2017-07-11

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne disease in Europe with a notification rate of 71 per 100,000 population in the European Union in 2014. Surveillance data show a clear seasonality whereby case numbers peak during summer months in entire Europe and at the turn of the year, especially in Germany and Switzerland. A detailed description of European surveillance data by country at the turn of the year was missing so far. The objectives of the presented work were to describe national surveillance data of The European Surveillance System for 14 countries during winter times and to generate hypotheses for the observed seasonality of campylobacteriosis cases. The analysis included 317,986 cases notified between calendar weeks 45 and 8 of winter seasons 2006/2007-2013/2014. Winter peaks in weekly case notifications and notification rates were observed for Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden while for Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway and the United Kingdom no unusual increase was observed. Generally, weekly notification rates peaked in calendar week 1 or 2 after a strong decline in the last week of December and reached values of a multiple of the observed notification rates in the weeks before or after the peak e.g. up to 6.5 notifications per 100,000 population per week in Luxembourg. Disease onset of cases notified during winter peaks occurred predominantly in calendar weeks 52 and 1 and point towards risk exposures around Christmas and New Year. The consumption of meat fondue or table top grilling poses such a risk and is popular in many countries with an observed winter peak. Additionally, increased travel activities over the festive season could foster campylobacteriosis transmission. Surveillance artefacts (e.g. reporting delays due to public holidays) should be excluded as causes for country-specific winter peaks before investigating risk exposures.

  19. Dairy farm wastewater treatment by an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P S; Davies-Colley, R J

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater in New Zealand since the 1970s. The conventional two pond WSP systems provide efficient removal of wastewater BOD5 and total suspended solids, but effluent concentrations of other pollutants including nutrients and faecal bacteria are now considered unsuitable for discharge to waterways. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) provide a potential solution. A pilot dairy farm APS consisting of an Anaerobic pond (the first pond of the conventional WSP system) followed by three ponds: a High Rate Pond (HRP), an Algae Settling Pond (ASP) and a Maturation Pond (which all replace the conventional WSP system facultative pond) was evaluated over a two year period. Performance was compared to that of the existing conventional dairy farm WSP system. APS system effluent quality was considerably higher than that of the conventional WSP system with respective median effluent concentrations of BOD5: 34 and 108 g m(-3), TSS: 64 and 220 g m(-3), NH4-N: 8 and 29 g m(-3), DRP: 13 and 17 g m(-3), and E. coli: 146 and 16195 MPN/100 ml. APS systems show great promise for upgrading conventional dairy farm WSPs in New Zealand.

  20. Field-Scale Spatial Variation of Saline-Sodic Soil and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in Western Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongrui Yin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0–10 cm, 10–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–100 cm. The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain.

  1. Field-scale spatial variation of saline-sodic soil and its relation with environmental factors in Western Songnen Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Guangxin; Yin, Xiongrui; Liu, Zhijun

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm, and 60-100 cm). The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain.

  2. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  3. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  4. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  5. Meiofaunal Life of Man-Made Wastewater Ponds in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Elhag, E.A. [الحاج ابو جبر الحاج; Kardousha, M.M.; Al-Thani, R.F.; Abdulfatih, H.A.; Al-Naimi, I.S.; Sweileh, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The meiofaunal life of two wastewater ponds around Doha City was studied for the period October 2000-October 2001. The substrate nature of the two ponds was found to be similar in mean particle sizes but the densities of occurrence of the different species were variable. Six phyla were encountered. Namely Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, gastrotricha, Rotifera, Annelida and Crustacea ofArthropoda. Generally, the meiofaunal life was richer in Abu-NakhIa pond (treated wastewater) than in Abu-Hamour p...

  6. Microbiology quality in continuous water flow fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Luiz Augusto Amaral; Carla Fernandes Macedo

    2011-01-01

    The study verified sanitary aspects in fish ponds with sequential disposal and the effect of the tanks effluent in parallel in the system. Six fish ponds were studied in the dry and the rainy periods and were analyzed microbiological aspects (thermo tolerant coliforms, total coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria), DBO5 and DQO. It had contamination in the water of supplying for thermo tolerant coliforms, either of human or animals, compromising all the fish ponds studied with sanitary indices ...

  7. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity.

  8. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice–albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area–perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2, whose boundaries resemble space-filling curves, with D ≈ 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  9. Should Ramadan be prescribed after Christmas? Obesity in the healthcare profession and the health benefits of fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Hankir, Mohammed; Zaman, Rashid

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the UK, one in four people are considered overweight or obese and that number is expected to rise to one in three by 2020. Employees of the National Health Service (NHS) are no exception with up to half of healthcare workers considered overweight or obese. Religious periods such as Christmas and Ramadan are associated with weight changes. Weight gain has been reported during the Christmas period albeit not as much as was traditionally believed according to the results of recent research. Conversely, weight loss has been reported in Muslims who fast during the Islamic month of Ramadan; however, this amount tends to be modest and weight gradually returns to pre-Ramadan status according to a meta-analysis of the literature. We report a case of an NHS healthcare worker - which is the first of its kind that illustrates the role that fasting and other factors have played a role in causing dramatic oscillations in his weight.

  10. Increased suicides during new year, but not during Christmas in Sweden: analysis of cause of death data 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of the Christmas and New Year holiday on suicide rates. However, no such data has yet been published on Swedish suicides. To examine the occurrence of suicides on these dates in Sweden between 2006 and 2015. The suicide count for each date between December 15th and January 15th was obtained from the Swedish cause of death registry. The observations were transformed to Z-scores to enable calculation of p-values. A small but non-significant decrease in suicides was observed on Christmas and New Year's Eve. A significant spike was found on New Year's Day (NYD) (Z = 3.40; p < .001), and these excess suicide occurred mainly among men aged 15-24 and 45-64. However, the number of suicides were somewhat lower than expected on the 31st of December (Z = -1.58; p = .115). The noted increase in suicide on NYD is in line with previous research from other countries. However, the decrease in suicides on the day before NYD suggests a delay rather than a spontaneous increase of suicides. Possible mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are discussed, such as the "broken promise effect", increased alcohol consumption, or lower help-seeking and accessibility to care.

  11. N-Acetylcysteine plus Saline Hydration versus Saline Hydration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in patients undergoing coronary angiography pretreated with N-acetylcysteine NAC plus saline hydration or saline hydration alone and to determine the association between various risk factors and RCIN. Methods: Patients were ...

  12. Hydrography of Gourikere pond of Siddapur, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar, , B. K. Gangadhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present work was pertaining to studies conducted at one lentic perinial water body at Talaguppa viz., Gourikere pond Tq:Sagar Karnataka. The period of study undertaken it one year from May - 2007 to April - 2008. This study is intended to monitor the water quality of Gourikere pond of Talaguppa, Sagar Tq: Shimoga District and also helpful for using this water for making fisheries activity. The present investigation encompassed collection of data pertaining to various aspects such as meteorological condition, physicochemical parameter of water body of Gourikere pond. Air and surface water temperatures varied from 29.7oC to 37.5oC and from 20.6oC – 24.8oC. And the pH ranged between 8.1 to 9.1. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 6.4 mg/l to 10.8 mg/l and variation in CO2 was observed from 7.4 mg/l to 12.00 mg/l. Concentrations of nutrients viz. nitrates (0.69 mg/l to1.30 mg/l, phosphates (0.30 mg/l to 0.63 mg/l Magnesium (11.79 mg/l to 88.64 mg/l sulphate (2.45 mg/l to 5.16 mg/l Calcium (33.41 to 138.10mg/l, also varied independently. The results of the study revealed that hydrographical conditions fluctuated moderately throughout the year.

  13. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  14. under salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... (2002) reported that K and Zn deficiencies in the plant were mainly induced by soil salinity. Zhang et al. (2011) investigated the effects of applying different concentra- tions of the macronutrients K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the responses of contrasting rice (O. sativa L.) genotypes under salt stress. A solution ...

  15. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  16. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  17. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  18. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desjonquères

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds.

  19. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have

  20. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  1. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  2. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  3. Use of shaking treatments and pre-harvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii’s quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the an...

  4. The team that plays together stays together: the effect of departmental Christmas party attendance on team cohesion within a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromb, Daniel; Thomas, Helen; Garcia-Nicoletti, Martin; Cheung, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    To understand the effect of attendance at departmental Christmas parties on cohesion and teamwork within the healthcare setting. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: We used the 'Team Development Measure' questionnaire to assess team cohesiveness among healthcare professionals before and after departmental Christmas parties took place. A pooled mean score (PMS) of responses was used to compare between groups. There were no significant differences in perceived measures of team cohesion when comparing responses before (PMSbefore=1.86±0.20) and after (PMSafter=1.91±0.22) the departmental Christmas party (p=0.37), nor was there a significant difference when comparing responses from attendees (PMSbefore=1.83±0.23, PMSafter=1.89±0.24, p=0.52) or non-attendees (PMSbefore=1.84±1.47, PMSafter=1.83±0.15, p=0.91). No difference was observed between professional groups (PMSdoctors=1.85±0.23, PMSnurses=1.95±0.18, p=0.064). Attendance at departmental Christmas parties does not seem to result in improved team cohesion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Water Quality in the Integrated Mariculture Pond Systems (IMPS) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality in the Integrated Mariculture Pond Systems (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. ... lower and the overall regression from 1998 to 2002 was negative. Dissolved inorganic phosphate concentration in the finfish ponds increased from 4.36 to 7.97 mg-at P/l (r = 0.75) between August 1998 and April 1999.

  7. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    from the ocean. Water is held in the pond for approximately two weeks without additional inflow or out flows. Pond preparations before stocking of milkfish fingerlings involve the use of organic fertilizers such as humus to ...... Air pollution and control, a design approach. Waveland. Press, Inc. Cooper TG, Filmer D, Wishnick M ...

  8. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  9. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijenberg, G.W.A.M.; Faassen, E.J.; Lurling, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a

  10. Public Health Implications of Aquatic Snails around Fish Ponds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of aquatic snails around fish ponds in Okwe, Delta State was conducted to identify snails and their public health implications in the area. Snails were collected fortnightly within an hour of active snail search for a period of twelve months from randomly selected eight fish ponds using a scoop net attached to a long ...

  11. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Algae Pond Systems (IAPS) are a derivation of the Oswald-designed Algal Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (AIWPS®) and combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. IAPS technology was introduced to South Africa in 1996 and a pilot plant designed and ...

  12. Arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Sewage pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arthropods found were of the class insecta and class arachnida. The sewage pond had a high accumulation of organic waste with mean dissolved oxygen calculated to be 6.48. As a result of this high content of organic waste, most aerobic organisms cannot survive in the pond, and this resulted to low abundance of ...

  13. Biological removal of algae in an integrated pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of oxidation ponds in series with a biological trickling filter is described. It was known that this arrangement was incapable of reducing effectively the levels of algae present in the pond liquid even though nitrification was effected...

  14. Monitoring quantity and quality of striped catfish pond effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Bosma, R.H.; Long, N.; Son, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The production of striped catfish and other fish species in ponds has several possible impacts on the environment, one of which is caused by the discharge of pond waste water (effluent), which is enriched with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds as result of feeding and fish faeces. To restrict the

  15. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds. WJS Mwegoha, ME Kaseva, SMM Sabai. Abstract. A mathematical model was developed to predict the effects of wind speed, light, pH, Temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide and chemical oxygen demand (COD) on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in fish ponds. The effects ...

  16. Boulders and ponds on the Asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombard, Andrew J.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Prockter, Louise M.; Thomas, Peter C.

    2010-12-01

    There are ˜300 features on the Asteroid 433 Eros that morphologically resemble ponds (flat-floored and sharply embaying the bounding depression in which they sit). Because boulders on Eros are apparently eroding in place and because ponds with associated boulders tend to be larger than ponds without blocks, we propose that ponds form from thermally disaggregated and seismically flattened boulder material, under the assumption that repeated day/night cycling causes material fatigue that leads to erosion of the boulders. Results from a simple boulder emplacement/thermal erosion model with boulders emplaced in a few discrete events (i.e., large impacts) match well the observed size distribution. Under this scenario, the subtle color differences of ponds (somewhat bluer than the rest of the surface) might be due to some combination of less space-weathered material and density stratification of silicate-rich chondrules and more metal-rich matrix from a disaggregated boulder. Volume estimates of ponds derived from NEAR Laser Rangefinder profiles are consistent with what can be supplied by boulders. Ponds are also observed to be concentrated in regions of low slope and high elevation, which suggests the presence of a less mobile regolith and thus a contrast in the resistance to seismic shaking between the pond material and the material that makes up the bounding depression. Future tests include shake-table experiments and temperature cycling (fatigue) of ordinary chondrites to test the thermal erosion mechanism.

  17. variation of some waste stabilization pond parameters with shape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) are designed to provide control environment for wastewater treatment. The primary purpose of wastewater treatment is the reduction of pathogenic contamination, suspended solids, oxygen demand and nutrient environment. The geometry of the pond could be structured in order to give the ...

  18. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Integrated Algae Pond Systems (IAPS) are a derivation of the Oswald-designed Algal Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems. (AIWPS®) and combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. IAPS technology was introduced to South Africa in 1996 and a pilot plant ...

  19. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. I: Effects on Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various biomanipulation strategies, using inorganic and organic fertilizer to improve oligotrophic conditions were carried out in earth ponds in Central Scotland U.K. over a period of one year. Replicate ponds were treated with low and high phosphorus (LP, HP) high phosphorus and nitrogen (HPN), low and high chicken ...

  20. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117.598 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The...

  1. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. II: Effects on Plankton Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of slurry inorganic and organic of fertilizers on the production of phyto-and zooplankton in earth ponds was conducted in Central Scotland, U.K. over a period of one year. For the inorganic fertilization, replicate ponds were treated with low and high phosphorus (LP, HP), high phosphorus and nitrogen ...

  2. Variation of some Waste Stabilization Pond Parameters with Shape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) are designed to provide control environment for wastewater treatment. The primary purpose of wastewater treatment is the reduction of pathogenic contamination, suspended solids, oxygen demand and nutrient environment. The geometry of the pond could be structured in order to give the ...

  3. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  4. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  5. The control of saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, T.

    1963-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of the watertable, water-conducting properties of the soil, climatic factors and groundwater salinity on the salinization of soils in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Australia.

    Average daily capillary flow rates were calculated from measured salinization (by

  6. Energy efficiency analysis of a trapezoidal solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, HongSheng; Jiang, Linsong; Wang, Jiansheng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an investigation of the energy performance of a mini trapezoidal solar pond (with surface of 2.4m×2.4m and depth of 1.5 m) which was built in Dalian, China. The pond was filled with salty water to form the upper convective zone (UCZ), the non-convective zone (UCZ), and the lower convective zone (LCZ). Energy efficiency, the ratio of available energy to the total energy, was defined basing on the first law of thermodynamics at each zone of the solar pond. The energy efficiency of the three layers were analyzed separately accounting to the simulation results of the temperature distribution in the trapezoidal solar pond. It shows that the energy efficiency of the solar pond is relatively high at the beginning of the operation, and the energy efficiency of the UCZ is the lowest while the LCZ is the highest.

  7. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  8. The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service: a review of an annual volunteer-led dental service for homeless and vulnerably housed people in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, J; Stagnell, S; Shah, N; Vasey, A; Gillard, C

    2018-01-01

    Background The UK charity Crisis originated in 1967 as a response to the increasing numbers of homeless people in London, and the first Crisis at Christmas event for rough sleepers was established in 1971. Since then, Crisis has provided numerous services over the Christmas period to the most vulnerable members of society. One of these is the Crisis at Christmas Dental Service (CCDS) which provides emergency and routine dental care from 23-29 of December each year. The charity is entirely dependent on voluntary staffing and industry donations including materials and facilities. This paper aims to assess the impact of the service over the last six years of clinical activity from 2011-2016.Method Anonymised data were collected from the annual CCDS delivered over the last six consecutive years. Services included: dental consultations; oral hygiene instruction; scale and polishes; permanent fillings; extractions; and fluoride varnish applications. In addition, anonymised patient feedback was collected after each dental attendance.Results On average, 80-85% of the patients were male and the majority were between 21 and 60 years of age. The most common nationality was British (46%). Over the six-year data collection period intervention treatments (restorations and extractions) remained fairly consistent, while the number of fluoride varnish applications and oral hygiene instruction have increased. The majority of patients reported positive satisfaction with their treatment and would have recommended the service to others. Approximately 75% of patients did not regularly attend a dentist outside of Crisis and a similar proportion were given information on where to access year round dental services for homeless people in London. The majority of dental volunteers felt that they enjoyed the experience and would consider volunteering again for Crisis in the future.Conclusion The Crisis at Christmas Dental Service has emerged as a valuable asset to the portfolio of resources

  9. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  10. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 μg l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 μg l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 μg l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish.

  11. Effects of road deicer (NaCl) and amphibian grazers on detritus processing in pond mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M; Trossen, Carrie A

    2012-10-01

    Road deicers have been identified as potential stressors in aquatic habitats throughout the United States, but we know little regarding associated impacts to ecosystem function. A critical component of ecosystem function that has not previously been evaluated with respect to freshwater salinization is the impact on organic matter breakdown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cumulative effects of road deicers and tadpole grazers on leaf litter breakdown rate (g d(-1) ) and microbial respiration (mg O(2)  g leaf(-1) h(-1) ). To test this interaction, in May 2008 the authors added dry leaf litter (Quercus spp.) to forty 600-L pond mesocosms and inoculated each with algae and zooplankton. In a full-factorial design, they manipulated a realistic level of road salt (ambient or elevated at 645 mg L(-1) Cl(-) ) and tadpole (Hyla versicolor) presence or absence. The elevated chloride treatment reduced microbial respiration by 24% in the presence of tadpoles. The breakdown of leaf litter by tadpoles occurred 9.7% faster under ambient chloride conditions relative to the elevated chloride treatment. Results of the present study suggest that the microbial community is directly impacted by road deicers and heavy tadpole grazing under ambient conditions limits microbial capacity to process detritus. Road salts and tadpoles interact to limit microbial respiration, but to a lesser extent leaf mass loss rate, thereby potentially restricting energy flow from detrital sources in pond ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  13. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J; Grudinina, Anna; Hansen, Anders S; Flindt, Mogens R

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn. The concentrations varied considerably depending on the catchment type, with the highest concentrations coming from industrial areas and the lowest from uncultivated and rural areas. Ponds can effectively remove heavy metals in particulate forms through sedimentation processes, but the dissolved forms are more difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds less than 1-2 years efficiently removed all metals, 30-40-year-old ponds only removed Pb, Ni and Zn, but steeply decreasing over the years. Physical parameters such as pond size, age and sedimentation patterns were found to play a more significant role in the removal compared with chemical parameters such as pH, oxygen and organic matter. Input of metals to the ponds was reflected in the sediment content, but not significantly for all heavy metals probably due to low or varying retention caused by mineralization and re-suspension. The heavy metal concentration in the outlets was reduced to non-toxic levels, except for Cu and Cr at a few study sites.

  14. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The essential ingredients leading to the explosive growth stage of the European wind storm "Lothar" of Christmas 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, G.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.; Joly, A.

    2009-04-01

    The explosive growth stage of the first Christmas wind storm of 1999 (Lothar) is studied by performing different numerical sensitivity experiments using the Météo-France operational model (ARPEGE). Apart from its exceptional strength and the spectacular disasters that were generated along its trajectory, the storm is particularly interesting to study because of its unusual dynamical properties. It is a relatively small-scale extratropical cyclone that travelled across the Atlantic Ocean with moderate amplitude south of the upper-level jet and strongly deepened as it crossed it in its exit region. Note finally that no clear pre-existent upper-level precursor was detected before the explosive growth stage (Wernli et al., 2002). First of all, the model is shown to reproduce quite well the explosive growth stage of the storm by starting the forecasts 24 hours before the latter stage. Using the potential vorticity inversion algorithm developed by Arbogast et al. (2008), all the numerical experiments consists in modifying the initial conditions of the operational analysis precisely 24 hours before the explosive growth stage and to look at the impact of these modifications. The first set of experiments will check that upper-level high-frequency anomalies have only a weak impact on the rapid deepening of the surface cyclone. Other experiments are conducted to look at the sensitivity to the strength of the upper-level jet, to the low-level baroclinicity, and finally to the shape, amplitude and location of the low-level cyclone. An intercomparison will be finally made with the behavior of the second storm of Christmas 1999 usually called "Martin".

  16. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  17. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  18. Monthly and diurnal variations of limnological conditions of two ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Fazlur Rahaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on monthly and diurnal changes of limnological conditions of two ponds was conducted in the Bangladesh Agricultural University campus, Mymensingh. The research work was performed by studying the limnological parameters such as transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and plankton. Diurnal variations of physico-chemical factors were studied fortnightly at 6 hrs intervals at 6 a.m., 12 noon, 6 p.m. and 12 midnight. The amounts of transparency, dissolved oxygen and pH were higher during winter months than in summer months in both the ponds. Transparency, water temperature, total alkalinity, NO3-N and PO4-P were higher during summer months than in winter months in both the ponds. But the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during winter months than in summer months in pond 1 while in pond 2 the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during summer months than in winter months. Qualitative and quantitative monthly variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were observed in both the ponds during the study period. The highest amount of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity were recorded at 6 p.m. and the lowest amounts of those at 6 a.m. in both the ponds. The highest temperature was recorded at 12 noon and the lowest at 12 midnight. But the highest amount of free carbon dioxide was recorded at 6 a.m. and the lowest at 6 p.m. in both the ponds. All the factors showed appreciable diel variations throughout the study period, which indicate that the ponds are productive.

  19. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  20. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  1. Quantifying unpredictability: A multiple-model approach based on satellite imagery data from Mediterranean ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Franch-Gras

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in environmental parameters are increasingly being recognized as essential features of any habitat. The quantification of whether environmental fluctuations are prevalently predictable or unpredictable is remarkably relevant to understanding the evolutionary responses of organisms. However, when characterizing the relevant features of natural habitats, ecologists typically face two problems: (1 gathering long-term data and (2 handling the hard-won data. This paper takes advantage of the free access to long-term recordings of remote sensing data (27 years, Landsat TM/ETM+ to assess a set of environmental models for estimating environmental predictability. The case study included 20 Mediterranean saline ponds and lakes, and the focal variable was the water-surface area. This study first aimed to produce a method for accurately estimating the water-surface area from satellite images. Saline ponds can develop salt-crusted areas that make it difficult to distinguish between soil and water. This challenge was addressed using a novel pipeline that combines band ratio water indices and the short near-infrared band as a salt filter. The study then extracted the predictable and unpredictable components of variation in the water-surface area. Two different approaches, each showing variations in the parameters, were used to obtain the stochastic variation around a regular pattern with the objective of dissecting the effect of assumptions on predictability estimations. The first approach, which is based on Colwell's predictability metrics, transforms the focal variable into a nominal one. The resulting discrete categories define the relevant variations in the water-surface area. In the second approach, we introduced General Additive Model (GAM fitting as a new metric for quantifying predictability. Both approaches produced a wide range of predictability for the studied ponds. Some model assumptions-which are considered very different a priori

  2. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  3. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  4. Removal of E. coli and helminth eggs in UASB: Polishing pond systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M; Bastos, R K X; Kato, M T

    2005-01-01

    Ponds following anaerobic reactors, such as Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors, have been termed polishing ponds in the literature. The present paper analyses the removal of E. coli and helminth eggs in five UASB-polishing pond systems in Brazil. Since there were ponds in series, the total number of ponds was 10. The ponds had average retention times varying from 2 to 21 days, and depths ranging from 0.40 to 2.00 m. The shallow ponds in series, even with low retention times, were able to produce effluents complying with the coliform WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation (removal efficiency was predicted satisfactorily.

  5. Salinity tolerance in halophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2008-01-01

    Halophytes, plants that survive to reproduce in environments where the salt concentration is around 200 mm NaCl or more, constitute about 1% of the world's flora. Some halophytes show optimal growth in saline conditions; others grow optimally in the absence of salt. However, the tolerance of all halophytes to salinity relies on controlled uptake and compartmentalization of Na+, K+ and Cl- and the synthesis of organic 'compatible' solutes, even where salt glands are operative. Although there is evidence that different species may utilize different transporters in their accumulation of Na+, in general little is known of the proteins and regulatory networks involved. Consequently, it is not yet possible to assign molecular mechanisms to apparent differences in rates of Na+ and Cl- uptake, in root-to-shoot transport (xylem loading and retrieval), or in net selectivity for K+ over Na+. At the cellular level, H+-ATPases in the plasma membrane and tonoplast, as well as the tonoplast H+-PPiase, provide the trans-membrane proton motive force used by various secondary transporters. The widespread occurrence, taxonomically, of halophytes and the general paucity of information on the molecular regulation of tolerance mechanisms persuade us that research should be concentrated on a number of 'model' species that are representative of the various mechanisms that might be involved in tolerance.

  6. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Feltham, D.L.; Taylor, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds......, vertical seepage, and horizontal permeability. The model is initialized with surface topographies derived from laser altimetry corresponding to first-year sea ice and multiyear sea ice. We predict that there are large differences in the depth of melt ponds and the area of coverage between the two types...... of ice. We also find that the vertical seepage rate and the melt rate of unponded ice are important in determining the total surface ablation and area covered by melt ponds....

  7. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    group, Vibrio and Pseudomonas as the major genera, much different from that of pond sediment from where the animals collected detritus, indicating the animals' selective feeding behaviour. Intestine of prawns was found to be a congenial environment...

  8. Environmental Assessment : Two Ponds Wetland Preserve, Arvada, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment for the acquisition of approximately 80 acres known as Two Ponds Wetland Preserve. The Fish and Wildlife Service has responded to selected...

  9. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  10. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  11. Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Kealia Pond Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  12. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  13. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities......), and ammonia-nitrogen were measured during the summer treatment period (late June until early September) from 2011 to 2014 in the WSP systems of four Nunavut communities; Pond Inlet, Clyde River, Grise Fiord and Kugaaruk. Monitoring results showed that WSPs in their current single cell design can achieve...

  14. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  15. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  16. Water quality assessment of razorback sucker grow-out ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality parameters had never been assessed in these grow-out ponds. Historically growth, condition, and survival of razorback suckers have been variable...

  17. Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pond Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Two Ponds NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  19. South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project : Final Data Acquisition Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides the Data Acquisition Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The purpose of the Data Acquisition Plan is to guide the collection...

  20. Microalgae at wastewater pond treatment in cold climate:an ecological engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grönlund, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Three types of wastewater ponds in subarctic climates were investigated, each of them highly dependent on microalgae. They were fellingsdams, i.e. wastewater stabilization ponds complemented with chemical precipitation, high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), and a type of aquaculture interface ponds between a wastewater treatment plant and the natural surrounding. From a microalgae taxa perspective green algae and cryptophytes were dominant in the wastewater ponds. Green algae and cryptophytes were a...

  1. Formation of the "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Hughes, S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The "ponds" on asteroid (433) Eros are fine-grained deposits approximating flat (quasi-equipotential) surfaces with respect to local topographic depressions (e.g., craters) in spacecraft images. These ponds are discussed in the context of laboratory simulation experiments, crater-related ponded and pitted deposits observed on Mars and Vesta, terrestrial phreatic craters, and degassing features associated with eroded impact craters on Earth. While the details of formation of these features on Mars, Vesta and the Earth are thought to be different, they all include mechanisms that require the interactions between surface materials and volatiles (e.g., water vapor). Indeed, analogous features similar to the Eros ponds can be reproduced in the laboratory by the release of vapor (ice sublimation, water evaporation, or N2) through an unconsolidated regolith (independent of regolith composition). Eros is widely thought to be dry, but the discovery of exogenic water on Vesta, and recent arguments that subsurface water might be present in the inner asteroid belt suggest that endogenic water might also be present and serve as a source of the gases produced in the ponds. The amount of water required is comparable to the amount of water observed in little-metamorphosed ordinary chondrites (a few wt%). The primary morphologic characteristics of the Eros ponds can be explained in this model. The heat source for degassing could have been solar heating following transfer from a main belt orbit to a near Earth orbit. Although other hypotheses (e.g., electrostatic levitation, seismic shaking, and comminution of boulders) can account for most of the features of the ponds, recent observations regarding the role of volatiles on planetary surfaces, our laboratory experiments, and fluidization deposits on active comets suggests that degassing is a reasonable hypothesis to be considered and further tested for explaining the Eros ponds, and similar features on other bodies.

  2. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  3. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  4. Impact of fish pond manuring on microbial water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mlejnková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish pond manuring is often used in fish farming for intensification of fish production by balancing the ratio between carbon and other nutrients. However, the using of manure, classified as hazardous organic matter originating from animal faeces, poses a risk to the water environment.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of semi-liquid pig manure application on faecal pollution and related potential health risk of fish pond utilization.The evaluation of faecal pollution was made during 6 years; the microbiological monitoring was completed with the water chemistry data. Our results showed that a better situation was in ponds, processes of which can be regulated by changes in nutrient contents, i.e., by controlled manure application. The absolute counts of microbial indicators were not significantly different in the control non-manured and manured fish ponds, but sporadically detected high faecal indicators counts in summer can represent a potential health risk. According to our results, the water quality of fish ponds is influenced due to manuring but the immediate impact of manuring in fish ponds and recipients in our study proved neither in deterioration of microbiological quality and health risk enhancement nor in the water quality assessed by chemical analyses.

  5. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  6. Continuous Hydrologic and Water Quality Monitoring of Vernal Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Odette; Gall, Heather E; Chandler, Joseph W; Harper, Jeremy; Taylor, Malcolm

    2017-11-13

    Vernal ponds, also referred to as vernal pools, provide critical ecosystem services and habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. However, they are vulnerable parts of the landscapes that are often poorly understood and understudied. Land use and management practices, as well as climate change are thought to be a contribution to the global amphibian decline. However, more research is needed to understand the extent of these impacts. Here, we present methodology for characterizing a vernal pond's morphology and detail a monitoring station that can be used to collect water quantity and quality data over the duration of a vernal pond's hydroperiod. We provide methodology for how to conduct field surveys to characterize the morphology and develop stage-storage curves for a vernal pond. Additionally, we provide methodology for monitoring the water level, temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity of water in a vernal pond, as well as monitoring rainfall data. This information can be used to better quantify the ecosystem services that vernal ponds provide and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on their ability to provide these services.

  7. Field Study Plant/Invertebrate Associations Found In Pond-C and Pond-D of Erie Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The overall purpose of this study is to determine the extent of protienasious material, invertebrate life, present in the ponds listed and to make any possible...

  8. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  9. Lowering resistance of the Hoyle Pond Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, M. [Goldcorp Canada Ltd., Porcupine Gold Mines, Hoyle Pond Mine, Timmins, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Hoyle Pond underground mine is located in the Porcupine Gold Camp, east of Timmins, Ontario. Various mining methods are used to excavate the gold, each with different ventilation requirements in terms of layout and volume. The mine was originally designed as a shallow mine but is planning to reach a depth of 2500 m. This paper described the events that lead to the high system pressures encountered at the mine, and the measures taken to reduce them. New surface fans and a new fresh air raise (FAR) were commissioned in 2005. The old FAR had to be sealed as soon as the new fans were in place in order to prevent short-circuiting. As a result, the mine resistance curve steepened considerably. The total pressure at the fan increased from 1500 Pa to 3000 Pa. As such, only 1 surface fan could operate at any give time, providing only half the possible volume of air. The challenge was to reduce the mine's resistance while getting the desired volume of air down to to the mining faces at depth. The solutions were to install booster fans and initiate a raise-bore program that would link the 450 m level to 900 m level. These measures twinned the existing fresh air circuit and resulted in a lowering of the overall mine resistance curve. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  10. Canopy interception during rainfall, storm break time and after cessation of rainfall: experimental study using artificial Christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation of canopy interception can be divided into three phases: evaporation during rainfall IR, storm break time when it stops raining temporarily ISbt, and after cessation of rainfall IAft. In this study, IR, ISbt, and IAft were measured using model forests, i.e. plastic Christmas tree stands. The method and preliminary results are described in Murakami and Toba (2013). Christmas trees with original height of 65 cm (small tree) and 150 cm (large tree) were placed on three trays. Small trees were set on Tray #1. The same trees with height of 110 cm (extended using plastic rod) were placed on Tray #2, and large trees with height of 240 cm (raised using iron pipe) were set on Tray #3. The dimension of Tray #1 and #2 were a 180-cm square, and Tray #3 was a 360-cm square. Measurement was conducted under natural rainfall. Gross rainfall and net rainfall of each tray (discharge from each tray), in addition to single tree weight on Tray #1 and #3 were measured. Initial tree density of each tray was 41 trees per tray. Thinning was conducted in the middle of the experiment period and it was reduced to 25 trees per tray on Tray #2 and #3, but Tray #1 was unthinned. Total rainfall for pre-thinning period was 204.2 mm with 16 rain events and canopy interception CI was 10.8% (22.0 mm), 13.9% (28.3 mm) and 16.3% (33.4 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Amount of rainfall for after thinning period was 291.5 mm with 24 rain events and canopy interception was 12.7% (40.0 mm), 21.7% (63.3 mm) and 13.6% (39.7 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. It is noteworthy that canopy interception increased on Tray #2 after thinning. IR, ISbt, and IAft were calculated for each tray using gross rainfall, net rainfall and the weight of single tree. Before thinning the value of IR/CI was 67.3% to74.9% and IAft occupied the remaining part of CI with ISbt/CI being nearly equal to zero. After thinning, IR/CI ranged from 65.3% to 93.8%. Both before and after

  11. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  12. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and

  13. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  14. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and wastewater ponds, Part I: Mallard ducks overwintering at a northern wastewater treatment pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Patrick O; Paszkowski, Cynthia A; Tierney, Keith B

    2017-09-01

    In northern urban areas, wastewater treatment ponds (WWTPs) may provide a thermal refuge during winter (~10°C) that is used by normally migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). On the ponds, mallards may experience stress due to crowding, or through the ingestion of WWTP water, be exposed to a diverse array of synthetic chemicals, which may have adverse health effects. Photographic sampling was used to assess mallard sex ratios and behavioural patterns throughout the late winter on wastewater ponds in Edmonton, Canada. The WWTP mallard population was large (>1000 birds), but temporally variable and consistently male-dominated. Locomotion and dabbling were the primary behaviors observed; aggression was rarely observed, which suggests crowding stress was low or absent. Mallard abundance tended to be higher at lower air temperatures, suggesting that WWTP ponds acted as a thermal refuge. Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen from duck feces and potential food sources indicated that mallards were not feeding at the site, or on invertebrates or select waste grain from offsite. Rather, ducks either consumed an undetermined food source or were feeding very little. Taken together, the data suggest that winter use of northern WWTP ponds may serve as an alternative to migration, whether this strategy benefits or harms mallards likely depends on winter severity, and not on WWTP pond characteristics or water quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

    1976-06-01

    Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond.

  16. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the

  18. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  19. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  20. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  1. Relative performance of duckweed ponds and rock filtration as advanced in-pond wastewater treatment processes for upgrading waste stabilisation pond effluent: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, M D; Cromar, N J; Nixon, J B; Fallowfield, H J

    2007-01-01

    An experimental pilot plant was operated over a five month period to assess the relative treatment performances of: a duckweed (DW) pond; a rock filter (RF); and an open pond (OP); for the upgrading of final WSP effluent prior to reuse applications. Each pilot treatment system consisted of three identical ponds arranged in three parallel series, each fed a continuous flow of wastewater from the local Bolivar treatment plant. Light penetration profiling for the DW and OP systems revealed some 55% greater light attenuation capacity for DW ponds compared to the OP system. Results showed a significantly elevated performance capacity for the RF treatment with respect to BOD5, SS, turbidity and NH4-N removal, but equal treatment performances for algal (chlorophyll) removal. No significant performance differences were evident between the DW and OP treatments for any of the monitored parameters. Soluble reactive phosphorus, faecal coliform and E. coli removals were similar for all pilot treatment systems. Rock filters not only demonstrated an enhanced performance capacity in terms of removal of loaded parameters, but also showed greater reliability of performance and produced a consistently higher quality final effluent. Rock filters demonstrated greater potential over both DW and OP systems for the upgrading of WSP effluent prior to reuse application.

  2. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data to evaluate seasonal components of population change in Northern Bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Annual surveys of wildlife populations provide information about annual rates of change in populations but provide no information about when such changes occur. However, by combining data from 2 annual surveys, conducted in different parts of the year, seasonal components of population change can be estimated. We describe a hierarchical model for simultaneous analysis of 2 continent-scale monitoring programs. The Christmas Bird Count is an early winter survey, whereas the North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted in June. Combining information from these surveys permits estimation of seasonal population variance components and improves estimation of long-term population trends. The composite analysis also controls for survey-specific sampling effects. We applied the model to estimation of population change in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Over the interval 1969?2004, bobwhite populations declined, with trend estimate of -3.56% per year (95% CI = [-3.80%, -3.32%]) in the surveyed portion of their range. Our analysis of seasonal population variance components indicated that northern bobwhite populations changed more in the winter and spring portion of the year than in the summer and fall portion of the year.

  3. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  4. Evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on the evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline tailing ponds and to evaluate the content of metals in Zygophylum fabago one year after amendments application. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (EM) (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Soil samples was collected every 4 month from each plot during one year, after this time Zygophylum fabago plants were sampled from each plots. Soil properties including: pH, salinity, total, inorganic and

  5. High salinity wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linarić, M; Markić, M; Sipos, L

    2013-01-01

    The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible.

  6. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  7. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    occur along the west coast of India during the summer season. It is suggested that this species may be considered for the summer crop along the west coast of India when the salinity in the ponds goes generally higher and the broodstock is also available... in good numbers. A crop rotation of P. monodon with A merguiensis is also recommended as this would reduce pressure on the wild broodstock of the former and may also reduce the chances of recurrence of whitespot baculo virus infection prevalent...

  8. PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF GERAI POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dimache

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gerai Pond is one of the last natural wetlands along the Danube, being connected to natural flooding regime of the Danube and is situated at the confluence of the Danube River, between Gârcov and Islaz localities, in Olt County. Aquatic vegetation characteristic is a favorable habitat for two species of conservation concern that nest along the Danube: red duck and pygmy cormorant. During 1961-1970, Gerai Pond has changed radically due to impoundment and draining under the program of drainage and flood meadow regulate of the Danube. These works of land reclamation for decreasing surface lakes and wetlands and water stagnation period, had reduced the breeding areas of the two species mentioned above. Ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond project was conducted by Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest in collaboration with E.P.A. Olt and W.W.F.-Romania. The project was based on a hydrological study (which included a component related to flooding for the area analyzed, study in which were highlighted the areas which have water access to and from the Pond, surfaces and volumes of water corresponding to different rates, the optimal level of water for restoration of the nesting area. Based on this study were identified the areas of artificial feed-water discharge to and from the Danube. This paper presents the possible solutions for ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond, identified in the project.

  9. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  10. Advanced treatment of saline municipal wastewater by Ruppia maritima: A data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saline municipal wastewater treatment is a challenging environmental issue in coastal cities, due to the discharge of saline water into the sewers. The present research article focuses on the phytoremediation of high saline municipal wastewater by Ruppia maritime, a widespread plant which can be found in saline medium such as traditional fish ponds, estuaries, tidal flats, salt pans, coastal paddy fields, coastal lagoons, marsh pools, and mangrove salt marshes in Khuzestan province, Iran. The experimental data was obtained using a pilot plant constructed in Chobeineh wastewater treatment plant in Ahvaz city, fed by activated sludge effluent in 3 levels of electrical conductivity (EC (10, 15, 20 ms cm−1, during 45 days of the experiment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and total suspended solids (TSS were daily monitored in blank and pilot study. The COD removal decreased from 83.26% to 72.39% by increasing the EC level from 10 to 20 ms cm−1, respectively. The experimental data will practically be an appropriate source of information for environmental engineers to design a natural treatment scenario for saline wastewater treatment.

  11. Are there toxic interactions between salinity and naphthenic acids in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Pasloski, A.; Lanser, B.; Alm, K.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Large volumes of water are used to extract oil from the oil sands in the Athabasca deposit. The resulting oil sands process water (OSPW) has been proposed for use in future reclamation landscapes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates in order to develop environmentally acceptable OSPW reclamation plans. The OSPW generally contains high concentrations of salts and naphthenic acids (NAs), but low levels of other contaminants such as PAHs and metals. This study investigated the combined toxic effect of NAs and salinity on freshwater invertebrates. Laboratory cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were used initially to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The pond waters that generated a toxic response had elevated levels of NAs and salinity, but the concentrations of salinity ions varied considerably among ponds. Results suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Subsequent bioassays were performed with single salts and with mixtures representing major ion combinations present in the OSPW, such as carbonate, sulphate, chloride and sodium. The interaction between NAs and salinity was evaluated by exposing Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia pulex to mixtures of NAs extracted from OSPW and relevant major ions chosen according to the salt toxicity test results.

  12. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Southern Bangladesh is periodically affected by tropical cyclone induced storm surges. Such events can result in the inundation of large areas of the coastal plain by sea water. Over time these episodic influxes of saline water have led to the build-up of a high of salinities (e.g. > 1,000 mg/l) in the shallow (up to ca. 150 m depth) groundwater. Owing to the highly saline groundwater, local communities have developed alternative surface water sources by constructing artificial drinking water ponds, which collect monsoonal rainwater. These have far greater storage than traditional rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use 40 litre storage containers that are quickly depleted during the dry season. Unfortunately, the ponds can also become salinised during storm surge events, the impacts of which can last for a number of years. A combined hydrological and epidemiological research programme over the past two years has been undertaken to understand the potential health risks associated with these saline water sources, as excessive intake of sodium can lead to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (such as stroke and heart attack). An important aspect of the selected research sites was the variety of drinking water sources available. These included the presence of managed aquifer recharge sites where monsoonal rainwater is stored in near-surface (semi-)confined aquifers for abstraction during the dry season. This provided an opportunity for the effects of interventions with lower salinity sources to be assessed. Adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and diet, the results show a significant association between salinity and blood pressure. Furthermore, the results also showed such impacts are reversible. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits of such interventions, a water salinity - dose impact model is being developed to assess the effectiveness of alternative drinking water sources, such as enhanced rainwater

  13. Recovery of aquatic insect-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds following drying disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Greenhill, Frank M; Kennedy, James H; Courville, Ashlyn E; Gober, Charlie A A; Lossau, Luke O

    2017-08-01

    Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient, and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. The present study describes the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semipermanent ponds without fish. Floating emergence traps were used to collect emergent insects for 10 wk in the spring and summer from 5 ponds with fish (permanent) and 5 ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried, and refilled with water (semipermanent). During the 73-d period after semipermanent ponds were refilled, total MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds was not significantly different than total MeHg flux from permanent ponds, indicating that insect-mediated MeHg flux had rapidly recovered in semipermanent ponds following the drying disturbance. Methylmercury fluxes from dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) and phantom midges (Diptera: Chaoboridae) were significantly greater from newly refilled semipermanent ponds than permanent ponds, but the MeHg fluxes from the other 8 emergent insect taxa did not differ between treatments. The present study demonstrates the impact of drying disturbance and the effect of community structure on the cross-system transport of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1986-1990. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  15. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  16. Optical sensor for seawater salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C; Klimant, I; Krause, C; Werner, T; Mayr, T; Wolfbeis, O S

    2000-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of salinity in seawater has been developed. It is based on a chloride-quenchable fluorescent probe (lucigenin) immobilized on a Nafion film. Two approaches for measuring salinity via chloride concentration are presented. In the first, a change in salinity corresponds to a change in the fluorescence intensity of lucigenin. In the second, the fluorescence intensity information is converted into a phase angle information by adding an inert phosphorescent reference luminophore (a ruthenium complex entrapped in poly(acrylonitrile) beads). Under these conditions, the chloride-dependent fluorescence intensity of lucigenin can be converted into a chloride-dependent fluorescence phase shift which serves as the analytical information. This scheme is referred to as dual lifetime referencing (DLR). The sensor was used to determine the salinity in seawater and brackish water of the North Sea.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  18. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  19. Waste stabilization ponds and rock filters: solutions for small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, D D; Johnson, M L

    2007-01-01

    In temperate climates facultative ponds and rock filters (either unaerated or, if ammonia removal is required, aerated) are a low-cost but high-performance treatment system for small rural communities. Effluent quality is suitable for surface water discharge or, in summer, for restricted crop irrigation. In tropical climates anaerobic and facultative ponds and either unaerated rock filters or, if ammonia reduction is required, subsurface horizontal-flow or vertical-flow constructed wetland, can be used if the effluents are discharged to surface waters. However, if the treated wastewater is to be used for crop irrigation, then a 3-log unit pathogen reduction by treatment in anaerobic, facultative and single maturation ponds is required for both restricted and unrestricted irrigation, provided that, in the case of unrestricted irrigation, there are in place post-treatment health-protection control measures that together provide a further 4-log unit pathogen reduction.

  20. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Garden ponds as potential introduction pathway of ornamental crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patoka J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private stocking of ornamental crayfish in garden ponds was discussed in previous studies, but there is a lack of detailed analysis for better understanding of this introduction pathway. The Czech Republic is one of leading EU countries in trade with ornamental crayfish and private garden ponds are popular among people. The crayfish keepers in the country were interviewed by self-administered questionnaire to gather data about principal characteristics of the keepers and detailed information about crayfish breeding that are of interest for conservation managers. Besides of releasing crayfish into garden ponds, alarming illegal behavior such as releasing of juvenile crayfish into the wild, and capturing of indigenous crayfish from wild populations, were registered. Therefore focusing on public education to increase awareness of possible unwanted consequences of crayfish release and introduction of an obligation to inform customers about hazardousness of non-indigenous crayfish species for retailers and wholesalers is recommended.

  2. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  3. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  4. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  5. Valuating Ecosystem Services of Urban Ponds - case study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Nina

    2016-04-01

    A climate risk assessment for the city of Barisal was carried out by a consultancy firm, financed by KfW Development Bank of Germany. Due to high dependencies on natural capital of people in developing countries they are facing high vulnerability when it comes to changes of the asset category 'natural capital' (here: urban ponds), whether due to the exposition on climate (change) related impacts, implemented measures or land use change. With a closer view on the city's assets, the question remained open to the author 1) Under current conditions, what is the demand for ecosystem services (ES) 2) What is the value of the benefits and the how much is the contribution to the city's welfare? 3) What are the future changes in the demand for ES? And what are the future changes on the supply side (pressures and threats to the ecosystem)? Methodology: The City of Barisal in Bangladesh has a calculated number of around 10.000 urban rain-fed ponds,representing 6.5% of the city area, which represents a huge natural water supply and gives the city its characteristic face. In August 2015 a user survey was conducted in the city of Barisal, in every ward (administrative unit), to determine the demand for ecosystem services related to urban ponds, evaluating over 600 ponds. The findings will present the huge variation of provisioning ecosystem services and an important regulating service, related to economic and domestic use, in a spatial resolution. It will be shown, how the importance of ES changes, by changing the unit of analysis (families or ponds or the city) and the importance for the livelihood of pond owners and users. A relationship between pond area(m2) and number of users was detected, also the role of compensation payments for the pond owners by the users. It will be shown how natural capital, privately and publicly owned,contributes in an important way in buffering unequal distribution of societies resources in the short- and long-run. However society's demand for ES

  6. Parameters for the Operation of Bacterial Thiosalt Oxidation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, M

    1985-01-01

    Shake flask and pH-controlled reactor tests were used to determine the mathematical parameters for a mixed-culture bacterial thiosalt treatment pond. Values determined were as follows: Km and Vmax (thiosulfate), 9.83 g/liter and 243.9 mg/liter per h, respectively; Ki (lead), 3.17 mg/liter; Ki (copper), 1.27 mg/liter; Q10 between 10 and 30°C, 1.95. From these parameters, the required bioxidation pond volume and residence time could be calculated. Soluble zinc (0.2 g/liter) and particulate mill...

  7. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  8. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of esfenvalerate was investigated by sampling and chemical analysis after spraying of an artificial pond (25 g a.i./ha) and in the laboratory with [C-14]esfenvalerate by trapping of (CO2)-C-14 and fractionation of the sediment. The effects were investigated on pelagic communities...... in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure...

  9. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  10. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  11. DNR 100K Lakes - Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) Ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents ponds included in DNR's Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) program. This program establishes local ponds to provide urban fishing opportunities...

  12. Environmental contaminants in the aquatic bird food chain of an oil refinery wastewater pond in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Petroleum Hydrocarbons Based on higher PAH levels in sediment and vegetation, one would expect Pond 1 to pose a greater risk to wildlife than Pond 2. However, in...

  13. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of the...

  14. Asteroid Pond Mineralogy: View from a Cognate Clast in LL3 NWA 8330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Le, L.

    2017-01-01

    All asteroids surfaces imaged at the cm-scale reveal the presence of pond deposits. These ponds are important because it is likely all asteroid sample return missions will sample them, being the safest (very flat) places to touch down. Therefore, it is essential to understand the differences between the material at the pond surfaces and the host asteroid. Fortunately, some fine-grained cognate lithologies in chondrites show sedimentary features indicating that they sample asteroid ponds.

  15. Aquatic biodiversity in sedimentation ponds receiving road runoff - What are the key drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Brittain, John E; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Thygesen, Helene; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Rauch, Sebastien; Meland, Sondre

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation. Multivariate statistical methods, including unconstrained and constrained analysis, were applied to examine the relationships between organisms and the water quality as well as physical factors (including plant cover). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that the most important variables governing the variation in the biological community composition were pond size, average annual daily traffic, metals, chloride, distance to the closest pond from study pond, dissolved oxygen, hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. The presence of most taxa was positively correlated with pond size and negatively correlated with metals. Small ponds with high pollutant loadings were associated with a low diversity and dominated by a few pollution tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes. A comprehensive understanding of impacts of various environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity is important to effectively promote and conserve aquatic biodiversity in such sedimentation ponds. Our results indicate that road sedimentation ponds should be designed large enough, because large ponds are likely to provide a more heterogeneous habitat and thus contain a species rich fauna. In addition, larger ponds seem to be less contaminated due to dilution compared to smaller ponds, thereby maintaining a higher biodiversity. Finally, creating some additional ponds in the vicinity of the sedimentation ponds in areas with few water bodies would increase the

  16. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos C Hennicke

    Full Text Available In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  17. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  19. Prokaryotic taxonomic and metabolic diversity of an intermediate salinity hypersaline habitat assessed by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana B; Ghai, Rohit; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A metagenome was obtained by pyrosequencing the total prokaryotic DNA from the water of a pond with intermediate salinity (13% salts) from a saltern located in Santa Pola, Spain. We analyzed and compared the phylogenomic and metabolic diversity of this saltern pond with respect to other two metagenomes obtained previously from the same saltern (ponds with 19% and 37% salts, respectively) and two reference metagenomes from marine and coastal lagoon habitats. A large microbial diversity, representing seven major higher taxa (Euryarchaeota, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Betaproteobacteria), was found. However, most sequences (57%) were not assigned to any previously described genus. Principal component analysis of tetranucleotide frequencies of assembled contigs showed the presence of new groups of Euryarchaeota, different from those previously described but related to Haloquadratum walsbyi and other members of the Halobacteriaceae. Besides, some new Gammaproteobacteria, several closely related to the recently isolated bacterium 'Spiribacter salinus' were observed. Metabolically, the nitrogen and carbon cycles appear to be very simplified in this extreme habitat. Light is extensively used as energy source by bacteriorhodopsins and other rhodopsins. Microorganisms known to use the 'salt-in' strategy are probably able to combine the accumulation of potassium ions and of compatible solutes. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographical distribution of investment in small-scale rural fish ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Kosy, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a detailed empirical study of investment patterns in small-scale rural aquaculture and its relation to pond location based on a systematic fish pond survey in Lao PDR. Nominal investment categories of fish ponds were created based on stocking rate, feed and water and then

  1. Data analysis protocol for using resistivity array as an early-warning wastewater pond leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typically, holding ponds are used to control runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations. The integrity of these holding ponds has come under increased scrutiny since subsurface leakage has the potential to affect soil and groundwater quality. Traditionally, ponds are monitored by installin...

  2. Transport of trace elements in runoff from unamended and pond-ash amended feedlot surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements and the runoff wate...

  3. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  4. Survival and growth compared between wild and farmed eel stocked in freshwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    conducted in a series of shallow, open ponds of approximately 200 m2. Wild and farmed eels were batch tagged, mixed and released in the ponds at an initial density of 0.5 individual/m2. Survival was rather high (34–88%) with variations between ponds. No significant difference in survival was found between...

  5. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...: (1) License Amendment Request Report NRC License Number SUB-526, Closure of Retention Ponds B, C, D... proposed closure plan for four ponds located on the MTW plant site. Honeywell holds NRC License No. SUB-526...

  6. Evaluation of the preservation value and location of farm ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2013-12-31

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  7. Evaluation of the Preservation Value and Location of Farm Ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP, and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  8. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybean land in Mississippi: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; G. Feng; J. Read; T. D. Leininger; J. N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of on-farm water storage pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond metric and its hydrogeological conditions.  In this study, two simulation scenarios were chosen to...

  9. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume...

  10. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybeans land in Mississippi: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond matric and its hydrological conditions. Knowledge of this ra...

  11. Optimizing gas transfer to improve growth rate of Haematococcus pluvialis in a raceway pond with chute and oscillating baffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Li, Ke; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-01

    Up-down chute and oscillating (UCO) baffles were used to generate vortex and oscillating flow field to improve growth rate of Haematococcus pluvialis in a raceway pond. Effects of gas flow rate, solution velocity, and solution depth on solution mass transfer coefficient and mixing time were evaluated using online pH and dissolved oxygen probes. Mass transfer coefficient increased by 1.3 times and mixing time decreased by 33% when UCO baffles were used in the H. pluvialis solution, resulting in an 18% increase in biomass yield with 2% CO2. The H. pluvialis biomass yield further increased to 1.5g/L, and astaxanthin composition accumulated to 29.7mg/L under relatively higher light intensity and salinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoplankton productivity in newly dug fish ponds within Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Full Length Research Paper. Phytoplankton productivity in newly dug fish ponds ... The research was carried out in two wetlands situated within the. Lake Victoria basin, located at an altitude of 1134 m above .... planktonlyngbya limnetica, and among the diatoms the. Nitzschia spp and Navicula spp were in high numbers.

  13. Rabbit droppings as an organic fertilizer in earthen ponds, to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Preliminary results obtained in Cameroon pointed to the promising effect of rabbit manure as a water fertilizer for Oreochromis niloticus ponds and as a food-source for the catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Breine et al., 1995). (Franco, 1991), using dried rabbit dung to feed tilapia O. niloticus in mesocosms, reported that the ...

  14. The Pond: Running Agents for State, War, and the CIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    who was a Pond source—and also a serial killer , who was tried, con- victed, and guillotined in 1946. Petiot passed on gossip obtained from his...investigate the opera- tional mechanism which had produced it. The Agency’s modus operandi was to buy a few reports from the middleman and if the material

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Ecological Assessment of Kirk Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    population at Kirk Pond for the presence of the plant pathogenic fungus, M. terrestris. The microorganism is known to occur naturally in Ala- bama... saprophytes on a wide variety of organic substrates. No potentially significant plant pathogenic spe- cies were noted among the isolates obtained from the M

  16. Assessment of pond effluent effect on water quality of Asuofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of pond effluent effect on water quality of Asuofia Stream, Ghana. D Amankwaah, SJ Cobbina, YA Tiwaa, N Bakobie, EAB Millicent. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  17. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. III: Effects on Benthic Macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fertilizers in form of cow and chicken manure were applied in oligotrophic or unproductive pond water over a period of one year to stimulate the production of benthic macro invertebrates for the benefit of trout culture, while maintaining adequate water quality. Development of aquatic macrophytes during both ...

  18. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  19. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  20. Pathogen removal mechanisms in macrophyte and algal waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awuah, E.

    2006-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are recognized as the solution to domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. The use of such natural systems is considered to be very important. This is because it is cheap, easy to construct and they do not require high skilled labour. In the developing

  1. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  2. Cyanophyceae from fish-ponds in West-Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1957-01-01

    During the year 1948, Mr. W. H. Schuster, Laboratory of Inland Fisheries, Buitenzorg (Bogor), sent samples for determination from coastal saltwater-ponds kept for raising Chanos chanos (bandeng). Cyanophyceae have proved to form an important ingredient of the diet of the bandeng-fry. The cooperation

  3. Seasonal water parameters of active and resting nursery ponds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality parameters from active and resting nursery ponds were taken in both dry and wet seasons at the model fish farms, University of Ibadan. Temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness and nitrite were examined to determine the suitable conditions of the ...

  4. Assessment of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) efficiency on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to assess the parameters removal efficiency of waste stabilization ponds of Swaswa area in Dodoma municipality. The study was done by analysing nine parameters in groups of biochemical and nutrients parameters. One year (2010) analysis was done in monthly intervals from January to December.

  5. Algal diversity and distribution in Waste Stabilization Ponds treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) were tested at pilot scale for the polishing of faecal sludge leachate from planted drying beds in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Water was sampled at three different depths (10, 30, 45 cm) and three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (4, 7 and 10 days) in two maturation basins in series for ...

  6. Performance Of The Akosombo Waste Stabilization Ponds In Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of the Akosombo waste stabilization ponds and the effect of seasonal changes on the final effluent quality. The waste water quality parameters adopted to determine the treatment performance were suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ...

  7. Culture Trials of Gymnarchus niloticus in Earthen and Concrete Ponds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture trials of Gymnarchus niloticus in earthen and concrete pond was carried out. A total of 440 fingerlings of G. niloticus from Burutu River, Delta State, were collected. A total of 220 fingerlings were stocked in each of the receptacles. The fingerlings were fed with live artemia for two weeks and commercial feed of size ...

  8. Prevalence and Mean Intensity of Ectoparasite Infections in Pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out between September 2007 and September 2008 to investigate the prevalence and mean intensity of ectoparasite infections on the gills and skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 229 fish from 19 ponds were studied. Trichodina spp. and ...

  9. Responses of heterotrophs in polyculture ponds under various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the composition and responses of heterotrophs that received varying levels of chicken droppings in polyculture ponds between January and December 2005. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi square test and ANOVA. A total of thirty-seven (37) taxa was recorded with ...

  10. Some chemical parameters of a fertilized productive pond | Nwamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of chicken droppings. From this study it was observed that the use of fertilizer has favourable effect on the chemical parameters of the pond. Keywords: Free carbon dioxide, Phosphate-Phosphorus (P04-P), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), Conductivity, Chicken droppings. Animal Research International (2012) 9(3): 1632 – 1637 ...

  11. Gross Chemical Composition Of Some Pond Raised And River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were subjected to proximate analysis and such parameters as crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates (CHO), and some minerals such as calcium and magnesium determined. Two samples of fish were collected from river and pond sources and analyzed. The students\\' t-test was used to test for significant ...

  12. Birds of the sewage stabilization ponds at Obafemi Awolowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of aquatic macroinvertebrates and birds associated with sewage stabilization ponds was carried out on the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Thirteen macroinvertebrate species were recorded out of which Ephemeroptera, Chironomus larvae, mosquito larvae and pupae and ...

  13. Removal of Algae in Stabilization Ponds Effluent using Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot scale study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of natural coagulant (moringa oleifera) with respect to algae removal. Required effluent from stabilization ponds was diverted into the horizontal baffle flocculator and then treated by coagulation and flocculation using dry moringa oleifera seeds. Using moringa ...

  14. Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the

  15. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available A dense algal population is of primary importance in sewage maturation ponds for the removal of plant nutrients, especially ammonia and orthophosphate. In the Republic of South Africa and in South West Africa sudden algal population declines have...

  16. Distribution, Density and Diversity of Dipterans in a Temporary Pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the ecology of Diptera were studied in a temporary pond in Okomu Forest Reserve, southern Nigeria between January 1988 and December 1989. Twenty six morphologically distinct taxa were identified, of which 14 were chironomids. The dominant taxa were Polypedilum (43%), Alluaudomyia (21%), Culex ...

  17. seasonal water parameters of active and resting nursery ponds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbon dioxide. total alkalinity (as CaCOg, mg/l), Total Hardness (as CaCO; mg/l), and nitrite concentration were determined as described in APHA (1995). The ponds were sampled around 8.00 am daily for two weeks in February and July for the dry and wet seaSons respectively. The mean value for each parameter under.

  18. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  19. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  20. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for manufacturing superior quality bricks. Piyush Kant Pandey Raj Kumar ... Fly ash (FA) poses serious problems to the industries. Integrated steel plants generate huge quantity of FA from their captive power plants and other furnaces. This ash is generally disposed off in ...

  1. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language.…

  2. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  3. Design of waste stabilization pond systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Long T; Van Echelpoel, Wout; Goethals, Peter L M

    2017-10-15

    A better design instruction for waste stabilization ponds is needed due to their growing application for wastewater purification, increasingly strict environmental regulations, and the fact that most of previous design manuals are outdated. To critically review model-based designs of typical pond treatment systems, this paper analyzed more than 150 articles, books, and reports from 1956 to 2016. The models developed in these publications ranged from simple rules and equations to more complex first-order and mechanistic models. From a case study on all four approaches, it appeared that rules of thumb is no longer a proper tool for pond designs due to its low design specification and very high output variability and uncertainty. On the other hand, at the beginning phase of design process or in case of low pressure over land and moderate water quality required, regression equations can be useful to form an idea for pond dimensions. More importantly, mechanistic models proved their capacity of generating more precise and comprehensive designs but still need to overcome their lack of calibration and validation, and overparameterization. In another case study, an essential but often overlooked role of uncertainty analysis in pond designs was investigated via a comparison between deterministic and uncertainty-based approaches. Unlike applying a safety factor representing all uncertainty sources, probabilistic designs quantify the uncertainty of model outputs by including prior uncertainty of inputs and parameters, which generates more scientifically reliable outcomes for decision makers. Based on these findings, we advise engineers and designers to shift from the conventional approaches to more innovative and economic tools which are suitable for dealing with large variations of natural biological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fauna from wet detention ponds for stormwater runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds remove pollutants e.g. heavy metals and nutrients from stormwater runoff. These pollutants accumulate in the pond sediment and thereby become available for bioaccumulation in fauna living in the ponds. In this study the bioaccumulation was investigated by fauna samples...... from 5 wet detention ponds for analyses of heavy metal contents. Five rural shallow lakes were included in the study to survey the natural occurrence of heavy metals in water-dwelling fauna. Heavy metal concentrations in water-dwelling fauna were generally found higher in wet detention ponds compared...

  5. Effects of pond partition on characteristics of algae and water quality in pond located at high latitudes; Anteichi wo secchishita kanreichiike no suishitsu henka to sorui tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [Yamato Setsubi Construction Co. Ltd., Gunma (Japan); Kuroda, M. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Wang, B. [Harbin Architectural and Civil Engineering Institute, Harbin (China). Water Pollution Control Research Center

    1995-10-10

    Characteristics of algae and water quality were studied at a pond located in high latitudes. Domestic and industrial wastewaters discharged are treated through different type stabilization ponds made by enclosing a part of the pond to remove BOD{sub 5}, COD{sub cr} and nutrients. Effects of the pond partition on the dominance species of algae and water quality were studied. During the cold term (-20{degree}C - -5{degree}C), Cryptomonas, Chlamydomonas and Euglena were dominance species in the pond. While Euglena, which may be grown by uptaking organic material was the dominance one in the stabilization pond, and its population increased in falling temperature. It plays an important role for removal of BOD{sub 5} and COD{sub cr}. On the other hand, during the warm term (15{degree}C - 30{degree}C), dominance species were Cyclotella, Chlorella and Microcystis in the pond and Scenedesmus obliqnus in facultative ponds of the stabilization ponds. Microcystis and Scenedesmus obliqnus would uptake NH4{sup +}-N truly. Removal of NH4{sup +}-N and PO4{sup 3-}-P depends on the concentration of Chl.a. The relationship between NH4{sup +}-N and PO4{sup 3-}-P removal and the concentrations of Chl.a was obtained. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  7. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  8. Wartime scars or reservoirs of biodiversity? The value of bomb crater ponds in aquatic conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Csaba F; Péntek, Attila L; Cozma, Nastasia J; Földi, Angéla; Tóth, Adrienn; Tóth, Bence; Böde, NóraA; Móra, Arnold; Ptacnik, Robert; Ács, Éva; Zsuga, Katalin; Horváth, Zsófia

    2017-05-01

    Considering the ongoing loss of aquatic habitats, anthropogenic ponds are gaining importance as substitute habitats. It is therefore important to assess their functioning in comparison to their natural precursors. Here we assess the biodiversity value of sodic bomb crater ponds by comparing their gamma diversity to that of natural reference habitats, astatic soda pans, and assess their importance on the landscape level by studying alpha and beta diversity. We studied aquatic organisms ranging from algae to vertebrates in a dense cluster of 54 sodic bomb crater ponds in Central Europe. Despite the overall small area of the pond cluster, gamma diversity was comparable to that found in surveys of natural habitats that encompassed much wider spatial and temporal scales. We also found a considerable number of species shared with reference habitats, indicating that these anthropogenic habitats function as important refuge sites for several species that are associated with the endangered soda pans. Moreover, we found a number of regionally or worldwide rare species. Among the components of beta diversity, species replacement dominated community assembly. Individual ponds contributed similarly to beta diversity in terms of replacement, being equally important for maintaining high gamma diversity and emphasising the role of the pond network rather than individual ponds. This pattern was seen in all studied groups. Bomb crater ponds therefore acted as important contributors to aquatic biodiversity. Considering the tremendous losses of ponds throughout Europe, anthropogenic ponds should be taken into consideration in nature conservation, especially when occurring in pond networks.

  9. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-12-03

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards.

  10. Constructed wetlands for water pollution management of aquaculture farms conducting earthen pond culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Sui, Hsuan-Yu

    2010-08-01

    This study established farm-scale constructed wetlands integrated to shrimp ponds, using existing earthern pond areas, with a wetland-to-pond ratio of only 0.086 for shrimp culture. The constructed wetlands were used as practice for aquaculture water and wastewater treatment, to regulate the water quality of shrimp ponds and manage pollution from pond effluents. The results of water quality monitoring for influent and effluent showed that constructed wetlands significantly reduced total suspended solids (59 to 72%), turbidity (55 to 65%), chlorophyll a (58 to 72%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (29 to 40%), and chemical oxygen demand (13 to 24%) from pond water. The wetland treatment sufficiently regulated water quality of the recirculating shrimp pond, which was significantly (p aquaculture farms (R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, 2007). Accordingly, wetland treatment applications were proposed to implement the best management practices to reduce pollution from aquaculture farms in Taiwan.

  11. Small thaw ponds: an unaccounted source of methane in the Canadian high Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J; Galand, Pierre E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, ¹⁴C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate.

  12. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Darja; Arias, Carlos A.; Matamoros, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...... with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of ΣPAH in the sediments varied between 6 ± 5 and 2,222 ± 603 ng g-1 dry weight (mean ± standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect...... concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHs in the effluents below the detection level. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  13. ASSESSMENT OF FOREST POND FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AT PROMOTIONAL FOREST COMPLEX AREA OF LASY RYCHTALSKIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Tomasz Korytowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researches carried out in the catchments of pond No 1 and No 6. The ponds are located in Siemianice Experimental Farm, belonging to “Lasy Rychtalskie” Promotional Forest Complex, in Wielisławice (pond No 1 and Laski forestry (pond No 6. The researches were carried out in two hydrological years 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. The years had different precipitation. The area of catchment of pond No 1 is about 7.5 ha and its forestation totals 100%. Whereas catchment area of pond No 6 is about 37 ha. The forestation of this pond is about 40% and the rest are arable areas. The analyzed pond No 1 and 6, have mild scarps, and they are natural pond melting out. The area of pond No 1 is 0.13 ha, whereas pond No 6 is 0.35 ha, and averages depths of both ponds are 1.0 m and 1.4 m. The results confirmed a connection between water in ponds and groundwater in neighboring areas. In some periods water of ponds supply surrounding areas and in some periods on the contrary – groundwater supply water in ponds. Correlation coefficient (from 0.43 to 0.96 calculated for relation between water levels in ponds and groundwater were statistically significant for the level α=0.01 in analyzed hydrological years.

  14. Christmas-tree Derived Amplification Immuno-strategy for Sensitive Visual Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Based on Gold Label Silver Stain Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Wu, Yanjie; Wu, Lin; Hu, Yufang; Li, Wenrou; Guo, Zhiyong; Su, Xiurong; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    A developed Christmas-tree derived immunosensor based on a gold label silver stain (GLSS) technique was fabricated for a highly sensitive analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticu (VP). In this strategy, captured VP antibody (cAb) was immobilized on a solid substrate; then, the VPs were sequentially tagged with a signal probe by incubating the assay with a detection VP antibody (dAb) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-labeled graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4). Finally, the attached signal probe could harvest a visible signal by the silver meal deposition, and then followed by homebrew Matlab 6.0 as a grey value acquisition. In addition, the overall design of the biosensor was established in abundant AuNPs and g-C3N4 with a two-dimensional structure, affording a bulb-decorated Christmas-tree model. Moreover, with the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the as-proposed biosensor is as low as 102 CFU (Colony-Forming Units) mL-1, exhibiting an increase of two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional immune-gold method. Additionally, the developed visible immunosensor was also successfully applied to the analysis of complicated samples.

  15. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

  16. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  17. Capturing temporal and spatial variability in the chemistry of shallow permafrost ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Matthew Q.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Petrone, Richard M.; Fishback, LeeAnn

    2017-12-01

    Across the circumpolar north, the fate of small freshwater ponds and lakes (climates through sediment records. A changing climate has implications for the capacity of ponds and lakes to support organisms and store carbon, which in turn has important feedbacks to climate change. Thus, an improved understanding of pond biogeochemistry is needed. To characterize spatial and temporal patterns in water column chemistry, a suite of tundra ponds were examined to answer the following research questions: (1) does temporal variability exceed spatial variability? (2) If temporal variability exists, do all ponds (or groups of ponds) behave in a similar temporal pattern, linked to seasonal hydrologic drivers or precipitation events? Six shallow ponds located in the Hudson Bay Lowlands region were monitored between May and October 2015 (inclusive, spanning the entire open-water period). The ponds span a range of biophysical conditions including pond area, perimeter, depth, and shoreline development. Water samples were collected regularly, both bimonthly over the ice-free season and intensively during and following a large summer storm event. Samples were analysed for nitrogen speciation (NO3-, NH4+, dissolved organic nitrogen) and major ions (Cl-, SO42-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+). Across all ponds, temporal variability (across the season and within a single rain event) exceeded spatial variability (variation among ponds) in concentrations of several major species (Cl-, SO42-, K+, Ca2+, Na+). Evapoconcentration and dilution of pond water with precipitation and runoff inputs were the dominant processes influencing a set of chemical species which are hydrologically driven (Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, dissolved organic nitrogen), whereas the dissolved inorganic nitrogen species were likely mediated by processes within ponds. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding hydrologically driven chemodynamics in permafrost ponds on multiple scales (seasonal and event scale).

  18. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Soomets

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc. and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal

  19. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  20. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo. Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking and Bufo bufo in fishponds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.