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Sample records for saline chambers seleccion

  1. Selection of a conventional power distribution transformer as a voltage source for saline chambers; Seleccion de un transformador de distribucion convencional como fuente de voltaje en camaras salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza Macias, Anibal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In the Mexico`s Gulf Coast and in the North East part of the country there are severe pollution problems on the electric distribution power systems insulators. To solve this problem, in specialized laboratories are reproduced the pollution conditions for their quantitative and qualitative analyses. In general terms, for this purpose special voltage transformers have been used that, for being imported, are very expensive; furthermore there is no defined selection criterion that allows the voltage source to supply the current recommended by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). In this article, a proposal is presented to select a transformer that fulfills the IEC requirements. This equipment, because of its acquisition easiness and economy, permits that any teaching or research institution have a voltage source that allows the experimentation of the pollution phenomena at a minimum cost. [Espanol] En la costa del Golfo de Mexico y en el noroeste del pais hay severos problemas de contaminacion en los aisladores de los sistemas electricos de distribucion. Para solucionar este problema, se reproducen, en laboratorios especializados, las condiciones de contaminacion para su analisis cualitativo y cuantitativo. En general, con este proposito se han utilizado transformadores especiales de voltaje que por ser de importacion son muy costosos; ademas, no existe un criterio definido de seleccion que permita suministrar a la fuente de voltaje la corriente recomendada por el IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). En este articulo se presenta una propuesta para seleccionar un transformador que cumpla con los requerimientos del IEC. Esta, por su facilidad de adquisicion y economia, permite que cualquier institucion docente o de investigacion cuente con una fuente de voltaje que permita la experimentacion de los fenomenos contaminantes con un costo minimo.

  2. Enhanced hydrogen generation using a saline catholyte in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2011-11-01

    High rates of hydrogen gas production were achieved in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) without a catholyte phosphate buffer by using a saline catholyte solution and a cathode constructed around a stainless steel mesh current collector. Using the non-buffered salt solution (68 mM NaCl) produced the highest current density of 131 ± 12 A/m3, hydrogen yield of 3.2 ± 0.3 mol H2/mol acetate, and gas production rate of 1.6 ± 0.2 m3 H2/m 3·d, compared to MECs with catholytes externally sparged with CO2 or containing a phosphate buffer. The salinity of the catholyte achieved a high solution conductivity, and therefore the electrode spacing did not appreciably affect performance. The coulombic efficiency with the cathode placed near the membrane separating the chambers was 83 ± 4%, similar to that obtained with the cathode placed more distant from the membrane (84 ± 4%). Using a carbon cloth cathode instead of the stainless steel mesh cathode did not significantly affect performance, with all reactor configurations producing similar performance in terms of total gas volume, COD removal, rcat and overall energy recovery. These results show MEC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. El proceso de seleccion natural en el campo social del ballet en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betancourt Leon, Hamlet

    2010-01-01

    El campo del ballet es un sistema social conflictivo donde se manifiesta gran competitividad--reflejada en continuas selecciones sociales y naturales--para cumplimentar la fantasia de todos los bailarines...

  4. Consideraciones y criterios para la seleccion de procesos para la mejora: procesos Diana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medina-Leon, Alberto; Nogueira-Rivera, Dianelys; Hernandez-Narino, Arialys; Diaz-Navarro, Yeni

    2012-01-01

    .... La presente investigacion hace enfasis en los criterios mas comunmente utilizados en la valoracion para la seleccion del orden en que se realizara la mejora, lo que resulto en la recomendacion de los criterios...

  5. Influence of salinity and boron on germination, seedling growth and transplanting mortality of guayule: a combined growth chamber and greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A.Gray), a drought tolerant plant, originating from southwestern United States and northern Mexico, is considered to be a promising rubber-producing plant for arid and semiarid areas. To evaluate the potential of guayule as an alternative crop for saline boron-laden so...

  6. Los profesores e investigadores universitarios de ciencias sociales y humanidades y los articulos academicos: criterios de seleccion y opinion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador Olivan, Jose Antonio; Lamarca Langa, Genaro; Arquero Aviles, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    ... Cientificas que tuvo 2398 respuestas. Se estudian los criterios de seleccion de articulos para su lectura, los puntos de vista sobre la forma de seleccionar los articulos para su publicacion por las revistas y las opiniones sobre...

  7. Guides for flow sensors selection; Guias para la seleccion de sensores de flujo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, Gustavo; Guzman Flores, Roberto; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper a system is presented that allows the selection and calculation on instruments for flow measurement, based on practical experiences, standards an taking into consideration the process operational characteristics such as fluid type, maximum flow rate, piping diameter, etc. The system is composed of a knowledge base and a software for the selection, calculation and de adequate recommendation of flow sensing elements for the different services needed in the power plants. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema que permite realizar la seleccion y calculo de instrumentos para la medicion de flujo con base en experiencias practicas, normas y tomando en cuenta las caracteristicas de operacion del proceso como el tipo de fluido, flujo maximo, diametro de tuberia, etcetera. El sistema esta compuesto por una base de conocimiento y un software para la seleccion, calculo y la recomendacion adecuada de elementos sensores de flujo para los diferentes servicios que se tienen en centrales generadoras.

  8. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  9. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    1999-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  10. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  11. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  12. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  13. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Contenido de aceite en frutos de selecciones de aguacate (Persea americana) criollo de clima tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raúl Medina Torres; Yadira Viviana Jaime Ruiz; Martha Elva Ibarra Estrada; Samuel Salazar García

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló sobre 65 selecciones de aguacate criollo de las zonas tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, con el objetivo de calificar el contenido de aceite y relacionarlo con el porcentaje de materia seca...

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. The selection of a refrigerant thermodynamically efficient and economical; Seleccion de un refrigerante que sea termodinamicamente eficiente y economico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus F, Enrique; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Lugo L, Raul [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a way of dealing with the problem of selecting a refrigerant that fulfills the operation restrictions such as the refrigeration capacity and cycle temperatures. This selection can be made if the amount of refrigerant handled by the system is known, as well as the relationships supplied by the behavior coefficient (COP) and the inverted cycle efficiency with base on the second law of thermodynamics. [Espanol] Se presenta una forma de como abordar el problema de la seleccion de un refrigerante que cumpla con las restricciones de operacion tales como la capacidad de refrigeracion y temperaturas del ciclo. Esta seleccion puede hacerse si se conoce la cantidad de refrigerante que maneja el sistema, asi como las relaciones que proporcionan el coeficiente de comportamiento (COP) y la eficiencia del ciclo invertido con base en la segunda ley de la termodinamica.

  1. Indicators: Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  2. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  3. Contenido de aceite en frutos de selecciones de aguacate (Persea americana) criollo de clima tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, México

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Medina Torres; Yadira Viviana Jaime Ruiz; Martha Elva Ibarra Estrada; Samuel Salazar García

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló sobre 65 selecciones de aguacate criollo de las zonas tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, con el objetivo de calificar el contenido de aceite y relacionarlo con el porcentaje de materia seca y del color de la pulpa del fruto, y de ubicar e identificar selecciones de interés comercial. Se usó análisis estadístico multivariado de componentes principales para el procesamiento de datos. Dos componentes principales explicaron el 63,93 % de la varianza total. En el component...

  4. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  5. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  6. Salinity Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  7. Contenido de aceite en frutos de selecciones de aguacate (Persea americana criollo de clima tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Medina Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló sobre 65 selecciones de aguacate criollo de las zonas tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, con el objetivo de calificar el contenido de aceite y relacionarlo con el porcentaje de materia seca y del color de la pulpa del fruto, y de ubicar e identificar selecciones de interés comercial. Se usó análisis estadístico multivariado de componentes principales para el procesamiento de datos. Dos componentes principales explicaron el 63,93 % de la varianza total. En el componente principal 1 resultaron relevantes porcentaje de aceite y materia seca de la pulpa; y en el componente principal 2 las variables de color de la pulpa en madurez de consumo. Cuatro grupos de selecciones fueron identificadas por los promedios de los vectores característicos de los componentes 1 y 2. Se encontró alta correspondencia entre el contenido de aceite y materia seca en la pulpa (R2 = 0,9387 de los aguacates. El color de la pulpa del fruto no resultó un parámetro que se relacione con el contenido de aceite de la pulpa de aguacate. El contenido de materia seca puede constituir un parámetro fácil y útil para determinar con aproximación el contenido de aceite. En general, los aguacates de clima subtropical mostraron mayor contenido de aceite que los de origen tropical.

  8. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  9. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  10. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  11. Refrigeration Test Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The enclosed and environmentally controlled chamber is able to test four units (single-phase) simultaneously at conditions ranging from tundra to desert temperatures...

  12. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  13. SESSA: Expert system for the selection of air conditioning equipment; SESEAA: Sistema experto para la seleccion de equipos de aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Cardenas Perez, Edgar [Laboratorio de Sistemas Inteligentes, Centro de Instrumentos de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of selecting air conditioning and refrigeration equipment is quite wide and complex, since it encompasses from the application of the basic principles of physics and of thermodynamics up to the classic engineering design problems; these in turn can be numberless since they vary from place to place depending on multiple factors such as the region geographic and economic conditions. On the other hand, account most be taken of several elements such as windows, walls, and its specific geographical orientation, roofs, floors, partitions, equipment, lighting, etc., all this exerts influence in the complexity that represents the selection process. This paper describes a useful informatics tool to make it easy the selection process in air conditioning installations, taking into account multiple saving and efficient use of energy criteria, reflected in the operation process of these installations. [Espanol] El problema de seleccion de sistemas de aire acondicionado y de refrigeracion es bastante amplio y complejo, ya que abarca desde la aplicacion de los principios basicos de la fisica y la termodinamica hasta los problemas clasicos de diseno de ingenieria; estos a la vez pueden ser innumerables ya que varian de un lugar a otro y de un proyecto a otro, dependiendo de multiples factores tales como las condiciones geograficas y economicas de la region. Por otra parte se deben tomar en cuenta diversos elementos como son: ventanas, muros y sus orientaciones especificas, techos, pisos, particiones, equipos, iluminacion, etc., todo esto influye en la complejidad que representa el proceso de seleccion. En el presente trabajo se describe una herramienta informatica para facilitar el proceso de seleccion de instalaciones de aire acondicionado, tomando en cuenta multiples criterios de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia que se reflejan durante el proceso de operacion de estas instalaciones.

  14. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  15. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  16. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  17. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  18. Practically Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schroeder MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2, and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak.

  19. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  1. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  2. Obelix Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  3. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  4. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  5. The KLOE drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; Lucia, E D; Robertis, G D; Sangro, R D; Simone, P D; Zorzi, G D; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Domenico, A D; Donato, C D; Falco, S D; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Von Hagel, U; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Panareo, M; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y

    2001-01-01

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K sub L produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm sup 2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm sup 2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.

  6. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  7. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  9. A revista Selecciones del Reader's Digest e a constituição da imagem dos estereótipos do american way of life: 1940/1950

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer Júnior, Charles

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo principal a análise do processo de constituição do sentido dos antípodas do american way of life nas matérias da revista Selecciones del Reader´s Digest entre 1940 e 1950. Nesse sentido, não se trata de uma análise do mito do american way of life, ainda que o tema seja considerado ao longo da pesquisa, mas, sim, de uma tentativa de considerar a significação dos estereótipos políticos daquele mito através do estudo de um meio de comunicação. This work h...

  10. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  11. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  12. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  13. Rocket Combustion Chamber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coating with the ability to protect (1) the inside wall (i.e., lining) of a rocket engine combustion chamber and (2) parts of other apparatuses that utilize or are exposed to combustive or high temperature environments. The novelty of this invention lies in the manner a protective coating is embedded into the lining.

  14. Chamber Profile Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    travel with the proper electronics. Other features of tihe gage assembly are: 1. Micrometer controlled down chamber positioning of the master template to...pressure sensitive "stiff stick" for infinitely varying the rate of travel from zero to maximum. A manual vernier control is incorporated to permit fine

  15. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  16. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  17. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  18. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  19. Anechoic Radio Frequency Test Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This chamber is used for characterization test of such systems as communications gear, tanks, radar, missiles, and helicopters. The dimensions of the chamber are 114...

  20. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  1. Wire chambers revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative

  2. Review of wire chamber aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  4. Posterior chamber pseudophakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, C W

    1982-01-01

    Anatomically, the most physiological type of implant is that of the posterior chamber of the eye. After a brief historical review of these implants, two models differing by their loops are compared, these being either in the form of a J with narrow extremities or in the form of a C. The latter model possesses definite advantages. Firstly, the point of pressure on the lens capsule is less concentrated, reducing the pressure exerted by the loops and thus avoiding rupture of the zonular ciliaris, Secondly, contact in the form of an are prevents movement of the implant around its axis, a factor favorizing capsule slipping. Thirdly, the improved pressure distribution of the loops resulting from their greater flexibility also prevents the "windscreen wiper syndrome", providing improved stability of the implant. The technique employed avoids all contact taking place with the endothelium. The upper loop is placed in position after closure of the incision. Results in 1532 cases were very positive, and studies are currently being conducted with an implant with four loops in which the optic is within the posterior chamber, and which could be positioned after intracapsular extraction. A system of irrigation-aspiration is described which employs a fine curved canula that is easier to manage and permits improved cleaning of the capsule. Emphasis is placed on the need for narrow, deep, corneal sutures to reduce postoperative astigmatism.

  5. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  6. Michigan ATLAS MDT Chamber Mass Production

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, E; Levin, D; McKee, S; Neal, H; Schick, H; Tarle, G; Thun, R; Weaverdyck, C; Xu, Q; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the ATLAS MDT precision muon chamber construction at the University of Michigan. The chamber assembly facilities, the jigging set up, alignment procedures, and other measurements necessary for chamber assembly are described. The chamber quality assurance monitoring procedures and data for the first year mass production are presented. The chamber gas system assembly facilities, and the chamber leak test procedure together with data also reported. The chamber production database, which monitors chamber production, is also discussed.

  7. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  8. The ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This time projection chamber is part of the ALICE detector on the new LHC accelerator at CERN. Particles produced in collisions at the core of the detector will follow paths outward through the various sub-detector layers. If these particles carry a charge, they will ionise the gas contained within this chamber producing an electric signal as the ions drift in the chamber's electric field.

  9. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in

  10. Portable electron beam weld chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Dimino, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of portable vacuum chamber for skate type electron beam welding are discussed. Construction and operational details of equipment are presented. Illustrations of equipment are provided.

  11. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  12. Salinity in rose production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rose is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. However, the cultivation systems used for roses often impose salt stress. Saline conditions occur naturally in some regions or by human activity in others with use of low quality water or excessive fertilizer application. In general, roses are considered sensitive to salinity. However, tolerance levels can be different among roses species and cultivars. Therefore, studies are needed that take into account characteristics of each species and how the exposure to salinity occurs. Management of water and nutrients can be important tools for mitigating the effects of high salt concentrations. Also, advances in biotechnology can be used for a better understanding of the physiological responses to salinity and to develop more salt tolerant rose cultivars. Thus, this paper aims to review the progress made and future prospects of salinity tolerance in commercial rose production.

  13. Remote sensing of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  14. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  15. Characterization of a Reverberation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    applied to the same device inside another facility, such as a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) or fully- anechoic chamber for further...and found to be consistent; reflections measured from inside the chamber yielded heavy spiking. The antenna used to transmit power into the room was

  16. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  17. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  18. A novel salinity proxy based on Na incorporation into foraminiferal calcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Wit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and temperature determine seawater density, and differences in both thereby control global thermohaline circulation. Whereas numerous proxies have been calibrated and applied to reconstruct temperature, a direct and independent proxy for salinity is still missing. Ideally, a new proxy for salinity should target one of the direct constituents of dissolved salt, such as [Na+] or [Cl−]. This study investigates the impact of salinity on foraminiferal Na/Ca values by laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of specimens of the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida cultured at a range of salinities (30.0–38.6. Foraminifera at lower salinities (30.0 and 32.5 added more chambers (10–11 to their test over the course of the culturing experiment than those maintained at higher salinities (36.1, 7–8 chambers, and 38.6, 6–7 chambers, suggesting that growth rates in this species are promoted by lower salinities. The Na/Ca of cultured specimens correlates significantly with seawater salinity (Na/Ca = 0.22S–0.75, R2 = 0.96, p DNa vary between 5.17 and 9.29 mmol mol−1 and 0.12–0.16 × 10−3, which are similar to values from inorganic precipitation experiments. The significant correlation between test size and Na/Ca results from co-variation with salinity. This implies that foraminiferal Na/Ca could serve as a robust and independent proxy for salinity, enabling salinity reconstructions independent of calcitic δ18O.

  19. Clubes y selecciones nacionales de fútbol. La dimensión etnoterritorial del fútbol español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis Goig, Ramón

    2006-12-01

    presenta el análisis del caso español. El estudio se realiza en cuatro apartados. En primer lugar, se presentan diversos datos que muestran el interés por el fútbol en la sociedad española. En segundo lugar, se analiza la capacidad de adscripción identitaria de los clubes de fútbol de Primera División, en general, y del F.C. Barcelona, en particular. En tercer lugar, se examina la ambivalencia simbólica de la selección española de fútbol. En cuarto lugar, se presentan datos sobre el apoyo a la creación de selecciones deportivas regionales y la valoración de su participación internacional cuando se trata de selecciones catalanas.

  20. Purging device for suppression chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Koichi.

    1987-11-14

    Purpose: To completely drive out air or the like in the suppression chamber in a short period of time thereby protect bent pipes from embrittled rupture. Constitution: Nitrogen gases, etc. entering through the inlet penetration to the inside of a reactor container are guided downwardly through communication pipeways, and the released downwardly in a stable manner while the blowing speed being retained by blowing mechanisms. Released nitrogen gases, etc. diffuse along the water surface of the suppression chamber and fill the inside of the chamber from below. Air, etc. in the suppression chamber prior to the supply of nitrogen gas, etc. is discharged through the exit penetration from the purging discharge pipe smoothly to the outside. In this way, air is replaced with nitrogen gas, etc., the released nitrogen is not directly blown to bent pipe, the operation is simplified, and the charge/discharge operation can be made in a short time efficiently. (Kamimura, M.).

  1. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  2. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  3. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  4. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  5. Seleccion y Capacitacion de Promotores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Dra. Gaby Fujimoto

    1990-01-01

    The program philosophies of a Latin American nonacademic school program for children aged 0-6 years are discussed. The role of the natural educator is analyzed. Promotors of these programs are described, and strategies for finding them are suggested. (DG)

  6. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  7. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  8. N-Acetylcysteine plus Saline Hydration versus Saline Hydration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in patients undergoing coronary angiography pretreated with N-acetylcysteine NAC plus saline hydration or saline hydration alone and to determine the association between various risk factors and RCIN. Methods: Patients were ...

  9. under salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... (2002) reported that K and Zn deficiencies in the plant were mainly induced by soil salinity. Zhang et al. (2011) investigated the effects of applying different concentra- tions of the macronutrients K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the responses of contrasting rice (O. sativa L.) genotypes under salt stress. A solution ...

  10. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  11. The control of saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, T.

    1963-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of the watertable, water-conducting properties of the soil, climatic factors and groundwater salinity on the salinization of soils in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Australia.

    Average daily capillary flow rates were calculated from measured salinization (by

  12. A dual deformable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    There is disclosed an arrangement for measuring the effectiveness of a shielding material against electromagnetic fields. The arrangement comprises a first and a second reverberation chamber sharing a common wall. The common wall is partly made of the shielding material. A first antenna is arranged

  13. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The same vacuum chamber as in 7810256, read the detailed description there. Here, the 4 strip-shaped ion-getter pumps are poised at the entrance to their slots. Ion-getter pumps were not retained, thermal getter pumps were chosen instead (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  14. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  15. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  16. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  17. Metal explosion chambers: designing, manufacturing, application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanovskii, O. I.; Zlobin, B. S.; Shtertser, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, Y. P.

    2017-10-01

    Designing of explosion chambers is based on research investigations of the chamber body stress-strain state, which is determined by numerical computation and experimentally by the strain gage technique. Studies show that chamber bottoms are the most loaded elements, and maximal stresses arise in chamber poles. Increasing the shell thickness around poles by welding-in an insert is a simple and saving way to solve this problem. There are structural solutions, enabling reliable hermetic closure and preventing leakage of detonation products from the chamber. Explosion chambers are employed in scientific research and in different industrial applications: explosive welding and hardening, synthesis of new materials, disposal of expired ammunition, and etc.

  18. Growing and Analyzing Biofilms in Flow Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic...... conditions, and the environment can be carefully controlled and easily changed. The protocols in this unit include construction of the flow chamber and the bubble trap, assembly and sterilization of the flow chamber system, inoculation of the flow chambers, running of the system, image capture and analysis...

  19. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Montory

    Full Text Available Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae. Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control, 25, 20 or 15, to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR, oxygen consumption (OCR, and mortality (LC50; we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

  1. Effects of Low Salinity on Adult Behavior and Larval Performance in the Intertidal Gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montory, Jaime A.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Diederich, Casey M.; Chaparro, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities salinities. PMID:25077484

  2. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  3. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  4. GBO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  5. Nonceramic insulators for the transmission power lines. Part II: Application that it requires of a careful selection; Aisladores no ceramicos para las areas de transmision. Parte II: Aplicacion que requiere de una seleccion cuidadosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this second part is mentioned the possible mechanisms of degradation that can appear in nonceramic insulators in order to identify them during the inspections that are made in the field throughout their useful life. Some techniques of evaluation of accelerated aging, as well as important aspects that must be considered for the selection of the insulation in the case of a particular application, are presented. [Spanish] En esta segunda parte se mencionan los posibles mecanismos de degradacion que pueden presentarse en los aisladores no ceramicos a fin de identificarlos durante las inspecciones que se realicen en campo a lo largo de su vida util. Se exponen algunas tecnicas de evaluacion de envejecimiento acelerado, asi como aspectos importantes que deben considerarse para la seleccion del aislamiento en el caso de una aplicacion particular.

  6. Design of a Fully Anechoic Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Rusz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with fully anechoic chamber design. The main aim of this thesis is to design fully anechoic chamber according to acoustics laws and customers (Honeywell’s) requirements. The fully anechoic chamber will be used for measuring sound and vibration quantities. This work is divided into two main parts. The first part deals with the general anechoic chamber theory and all its related design aspects. The second part, practical part, focus on specific design according to requirements...

  7. Choice and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar system of renewable energy for the Tepozan Park; Seleccion y analisis costo-beneficio de un sistema de energia renovable para el parque Tepozan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This article is about the choice process and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar photovoltaic system for the Tepozan Park, which is a space of ecoturism and ecological education, it is at the Tlalpan District in Mexico, D.F. According to this objective, we start with an introduction related to general conditions in the Park and we talk about the energy requirement. Next, the method for the better option choice is shown, this is based on decision analysis of Kepner and Tregoe. The choice option is evaluated according to the main financial tools of the Cost and Benefit Analysis private evaluation. This shows the decision analysis including issued about ecology. Finally, we add a point for the result synthesis, so we can have a complete approach in order to choice a renewable energy. As conclusion is shown the most important costs and benefits, thinking on future decisions about operation and maintenance of the system. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el proceso de seleccion y analisis Costo-Beneficio de un sistema de energia solar fotovoltaica para las instalaciones del Parque Tepozan, un espacio de ecoturismo y educacion ambiental, ubicado en la delegacion Tlalpan de Mexico, D.F. Para ello, se da una introduccion de las condiciones generales del parque y de los requerimientos de energia. Posteriormente se presenta un apartado del metodo para la seleccion de la alternativa mas adecuada, sustentado en un analisis de decisiones. La alternativa seleccionada, se somete a una evaluacion de los principales criterios de la evaluacion privada derivada del Analisis Costo Beneficio, con lo que se ilustra el proceso de toma de decision, incluyendo los factores de impacto ambiental. Finalmente, se incorpora un apartado de sintesis de resultados, para aportar un panorama completo en cuanto a la operacion y mantenimiento del sistema dentro del parque.

  8. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  9. Making a Fish Tank Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The cloud chambers described here are large, made from readily available parts, simple to set up and always work. With no source in the chamber, background radiation can be observed. A large chamber means that a long rod containing a weakly radioactive material can be introduced, increasing the chance of seeing decays. Details of equipment and…

  10. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  11. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...

  12. Growing and analyzing biofilms in flow chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation. Use of flow chambers allows direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The biofilms in flow chambers develop under hydrodynamic cond...

  13. Chamber B Thermal/Vacuum Chamber: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montz, Mike E.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of Chamber B. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  14. Salinity tolerance in halophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2008-01-01

    Halophytes, plants that survive to reproduce in environments where the salt concentration is around 200 mm NaCl or more, constitute about 1% of the world's flora. Some halophytes show optimal growth in saline conditions; others grow optimally in the absence of salt. However, the tolerance of all halophytes to salinity relies on controlled uptake and compartmentalization of Na+, K+ and Cl- and the synthesis of organic 'compatible' solutes, even where salt glands are operative. Although there is evidence that different species may utilize different transporters in their accumulation of Na+, in general little is known of the proteins and regulatory networks involved. Consequently, it is not yet possible to assign molecular mechanisms to apparent differences in rates of Na+ and Cl- uptake, in root-to-shoot transport (xylem loading and retrieval), or in net selectivity for K+ over Na+. At the cellular level, H+-ATPases in the plasma membrane and tonoplast, as well as the tonoplast H+-PPiase, provide the trans-membrane proton motive force used by various secondary transporters. The widespread occurrence, taxonomically, of halophytes and the general paucity of information on the molecular regulation of tolerance mechanisms persuade us that research should be concentrated on a number of 'model' species that are representative of the various mechanisms that might be involved in tolerance.

  15. Development and construction of a specific chamber for phototoxicity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sufi, Bianca S.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: biancasufi@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M.; Kaneko, Telma Mary, E-mail: nataliamenves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tsakuda@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lopes, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.lopes@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phototoxicity corresponds to the acute toxic response induced after skin exposure 'in vivo' and 'ex vivo' to certain chemicals and subsequent exposure to irradiation. Phototoxicity 'in vitro' assay is determined by viability of fibroblasts BALB/c 3T3 exposed to chemicals in the presence and absence of light. Substances identified as phototoxic are susceptible to 'in vivo' phototoxicity (OECD 432, 2004). A chamber was developed and constructed according to the guidelines OECD Toxicity Guide - 432 and ®ECVAM DB-ALM: INVITTOX N. 78. The chamber was built in stainless steel frame, with UVA lamps and dark area for negative control. The tests to qualify the chamber were performed with Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, recommended by the guides aforementioned, as negative control; and Bergamot oil (Givaudan-Roche), as positive control. Bergamot, Citrus bergamia, has, as major component, Bergapten responsible for its photosensitive activity. Both samples were diluted in Phosphate Buffered Saline with concentrations between 0.005 and 0.1 mg/mL, which were calculated by the dilution factor 1.47. These tests were performed over fibroblast BALB/c 3T3 culture and submitted to phototoxicity assay with MTS dye, under spectrophotometric reading, which allows determining the Photo Irritation Factor (PIF), what suggests that a substance with a PIF<2 predicts no phototoxicity; PIF>2 and <5 provides likely phototoxicity and PIF>5 provides phototoxicity. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate presented a PIF=1, being in accordance with the OECD. Bergamot oil has shown to be likely phototoxic with a PIF=2,475. These results provide that the chamber is qualified to be used to perform phototoxicity tests with assurance and security. (author)

  16. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  17. A silicon microstrip gas chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Marel, J. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van den Bogaard, A. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrotechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van Eijk, C.W.E. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Hollander, R.W. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Okx, W.J.C. (Radiation Technology Group, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Sarro, P.M. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrotechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands))

    1994-09-01

    We are manufacturing microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) on silicon with an insulating SiO[sub 2] layer. To study the effect of the sheet resistance of the SiO[sub 2] on the operation of the detector several processes to modify the SiO[sub 2] layer have been investigated: ion implantation, boron and phosphorus diffusion, phosphosilicate glass evaporation and polycrystalline silicon deposition. The dependence of the gas gain on the potentials of the different electrodes and the long term stability have been studied. ((orig.))

  18. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  19. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  20. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  1. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and

  2. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  3. Transferring calibration coefficients from ionisation chambers used for diagnostic radiology to transmission chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the response of a double volume transmission ionisation chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, was compared to that of a commercial transmission chamber. Both ionisation chambers were tested in different X-ray beam qualities using secondary standard ionisation chambers as reference dosimeters. These standard ionisation chambers were a parallel-plate and a cylindrical ionisation chambers, used for diagnostic radiology and mammography beam qualities, respectively. The response of both transmission chambers was compared to that of the secondary standard chambers to obtain coefficients of equivalence. These coefficients allow the transmission chambers to be used as reference equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the

  5. Tests of anechoic chamber for aeroacoustics investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Belyaev, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of qualification tests in the new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) built in 2014-2015 and evaluation of the chamber quality in aeroacoustic experiments. It describes design features of the chamber and its sound-absorption lining. The qualification tests were carried out with tonal and broadband noise sources in the frequency range 100 Hz - 20 kHz for two different cases of the source arrangement. In every case, measurements were performed in three directions by traverse microphones. Qualification tests have determined that in the chamber there is a free acoustic field within radius of 2 m for tonal noise and 3 m for broadband noise. There was also evaluated acoustic quality of the chamber by measurements of the jet noise and vortex ring noise. The results of the experiments demonstrate that PNRPU anechoic chamber allows the aeroacoustic measurements to be performed to obtain quantitative results.

  6. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  7. Time Projection Chamber at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.; Leitch, M.; Navon, I.; Numao, T.; Schlatter, P.; Dixit, M.S.; Hargrove, C.K.; Mes, H.; Bennett, A.; Macdonald, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber at TRIUMF is being used to search for muon-electron conversion. The best spatial resolution in the TPC, sigma approx. = 200 ..mu..m, occurs at the minimum drift length and for an optimum track-to-anode crossing angle determined by the magnetic field. The observed resolution is dependent on the diffusion of the drifting electrons, the track-to-anode crossing angle, vector E X vector B effects near the anode wire and the discrete nature of the ionization process. Distortion due to positive ions leaking back into the drift volume from the anode wire region have been nearly eliminated by the use of a pulsed dual grid system.

  8. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    To minimize eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical stength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The chamber is curved, to follow the beam's orbital path. Under vacuum, the chamber tends to staighten, the ceramic spacer along half of its length keeps it in place (see also 7402458).

  9. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  10. High salinity wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linarić, M; Markić, M; Sipos, L

    2013-01-01

    The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible.

  11. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiarandà, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto; Fagnano, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O(3) damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O(3) tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40=0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40=9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O(3) (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m(-1) reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O(3) uptake, thus linearly reducing O(3) effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O(3) on crop yield should take into account soil salinity.

  12. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  13. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  14. Anechoic chamber for VHF and UHF bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takao; Sugiura, Akira; Harima, Katsushige; Masuzawa, Hiroshi

    1995-06-01

    Built in 1969, the anechoic chamber of CRL has been used to the fullest by researchers in many fields such as EMI, EMC, antenna design, standard of electric field intensity, and type approval testing. In particular, in the early days of space development in Japan, many satellite-born antennas were developed in this anechoic chamber. However, a quarter of a century has passed since its construction and deteriorated performance due to superannuation sometimes caused difficulties in experiments conducted in the chamber. In 1993, CRL constructed a Measuring Facility for Radio Research (MFRR) and the anechoic chamber for VHF-UHF bands was remodeled as one of the sub-facilities of MFRR. The remodeling work included full replacement of the electromagnetic shielding, absorbers and measurement system. Since the remodeled anechoic chamber is being used not only for EMI tests but also for other purposes, a full-anechoic chamber has been adopted. In addition the chamber has been designed for the frequency range between 30 MHz and 10 GHz. After the remodeling work, the performance of the chamber is greatly improved. The average shielding factor is better than 85 dB for all frequency ranges and the unwanted reflection characteristic is -30 dB for frequencies above 1 GHZ. This paper summarizes the remodeling work, and the specifications and performance of the remodeled anechoic chamber.

  15. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  16. D0 Central Tracking Chamber Performance Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, Domenico [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an $R\\Phi$ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against $\\gamma \\to e^+ e^-$ events.

  17. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Biases in methane chamber measurements in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, R.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents results of CH4 emission measurements at peatland with the application of the dynamic chamber technique. The measurements were conducted in two types of chambers differing in shape, height, volume and technology used to assure their tightness. The study tested how the following factors: 1) forced chamber headspace mixing or its absence, 2) mistakes of the person conducting measurements, 3) improper application of linear technique for calculating CH4 fluxes, and 4) simulated air sampling typical for static chambers, influence the significance of errors and the underestimation rate of CH4 fluxes measured in situ. It was indicated that chamber headspace mixing allows estimating methane fluxes with a smaller error than in the case of measurements conducted without mixing, and CH4 fluxes in such conditions can be 47 to 58% higher (depending on the chamber type) than in a chamber without fans. Using dynamic chambers and a fast analyzer to measure methane fluxes allows shortening the methane measurement process to a few minutes. On the other hand, using static chambers for methane flux measurements may lead to 70% underestimation of the calculated flux.

  19. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, Domenico [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events.

  20. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    A new bioelectrochemical system is proposed for simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter. In this process, exoelectrogenic microorganisms oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons to the anode, hydrogen is evolved at the cathode by supplying additional voltage, and salt is removed from the wastewater due to the electric potential generated and the use of two ion-exchange membranes. Salinity removal (initial conductivity ~40mS/cm) increased from 21 to 84% by increasing the substrate (sodium acetate) from 2 to 8g/L. A total of 72-94% of the chemical oxygen demand was degraded in the anode and cathode chambers, with 1-4% left in the anode chamber and the balance lost through the anion-exchange membrane into the concentrate waste chamber. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 3.6m3-H2/m3-electrolyte per day at an applied potential of 1.2V. The Coulombic efficiency was ~100%, while the cathode recovery varied from 57 to 100%, depending on the extent of methanogenesis. Exoelectrogenic microbes generated high current densities (7.8mA/cm2) at ≤36g/L of total dissolved solids, but >41g/L eliminated current. These results provide a new method for achieving simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter from a saline wastewater with H2 production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of bleaching agents on bonding to pulp chamber dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Nipattamanon, C; Kijsamanmith, K; Messer, H H

    2005-04-01

    To determine the effect of intracoronal bleaching agents on adhesion of bonding agents to pulp chamber dentine. Forty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 teeth each. Bleaching agents were sealed in pulp chambers for 7 days, as in clinical use. Group 1 (control): distilled water, group 2: 35% hydrogen peroxide, group 3: sodium perborate mixed with water, and group 4: sodium perborate mixed with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Teeth were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 7 days. After the bleaching agent was removed, teeth were leached in water for a further 7 days prior to bonding. The crown was cut vertically from mesial to distal and the labial pulp chamber dentine was prepared for bonding with Clearfil SE-Bond and filled with resin composite (Clearfil AP-X). The bonded specimens were kept moist at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Microtensile bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. Additional teeth were prepared using the same bleaching procedures to investigate the scanning electron microscopic appearance of the dentine surface. Mean values (+/-SD) of microtensile bond strength for the experimental groups were: group 1: 5.29 +/- 2.21 MPa, group 2: 5.99 +/- 1.51 MPa, group 3: 9.17 +/- 1.65 MPa and group 4: 3.99 +/- 1.31 MPa. Dentine treated with sodium perborate in water (group 3) had significantly higher mean bond strength when compared with the other three groups (P sodium perborate plus hydrogen peroxide (group 4). In terms of subsequent bond strength during restoration, sodium perborate mixed with distilled water appears to be the best intracoronal bleaching agent.

  2. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  3. Optical sensor for seawater salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C; Klimant, I; Krause, C; Werner, T; Mayr, T; Wolfbeis, O S

    2000-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of salinity in seawater has been developed. It is based on a chloride-quenchable fluorescent probe (lucigenin) immobilized on a Nafion film. Two approaches for measuring salinity via chloride concentration are presented. In the first, a change in salinity corresponds to a change in the fluorescence intensity of lucigenin. In the second, the fluorescence intensity information is converted into a phase angle information by adding an inert phosphorescent reference luminophore (a ruthenium complex entrapped in poly(acrylonitrile) beads). Under these conditions, the chloride-dependent fluorescence intensity of lucigenin can be converted into a chloride-dependent fluorescence phase shift which serves as the analytical information. This scheme is referred to as dual lifetime referencing (DLR). The sensor was used to determine the salinity in seawater and brackish water of the North Sea.

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  5. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  6. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  7. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  8. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-03-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m2 (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Wide-band antennas for reverberation chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness measurements in a dual vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber results in very repeatable results for a large frequency range and large dynamic range. Antennas in reverberation chambers do not need any gain, but the losses should be low and the dimensions should be small.

  10. Shielding Effectiveness Measurements using a Reverberation Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Bergsma, J.G.; Bergsma, Hans; van Etten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness measurements have been performed using a reverberation chamber. The reverberation chamber methodology as we1l as the measurement setup is described and some results are given. Samples include glass reinforced plastic panels, aluminum panels with many holes, wire mesh, among

  11. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  12. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  13. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  14. Validation of a fully anechoic chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandaris, Dwi; Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; van de Beek, G.S.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to characterize the performance of a Fully Anechoic Chamber (FAC) from 500 MHz to 3 GHz based on S-Parameter analysis with antennas and a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA. The measurements have been performed by placing one antenna inside the chamber and performing S11

  15. HVAC&R Equipment Environmental Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:Large "Truck" ChamberThe large "truck" chamber provides controlled air conditions from -7 °C (20 °F) to 65 °C (150 °F).Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Test...

  16. The HARP Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal-Sitjes, G

    2003-01-01

    A novel apparatus for the calibration of the HARP Time Projection Chamber has been designed, developed and built. The apparatus consists of a large number of point-like photo-electron sources located at precise positions inside the detector volume. The photo-electron sources are optical quartz fibers on which one end is coated with an aluminum layer of $\\sim$80{\\AA} thickness and are held in place on the High Voltage membrane. The fibers are used to guide UV laser light pulses that generate photoelectrons on the fiber tips and these act as photo-electron emitters. The photoelectrons drift inside the detector and produce the calibration signals. The technique allows to asses $E\\times B$ distortions and to measure drift velocity, ion feedback and time stability in real time. The analog signals generated by the TPC front-end electronics have been characterized. Different methods to extract the amplitude and time of occurrence from the digitized signals have been studied and compared. Fast estimators, like the su...

  17. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of the...

  18. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  19. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  20. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  1. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumard, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: shumard@phy.anl.gov; Henderson, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tang, X.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 203 H-113, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the ({alpha}, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for ({alpha}, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only ({alpha}, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. x 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the ({alpha}, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the ({alpha}, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  2. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  3. Weld Development for Aluminum Fission Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Jesse Norris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    The Sigma welding team was approached to help fabricate a small fission chamber (roughly ½ inch dia. x ½ inch tall cylinder). These chambers are used as radiation sensors that contain small traces of radionuclides (Cf 252, U 235, and U 238) that serve to ionize gas atoms in addition to external radiation. When a voltage is applied within the chamber, the resulting ion flow can be calibrated and monitored. Aluminum has the advantage of not forming radioactive compounds when exposed to high external radiation (except from minor Na alloy content). Since aluminum has not been used before in this application, this presented an unexplored challenge.

  4. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  5. Reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    A comparison between the antenna-pattern comparison technique and the free-space voltage standing-wave ratio technique for evaluating the reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers is presented. Based on an analysis of the two techniques, it is pointed out which parameters influence the measured...... be used to measure the improvements. This work is inspired by the current discussion of finding a figure of merit for anechoic chambers. Based on the results, an evaluation procedure for anechoic chambers is indicated. However, it is pointed out and illustrated by examples that further investigations...... value of the reflectivity level. The comparison is illustrated with experimental results and it is explained why inconsistent and uncorrelated results may be found when the two methods are used. Furthermore, it is demonstrated, by introducing improvements in a chamber, how the reflectivity level can...

  6. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  7. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  8. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  9. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  10. Chamber Core Structures for Fairing Acoustic Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Steven A; Henderson, Kyle; Williams, Andrew; Ardelean, Emil

    2007-01-01

    .... A composite chamber core fairing consists of many axial tubes sandwiched between face sheets, tubes that can be used as acoustic dampers to reduce low-frequency interior noise with virtually no added mass...

  11. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  12. New measurement methods for anechoic chamber characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alfageme, Juan José; Sanchez Bote, José Luis; Blanco Martín, Elena

    2008-01-01

    As a continuation of the work presented in 122nd AES Convention, this paper tries to study in depth the anechoic chambers qualification. The purpose of this paper is to find parameters that allow the characterization of this type of enclosures. The proposal that becomes in this work is trying to obtain data of the anechoic chambers absorption by means of the transfer functions between pairs of microphones, or by means of the impulse response between pairs of microphones. Based on the results ...

  13. Signal shapes in a TPC wire chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossegger, S.; Riegler, W.

    2010-11-01

    We study signal shapes in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and the influence of the electron distribution around the wire on the ion tail characteristics. Simulations of the ion tail for two different geometries, different voltages and therefore gas gains were performed. These simulations are compared to measurements carried out with the ALICE TPC wire chambers for a Ne/CO 2/N 2 gas mixture, which allows to extract the avalanche spread around the anode wires of the MWPC.

  14. Georges Charpak and his multiwire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    In 1968, Georges Charpak developed the 'multiwire proportional chamber', a gas-filled box with a large number of parallel detector wires, each connected to individual amplifiers. Linked to a computer, it could achieve a counting rate a thousand times better than existing techniques - without a camera in sight. From left to right, Georges Charpak, Fabio Sauli and Jean-Claude Santiard working on a multiwire chamber in 1970.

  15. The Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    This image shows the Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber. It was used to detect particles in experiments at the PS between 1970 and 1976 before being moved to the SPS. In 1973, while working on the PS, it detected the first neutral current, an interaction vital to the electroweak theory. In 1978 a large fissure appeared in the body of the chamber and Gargamelle was stopped in 1979.

  16. The world's largest time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Peter Glassel, the technical coordinator for the ALICE time projection chamber, is seen sitting inside the detector; the largest in the world at nearly 100 cubic metres. Thousands of wires are connected to read out electronic data produced as particles are created in lead-lead collisions at the centre of the detector. These particles will cause the medium within the time projection chamber to ionise along their tracks allowing the particle paths to be recreated.

  17. Laser peripheral iridotomy changes anterior chamber architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theinert, Christian; Wiedemann, Peter; Unterlauft, Jan D

    2017-01-19

    The pressure gradient between anterior and posterior chamber in acute angle closure (AAC) and primary angle closure suspects is balanced by a sufficient laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). The anterior chamber changes induced by LPI in patients with unilateral AAC were examined and compared to healthy eyes to define threshold values, which may help to discriminate between healthy and diseased eyes. Using Scheimpflug photography, anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured before and after LPI in both eyes of unilateral AAC cases. These measurements were compared to a group of healthy control eyes to determine threshold values for ACD, ACV, and ACA. The ACD, ACV, and ACA increased significantly in the 25 AAC eyes after LPI. The ACD, ACV, ACA, and CCT values in the AAC eyes obtained before LPI were compared to a control group of 59 healthy eyes with wide open chamber angles. The cutoff values revealed by receiver operating characteristic analysis were 2.1 mm for ACD, 90.5 mm2 for ACV, and 27.25° for ACA. Our results confirm the significant changes of the anterior segments architecture induced by LPI in AAC eyes. The found threshold values for ACD, ACV, and ACA may help in daily clinical routine to discriminate between healthy eyes and those in need for a prophylactic LPI.

  18. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  19. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  20. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera, was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1 weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid, amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid, and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose. ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  1. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Mitigating Salinity Stress in Creeping Bentgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L−1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense. PMID:25551443

  2. Drilling of bilateral wells: analysis and selection of wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Perforacion de pozos bilaterales: analisis y seleccion de pozos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: miguel.ramirez02@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Drilling bilateral geothermal wells has been conducted successfully in fields in the U.S., the Philippines and Japan, among other places. The reason for drilling a second leg in a well is to increase production by penetrating additional production zones. In this report, criteria are presented for selecting wells in Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field to be considered for a second leg, taking into account the mechanical condition of the wells, geological targets, distances between wells, production characteristics and thermodynamic conditions. The cases of wells H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 and H-36, which have low production, were reviewed. Wells H-3, H-8 and H-34 were selected as the best subjects for bi-directional drilling. A design is proposed for constructing a second leg in well H-8. [Spanish] La perforacion de pozos bilaterales se ha venido realizando de manera exitosa en campos geotermicos de Estados Unidos, Filipinas y Japon, entre otros. El objetivo de perforar una segunda pierna en un mismo pozo es incrementar su produccion, ya que habran mas zonas de produccion. En este reporte se presentan los criterios para la seleccion de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., candidatos para una segunda pierna, considerando el estado mecanico de los mismos, los objetivos geologicos, la distancia entre pozos, sus caracteristicas de produccion y sus condiciones termodinamicas. Para ello se revisaron los casos de los pozos H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 y H-36, que presentan una produccion baja. Posteriormente, aplicando los criterios de evaluacion y con la informacion obtenida de cada pozo, se seleccionaron los pozos H-3, H-8 y H-34 como los que presentan mejores condiciones para la perforacion bidireccional. Finalmente, se establecio un diseno para la construccion de una segunda pierna en el pozo H-8.

  3. Selection of the traction based on the power efficiency for vehicles of heavy service; La seleccion del tren motriz basada en la eficiencia energetica para vehiculos de servicio pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Rafael [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, (Mexico); Cervantes de Gortari, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    Transportation activities in Mexico, especially in heavy-duty vehicles, are affected by the low efficiency in fuel consumption, in spite of the advanced technology in energy efficiency that generally is being adopted and used in the Mexican cargo fleet, there is not a significant reduction in the operation costs of this very important economic activity. In this paper, an account about the influence that the selection of the traction system components has on the fuel consumption and the ascending capacity of the vehicle, is presented. As a result of the study, an algorithm based on real performance tests with optimal fuel economy, was developed. The program is useful for the selection of the most appropriate traction system of a given vehicle, taking into account the condition that has to fulfill for a given task. [Spanish] Entre los problemas que afectan a la economia del sector de autotransporte en Mexico, especialmente en el transporte destinado al servicio pesado, se encuentra el de baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible. A pesar de la avanzada tecnologia que generalmente se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por tonelada transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio acerca de la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo, en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo un algoritmo basado en las pruebas reales de desempeno a que puede someterse un vehiculo, buscando el regimen optimo de economia del combustible. El programa permite a las empresas de transporte, seleccionar el tren motriz mas adecuado para cada vehiculo teniendo en cuenta las operaciones a que debera sujetarse en un determinado servicio.

  4. The selection of the traction system based on the energy efficiency for vehicles of heavy service; La seleccion del tren motriz basada en la eficiencia energetica para vehiculos de servicio pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Morales, M.Y [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, (Mexico); Cervantes de Gortari, J [Departamento de termoenergia, Facultad de ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-01-15

    Transportation activities in Mexico, especially in heavy-duty vehicles, are affected by the low efficiency in fuel consumption. In spite of the advanced technology in energy efficiency that generally is being adopted and used in the Mexican cargo fleet, there is not a significant reduction in the operation costs of this very important economic activity. In this paper, an account about the influence that the selection of the traction system components has on the fuel consumption and the ascending capacity of the vehicle, is presented. As a result of the study, an algorithm based on real performance tests with optimal fuel economy, was developed. The program is useful for the selection of the most appropriate traction system of a given vehicle, taking into account the condition that has to fulfill for a give task. [Spanish] Entre los problemas que afectan a la economia del sector de autotransporte en Mexico, especialmente en el transporte destinado al servicio pesado, se encuentra el de baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible. A pesar de la avanzada tecnologia que generalmente se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por toneladas transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio acerca de la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo, en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo un algoritmo basado en las pruebas reales de desempeno a que puede someterse un vehiculo, buscando el regimen optimo de economia del combustible. El programa permite a las empresas de transporte, seleccionar el tren motriz mas adecuado para cada vehiculo teniendo en cuenta las operaciones a que debera sujetarse en un determinado servicio.

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  6. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  7. Intestinal response to salinity challenge in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Barany, A; Jerez-Cepa, I; Mancera, J M; Fuentes, J

    2017-02-01

    Fish are continuously forced to actively absorb or expel water and ions through epithelia. Most studies have focused on the gill due to its role in Na+ and Cl- trafficking. However, comparatively few studies have focused on the changing function of the intestine in response to external salinity. Therefore, the present study investigated the main intestinal changes of long-term acclimation of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to 5, 15, 38 and 55ppt. Through the measurement of short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chambers and biochemical approaches, we described a clear anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in response to salinity. The use of specific inhibitors in Ussing chamber experiments, revealed that the bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporters are the main effectors of Cl- uptake in both anterior intestine and rectum. Additionally, the use of the anion exchanger specific inhibitor, DIDS, showed a salinity/region dependency of anion exchanger function. Moreover, we also described ouabain-sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and Bafilomycin A1-sensitive H+-ATPase activities (HA), which displayed changes related to salinity and intestinal region. However, the most striking result of the present study is the description of an omeprazole-sensitive H+/K+-ATPase (HKA) in the rectum of Senegalese sole. Its activity was consistently measurable and increased at lower salinities, reaching rates even higher than those of the NKA. Together our results provide new insights into the changing role of the intestine in response to external salinity in teleost fish. The rectal activity of HKA offers an alternative/cooperative mechanism with the HA in the final processing of intestinal water absorption by apical titration of secreted bicarbonate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  9. Temperature and saline stress on seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Siddiqur; Akter, S; Al-Amin, M

    2013-12-01

    Physical responses of plants to change in climatic factors like temperature, precipitation and abiotic factors like salinity intrusion may lead positive or negative effects. Some factor may promulgate growth while other may stunts their vigour. Present study seeks growth of a plantation species at its early stage of life towards elevated temperature and saline water stresses. Growth records of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings were enumerated by measuring height, collar diameter and leaf number development of the replicates growing at an environment-controlled plant growth chamber. One experimented with merely elevated temperature while other tries to find results of combined effect of elevated temperature (30, 32 and 34 degrees C) and saline (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g L(-1) NaCl) to said species seedlings. Seedling replicates showed diverse response to elevated temperature and saline irrigation at height, collar diameter and leaf number development. Results depict that elevated temperature alone might be positive for S. macrophylla seedlings, rather most favourable for its growth in height, however, collar diameter and leaf number may remain unaffected. Saline treatment along with higher temperature stresses may lead seedlings toward stunted or very low growth. As saline intensity increases, species growth tends to decrease proportionally. Elevated temperature aided with higher salinity may direct further under development of S. macrophylla seedlings which is distressing to plantation establishment of this species in sites which are vulnerable to salinity intrusion due to climate change. However, S. macrophylla may be a promising plantation species in drier part of the globe in near future.

  10. Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle | El Kouache ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal highpressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ...

  11. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  12. Commissioning of SLAC SLD 45-Degree Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschenburg, Vance O.

    2002-07-19

    The SLD experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center had a significant gap in its muon tracking coverage, provided by the Warm Iron Calorimeter. Supplemental planes of limited streamer tube chambers were added to improve the coverage in the vicinity of the gap at 0.65 < |cos{theta}| < 0.85. A software effort to upgrade the tracking software for this system is detailed. The commissioning of the forty-five degree chamber region of the SLAC SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter is presented. This task involved the completion of the forty-five degree chamber region geometry for the Warm Iron Calorimeter's fitter and swimmer and the changing of the way multiple scattering effects are treated in the fitter algorithm.

  13. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  14. Thermal Vacuum Chamber Repressurization with Instrument Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    At the end of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) OTIS (Optical Telescope Element-OTE-Integrated Science Instrument Module-ISIM) cryogenic vacuum testing in NASA Johnson Space Centers (JSCs) thermal vacuum (TV) Chamber A, contamination control (CC) engineers are mooting the idea that chamber particulate material stirred up by the repressurization process may be kept from falling into the ISIM interior to some degree by activating instrument purge flows over some initial period before opening the chamber valves. This memo describes development of a series of models designed to describe this process. These are strung together in tandem to estimate overpressure evolution from which net outflow velocity behavior may be obtained. Creeping flow assumptions are then used to determine the maximum particle size that may be kept suspended above the ISIM aperture, keeping smaller particles from settling within the instrument module.

  15. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  16. Anterior chamber collapse syndrome in a koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Vl; Naranjo, C; Bernays, Me

    2014-05-01

    Anterior chamber collapse syndrome has been recognised in various species and is associated with early-life ocular disease or trauma. It is important to differentiate this acquired condition from a congenital malformation. An adult female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was referred for assessment of buphthalmos and severe keratitis of the right eye. The degree of keratitis obstructed examination of intraocular structures. Enucleation of the affected eye was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was anterior chamber collapse syndrome and secondary glaucoma. This case contributes to the limited information available in the literature on anterior chamber collapse syndrome, a disease unique in having secondary glaucoma with minimal or no inflammation. The case also expands the literature available on ocular disease in koalas. More specifically, this is the only reported case of glaucoma, of any aetiology, in the koala. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Swirl chamber for vitrification of fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzycki Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the concept of a swirl chamber used for vitrification of fly ashes. It assumes the use of coal dust in the process of fly ash melting. The coal dust supplied to the swirl chamber and gasified in the atmosphere of O2, CO2 and H2O allows for obtaining combustible gases composed of CO and H2, which are burnt with the pneumatically supplied fly ash. The above process allows for obtaining a product in the form of a molten slag which does not contain coal grains. The study presents numerical calculations for the process of combustion and gasification of coal dust and opportunities for ensuring adequate parameters in the fly ash melting zone. The combustible gases obtained during the process of gasification can be supplied to the chamber of a pulverized-bed boiler.

  18. Emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R. J.

    Emulsion chambers offer several unique features for the study of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions and spectra aboard a permanent manned Space Station. Emulsion-chamber experiments provide the highest acceptance/weight ratio of any current experimental technique, are invulnerable to mechanical shocks and temperature excursions associated with space flight, do not employ volatile or explosive components or materials, and are not dependent upon data communications or recording systems. Space-Station personnel would be employed to replace track-sensitive materials as required by background accumulation. Several emulsion-chamber designs are proposed, including both conventional passive calorimetric detectors and a hybrid superconducting-magnetic-spectrometer system. Results of preliminary simulation studies are presented. Operational logistics are discussed.

  19. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  20. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  1. Almond Test Body. [for microwave anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominek, Allen K. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Gilreath, Melvin C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is an almond shaped test body for use in measuring the performance characteristics of microwave anechoic chambers and for use as a support for components undergoing radar cross-section measurements. The novel aspect of this invention is its shape, which produces a large dynamic scattered field over large angular regions making the almond valuable for verifying the performance of microwave anechoic chambers. As a component mount, the almond exhibits a low return that does not perturb the measurement of the component and it simulates the backscatter characteristics of the component as if over an infinite ground plane.

  2. Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory chamber for growing plants used to measure photosynthesis and respiration in simulated microgravity. Holds plant specimens while rotated on clinostat, see article, "Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets" (KSC-11537). Provides way of comparing gas-exchange rates of plants rotated horizontally on clinostat with those of stationary or vertically rotated plants. Gas extracted for analysis without stopping clinostat. Chamber includes potlike base and cylindrical cover, both made of transparent acrylic pipe. Gasket forms seal between cover and bottom plate of base. Cover bolted to pot baseplate, which in turn bolted to clinostat.

  3. Permeability of MDT chambers to water vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Palestini, S

    2003-01-01

    Tests of MDT chambers performed at the GIF facility and in the H8 test-beam area have shown relative high levels of water vapor contamination in the gas-mixture at the detector output. This effects significantly the drift properties of the MDTs. This note shows that amount of water observed is compatible with approximate estimates based on the permeability of Noryl, used in the tube end-plugs, and of EPDM, used in the O-rings of the on-chamber gas distribution.

  4. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  5. Almond test body. [for microwave anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominek, Allen K. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Gilreath, Melvin C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is an almond shaped test body for use in measuring the performance characteristics of microwave anechoic chambers and for use as a support for components undergoing radar cross-section measurements. The novel aspect of this invention is its shape, which produces a large dynamic scattered field over large angular regions making the almond valuable for verifying the performance of microwave anechoic chambers. As a component mount, the almond exhibits a low return that does not perturb the measurement of the component and it simulates the backscatter characteristics of the component as if over an infinite ground plane.

  6. The STREON Recirculation Chamber: An Advanced Tool to Quantify Stream Ecosystem Metabolism in the Benthic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. T.; Utz, R.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    ) under various velocity settings. The extent of exchange with the sediment was assessed by means of a saline tracer injection and adjustment using flow-regulating components was explored. Performance under a broad range of temperatures (1 to 30 °C) was assessed. Finally, a novel heat-exchange mechanism meant to minimize warming during operations was evaluated. All prototype assessments demonstrate the applicability of the STREON chamber under a broad range of conditions. Though the STREON recirculation chamber has been designed to satisfy the specific needs of the STREON program, the open-access nature of the NEON network should facilitate scope expansion in the coming decades. The STREON recirculation chamber design and all prototype testing data will be accessible to facilitate chamber use elsewhere. The large number of chamber assemblies required for STREON operations should facilitate the acquisition of units by researchers working outside of the NEON network. Furthermore, the current scope of STREON includes the use of the chambers only once annually, thus a valuable tool for stream ecosystem measurements will be readily available at STREON sites for potential use by researchers interested in such measurements.

  7. Selection of the motor train of vehicles of load and passengers service with energy efficiency; Seleccion del tren motriz de vehiculos del servicio de carga y pasajeros con eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Morales, Mercedes [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte (MExico)

    2003-07-01

    The companies of motor transport in Mexico are affected in their economy mainly by the low efficiency in the fuel consumption, specially the one dedicated to heavy service. Despite the outpost technology that is becoming available and adopted by the vehicular park to vehicular in relation to the energy efficiency, the cost per transported ton has not diminished in any substantial way. In this paper, a study is presented on the influence that it has within this problem, the selection of the components of the motor train in the fuel consumption and the capacity of ascent of the vehicle in relation to the weight of the transported load. As result of the study was developed in the Mexican Institute of Transport a computer program based on the real tests of performance that a vehicle can be subjected to, taking into consideration the optimum regime of the motor with the minimum fuel consumption. The program helps the carrier to select the most suitable motor train for the vehicle that is intended to acquire considering the operations to which it will be subjected to in a certain service, also evaluates the motor train of the existing vehicles in the vehicular fleet of the transport companies. [Spanish] Las empresas de autotransporte en Mexico se ven afectadas en su economia principalmente por la baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible, especialmente las destinadas al servicio pesado. No obstante la avanzada tecnologia de que se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por tonelada transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio sobre la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica, la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo en el Instituto Mexicano del Transporte un programa de computo basado en

  8. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  9. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (Pgrowth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (Psalinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (Psalinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  11. Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum chamber for intersection I-4 of the ISR being assembled inside a wooden mock-up of the gap of the split-field magnet. The central round-cylinder section is provisional and is to be replaced by an elliptic-cylinder section to give more space vertically for installation of detectors. Supports for the central section are of carbon fibre composite.

  12. Using reverberation chambers for em measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC) are being used for several decades. The main advantage is the high field strength which can be generated, with only modest power. In the last few years the use of RCs became much popular, for testing multi-path propagation for communication links, or testing the coupling

  13. Spark chambers in the Microcosm museum

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1990-01-01

    These spark chambers were displayed in CERN's permanent exhibition, Microcosm. These were particle detectors in which the tracks of particles would be seen by sparks created along the particle's path. While touring Microcosm, visitors can learn more about this and other detector methods both past and present.

  14. Intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber intraocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the visual outcome of cataract extraction with ACIOL implantation in a Nigerian hospital. Methods: The visual outcome of 50 eyes of 42 patients aged 40 years and above, out of 212 eyes that underwent intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) implantation, were ...

  15. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  16. Readout system for proportional wire chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Berst, J D; Metzger, G; Meyer, J M; Schultz, G

    1974-01-01

    The authors describe a MWPC read-out system intended for the hyperon experiments at CERN. Its structure is like the familiar CAMAC branch highway, but driven by a spark chamber readout module placed in CAMAC. The different parts of the equipment, which may read up to 4096 wires, and the test system are described. (5 refs).

  17. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  18. Presenting Chamber Music to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry Fonda

    2011-01-01

    The number of professional ensembles and organizations with dedicated outreach concerts has been steadily increasing over the past decade. More recently, educational concerts pairing chamber music with young children have been documented. The work presented in this article is a study in the efficacy and feasibility of this format. Various music…

  19. The arrival of the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AVC

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  20. Prototype vacuum chamber for ISR intersection region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction regions had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  1. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  2. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The chamber scarification test is a predictive human skin irritation test developed to rank the irritation potential of products and ingredients meant for repeated use on normal and diseased skin. 12 products or ingredients can be tested simultaneously on the forearm skin of each volunteer. The t...

  3. GRCop-84 Development for Combustion Chamber Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Nathal, Michael; Yun, Hee Man; Lerch, Bradley; Greenbauer-Seng, Leslie; Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus; Holmes, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The development, test, and thermophysical & mechanical properties of a GRCop-84 alloy for combustion chamber liners is discussed. Topics discussed include: History of GRCop-84 development, GRCop-84 thermal expansion, thermal conductivity of GRCop-84, yield strength of GRCop-84, GRCop-84 creep lives, GrCop-84 low cycle fatigue (LCF) lives, and hot fire testing of GRCop-84 spool pieces.

  4. The use of microholography in bubble chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, H

    1981-01-01

    In-line holography has been used for the first time in a bubble chamber for the account of the CERN (Geneva, CH). The holograms were recorded with the help of a single-mode pulse laser. Bubble tracks of 25 microns in diameter have been reconstructed with a resolution of 2 microns. (12 refs).

  5. Optimization of catholyte concentration and anolyte pHs in two chamber microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2012-12-01

    The hydrogen production rate in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) using a non-buffered saline catholyte (NaCl) can be optimized through proper control of the initial anolyte pH and catholyte NaCl concentration. The highest hydrogen yield of 3.3 ± 0.4 mol H2/mole acetate and gas production rate of 2.2 ± 0.2 m3 H2/m3/d were achieved here with an initial anolyte pH = 9 and catholyte NaCl concentration of 98 mM. Further increases in the salt concentration substantially reduced the anolyte pH to as low as 4.6, resulting in reduced MEC performance due to pH inhibition of exoelectrogens. Cathodic hydrogen recovery was high (rcat > 90%) as hydrogen consumption by hydrogenotrophic methanogens was prevented by separating the anode and cathode chambers using a membrane. These results show that the MEC can be optimized for hydrogen production through proper choices in the concentration of a non-buffered saline catholyte and initial anolyte pH in two chamber MECs. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors impacting distribution of marine plants and sub-optimal salinities may result in increased resource use and decreased production.We studied the performance and salinity tolerance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) originating from two regions with different ambient...... salinities: a low saline (salinity 6) and a high saline (salinity 20) population. Plants fromboth populationswere exposed to a series of fixed salinities (2, 4, 6, 9, 12.5, 15, 20 and 25) for 5 weeks. Both plant origin and salinity affected plant performance significantly. Plant production decreasedwith...... decreasing salinity in both populations,while mortality increased in lowsalinity only in plants originating from the high saline population. The better performance of the low saline population in the lowest salinities indicates a horizontal shift in salinity tolerance among populationswith different origin...

  7. A Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility for ATLAS Muon Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Biebel, O; Boutemeur, M; Brandt, A; Dubbert, J; Duckeck, G; Elmsheuser, J; Fiedler, F; Hertenberger, R; Kortner, O; Nunnemann, T; Rauscher, F; Schaile, A D; Schieferdecker, P; Staude, A; Stiller, W; Ströhmer, R; Vertesi, R

    2003-01-01

    Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will constitute the large majority of precision detectors in the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For commissioning and calibration of MDT chambers, a Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility is in operation at Munich University. The objectives of this facility are to test the chambers and on-chamber electronics, to map the positions of the anode wires within the chambers with the precision needed for standalone muon momentum measurement in ATLAS, and to gain experience in the operation of the chambers and on-line calibration procedures. Until the start of muon chamber installation in ATLAS, 88 chambers built at the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich have to be commissioned and calibrated. With a data taking period of one day individual wire positions can be measured with an accuracy of 8.3 micrometers in the chamber plane and 27 micrometers in the direction perpendicular to that plane.

  8. Anterior chamber fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sahap Kükner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the anterior chamber (AC with the haptics passing through two iridectomies to the posterior chamber. A total of 33 eyes of 33 patients with inadequate posterior capsular support due to either previous aphakia or posterior capsular rupture during cataract extraction were included in the study. A double iridectomy was performed on all patients using a vitrectomy probe on the midperiphery of the iris. IOLs were implanted in the AC, and the haptics were passed through the iridectomies to the posterior chamber. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months. AC hemorrhage occurred in five patients during the iridectomy procedure. Corneal edema was detected in eight of 14 patients with primary IOL insertions. Haptic dislocation was detected in only one patient. This technique may be a good alternative to scleral-fixated IOL implantation in eyes with aphakia.

  9. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eulig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like avionic or

  10. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Conducting triangular chambers for EMC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi

    1999-03-01

    Conducting rectangular chambers have been used extensively for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) shielding and measurement applications. In this communication, conducting triangular chambers are investigated as an alternative structure for rectangular EMC reverberation chambers, which are becoming an increasingly important and powerful tool for both radiated immunity and emission tests. A prime consideration of designing such a system is the total possible number of modes inside the chamber. A new approach is introduced to obtain this parameter for three different triangular chambers. The initial study has demonstrated that triangular chambers may offer better performance in some cases than their rectangular counterparts.

  11. Metallic spherical anechoic chamber for antenna pattern measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Ali; Khalaj-Amirhosseini, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Anechoic chambers are used for indoor antenna measurements. The common method of constructing an anechoic chamber is to cover all inside walls by the electromagnetic absorbers. In this paper, a fully metallic spherical chamber structure is presented in which the propagation of the electromagnetic waves inside the chamber is controlled and they are guided to an absorber. In the proposed method, an appropriate quiet zone is obtained, and unlike ordinary anechoic chambers, the absorber usage amount is reduced greatly. The performance of the chamber is evaluated by simulation. The results show that the proposed method could provide a useful technique for the indoor antenna measurements.

  12. An uncommon variant of double-chambered right ventricle masquerading as double-chambered left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritakis, Nikolaos; Grapsas, Nikolaos; Kotsalos, Andreas; Davlouros, Periklis

    2018-02-01

    We present a rare case of a double-chambered right ventricle masquerading as a double-chambered left ventricle, which was found incidentally on cardiac imaging in an adult female patient with atypical chest pain. The most common form of double-chambered right ventricle is characterized by compartmentalization of the right ventricle by muscular bands into 2 distinct chambers. The main features of this malformation are a pressure gradient between the 2 compartments, and the frequent (up to 90%) association with a membranous ventricular septal defect. In our case, the muscular band dividing the right ventricle was located in the inferoseptal part of the latter, creating a diminutive cavity that had no communication with the main right ventricle but communicated with the left ventricle creating the false impression of a double-chambered left ventricle. This constitutes a rare variant of double-chambered right ventricle with unknown clinical implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Stabilising nanofluids in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anssari, Sarmad; Arif, Muhammad; Wang, Shaobin; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-12-15

    Nanofluids (i.e. nanoparticles dispersed in a fluid) have tremendous potential in a broad range of applications, including pharmacy, medicine, water treatment, soil decontamination, or oil recovery and CO 2 geo-sequestration. In these applications nanofluid stability plays a key role, and typically robust stability is required. However, the fluids in these applications are saline, and no stability data is available for such salt-containing fluids. We thus measured and quantified nanofluid stability for a wide range of nanofluid formulations, as a function of salinity, nanoparticle content and various additives, and we investigated how this stability can be improved. Zeta sizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS) principles were used to investigate zeta potential and particle size distribution of nanoparticle-surfactant formulations. Also scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the physicochemical aspects of the suspension. We found that the salt drastically reduced nanofluid stability (because of the screening effect on the repulsive forces between the nanoparticles), while addition of anionic surfactant improved stability. Cationic surfactants again deteriorated stability. Mechanisms for the different behaviour of the different formulations were identified and are discussed here. We thus conclude that for achieving maximum nanofluid stability, anionic surfactant should be added. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  15. Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrich, Joleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Saline soils result in decreased crop growth and yield with the potential for losing productive farm land. Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. Installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity decreased per acre crop profitability from 19-49% due to the large upfront capital investment of tile drainage. These losses can b...

  16. Chamber-Based Estimates of Methane Production in Coastal Estuarine Systems in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, B.; Lipson, D.; Lai, C.

    2008-12-01

    Wetland systems are believed to produce between 100 - 231 Tg CH4 yr-1 which is roughly 20% of global methane emissions. The uncertainty in methane emissions models stem from the lack of detailed information about methane gas production within regional wetland systems. The aim of this study is to report the range of methane fluxes observed along salinity gradients at two San Diego coastal wetland systems, the Tijuana Estuary (Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve) and the Peñasquitos Lagoon (Torrey Pines State Park Reserve). Soil water samples are used to elucidate factors responsible for the observed variation in methane fluxes. Air samples were subsequently collected from the headspace of a static soil chamber and stored in pre- evacuated vials. Methane concentrations were analyzed within hours after collection by gas chromatography in the laboratory. The chemical and physical properties of the soil, including salinity, pH, redox potential and temperature are measured with a hand-held probe nearby soil collars. The biological properties of the soil, including dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and ammonia levels are measured from soil water samples in the laboratory. We find that saline sites under direct tidal influence produced methane fluxes ranging from -3.10 to 9.10 (mean 2.18) mg CH4 m-2 day-1. We also find that brackish sites (0.6 to 3.2 ppt in salinity) with fresh water input from residential runoff at the Peñasquitos Lagoon produced methane fluxes ranging from 0.53 to 192.10 (mean 33.34) mg CH4 m-2 day-1. Sampling was done over the course of 5 weeks during August-September of 2008. We hypothesize that the contrasting methane fluxes found between the saline and the brackish sites is due primarily to the different salinity, and in turn sulfate levels found at the two sites. The reduction of sulfate to produce energy is more energetically favorable than the reduction of carbon dioxide to produce methane. Thus the presence of sulfate may act as

  17. SOIL SALINITY MAPPING USING MULTITEMPORAL LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azabdaftari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010 are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index, BI (Brightness Index and SI (Salinity Index are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index, SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field’s electrical conductivity (EC measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR and multiple linear regression (MLR are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  18. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  19. The physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we investigated theoretical aspects of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in order to clarify some of the outstanding questions on space charge effects, high efficiency of small gap RPCs, charge spectra, signal shape and time resolution. In a series of reports we analyzed RPC performance including all detector aspects covering primary ionization, avalanche multiplication, space charge effects, signal induction in presence of resistive materials, crosstalk along detectors with long strips and front-end electronics. Using detector gas parameters entirely based on theoretical predictions and physical models for avalanche development and space charge effects we are able to reproduce measurements for 2 and 0.3 mm RPCs to very high accuracy without any additional assumptions. This fact gives a profound insight into the workings of RPCs and also underlines the striking difference in operation regime when compared to wire chambers. A summary of this work as well as recent results on three-dimensiona...

  20. Introduction for Diffusion Chamber Culture Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion-chamber system has been applied to studies of cell kinetics, progenitor cell quantitation, humoral effects, immunological effects, cytogenetics, organogenesis, and the cellular effects of drugs and physical factors such as radiation, hypoxia, etc. Chamber contents have been analyzed by clot dissolution with measuring of cell content, limiting dilution evaluation, radionuclide utilization (tritiated thymidine labeling), growth of colony number, size and type, CFU-S or CFU-C content, or proliferation by secondary culture in mice or in vitro systems, and chromosome changes. Cell types ranging from embryonal tissues to adult normal and neoplastic tissues have been grown in hosts across species barriers. Advantages and disadvantages of this system are discussed.

  1. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervell, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; De Sangro, R; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Panareo, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Von Hagel, U; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum K sub L (lambda sub L =3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged K sub L decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed.

  2. Diurnal variations in a sealed radon chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboy, W. B.; James, P. R.; Farmer, C. P.; Beard, J. E.

    1990-12-01

    During experiments to calibrate a radon-in-air counter, some unexpected diurnal variations have been observed. Inside the sealed stainless-steel chamber of a nominal volume of 3 litres, ionised 218Po atoms from the alpha-decay of 222Rn are attracted by an electric field to a ZnS(Ag) scintillation screen via which subsequent α-decay events are detected. Results for this configuration are presented and also for a modified version in which the scintillation screen is replaced by a high-resolution α-detector. Ambient temperature changes were suspected to be responsible for the observed counting-efficiency variation and this has been confirmed by operating the wall of the chamber at various temperatures between 0°C and about 40°C, which revealed a positive temperature coefficient of ˜1%/°C at 25°C. Possible reasons for this effect are considered.

  3. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  4. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  5. The Bern Infinitesimal Bubble Chamber (BIBC)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The chamber body was machined from a block of aluminium. The visible volume was cylindrical with 65 mm diameter and 35 mm depth. It was filled with propane or freon. It was meant as vertex detector in the search of short-lived particles. It was also used with in-line holography resulting in 8 µm bubble size and 9 cm depth of the field. See E. Ramseyer, B. Hahn and E. Hugentobler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201 (1982) 335.

  6. Efficient Determination of Reverberation Chamber Time Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Robinson, Martin P.; Flintoft, Ian D.; Dawson, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the rate of energy loss in a reverberation chamber is fundamental to many different measurements such as absorption cross-section, antenna efficiency, radiated power, and shielding effectiveness. Determination of the energy decay time-constant in the time domain by linear fitting the power delay profile, rather than using the frequency domain quality-factor, has the advantage of being independent of the radiation efficiency of antennas used in the measurement. However, determ...

  7. Vacuum Chamber for the Booster Bending Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    To minimise eddy currents, induced by the rising magnetic field, the chamber was made from thin stainless steel of high specific electric resistance. For mechanical strength, it was corrugated in a hydro-forming process. The cross-section was designed for maximum strength and maximum aperture. To accept particles with simultaneous large amplitudes in both planes, the cross-section approaches a rectangular shape (see also 7402463).

  8. Cell seeding chamber for bone graft substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, J.; Schieker, Matthias; Seitz, H.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for bone graft substitutes that are used as osteoconductive scaffolds in the treatment of bone defects and fractures. Achieving optimal bone regeneration requires initial cell seeding of the scaffolds prior to implantation. The cell seeding chamber is a closed assembly. It works like a sandglass. The position of the scaffold is between two reservoirs containing the fluid (e. g. blood). The fluid at the upper reservoir flows through the scaffold driven by gravity....

  9. Diurnal Variation of Anterior Chamber Flare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Adam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the ideal time and reproducibility of anterior chamber flare measurements. Materials and Methods: Anterior chamber flare measurements were performed with laser flaremetre device at 8 am to 45 volunteers and these measurements were repeated on the same day at 12 pm and 4 pm. Results: Twenty-five (55.5% of the volunteers were women and 20 (44.5% were men; mean age was 28.67±7.40 (18-49 years. The mean anterior chamber flare measurements taken following the ophthalmologic examination were 5.94±1.41 foton/msn at 8 am, 5.65±1.45 foton/msn at 12 pm, and 5.79±1.20 foton/msn at 4 pm. No statistical difference was found between the measurements (p=0.08. Subgroup analysis according to eye color, revealed no significant difference between flare measurements in brown, hazel, and green eyes (p=0.21. Correlation analysis demonstrated association between age and all flare measurements within the day (r=0.24, p=0.03; r=0.41, p=0.01, r=0.27, p=0.01. Conclusion: No significant diurnal change was detected in the flare measurements of our study subjects but positive correlation with age was observed. Hence, all flare measurements within a day are reliable and have high repeatability in healthy subjects. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 52-5

  10. Close cathode chamber: Low material budget MWPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Dezső; Kiss, Gábor; Hamar, Gergő; Bencédi, Gyula

    2013-01-01

    Performance of asymmetric-type MWPC-s are presented. In this structure, referred to as Close Cathode Chamber in an earlier study, the material budget is significantly reduced on one hand by the elimination of external support frame, on the other hand by thin detector walls. In this paper it is demonstrated that the outline is compatible with large size detectors (1 m wire length), maintaining mechanical and operation stability, with total weight of 3 kg (including support structure) for a half square meter surface. The detection efficiency and response time is shown to be sufficient for L0 triggering in the ALICE VHMPID layout. Reduced sensitivity to cathode deformations (due to internal overpressure as mechanical strain) is directly demonstrated. On small sized chambers, improvement of position resolution with analog readout is evaluated, reaching 0.09 mm RMS with 2 mm wide cathode segments. Simulation results on signal time evolutions are presented. With the above studies, comparison of classical MWPC-s and the Close Cathode Chamber design is performed in all major aspects.

  11. Menstrual history in altitude chamber trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, J U; Workman, W T

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies have determined a higher rate of altitude-induced decompression sickness (DCS) in women than in men. Women are reportedly at higher risk for developing DCS during menses. A study of menstrual history in women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS has never been accomplished. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze menstrual history in these women. Thirteen U.S. Air Force Aerospace Physiology Units participated in a USAF-approved survey for 1 year. After completing altitude chamber flights, data on age, day of menstrual cycle (DMC), birth control pill use (BCP), and mean durations of menstrual cycle and menses were collected. There were 508 responses analyzed. There was no differences between mean duration of menstrual cycle and menses in the Yes (Y) and No (N) BCP groups. Y and N BCP groups were equally distributed across the menstrual cycle. Women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS appear to be evenly distributed across their menstrual cycle, with use of BCPs not affecting their susceptibility to DCS.

  12. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  13. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time. Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results – i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  14. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  15. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  16. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  17. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  18. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  19. The HERMES forward tracking chambers construction, operation, and aging effects

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, J T; Clark, S; Ely, J; Fox, B; Hofman, G J; Kinney, E R; Mercer, D J; Rakness, G; Ristinen, R A; Smythe, W R; Warner, D

    2001-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of the HERMES forward (front) tracking chambers and associated electronics are described. Resolution and limited aging tests have been performed on these drift chambers, which use an Ar/CF sub 4 /CO sub 2 (90 : 5 : 5) gas mixture. No degradation in chamber performance has been observed for a cumulative charge in excess of 9 C/cm.

  20. A cylindrical drift chamber with azimuthal and axial position readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Shenhav, N.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Sanjari, A.H.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Shephard, W.D.; Stienike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M. [Massachusetts Univ., North Dartmouth, MA (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, L.I., NY 11973 (United States)]|[Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)]|[Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]|[Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    1997-02-21

    A cylindrical multiwire drift chamber with axial charge-division has been constructed and used in experiment E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It serves as a trigger element and as a tracking device for recoil protons in {pi}{sup -}p interactions. We describe the chamber`s design considerations, details of its construction, electronics, and performance characteristics. (orig.).

  1. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and maintained...

  2. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  3. Bi-cone vacuum chamber in the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The "bi-cone" vacuum chamber in ISR intersection I-7, for experiment R702. Made from 0.28 mm thick titanium, it was at its time the most transparent chamber ever built. Ian Wilson is standing next to the chamber. See also 7609219.

  4. Central Drift Chamber for rare kaon decay spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Cresswell, J.; Numao, T.

    1986-02-01

    Design of the Central Drift Chamber for BNL experiment 787 and measurement of a rare kaon decay are discussed. A jet chamber type cell with 6 sense wires and no interspersed field wires has been designed to achieve good spatial resolution and efficiency in a 1 T magnetic field. Results of the testing of a prototype chamber are presented.

  5. Installation and Commissioning of the new GLM Implantation Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summer student report about the work with the new implantation chamber for the GLM branch of ISOLDE. In the context of this project an API for the vacuum system of the new chamber was developed and implemented in web application that will be used to control the new implantation chamber at some point.

  6. 30 CFR 56.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing the combustion chamber. 56.7807 Section 56.7807 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7807 - Flushing the combustion chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing the combustion chamber. 57.7807... and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7807 Flushing the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber of a jet drill stem which has been sitting unoperated in a drill hole shall be...

  8. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  9. Safety observation of applying anterior chamber gas injection for unstable anterior chamber at the end of cataract surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong-Zhi Huang; Tao Sun; Yu-Ting Zhi; Li Li; Lu-Ning Yan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To observe the surgical effect, complications and assess the safety of applying anterior chamber injection of sterile air to treat instability of anterior chamber occurred at the end of cataract...

  10. Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of agricultural lands next to the Lake. The current research was aimed to predict soil salinity and distinguish the boundary line between saline and agricultural lands by taking in to account the spatial variability of soil salinity ...

  11. A combination drift chamber/pad chamber for very high readout rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, L.; Cataldi, G.; Elia, V.; Mazur, P.; Murphy, C.T.; Smith, R.P.; Yang, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Alexopoulos, T.; Durandet, C.; Erwin, A.; Jennings, J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Antoniazzi, L.; Introzzi, G.; Lanza, A.; Liguori, G.; Torre, P. [Pavia Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Arenton, M.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Dukes, E.; Golovatyuk, V.; Hanlet, P.; McManus, A.; Nelson, K.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Sun, J. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ballagh, C.; Bingham, H.; Kaeding, T.; Lys, J.; Misawa, S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Blankman, A.; Borodin, S.; Kononenko, W.; Newcomer, M.; Selove, W.; Trojak, T.; VanBerg, R.; Zhang, S.N. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Block, M.; Corti, G.; LeCompte, T.; Rosen, J.; Yao, T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Boden, A.; Cline, D.; Ramachandran, S.; Rhoades, J.; Tokar, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Budagov, J.; Tsyganov, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR); Cao, Z.L.; He, M.; Wang, C.; Wei, C.; Zhang, N. [Shandong Univ., Jinan, SD (China); Chen, T.Y.; Yao, N. [Nanjing Univ., JS (China); Clark, K.; Jenkins, M. [University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Cooper, M. [Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Creti, P.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M. [Lecce Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Fortney, L.; Kowald, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Turnbull, L.; Wagoner, D. [Texas A and M Univ., Prairie View, TX (United States); Lau, K.; Mo, G. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Trischuk, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1991-11-01

    Six medium-sized ({approx}1 {times} 2 m{sup 2}) drift chambers with pad and stripe readout have been constructed for and are presently operating in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment E-771. Each chamber module actually represents a pair of identical planes: two sets of anode wires, two sets of stripes, and two sets of pads. The wire planes are read out separately and represent X measurements in the coordinate system of the experiment. The twin stripe and pad planes are internally paired within the chamber modules; stripe signals represent Y measurements and pad signals combination X and Y measurements. Signals which develop on the stripes and pads are mirror (but inverted) images of what is seen on the wires. In addition to being used in the off-line pattern recognition, pad signals are also used as inputs to an on-line high transverse momentum (pt) trigger processor. While the techniques involved in the design and construction of the chambers are not novel, they may be of interest to experiments contemplating very large area, high rate chambers for future spectrometers.

  12. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  13. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the ... Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water ... concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively.

  14. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  15. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D; Michael, G.S.

    salinity of this water due to evaporation in the North Arabian Sea, (2) poleward coastal undercurrent along the west coast of India during the southwest monsoon. The theta-S characteristics of the four salinity extrema are used to put into perspective...

  16. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON SURVIVAL AND LARVAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations was conducted to gain a better insight into the effect of changing salinity regime on the development and survival of Macrobrachium vollenhoveli larvae. At water temperature of 28 ± 2oC, larvae reared in the salinity range of 0 to 10 ppt showed low survival (<48%), whereas those reared at 12 ...

  17. A novel non invasive measurement of hemodynamic parameters: Comparison of single-chamber ventricular and dual-chamber pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Pardede

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a cross sectional study to analyze hemodynamic parameters of single-chamber ventricular pacemaker compared with dual-chamber pacemaker by using thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring method (Physio Flow™ - a novel simple non-invasive measurement. A total of 48 consecutive outpatients comprised of 27 single chamber pacemaker and 21 dual chamber were analyzed. We measured cardiac parameters: heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac output index, estimated ejection fraction, end diastolic volume, early diastolic function ratio, thoracic fluid index, and systemic parameters: left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index. Baseline characteristic and pacemaker indication were similar in both groups. Cardiac parameters assessment revealed no significant difference between single-chamber pacemaker and dual-chamber pacemaker in heart rate, stroke volume index, cardiac index, estimated ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, thoracic fluid index. There was significantly higher early diastolic function ratio in single-chamber pacemaker compared to dual-chamber pacemaker: 92% (10.2-187.7% vs. 100.6% (48.7-403.2%; p=0.006. Systemic parameters assessment revealed significantly higher left cardiac work index in single-chamber group than dual-chamber group 4.9 kg.m/m² (2.8-7.6 kg.m/m² vs. 4.3 kg.m/m² (2.9-7.2 kg.m/m²; p=0.004. There was no significant difference on systemic vascular resistance in single-chamber compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. Single-chamber ventricular pacemaker provides similar stroke volume, cardiac output and left cardiac work, compared to dual-chamber pacemaker. A non-invasive hemodynamic measurement using thoracic electrical bioimpedance is feasible for permanent pacemaker outpatients. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 25-32Keywords: Permanent pacemaker, single chamber, dual chamber, thoracic electrical bioimpedance, hemodynamic parameter

  18. The salicylic acid effect on the tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill. germination, growth and photosynthetic pigment under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahba Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research tomato seeds planted in pots containing perlite in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27±2°c and 23±2°c temperature , 16h lightness and 8h darkness respectively, 15 Klux light intensity and 75% humidity; NaCl concentration of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and salicylic acid concentration of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. Results show that germination was decreased with salinity increasing. At low levels of salinity, SA leads to decrease in germination and had no effect in high levels of salinity. The length of shoot were not effected by salinity but decrease with increase in SA concentration. Low salinity concentrations led to significant increase in root length and high concentrations don’t have significant difference with control. SA also had no effect on it. The highest amount of a, b, c and total chlorophyll and carotenoid was show in 50 mM salinity levels.

  19. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  20. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  1. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  2. String quartet chamber music : the personal way of music development

    OpenAIRE

    Montant, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is about chamber music and more specifically string quartet. How and why chamber music should be a real part of a musician’s life. In the introduction, it is explained why it is important to play chamber music and what qualities a musician needs to be good at it. Then a description of what is chamber music litterally is exposed. The history recounts what was chamber music from its early beginings until our days and why it has so much evolves. About interpretation, t...

  3. Unravelling and Reconstructing the Nexus of Salinity, Electricity, and Microbial Ecology for Bioelectrochemical Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heyang; Sun, Shan; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2017-11-07

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are an emerging concept for simultaneous water/wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The key to developing MDCs is to understand fundamental problems, such as the effects of salinity on system performance and the role of microbial community and functional dynamics. Herein, a tubular MDC was operated under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.05-4 M), and the salinity effects were comprehensively examined. The MDC generated higher current with higher salt concentrations in the desalination chamber. When fed with 4 M NaCl, the MDC achieve a current density of 300 A m-3 (anode volume), which was one of the highest among bioelectrochemical system studies. Community analysis and electrochemical measurements suggested that electrochemically active bacteria Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter transferred electrons extracellularly via electron shuttles, and the consequent ion migration led to high anode salinities and conductivity that favored their dominance. Predictive functional dynamics and Bayesian networks implied that the taxa putatively not capable of extracellular electron transfer (e.g., Bacteroidales and Clostridiales) might indirectly contribute to bioelectrochemical desalination. By integrating the Bayesian network with logistic regression, current production was successfully predicted from taxonomic data. This study has demonstrated uncompromised system performance under high salinity and thus has highlighted the potential of MDCs as an energy-efficient technology to address water-energy challenges. The statistical modeling approach developed in this study represents a significant step toward understating microbial communities and predicting system performance in engineered biological systems.

  4. Cost advantage of dual-chamber versus single-chamber cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Zachary; Elbel, Brian; McPherson, Craig A; Paltiel, A David; Lampert, Rachel

    2005-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the least expensive strategy for device selection in patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Device cost for a single-chamber ICD is less than an atrioventricular (dual-chamber) ICD (AV-ICD); however, some patients without clinical need for AV-ICD at implantation might require a later upgrade, potentially offsetting the initial cost advantage of the single-chamber device. Decision analysis was used to estimate expected resource utilization costs of three alternative implantation strategies: 1) single-chamber device in all, with later upgrade to AV-ICD if needed; 2) initial implantation of an AV-ICD in all; and 3) targeted device selection on the basis of results of electrophysiologic testing (presence or absence of induced bradyarrhythmias or atrial arrhythmias). Clinical base estimates were obtained from retrospective review of all patients receiving ICDs between June 1997 and July 2001 at a single university hospital. Economic inputs were collected from national and single-center sources. In patients without other indications for electrophysiologic study (EPS), the expected per-person cost was least with the strategy of universal initial AV-ICD implantation (36,232 dollars) compared with initial single-chamber ICD/upgrade as needed (39,230 dollars) or EPS-guided selection (41,130 dollars). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that universal AV-ICD implantation remained least expensive with upgrade rates as low as 10%. At a 5% upgrade rate, AV-ICD remained cheapest if the device cost-differential narrowed to 1,568 dollars. For patients undergoing EPS for risk assessment, EP-guided selection was least expensive. The strategy of universal AV-ICD implantation, which provides the benefits of dual-chamber capability while obviating any potential need for future upgrade, is the least costly strategy for most patient populations receiving ICDs.

  5. Dynamic consideration of smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chuang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the α-pinene + ozone reaction that address particle nucleation show relatively high molar yields of highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules with very low saturation concentrations that can form and grow new particles on their own. However, numerous smog-chamber experiments addressing secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass yields, interpreted via equilibrium partitioning theory, suggest that the vast majority of SOA from α-pinene is semivolatile. We explore this paradox by employing a dynamic volatility basis set (VBS model that reproduces the new-particle growth rates observed in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and then modeling SOA mass yield experiments conducted at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU. We find that the base-case simulations do overpredict observed SOA mass but by much less than an equilibrium analysis would suggest; this is because delayed condensation of vapors suppresses the apparent mass yields early in the chamber experiments. We further find that a second VBS model featuring substantial oligomerization of semivolatile monomers can match the CLOUD growth rates with substantially lower SOA mass yields; this is because the lighter monomers have a higher velocity and thus a higher condensation rate for a given mass concentration. The oligomerization simulations are a closer match to the CMU experiments than the base-case simulations, though they overpredict the observations somewhat. However, we also find that if the chemical conditions in CLOUD and the CMU chamber were identical, substantial nucleation would have occurred in the CMU experiments when in fact none occurred. This suggests that the chemical mechanisms differed in the two experiments, perhaps because the high oxidation rates in the SOA formation experiments led to rapid termination of peroxy radical chemistry.

  6. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Magno de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  7. Dynamic consideration of smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wayne K.; Donahue, Neil M.

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies of the α-pinene + ozone reaction that address particle nucleation show relatively high molar yields of highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules with very low saturation concentrations that can form and grow new particles on their own. However, numerous smog-chamber experiments addressing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields, interpreted via equilibrium partitioning theory, suggest that the vast majority of SOA from α-pinene is semivolatile. We explore this paradox by employing a dynamic volatility basis set (VBS) model that reproduces the new-particle growth rates observed in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and then modeling SOA mass yield experiments conducted at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). We find that the base-case simulations do overpredict observed SOA mass but by much less than an equilibrium analysis would suggest; this is because delayed condensation of vapors suppresses the apparent mass yields early in the chamber experiments. We further find that a second VBS model featuring substantial oligomerization of semivolatile monomers can match the CLOUD growth rates with substantially lower SOA mass yields; this is because the lighter monomers have a higher velocity and thus a higher condensation rate for a given mass concentration. The oligomerization simulations are a closer match to the CMU experiments than the base-case simulations, though they overpredict the observations somewhat. However, we also find that if the chemical conditions in CLOUD and the CMU chamber were identical, substantial nucleation would have occurred in the CMU experiments when in fact none occurred. This suggests that the chemical mechanisms differed in the two experiments, perhaps because the high oxidation rates in the SOA formation experiments led to rapid termination of peroxy radical chemistry.

  8. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanis, Robert; Korn, Dieter; Zachow, Stefan; Rybacki, Erik; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth.

  9. Anterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Raju N

    1989-01-01

    The role of A.C. IOL in modern implant surgery has become somewhat debatable, since, the choice procedure to day is undoubtedly an ECCE with a PC lens implant preferably in the capsular bag. Even so, anterior chamber lens implantation has its definite indications. As such it is necessary for the implant surgeon to be familiar with the latest technique in this modality of surgery as well. Many of the complications of earlier rigid model AC IOLs were mainly due to defective lens design. With th...

  10. Posterior chamber intraocular lens dislocations and malpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstbaum, S A; To, K

    1989-08-01

    Decentration and malposition of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOL) accounts for one of the remaining and unresolved conditions associated with the implantation of these lenses. This condition assumes importance since in approximately 50% of cases where a PC IOL is removed there is an aspect of improper positioning. The common types of malpositions are: pupil capture; sunset syndrome; sunrise syndrome; horizontal decentration; and the windshield wiper syndrome. This paper will explore the causes and management of these conditions and discuss the virtues of capsular bag implantation.

  11. Chamber service module (CSM1) for MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Binchi, P

    2002-01-01

    CSM-1 is the second and latest version of the high speed electronic unit whose primary task is to multiplex serial data from up to 18 ASD /TDC cards located at the ends of the Monitored Drift Tubes. Each CSM will capture data from all 24 channel TDC (AMT-2 units) of a given chamber and transfer it along a single optic fiber to the MROD, the event builder and readout driver. The core of the board is a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA which will use JTAG protocol (IEEE Std. 1149.1) for logic configuration parameter loading.

  12. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A.

    1985-11-26

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  13. Microstrip gas chambers on implanted substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Barthe, S. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bergtold, A.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Brom, J.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Cailleret, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Christophel, E. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Coffin, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Eberle, H. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Fang, R. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Fontaine, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Geist, W. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Kachelhoffer, T. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Levy, J.M. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Mack, V. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Sigward, M.H. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1995-12-11

    We have studied the performance of several Microstrip Gas Chamber (MSGC) prototypes made on standard Desag D263 boron implanted glass. The purpose of the implantation is to reduce the surface resistance. The long term stability of this implantation has been measured under applied bias voltage. Comparative tests have been carried out on prototypes made on implanted and unimplanted detectors under electron ({sup 90}Sr) and X-ray (8 keV) irradiation. The total dose was approximately 7 mC/cm. (orig.).

  14. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Physik. 42, 303-344,        1913. [3]    KRAMERS, H.A.: On a modification of Jaffe's theory pf column-ionization. Physica. 10, 18,        665-675, 1952. [4]    CHU, J.C.H., GRANT, WH., ALMOND, P.R.: A liquid Ionization Chamber for neutron        dosimetry. Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 25, 1133-1148, 1980....

  15. Investigation on temperature separation and flow behaviour in vortex chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yuhi; Fukushima, Yusuke; Matsuo, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Tokitada; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    In the previous researches, it is known that the swirl flow in circular pipe causes the temperature separation. Recently, it is shown that the temperature separation occurs in a vortex chamber when compressed air are pumped into this device from the periphery. Especially, in a cavity installed in the periphery of the chamber, the highest temperature was observed. Therefore, it is expected that this device can be used as a heat source in the engineering field. In recent researches, the mechanism of temperature separation in vortex chamber has been investigated by some researchers. However, there are few researches for the effect of diameter and volume of vortex chamber, height of central rod and position of cavity on the temperature separation. Further, no detailed physical explanation has been made for the temperature separation phenomena in the vortex chamber. In the present study, the effects of chamber configuration and position of the cavity on temperature separation in the vortex chamber were investigated experimentally.

  16. Golden Jubilee photos: The first CERN bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  17. Surface drifters measuring sea water salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Gilles; Centurioni, Luca; Sena-Martins, Meike; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Salvador, Joaquin; Sommer, Anna; Boutin, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    Surface drifters have been introduced in the early 1990s by P.P. Niiler to measure the salinity of the near-surface water as well as its temperature. First, they were deployed to document large scale advection of surface salinity fronts, such as during TOGA-COARE (1991). More recently, salinity drifter data were used for three purposes: 1 - provide in situ data coverage for validation of sea surface (SSS) products, such as provided by band-L microwave radiometry from satellite missions, Aquarius, SMOS, SMAP 2 - provide data for better understanding upper ocean response to air-sea interactions, such as during rainfall, or near-surface warming during low wind events 3 - provide estimates of surface advection of salinity features and their contribution to ocean freshwater budget We will review the drifters that have been deployed and where data were collected, the challenges encountered in correcting the data, ongoing plans and future developments. A comparison of salinity data of more than 60 SVP drifters to SMOS and Aquarius SSS fields in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre illustrates the potential for validating products from satellite missions over more than a year (SPURS-1 2012-2013 experiment). Data collocated during tropical rain events illustrate a short-term response of near-surface salinity and temperature that can be quantified, although we lack precise collocated wind data. It is rather consistent with independently-derived surface salinity response to rain based on SMOS salinity retrievals, and model estimations. An extreme case of close to 10 psu near-surface salinity drop due to rainfall is presented. Recent salinity drifter deployments in the rainy region of the eastern Pacific ITCZ (SPURS-2 2016 experiment) illustrate the small time and space scale variability associated with freshwater lenses in this region. Some data from a new tag (surpact) will be presented with simultaneous estimates of sea state, rain rate, temperature and salinity during rain

  18. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  19. Parametric investigation of a brine lens formation above degassing magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Melnik, Oleg; Utkin, Ivan; Tsvetkova, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Formation of porphyry-type ore deposits is associated with degassing of crustal magma chambers. Saline, metal-rich magmatic fluid penetrates into a shallow region saturated with cold meteoric water where the metals concentrate in brine lenses. The formation of the lenses and, thus, of the deposits occurs due to phase transitions [1]. The evaporation of H2O results in enrichment of residual fluid in NaCl. At a depth of 1-2 km precipitation of solid halite blocks the pore space and facilitates formation of concentrated brine lenses. In order to investigate lens formation, we developed an extension of our multiphase simulator MUFITS [2] for NaCl-H2O mixture flows. We applied the code in a simple axisymmetric scenario with a high permeability zone in the central part of the domain surrounded by low permeable rocks. The high permeability zone simulates a volcanic conduit above a magma body. The degassing of magma is simulated with a point source of hot supercritical fluid that ascends rapidly up the conduit, undergoing phase transitions en route. Evaporation and rapid ascend of vapor results in increasing from bottom to top salinity of the fluid. As temperature and pressure decline closer to the surface, solid halite precipitates blocking the conduit. Convection of meteoric water in surrounding rocks favors compact location of the brine lens beneath the region of precipitation. Typical temperature in the lens is 450-550°C and overpressure above lithostatic is a few MPa. We conducted a parametric analysis, investigating the influence of model parameters on accumulation of halite and metals. We found that a higher permeability in the conduit, a smaller permeability in the surrounding rocks and a higher salinity of magmatic fluid favor larger lenses. A smaller magmatic fluid temperature T , i.e. temperature in the chamber, results in a smaller lens that disappears abruptly at a threshold value Ta≈ 650˚ C, and it does not form at T Ta the lens parameters are most

  20. Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline ar...

  1. Estuarine Salinity Mapping From Airborne Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. P.; Gao, Y.; Cook, P. L. M.; Ye, N.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are critical ecosystems providing both ecological habitat and human amenity including boating and recreational fishing. Salinity gradients, caused by the mixing of fresh and salt water, exert an overwhelming control on estuarine ecology and biogeochemistry as well as being a key tracer for model calibration. At present, salinity monitoring within estuaries typically uses point measurements or underway boat-based methods, which makes sensing of localised phenomena such as upwelling of saline bottom water difficult. This study has pioneered the use of airborne radiometry (passive microwave) sensing as a new method to remotely quantify estuarine salinity, allowing rapid production of high resolution surface salinity maps. The airborne radiometry mapping was conducted for the Gippsland Lakes, the largest estuary in Australia, in February, July, October and November of 2015, using the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR). Salinity was retrieved from the brightness temperature collected by PLMR with results validated against boat sampling conducted concurrently with each flight. Results showed that the retrieval accuracy of the radiative transfer model was better than 5 ppt for most flights. The spatial, temporal and seasonal variations of salinity observed in this study are also analysed and discussed.

  2. Contrasting responses of salinity-stressed salt-tolerant and intolerant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y H; Li, X; Li, Y G; Miao, B H; Xu, H; Simmons, M; Yang, X H

    2012-03-01

    Contrasting winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant DK961 and intolerant JN17, which sown in no salinity (-S) and salinity (+S) boxes were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CF) and elevated O(3) (+O(3)) in open top chambers (OTCs) for 30 days. In -S DK961 and JN17 plants, +O(3) DK961 and JN17 plants had significantly lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (A(sat), 26% and 24%), stomatal conductance (g(s), 20% and 32%) and chlorophyll contents (10% and 21%), while O(3) considerably increased foliar electrolyte leakage (13% and 39%), malondialdehyde content (9% and 23%), POD activity and ABA content. However, responses of these parameters to O(3) were significant in DK961 but not in JN17 in +S treatment. Correlation coefficient of DK961 reached significance level of 0.01, but it was not significant in JN17 under interaction of O(3) and salinity. O(3)-induced reductions were larger in shoot than in root in both cultivars. Results indicate that the salt-tolerant cultivar sustained less damage from salinity than did the intolerant cultivar but was severely injured by O(3) under +S condition. Therefore, selecting for greater salt tolerance may not lead to the expected gains in yield in areas of moderate (100 mM) salinity when O(3) is present in high concentrations. In contrast, salinity-induced stomatal closure effectively reduced sensitivity to O(3) in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Hence we suggest salt-tolerant winter wheat cultivars might be well adapted to areas of high (>100 mM) salinity and O(3) stress, while intolerant cultivars might be adaptable to areas of mild/moderate salinity but high O(3) pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  4. BEBC, the Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The vessel of the Big European Bubble Chamber, BEBC, was installed at the beginning of the 1970s. The large stainless-steel vessel, measuring 3.7 metres in diameter and 4 metres in height, was filled with 35 cubic metres of liquid (hydrogen, deuterium or a neon-hydrogen mixture), whose sensitivity was regulated by means of a huge piston weighing 2 tonnes. During each expansion, the trajectories of the charged particles were marked by a trail of bubbles, where liquid reached boiling point as they passed through it. The first images were recorded in 1973 when BEBC, equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in service at the time, first received beam from the PS. In 1977, the bubble chamber was exposed to neutrino and hadron beams at higher energies of up to 450 GeV after the SPS came into operation. By the end of its active life in 1984, BEBC had delivered a total of 6.3 million photographs to 22 experiments devoted to neutrino or hadron physics. Around 600 scientists from some fifty laboratories through...

  5. Translimbal fixation of posterior chamber lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Wongwai, Pantipa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Suthasinee

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the result of a surgical technique to insert and secure a standard posterior chamber lens through a simple limbal incision in eyes that had no capsular support or whose capsule was inadvertently ruptured during extracapsular cataract extraction. Retrospective review of the medical records of patients who underwent translimbal fixation of posterior chamber lenses according to age, gender, preoperative visual acuity, postoperative visual acuity, follow-up period and any complications, especially those that may be related to the surgical technique. Twelve patients were recruited in the present study. The patents' age ranged from 31 to 77 years, with a mean of 62.58 years. There were 9 male and 3 female patients. The preoperative visual acuity ranged from hand motion to counting fingers, and the postoperative visual acuity ranged from 6/6 to 6/24 except one patient who had postoperative visual acuity of counting fingers due to a pre-existing macular hole. The length of follow-up period ranged from 3 to 12 months, with a mean of 6.17 months. There was no clinically significant lens-related complication. This simple surgical technique controls the location of the needle entry and exit to decrease the risk of bleeding and increase the chance of ciliary sulcus placement. An inferior groove was made to bury the suture knot and was sutured closed to prevent the knot erosion through the conjunctiva.

  6. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martoff, C J; Ohnuki, T; Spooner, N J C; Lehner, M

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 mu m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with ze...

  7. Prototype for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This is a prototype endplate piece constructed during R&D for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC). ALEPH was one of 4 experiments at CERN's 27km Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) that ran from 1989 to 2000. ALEPH's TPC was a large-volume tracking chamber, 4.4 metres long and 3.6 metres in diameter - the largest TPC in existance at the time. This object is one of the endplates of a “Kind” sector, the smallest of the three types of sectors. The patterns etched into the copper form the cathode pads that measured particle track coordinates in the r-phi direction. It included a laser calibration system, a gating system to prevent space charge buildup, and a new radial pad geometry to improve resolution. the ALEPH TPC allowed for precise momentum measurements of the high-momentum particles from W and Z decays. The following institutes participated: CERN, Athens, Glasgow, Mainz, MPI Munich, INFN-Pisa, INFN-Trieste, Wisconsin.

  8. Aging Investigation of CMS EMU Prototype Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson*, T; Krivshich, Anatoli; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobachev, Evgeny; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Schipunov, L

    1999-01-01

    The aging investigation results of CMS EMU prototype chambers are presented. Aging tests under sustained irradiation by a 90Sr 2 Ci were performed with three working gas mixtures Ar( 30%)+CO2( 50%)+CF4( 20%), Ar( 30%)+CO2( 70%) and Ar( 40%)+CO2( 50%)+CF4( 10%). For Ar( 30%)+CO2( 50%)+CF4( 20%) mixture gas gain reduction was not observed up to the accumulated charge Q = 13.56 C/cm. However, the dark current in the chamber was noticeable starting already from Q = 2 C/cm. The absence of the CF4 ( in the Ar/CO2 gas mixture) caused fast aging deterioration, and Q = 0.2 C/cm was enough to obtain 50% of the gas gain reduction. In the test with Ar( 40%)+CO2( 50%)+CF4( 10%) mixture the gas gain reduction and the dark current increase were not observed up to Q = 13.35 C/cm. Reduction of the gas flow rate to 0.1 volume per day caused 50% of the gain decrease due to the gas pollution by fragments of dissociated gas molecules. The gain restored after switching back to the 1 volume per day flow rate. Studies with electroni...

  9. COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Gerstl, S; Grau, A W; Hagelstein, M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Boffo, C; Sikler, G; Baglin, V; Cox, M P; Schouten, J C; Cimino, R; Commisso, M; Spataro, B; Mostacci, A; Wallen, E J; Weigel, R; Clarke, J; Scott, D; Bradshaw, T; Jones, R; Shinton, I

    2011-01-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconducting insertion devices is the understanding of the beam heat load. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the beam heat load mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics is under construction. The following diagnostics will be implemented: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. The inner vacuum chamber will be removable in order to test different geometries and materials. This will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG will be built to fit in a short straight section at ANKA. A first installation at the synchrotron light source Diamond is foreseen in June 2011. Here we describe the technical design report of this device and the planned measurements with beam.

  10. Sea-surface salinity: the missing measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Koblinsky, Chester

    2003-04-01

    Even the youngest child knows that the sea is salty. Yet, routine, global information about the degree of saltiness and the distribution of the salinity is not available. Indeed, the sea surface salinity measurement is a key missing measurement in global change research. Salinity influences circulation and links the ocean to global change and the water-cycle. Space-based remote sensing of important global change ocean parameters such as sea-surface temperature and water-cycle parameters such as precipitation have been available to the research community but a space-based global sensing of salinity has been missing. In July 2002, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) announced that the Aquarius mission, focused on the global measurement of sea surface salinity, is one of the missions approved under its ESSP-3 program. Aquarius will begin a risk-reduction phase during 2003. Aquarius will carry a multi-beam 1.4 GHz (L-band) radiometer used for retrieving salinity. It also will carry a 1.2 GHz (L-band) scatterometer used for measuring surface roughness. Aquarius is tentatively scheduled for a 2006 launch into an 8-day Sun-synchronous orbit. Aquarius key science data product will be a monthly, global surface salinity map at 100 km resolution with an accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units. Aquarius will have a 3 year operational period. Among other things, global salinity data will permit estimates of sea surface density, or buoyancy, that drives the ocean's three-dimensional circulation.

  11. Biochar Mitigates Salinity Stress in Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, S S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water...... with the respective non-biochar control. Decreased Na+, Na+/K+ ratio and increased K+ content in xylem with biochar amendment also indicated its ameliorative effects on potato plants in response to salinity stress. The results suggested that incorporation of biochar might be a promising approach for enhancing crop...

  12. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  13. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments...

  14. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  15. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  16. High volume normal saline alone is as effective as nebulized salbutamol-normal saline, epinephrine-normal saline, and 3% saline in mild bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Ayse Berna; Anil, Murat; Saglam, Ayse Bircan; Cetin, Nevin; Bal, Alkan; Aksu, Nejat

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectivenesses of nebulized salbutamol, epinephrin, 3% saline, and normal saline (0.9% NaCl) in the treatment of mildly affected infants with acute bronchiolitis. We enrolled 186 children (mean age 9.5 +/- 5.3 months, range 1.5-24 months, 65.1% male) with a first episode of wheezing diagnosed as mild bronchiolitis in emergency department. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive 4 ml dose either of 1.5 mg epinephrine plus normal saline (group 1; n = 38) or 1.5 mg epinephrine plus 3% saline (group 2; n = 39) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus normal saline (group 3; n = 36) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus 3% saline (group 4; n = 36) or normal saline alone (group 5; n = 37) at 0 and 30 min. Thus, all treatment modalities included high amount of NaCl (72-240 mg). Clinical score, oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. After discharge, patients were reassessed by telephone contact at 48 hr and 6 months. The baseline characteristics were similar in all groups (P > 0.05). The outcome of patients at 120 min was found significantly better than the baseline values (P 0.05). No adverse effects attributable to nebulized therapy were seen. In conclusion, all treatment modalities used in this study, including a total of 8 ml normal saline inhalation at 30-min interval showed clinically significant and swift improvement in mildly affected ambulatory infants with acute bronchiolitis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  18. Investigation of mixing chamber for experimental FGD reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical investigation of flow and mixing of air and sulphur dioxide SO2 in designated mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is a part of experimental laboratory reactor designed for simulating the flue gas desulfurization (FGD process. Aim of this work is the numerical investigation of effect of different mixing chamber geometries to mixture composition, especially to mass fraction of sulphur dioxide. Using of similar concentration of sulphur dioxide in the experimental reactor as in the real process is necessary to be able to make additional research. Conclusion describes the effect of different geometries of mixing chamber to mixing. The aim of this work is to develop perfectly works mixing chamber, which will be manufactured and then implemented into experimental FGD reactor. The results will be validated by experiment after the mixing chamber will be manufactured.

  19. Characterization of a homemade ionization chamber for radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Gelson P. dos, E-mail: gpsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    A homemade cylindrical ionization chamber was studied for routine use in therapy beams of {sup 60}Co and X-rays. Several characterization tests were performed: leakage current, saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, stability, stabilization time, chamber orientation and energy dependence. All results obtained were within international recommendations. Therefore the homemade ionization chamber presents usefulness for routine dosimetric procedures in radiotherapy beams. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homemade ionization chamber was studied for routine use in radiotherapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several characterization tests were performed and the results were satisfactory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber was compared to commercial ones and the results were similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber is suitable for calibration procedures in {sup 60}Co beams.

  20. Emulsion chamber observations and interpretation (HE 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results from Emulsion Chamber (EC) experiments at mountain altitudes or at higher levels using flying carriers are examined. The physical interest in this field is concentrated on the strong interaction at the very high energy region exceeding the accelerator energy, also on the primary cosmic ray intensity and its chemical composition. Those experiments which observed cosmic ray secondaries gave information on high energy interaction characteristics through the analyses of secondary spectra, gamma-hadron families and C-jets (direct observation of the particle production occuring at the carbon target). Problems of scaling violation in fragmentation region, interaction cross section, transverse momentum of produced secondaries, and some peculiar features of exotic events are discussed.

  1. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  2. Neutron sensitivity of thin gap chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Nanjo, H; Hasuko, K; Ishino, M; Kobayashi, T; Takemoto, T; Tsuno, S; Ye, B

    2005-01-01

    Thin gap chambers (TGC) will be used for triggering forward muons in the ATLAS detector for the LHC at CERN. A large amount of neutron background is foreseen in the ATLAS experiment. This paper describes the measurements of the neutron sensitivities (detection efficiencies) of the TGCs. The sensitivities of both small and real size TGCs to 2.5 and 14MeV mono-energetic neutrons were measured. For a small size TGC, sensitivities of 0.032% and 0.10% were measured to 2.5 and 14MeV neutrons, respectively, whereas for a real size TGC, sensitivities of 0.048% and 0.13% were measured. These measured values were in reasonably good agreement with the simulations based on the Geant4.

  3. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  4. The time projection chamber at triumf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, D.; Leitch, M.; Navon, I.; Numao, T.; Schlatter, P.; Dixit, M. S.; Hargrove, C. K.; Mes, H.; Bennett, A.; Macdonald, J. A.; Skegg, R.; Spuller, J.; Burnham, A.; Hasinoff, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Martin, J.-P.; Poutissou, R.; Blecher, M.; Gotow, K.; Carter, A. L.

    1984-02-01

    The time projection chamber at TRIUMF is being used to search for muon-electron conversion. The best spatial resolution in the TPC, σ≂200 μm, occurs at the minimum drift length and for an optimum track-to-anode crossing angle determined by the magnetic field. The observed resolution is dependent on th diffusion of the drifting electrons, the track-to-anode crossing angle, E↘×B↘ effects near the anode wire and the discrete nature of the ionization process. Distortions due to positive ions leaking back into the drift volume from the anode wire region have been nearly eliminated by the use of a pulsed dual grid system.

  5. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  6. Assessment of Halophyte Growth in Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A.; Stracke, S.; Nowak, B.; Goehring, N.; Saito, L.; Verburg, P.

    2016-12-01

    Salinization of soil and water can pose a serious threat for irrigated agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions as high concentrations of salt negatively impacts crop production and, consequently, the agricultural economy. Highly salt-tolerant plants, or halophytes, may provide a viable option for saline areas, enabling economic production from previously unproductive land. Many halophytes can be used for human consumption, forage for livestock, or biofuel production. These plants may also remediate saline soils by taking up the salt from the soil, thereby improving conditions for conventional crop cultivation. This project aims to determine halophyte growth under different salt stresses. Two halophytic crops, AC Saltlander green wheatgrass (Elymus hoffmannii) and Rainbow quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa var. rainbow), were cultivated in a greenhouse with saline soil treatments (2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 dS/m) and saline irrigation treatments (1, 2, 4, and 6 dS/m), resulting in 20 different treatment combinations. Plant characteristics such as leaf area, number of tillers and branches, and leaf height were measured until harvest. A subset of harvested biomass (inflorescences, stems, leaves, and roots) and soil subsamples were analyzed for nutrient and salt content to determine relationships between salinity treatments, aboveground and belowground biomass, and nutrient content. Results from this experiment will be used to help parametrize models simulating different management scenarios for a variety of halophytic species.

  7. High salinity anomalies south of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K.; Carter, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of higher salinity water were observed, using Seaglider data, in the upper 50m of the water-column between Oahu and Penguin Bank. These anomalies occur approximately once a month, and are visible in the glider data for an average of 3 days. Anomalies have abrupt transitions occurring over mere hours. Salinity within the patches can reach values in excess of 35.2 psu, 0.3 higher than the average profile for the region. The salinity signature associated with the anomalies corresponds to Subtropical surface water, found north of the Hawaiian island chain. The high salinity water is trapped by the thermocline in the mixed layer. Seasonal variations of the anomaly depth are directly related to the seasonal variations of mixed layer depth. These patches of high salinity coincide with the presence of eddies. Using sea surface height as an indicator, we found that eddy-eddy interaction and eddy-island interaction dictate the advection of upwelled waters into the region. Infrequently, we observe corresponding temperature anomalies. The larger the distance between the center of the eddy and the glider, the less visible the temperature anomaly. Positive (negative) values indicate salinity above (below) the mean profile.

  8. Normal Saline Versus Hypertonic 3% Saline: It’s Efficacy in Non-Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinusitis is one of the most common diseases in general and in otolaryngology practice, but the optimal therapeutic options have not yet been fully developed. This manuscript will try to compare normal saline nasal douching with hypertonic saline in reducing symptoms and improving its signs. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients suffering from non acute rhinosinusitis, documented by history, physical examination and radiologic studies were divided into normal saline and hypertonic saline groups, each consisting of 57 patients. data were obtained by physical examination and a questionnaire.. Results:  Type of treatment had no significant effect on headache, morning dryness of mouth and pharynx and fatigue. Nontheless, nasal congestion, purulent discharge and postnasal discharge were reported to have improved in the group treated with hypertonic saline versus the normal saline group. Patient satisfaction also showed better scores in the hypertonic saline group. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline (3% is more effective for nasal irrigation  than normal saline in chronic rhinosinusitis.

  9. Acoustic analysis of a semi-anechoic chamber with intersection

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nassiri; M. R. Monazzam; F. Zivary Delavar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The previous studies have used fibrous absorbents usually in the form of cone-shaped wedges for making anechoic and semi-anechoic chambers which their design and construction have been costly and difficult. The present study aimed to design a semi-anechoic chamber, using rectangular fibrous absorbents and also perform acoustic analysis for it. . Material and Method: In the present study, which was done at semi-anechoic chamber of the laboratory in Tehran University of Medical...

  10. Ageing tests for the MEG II drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M., E-mail: marco.venturini@pi.infn.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [ICEPP, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Cei, F.; D' Onofrio, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G.; Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Zermini, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The MEG II drift chamber will track positrons from μ{sup +} decays in a very harsh environment. For testing the robustness of the chamber to ageing effects an irradiation facility was set up at INFN Pisa. - Highlights: • We built up an X-ray facility for ageing studies of particle detectors. • Stable irradiation conditions were obtained over one-month timescale. • A moderate gain loss is expected for the MEG II drift chamber.

  11. Central drift chamber for rare kaon decay spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Cresswell, J.; Numao, T.

    1985-10-01

    Design of the central drift chamber for BNL experiment 787 and measurement of the decay K/sup +/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ nu anti nu are discussed. A jet chamber type cell with 6 sense wires and no interspersed field wires has been designed to achieve good spatial resolution and efficiency in a 1 T magnetic field. Results of the testing of a prototype chamber are presented.

  12. NASA Teams With Army in Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, 'self-cooled', vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  13. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  14. Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xi

    2011-10-01

    Several alternative cathode catalysts have been proposed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but effects of salinity (sodium chloride) on catalyst performance, separate from those of conductivity on internal resistance, have not been previously examined. Three different types of cathode materials were tested here with increasingly saline solutions using single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs. The best MFC performance was obtained using a Co catalyst (cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin; CoTMPP), with power increasing by 24 ± 1% to 1062 ± 9 mW/m2 (normalized to the projected cathode surface area) when 250 mM NaCl (final conductivity of 31.3 mS/cm) was added (initial conductivity of 7.5 mS/cm). This power density was 25 ± 1% higher than that achieved with Pt on carbon cloth, and 27 ± 1% more than that produced using an activated carbon/nickel mesh (AC) cathode in the highest salinity solution. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) was used to separate changes in performance due to solution conductivity from those produced by reductions in ohmic resistance with the higher conductivity solutions. The potential of the cathode with CoTMPP increased by 17-20 mV in LSVs when the NaCl addition was increased from 0 to 250 mM independent of solution conductivity changes. Increases in current were observed with salinity increases in LSVs for AC, but not for Pt cathodes. Cathodes with CoTMPP had increased catalytic activity at higher salt concentrations in cyclic voltammograms compared to Pt and AC. These results suggest that special consideration should be given to the type of catalyst used with more saline wastewaters. While Pt oxygen reduction activity is reduced, CoTMPP cathode performance will be improved at higher salt concentrations expected for wastewaters containing seawater. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of phytohormone profile and oxidative metabolism as key process to identification of salinity response in tomato commercial genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-González, Alejandro; Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Blasco, Begoña; Ruiz, Juan M

    2017-09-01

    Climatic change, intensive agriculture, and worsening water quality induce abiotic stress conditions for plants. Among these factors, salinity stress is a limit factor for plant growth. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the phytohormones role and oxidative metabolism in response to salt stress of two genotypes of tomato cv. Grand Brix and cv. Marmande RAF, the crops were carried out in a growth chamber. Salinity stress reduces biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) in both genotypes, this effect being greater in cv. Marmande RAF. These results, together with main stress indicator response, the O 2 .- , indicate that cv. Marmande RAF is more sensitive to Saline stress. Grand Brix showed less oxidative stress, because it presented greater detoxification of the O 2 - , due to SOD enzyme activity induction and greater antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, Grand Brix has a better hormonal profile adapted to salt stress resistance, the accumulation of IAA, GA4 and CKs and their beneficial role against oxidative stress could make the difference between resistance and sensitivity to salt stress. On the other hand, a lower ACC concentration, ethylene precursor, combined with a greater O 2 .- detoxification in the cv. Grand Brix could play a fundamental role in tolerance to saline stress. Besides, an increase in ABA levels promotes better stomatal closure, better photosynthesis control and a lower rate of water loss. This data could be essential to select plants with greater resistance to saline stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  17. Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kouache, M; Babakhoya, A; Labib, S; El Madi, A; Atmani, S; Harandou, M; Abouabdilah, Y; Hida, M

    2013-01-01

    The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal high-pressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ventricular cavity. We report the case of a 6-year-old infant who was admitted for growth retardation. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated DCRV without any other associated congenital anomalies. The patient underwent a successful cardiac surgical procedure of enlargement repair; he was discharged in good clinical condition with a normal cardiac function.

  18. Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    M El Kouache; A Babakhoya; S Labib; A El Madi; S Atmani; M Harandou; Y Abouabdilah; M Hida

    2013-01-01

    The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal high-pressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ventricular cavity. We report the case of a 6-year-old infant who was admitted for growth retardation. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated DCRV without any other associat...

  19. Propagation of the trip behavior in the VENUS vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, Taro; Yamada, Yoshikazu

    1995-03-01

    The high voltage system of the VENUS vertex chamber occasionally trips by a discharge somewhere among cathode electrodes during data taking. This trip behavior induces often additional trips at other electrodes such as the skin and the grid electrodes in the vertex chamber. This propagation mechanism of trips is so complicated in this system related with multi-electrodes. Although the vertex chamber is already installed inside the VENUS detector and consequently the discharge is not able to observe directly, a trial to estimate the propagation has been done using only the information which appears around the trip circuits and the power supply of the vertex chamber. (author).

  20. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South African life cycle assessments: part 3 - salinity potentials. ... Surface water 0.165. Natural surfaces 0.031. Agricultural surfaces 1.000. An additional impact category for salinity effects is therefore proposed, and the derived salinity potentials (also known as ...

  1. Effects of salinity on the survival of the Brackwater mussel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, animals were exposed to a gradual change in salinity, using treatments that exceeded the minimum and maximum salinities mussels were previously able to tolerate. In all four experiments, animals were able to tolerate salinity levels up to 20. However, a wider salinity tolerance, up to 50, was shown by animals ...

  2. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of agricultural lands next to the Lake. The current research was aimed to predict soil salinity and distinguish the boundary line between saline and agricultural lands by taking in to account the spatial variability ...

  3. Therapeutic effect of bilastine in Japanese cedar pollinosis using an artificial exposure chamber (OHIO Chamber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposure chambers have been used to expose subjects to aeroallergens to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with symptomatic agents in Japan. We first examined the therapeutic effect of bilastine (BIL), a novel non-sedative second-generation H 1 -antihistamine, in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis using an artificial exposure chamber (OHIO Chamber). This was a randomized, double-blind, four-way crossover, placebo- and active-controlled phase II study (trial registration number JapicCTI-132213). Subjects were exposed to cedar pollen (8000 grains/m 3 ) for 2 h on Day -1 and 4 h each on Day 1 and 2. BIL 10 or 20 mg, placebo, or fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX) 60 mg was administered orally 1 h after the start of pollen exposure on Day 1. Placebo or FEX was administered 12 h after the first dosing. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of total nasal symptom score (TNSS) from 0 to 3 h after the Day 1 dosing. We enrolled 136 subjects and the sum of TNSS on Day 1 of the three active treatments was significantly lower than that of placebo and was maintained up to 26 h after the first dosing (Day 2). The sum of TNSS or sneezing score on Day 1 after BIL 20 mg was more significantly decreased than after FEX. Moreover, BIL showed a faster onset of action than FEX. We demonstrated the efficacy, rapid onset, and long duration of action of BIL in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis exposed to cedar pollen using the OHIO Chamber. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Strigolactones Improve Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Alleviate Oxidative Stress under Salinity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a very important edible oil crop in the world, and the production is inhibited by abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Plant hormones can alleviate the stress by regulating the physiological processes and gene expression. To study the plant responses to salinity in combination with GR24, a synthesized strigolactone, the oilseed rape variety (Zhongshuang 11 replications were grown in the pots in a controlled growth chamber under three levels of salinity (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl and 0.18 μM GR24 treatments at the seedling stage for 7 days. The results showed that salinity depressed the shoots and roots growth, whereas GR24 improved the growth under salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate were also reduced significantly with increasing salinity, and these effects could be partially reversed by GR24 application. Additionally, GR24 treatment significantly increased and decreased the photosystem II quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching, respectively, under salinity stress conditions. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased, and lipid peroxidation measured by the level of malondialdehyde reduced due to GR24 application. The transcriptome analysis of root and shoot was conducted. Three hundred and forty-two common differentially expressed genes (DEGs after GR24 treatment and 166 special DEGs after GR24 treatment under salinity stress were identified in root and shoot. The DEGs in root were significantly more than that in shoot. Quantitative PCR validated that the stress alleviation was mainly related to the gene expression of tryptophan metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis.

  5. Genetic variation of transgenerational plasticity of offspring germination in response to salinity stress and the seed transcriptome of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Wendy T; Chang, Peter L; Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L

    2015-04-01

    Transgenerational plasticity provides phenotypic variation that contributes to adaptation. For plants, the timing of seed germination is critical for offspring survival in stressful environments, as germination timing can alter the environmental conditions a seedling experiences. Stored seed transcripts are important determinants of seed germination, but have not previously been linked with transgenerational plasticity of germination behavior. In this study we used RNAseq and growth chamber experiments of the model legume M. trucantula to test whether parental exposure to salinity stress influences the expression of stored seed transcripts and early offspring traits and test for genetic variation. We detected genotype-dependent parental environmental effects (transgenerational plasticity) on the expression levels of stored seed transcripts, seed size, and germination behavior of four M. truncatula genotypes. More than 50% of the transcripts detected in the mature, ungerminated seed transcriptome were annotated as regulating seed germination, some of which are involved in abiotic stress response and post-embryonic development. Some genotypes showed increased seed size in response to parental exposure to salinity stress, but no parental environmental influence on germination timing. In contrast, other genotypes showed no seed size differences across contrasting parental conditions but displayed transgenerational plasticity for germimation timing, with significantly delayed germination in saline conditions when parental plants were exposed to salinity. In genotypes that show significant transgenerational plastic germination response, we found significant coexpression networks derived from salt responsive transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the germination pathway. Consistent with the delayed germination response to saline conditions in these genotypes, we found genes associated with dormancy and up-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA). Our results

  6. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  7. The Evolution and Development of Cephalopod Chambers and Their Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lemanis

    Full Text Available The Ammonoidea is a group of extinct cephalopods ideal to study evolution through deep time. The evolution of the planispiral shell and complexly folded septa in ammonoids has been thought to have increased the functional surface area of the chambers permitting enhanced metabolic functions such as: chamber emptying, rate of mineralization and increased growth rates throughout ontogeny. Using nano-computed tomography and synchrotron radiation based micro-computed tomography, we present the first study of ontogenetic changes in surface area to volume ratios in the phragmocone chambers of several phylogenetically distant ammonoids and extant cephalopods. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, ammonoids do not possess a persistently high relative chamber surface area. Instead, the functional surface area of the chambers is higher in earliest ontogeny when compared to Spirula spirula. The higher the functional surface area the quicker the potential emptying rate of the chamber; quicker chamber emptying rates would theoretically permit faster growth. This is supported by the persistently higher siphuncular surface area to chamber volume ratio we collected for the ammonite Amauroceras sp. compared to either S. spirula or nautilids. We demonstrate that the curvature of the surface of the chamber increases with greater septal complexity increasing the potential refilling rates. We further show a unique relationship between ammonoid chamber shape and size that does not exist in S. spirula or nautilids. This view of chamber function also has implications for the evolution of the internal shell of coleoids, relating this event to the decoupling of soft-body growth and shell growth.

  8. Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  10. Options for salinity mitigation in the Murray-Darling Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schrobback, Peggy; Adamson, David; Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin faces increasing pressure on water quantity and quality. In 2006-07, salt interception schemes implemented as part of the Murray–Darling Basin Salinity Management strategy removed over 470,000 tonnes of salt from the water supply, reducing the salinity of water flowing to Adelaide by about 200 EC units. However, the costs of salinity mitigation schemes are increasing. With possible continuing declines in average inflows, costs of salinity and salinity mitigation are...

  11. Decolourisation of Acid orange 7 in a microbial fuel cell with a laccase-based biocathode: Influence of mitigating pH changes in the cathode chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Priyadharshini; Keshavarz, Taj; Chandra, T S; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2017-01-01

    Biocathodes may be a suitable replacement of platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) if the cost of MFCs is to be reduced. However, the use of enzymes as bio-cathodes is fraught with loss of activity as time progresses. A possible cause of this loss in activity might be pH increase in the cathode as pH gradients in MFCs are well known. This pH increase is however, accompanied by simultaneous increase in salinity; therefore salinity may be a confounding variable. This study investigated various ways of mitigating pH changes in the cathode of MFCs and their effect on laccase activity and decolourisation of a model azo dye Acid orange 7 in the anode chamber. Experiments were run with catholyte pH automatically controlled via feedback control or by using acetate buffers (pH 4.5) of various strength (100mM and 200mM), with CMI7000 as the cation exchange membrane. A comparison was also made between use of CMI7000 and Nafion 117 as the transport properties of cations for both membranes (hence their potential effects on pH changes in the cathode) are different. Results show that using Nafion 117 membrane limits salinity and pH changes in the cathode (100mM acetate buffer as catholyte) leading to prolonged laccase activity and faster AO7 decolourisation compared to using CMI7000 as a membrane; similarly automatic pH control in the cathode chamber was found to be better than using 200mM acetate buffer. It is suggested that while pH control in the cathode chamber is important, it does not guarantee sustained laccase activity; as salinity increases affect the activity and it could be mitigated using a cation selective membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  13. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  14. Development of Graphene Ion-Chamber for Radiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaegi; Ye, Sung-Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Graphene is an exciting material due to its high electrical and thermal conductivity. Recently, scientific research using graphene has been divided by two types of graphene. One is a pure graphene, and the other is graphene oxide (GO), which is chemically synthesized from graphite. A pure graphene is a single layer of graphite, and its physical characteristics are very exciting. However, making process and cost are quite complex and expensive to apply an industry. On the other hand, graphene oxide is easy to make and apply a real device. Until now, radiation dosimetry using an ion-chamber has been a standard protocol. For its high electrical conductivity, graphite is usually used as a wall material of ion-chamber. Graphene can be a possible alternative to graphite due to its superior electrical conductivity and mechanical integrity. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations for graphene-walled and graphite-walled ion-chambers were performed to characterize their dosimetric properties. A world-first prototype of a graphene ion-chamber was fabricated. A graphene ion-chamber was designed and its prototype was successfully fabricated. The percent depth dose curve calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for a graphene ion-chamber was compatible to the curve using a conventional graphite ion-chamber. Therefore, due to its superior electric conductivity and mechanical integrity, graphene can be a promising alternative to graphite as a wall material of ion-chamber for radiation dosimetry.

  15. The muon chambers take centre stage at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CMS muon chambers are now starting to arrive at CERN in significant numbers. All in all, the muon system of the CMS detector will comprise some 1400 of these chambers. Twenty percent of those for the endcaps have already been installed, while the assembly of those for the barrel will start in December.

  16. ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Readout Sector in Lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electrons out of their atoms, which drift in the eletric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, at segments such as the one shown here, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  17. Chamber personnel's use of Nitrox 50 during hyperbaric oxygen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Jansen, Tejs; Sifakis, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using Nitrox 50 as breathing gas during attendance in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber.......We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using Nitrox 50 as breathing gas during attendance in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber....

  18. Synchrotron radiation vacuum chamber installation and beam size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shleifer, M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of storage ring vacuum chamber placement and its effect on the synchrotron radiation fan obtainable. We consider only horizonal errors and thus treat the problem two-dimensionally. Specifically, we describe the correlation between the parameters of the chamber and its position in the magnet and the size of the fan of radiation emerging from a port.

  19. Use of Makler counting chamber in semen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    友吉, 唯夫; 石田, 章; 金, 哲將

    1988-01-01

    Sperm concentration was measured using Makler counting chamber and compared with the concentration value measured by a classic method. Both values correlated well. The chamber contributes to a speedy, correct and simple semen analysis mainly because of no need of dilution of the semen. Viral infection to the examiner from the semen can also be avoided.

  20. Application of Chaboche Model in Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraff, Ahmedul Kabir; Suresh Babu, Sheela; Babu, Aneena; Eapen, Reeba

    2017-06-01

    Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines are commonly used in space technology. Thrust chamber is one of the most important subsystems of a rocket engine. The thrust chamber generates propulsive thrust force for flight of the rocket by ejection of combustion products at supersonic speeds. Often double walled construction is employed for these chambers. The thrust chamber investigated here has its hot inner wall fabricated out of a high thermal conductive material like copper alloy and outer wall made of stainless steel. Inner wall is subjected to high thermal and pressure loads during operation of engine due to which it will be in the plastic regime. Main reasons for the failure of such chambers are fatigue in the plastic range (called as low cycle fatigue since the number of cycles to failure will be low in plastic range), creep and thermal ratcheting. Elasto plastic material models are required to simulate the above effects through a cyclic stress analysis. This paper gives the details of cyclic stress analysis carried out for the thrust chamber using different plasticity model combinations available in ANSYS (Version 15) FE code. The best model among the above is applied in the cyclic stress analysis of two dimensional (plane strain and axisymmetric) and three dimensional finite element models of thrust chamber. Cyclic life of the chamber is calculated from stress-strain graph obtained from above analyses.

  1. Some Features of Aerodynamics of Cyclonic Chamber with Free Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Orekhov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper cites results of an experimental research in aerodynamics of a cyclonic chamber with a free exit that has a large relative length. Distributions of aerodynamic stream characteristics depending on geometry of working volume of the cyclonic chamber are given in the paper. Calculative dependences are proposed in the paper.

  2. Achieving ultrahigh vacuum in an unbaked chamber with glow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glow discharge conditioning (GDC) has long been accepted as one of the basic wall conditioning techniques for achieving ultrahigh vacuum in an unbaked chamber. As a part of this fundamental experimental study, a test chamber has been fabricated from stainless steel 304 L with its inner surface electropolished on ...

  3. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  4. R3B time projection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legou, P.

    2012-07-01

    Within the international FAIR project, the R3B collaboration (Reaction studies with Radioactive Relativistic beams) will be in charge of the physics program with secondary beams of energy between 200 and 1500MeV per nucleon. Central to the R3B set-up will be a large-aperture superconducting magnet under construction at CEA-Saclay. An international collaboration has been formed to work on the design of a large time-projection chamber (TPC) to be installed behind this magnet to cover the full phase-space of the charged fragments produced in the target. Within this collaboration, tests of detector prototypes were performed with the heavy-ions beams at GSI Darmstadt. These prototypes were equipped with a gaseous Micromegas detector. Two amplification technologies were tested, either conventional or resistive Micromegas and two construction concepts, bulk-Micromegas or micro-meshes screwed on the PCB. We will present the results of the last beam and the 1m TPC station which will be dedicated to make tests using the real drift distance and compare the performances of micromegas and GEM.

  5. Performance of large area Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Nagayoshi, T; Miuchi, K; Ochi, A; Orito, R; Takada, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M

    2003-01-01

    A novel gaseous two-dimensional imaging detector "Micro Pixel Chamber (micro-PIC)" has been developed. This detector is based on double sided printed circuit board (PCB). We have developed large area (10cm x 10cm) micro-PICs with 65536 pixel anodes of 400um pitch on a 100um thick insulating substrate. Achieved energy resolution was 30% (FWHM) at 5.9keV, and a gas gain of 7000 was obtained with argon ethane (8:2) gas mixture. This gain is high enough to detect minimum ionizing particles with such a small electrode pitch. Although several discharges occurred during 65 hours continuous operation, the detectors have kept stable operation with high gain. The micro-PIC is a useful detector for many applications e.g. X-ray, gamma ray, and charged particle imaging. The micro electrode structure allows us to measure directions of primary electrons due to incident X-rays or gamma rays, which provide a strong method for X-ray polarimetry and gamma-ray imaging.

  6. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 to 31 of March 2015. A total of 100 previously well infant and children of age 1-24 months with clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital were included. They were divided into two groups, the study group received 4 ml of nebulized hypertonic 3% saline (for 14 days, and second group received 4 ml of nebulized normal 0.9% saline (for 14 days, each co-administer with 0.5 ml salbutamol.ResultsAll patients with acute bronchiolitis having similar baseline characteristic, mean age 4.9 + Standard deviation (SD months, male gender constitutes 68% of the patients and the majority (67% of the cases were below 6 months. The mean of clinical severity score at admission was 6.4 for normal saline (NS group and 6.6 for hypertonic 3% saline (HS group. The mean length of hospital stay of normal saline group = 4.3 + Standard deviation (SD day and for hypertonic saline group was = 4.7 + Standard deviation (SD day.ConclusionWe didn’t find any advantage of hypertonic 3% saline over 0.9% normal saline in terms of length of hospital stay and clinical severity score.

  7. An anechoic chamber facility for investigating aerodynamic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massier, P. F.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise facility was designed to be used primarily for investigating the noise-generating mechanisms of high-temperature supersonic and subsonic jets. The facility consists of an anechoic chamber, an exhaust jet silencer, instrumentation equipment, and an air heater with associated fuel and cooling systems. Compressed air, when needed for jet noise studies, is provided by the wind tunnel compressor facility on a continuous basis. The chamber is 8.1 m long, 5.0 m wide, and 3.0 m high. Provisions have been made for allowing outside air to be drawn into the anechoic chamber in order to replenish the air that is entrained by the jet as it flows through the chamber. Also, openings are provided in the walls and in the ceiling for the purpose of acquiring optical measurements. Calibration of the chamber for noise reflections from the wall was accomplished in octave bands between 31.2 Hz and 32 kHz.

  8. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  9. Multi-chamber nucleic acid amplification and detection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence

    2017-10-25

    A nucleic acid amplification and detection device includes an amplification cartridge with a plurality of reaction chambers for containing an amplification reagent and a visual detection reagent, and a plurality of optically transparent view ports for viewing inside the reaction chambers. The cartridge also includes a sample receiving port which is adapted to receive a fluid sample and fluidically connected to distribute the fluid sample to the reaction chamber, and in one embodiment, a plunger is carried by the cartridge for occluding fluidic communication to the reaction chambers. The device also includes a heating apparatus having a heating element which is activated by controller to generate heat when a trigger event is detected. The heating apparatus includes a cartridge-mounting section which positioned a cartridge in thermal communication with the heating element so that visual changes to the contents of the reaction chambers are viewable through the view ports.

  10. Design of a Hyperbaric Chamber for Pressure Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sazali Shahmir Fikhri bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A hyperbaric chamber is an application of a pressure vessel to test the integrity of components and equipments subjected to high pressure. The chamber comprises of several main parts such as a shell, heads, instrumentation attachments, threaded fasteners and support. This paper describes the design of hyperbaric chamber for pressure testing that compiles to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code. The design approach adopted is the “design by formula” method. A structural analysis of the hyperbaric chamber with a cylindrical shell and a vertical orientation, based on an operating pressure of 34.5 MPa, was done. The analysis of the stress distribution shows that the normalized principal stresses acting on the chamber are within the yield envelop based on the maximum distortional energy criteria.

  11. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments. Is this therapy recommended for children in the acute care setting? Bronchiolitis, caused mostly by respiratory syncytial virus, is very common in the winter. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infancy. Several good studies have been conducted in the past decade on the use of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis management; however, they offer conflicting results. While there might be a role for the use of nebulized hypertonic saline in children who are hospitalized with bronchiolitis for more than 3 days, treatment in other settings does not confer enough benefit to recommend its use. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. A plant chamber system with downstream reaction chamber to study the effects of pollution on biogenic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timovsky, J.; Gankema, Paulien; Pierik, Ronald; Holzinger, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    A system of two plant chambers and a downstream reaction chamber has been set up to investigate the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and possible effects of pollutants such as ozone. The system can be used to compare BVOC emissions from two sets of differently treated plants,

  13. Investigating the thermal systems of a chamber belonging to a dry coke-quenching unit. [Quenching chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Kukhar, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal system of a quenching chamber is an important parameter describing the functioning of a dry coke quenching device (DCQD) and is a function of the distribution of the temperatures of the coke and the gas relative to the height of the quenching chamber. The present systems of automatic monitoring of the temperature relative to the height of the chamber, in the DCQD's used now, do not provide the information necessary for engineers, concerning the distribution of the temperatures within the chamber. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining this information using the industrial devices available today. Some data on the character of the processes taking place in the chamber can be obtained by measuring the temperature of the quenched coke or the quenching gases at the outlet of the quenching chamber. However, due to the great smoothingout ability of the object (the quenching chamber) and the complicated nature of the processes taking place in it, this information also fails to give a complete picture of the distribution of temperatures in a chamber.

  14. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip......Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy...

  15. Soil Salinity: Effect on Vegetable Crop Growth. Management Practices to Prevent and Mitigate Soil Salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major problem affecting crop production all over the world: 20% of cultivated land in the world, and 33% of irrigated land, are salt-affected and degraded. This process can be accentuated by climate change, excessive use of groundwater (mainly if close to the sea, increasing use of low-quality water in irrigation, and massive introduction of irrigation associated with intensive farming. Excessive soil salinity reduces the productivity of many agricultural crops, including most vegetables, which are particularly sensitive throughout the ontogeny of the plant. The salinity threshold (ECt of the majority of vegetable crops is low (ranging from 1 to 2.5 dS m−1 in saturated soil extracts and vegetable salt tolerance decreases when saline water is used for irrigation. The objective of this review is to discuss the effects of salinity on vegetable growth and how management practices (irrigation, drainage, and fertilization can prevent soil and water salinization and mitigate the adverse effects of salinity.

  16. Computational investigation of the temperature separation in vortex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anish, S. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore (India); Setoguchi, T. [Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University (Japan); Kim, H. D. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The vortex chamber is a mechanical device, without any moving parts that separates compressed gas into a high temperature region and a low temperature region. Functionally vortex chamber is similar to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RVHT), but it is a simpler and compact structure. The objective of the present study is to investigate computationally the physical reasoning behind the energy separation mechanism inside a vortex chamber. A computational analysis has been performed using three-dimensional compressible Navier Stokes equations. A fully implicit finite volume scheme was used to solve the governing equations. A commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for this purpose. The computational predictions were validated with existing experimental data. The results obtained show that the vortex chamber contains a large free vortex zone and a comparatively smaller forced vortex region. The physical mechanism that causes the heating towards periphery of the vortex chamber is identified as the work done by the viscous force. The cooling at the center may be due to expansion of the flow. The extent of temperature separation greatly depends on the outer diameter of the vortex chamber. A small amount of compression is observed towards the periphery of the vortex chamber when the outer diameter is reduced.

  17. Autoignition Chamber for Remote Testing of Pyrotechnic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Maureen L.; Steward, Gerald R.; Dartez, Toby W.

    2009-01-01

    The autoignition chamber (AIC) performs by remotely heating pyrotechnic devices that can fit the inner diameter of the tube furnace. Two methods, a cold start or a hot start, can be used with this device in autoignition testing of pyrotechnics. A cold start means extending a pyrotechnic device into the cold autoignition chamber and then heating the device until autoignition occurs. A hot start means heating the autoignition chamber to a specified temperature, and then extending the device into a hot autoignition chamber until autoignition occurs. Personnel are remote from the chamber during the extension into the hot chamber. The autoignition chamber, a commercially produced tubular furnace, has a 230-V, single-phase, 60-Hz electrical supply, with a total power output of 2,400 W. It has a 6-in. (15.2-cm) inner diameter, a 12-in. (30.4-cm) outer diameter and a 12-in.- long (30.4-cm), single-zone, solid tubular furnace (element) capable of heating to temperatures up to 2,012 F (1,100 C) in air.

  18. Characterization of a CT ionization chamber for radiation field mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vivolo, Vitor, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    A pencil-type ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was characterized with the objective to verify the possibility of its application in radiation field mapping procedures. The characterization tests were evaluated, and the results were satisfactory. The results obtained for the X radiation field mapping with the homemade chamber were compared with those of a PTW Farmer-type chamber (TN 30011-1). The maximum difference observed in this comparison was only 1.25%, showing good agreement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new ionization chamber was made and tested for radiation field mapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ionization chamber was made using only accessible low cost materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The operational tests were made and the results were within the recommended limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field map was compared with a commercial chamber presenting a 1.25% difference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our chamber presents potential for assurance reliability in calibration procedures.

  19. Aging tests of full scale CMS muon cathode strip chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Acosta et al.

    2003-10-15

    Two CMS production Cathode Strip Chambers were tested for aging effects in the high radiation environment at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The chambers were irradiated over a large area: in total, about 2.1 m{sup 2} or 700 m of wire in each chamber. The 40% Ar+50%CO{sub 2}+10%CF{sub 4} gas mixture was provided by an open-loop gas system for one of the chambers and by closed-loop recirculating gas system for the other. After accumulating 0.3-0.4 C per centimeter of a wire, which is equivalent to operation during about 30-50 years at the peak LHC luminosity, no significant changes in gas gain, chamber efficiency, and wire signal noise were observed for either of the two chambers. The only consistent signs of aging were a small increase in dark current from {approx}2 nA to {approx}10 nA per plane of 600 wires and a decrease of strip-to-strip resistance from 1000 G{Omega} to 10-100 G{Omega}. Disassembly of the chambers revealed deposits on the cathode planes, while the anode wires remained fairly clean.

  20. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha

    2010-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use of an MDC as an RO pre-treatment method using a new type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a coulombic efficiency of 68 ± 11%. A higher concentration of acetate (2 g L-1) reduced solution conductivity by 60 ± 7%, and a higher salt concentration (20 g L-1 NaCl) reduced solution conductivity by 50 ± 7%. The use of membranes with increased ion exchange capacities further decreased the solution conductivity by 63 ± 2% (20 g L-1 NaCl). These results demonstrate substantial (43-67%) desalination of water is possible using equal volumes of anode solution and salt water. These results show that MDC treatment could be used to substantially reduce salt concentrations and thus energy demands for downstream RO processing, while at the same time producing electrical power. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  2. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses.

  3. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  4. Empirical Relationships Between Electrical Conductivity, Salinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that some level of desalination/treatment for the water before consumption would be necessary. On the other hand, the values obtained for Abraka, Ughelli, Oleh and Ozoro fall within the WHO maximum permissible limit for fresh drinking water. KEY WORDS: Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Density, pH, Water ...

  5. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Cruz, María; Villastrigo, Adrián; Pallarés, Susana; López-Gallego, Elena; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae), using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae) compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae). Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  6. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  7. Salinity tolerance of germinating alternative oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating oilseed crops into rotations can improve soil health benefits, nutrient retention, and pollinator provisions. Field margins represent areas where incorporation of oilseeds is feasible. However in the northern Great Plains, field margins can oftentimes be areas of saline soil, which can i...

  8. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; van der Poel, Erwin; Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilised by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared with experiments by Hage & Tilgner (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010,

  9. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore once dominated by Zostera marina. This area is sandy, which may allow groundwater seepage. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. A six week microcosm experiment at two salinity (20 and 30 ppt) and 4 nutrient (0, 5, 10, and 30 µM inorganic N) levels to test their relative tolerance was conducted in 2014. Treatments were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the exposure water was dosed with 15N for the first week of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the plants were weighed and measured, and dried for later isotopic analysis. In the first experiment, Ruppia had significant structural responses to both nutrients and salinity; there was a slight decline in root weight and a decrease in the total number of shoots with increasing nutrients. Average Ruppia blade length decreased with increasing nutrients and this decrease was more evident at 30 ppt. In contrast, Zostera had no significant structural differences. For both species, there were no differences in shoot or root/rhizome weights in any treatment, nor were there differences in isotopic results due to salinity. However, δ15N in the tissue increase

  10. Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The use of soil and irrigation water with a high content of soluble salts is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in the semi-arid areas of the world. While important physiological insights about the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants have been gained, the transfer of such knowledge into crop improvement has been limited. The identification and exploitation of soil microorganisms (especially rhizosphere bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) that interact with plants by alleviating stress opens new alternatives for a pyramiding strategy against salinity, as well as new approaches to discover new mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Although these mechanisms are not always well understood, beneficial physiological effects include improved nutrient and water uptake, growth promotion, and alteration of plant hormonal status and metabolism. This review aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of soil biota on the plant response to saline stress, with special reference to phytohormonal signalling mechanisms that interact with key physiological processes to improve plant tolerance to the osmotic and toxic components of salinity. Improved plant nutrition is a quite general beneficial effect and may contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis of toxic ions under saline stress. Furthermore, alteration of crop hormonal status to decrease evolution of the growth-retarding and senescence-inducing hormone ethylene (or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), or to maintain source-sink relations, photosynthesis, and biomass production and allocation (by altering indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinin biosynthesis) seem to be promising target processes for soil biota-improved crop salt tolerance.

  11. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of ...

  12. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  13. Assembly of Drift Tubes (DT) Chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    The construction of muon drift tube chambers (DT) has been carried out in four different european institutes: Aachen (Germany), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), Legnaro and Turin (Italy), all of them following similar procedures and quality tests. Each chamber is composed by three or two independent units called superlayers, with four layers of staggered drift cells each. The assembly of a superlayer is a succesive glueing of aluminium plates and I-beams with electrodes previously attached, forming a rectangular and gas-tight volume. These pictures illustrate the various processes of material preparation, construction, equipment and assembly of full chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid).

  14. Technology, Applications, and Process Challenges of Dual Chamber Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werk, Tobias; Ludwig, Imke S; Luemkemann, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Huwyler, Joerg; Hafner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Dual-chamber systems provide an option as a drug and device combination product, when home care and emergency lyophilized products are intended. Nevertheless, until today, there are only a few products on the market, due to the challenges and limitations in manufacturability, product formulation, and product stability in a dual-chamber configuration, as well as economic considerations. This review serves to describe currently available dual-chamber systems and to discuss factors to be considered for appropriate selection and establishing fill-finish processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers.

  16. Dark matter searches with PICO bubble chambers: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Orin; PICO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The PICO collaboration uses bubble chambers to search for dark matter, with world-leading sensitivity to the direct-detection of WIMPs with spin-dependent couplings to protons. PICO currently operates a 2 liter (PICO-2L) and a 32 liter (PICO 60) bubble chamber at the SNOLAB deep underground laboratory, and is currently constructing a 40 liter demonstration device that is expected to eliminate an anomalous background that has previously proven significant for the scaling of the bubble chamber technique to a future ton-scale experiment (PICO-500). A discussion of the technology, recent progress, and future plans will be presented.

  17. Modelling of fission chambers in current mode—Analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabod, Sébastien; Fioni, Gabriele; Letourneau, Alain; Marie, Frédéric

    2006-10-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model is proposed to explain the functioning of fission chambers operated in current mode, even in very high neutron fluxes. The calibration curves are calculated as a function of basic physical parameters as fission rate, gas pressure and geometry of the chambers. The output current at saturation is precisely calculated, as well as the maximum voltage to be applied in order to avoid avalanche phenomena. The electric field distortion due to the space charge phenomena is also estimated. Within this model, the characteristic responses of fission chambers are correctly reproduced, in agreement with the experience feedback obtained at the ILL/Grenoble High-Flux Reactor.

  18. A ring-shaped recombination chamber for hadron therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, E; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Krzemiński, Ł

    2014-10-01

    An innovative recombination chamber has been designed for estimation of stray radiation doses and quality factors in hadron therapy. The chamber allows for determination of absorbed dose and recombination index of radiation quality in phantoms at small distances from simulated organs. The chamber body and electrodes are ring shaped, so the beam may be directed through the empty centre of the ring. The ionisation of the filling gas is caused by secondary or scattered radiation and can be related to the dose absorbed in the tissues close to the irradiated target volume. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Heat transfer function of the VENUS vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, T.; Ishihara, N.; Yamada, Y.

    1996-05-01

    In order to estimate the temperature distribution in the VENUS vertex chamber at TRISTAN, a heat transfer function has been derived from the temperature information of a beam pipe flange. The function obtained suggests that the temperature of the flange and that in the chamber gas are simply in proportional relation to the equivalent heat input. Consequently, it is possible to easily correct the velocity of drift electrons in the chamber gas on the basis of the temperature distribution patterns, which are calculated from the typical heat input. (author)

  20. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  1. Interannual surface salinity on Northwest Atlantic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Reul, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2017-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the Aquarius and SMOS satellite missions displays a steady increase of ˜1 psu over the entire northwestern Atlantic shelf south of Nova Scotia during 2011-2015. Put in the context of longer ocean profile data, the results suggest that mixed layer salinity and temperature north of the Gulf Stream experience positively correlated shelf-wide interannual oscillations (1 psu/2°C). Salty and warm events occur coincident with anomalous easterly-southeasterly winds and Ekman transport counteracting the mean southwestward shelf currents. They are coincident with weakening of both branches of the Scotian Shelf Current (SSC), but only moderately correlate with shifts of the Gulf Stream North Wall. This suggests that salt advection by anomalous SSC acting on the mean salinity gradient is the primary driver regulating the transport of fresh/cold water from high latitudes. The advection mechanism imposes a connectedness of the larger-scale interannual variability in this region and its tie to atmospheric oscillations. In the second part, an analysis of 15 year-long numerical simulations is presented which show eight interannual salinity oscillations (positive and negative). Six of these are driven by horizontal advection by slow varying currents (>2 months), while two events are driven by horizontal eddy advection (<2 months). In line with observations, salt/warm model events correspond to anomalously weak SSC, correlate with southeasterly wind anomaly, and confirm that interannual horizontal salt advection drives interannual salinity. Indeed, vertical exchanges provide negative feedback, while interannual horizontal diffusion and the net surface salt flux anomalies are small.

  2. Microwave-range shielding effectiveness measurements using a dual vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro; Schipper, H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverberation chambers create a statistical uniformly distributed field which is very useful for reliable electromagnetic interference measurements. Another advantage of these chambers is the high field strength which can be generated compared to conventional test setups. A reverberation chamber

  3. A cylindrical drift chamber for the measurement of K. -->. pi. nu anti nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, J.V.; Ahmad, S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Khan, N.; Kuno, Y.; Numao, T.

    1987-10-01

    A cylindrical drift chamber has been constructed for the study of the rare kaon decay K+ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ nu anti nu. Data from two prototype chambers and initial results from the final chamber are presented.

  4. A cylindrical drift chamber for the measurement of k. -->. pi nu nu. -bar decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, J.V.; Ahmad, S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Khan, N.; Kuno, Y.; Numao, T.

    1988-02-01

    A cylindrical drift chamber has been constructed for the study of the rare kaon decay K/sup +/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..nu nu..-bar. Data from two prototype chambers and initial results from the final chamber are presented.

  5. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal) Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily; Areege Abdul-abass Mohammed Al-Omrani; Asaad A Atiya

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 ...

  6. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  7. Enhanced desalination performance of membrane capacitive deionization cells by packing the flow chamber with granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Changyong; Huang, Xia

    2015-11-15

    A new design of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) cell was constructed by packing the cell's flow chamber with granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC packed-MCDI (GAC-MCDI) delivered higher (1.2-2.5 times) desalination rates than the regular MCDI at all test NaCl concentrations (∼ 100-1000 mg/L). The greatest performance enhancement by packed GAC was observed when treating saline water with an initial NaCl concentration of 100 mg/L. Several different GAC materials were tested and they all exhibited similar enhancement effects. Comparatively, packing the MCDI's flow chamber with glass beads (GB; non-conductive) and graphite granules (GG; conductive but with lower specific surface area than GAC) resulted in inferior desalination performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the GAC-MCDI had considerably smaller internal resistance than the regular MCDI (∼ 19.2 ± 1.2 Ω versus ∼ 1222 ± 15 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The packed GAC also decreased the ionic resistance across the flow chamber (∼ 1.49 ± 0.05 Ω versus ∼ 1130 ± 12 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The electric double layer (EDL) formed on the GAC surface was considered to store salt ions during electrosorption, and facilitate the ion transport in the flow chamber because of the higher ion conductivity in the EDLs than in the bulk solution, thereby enhancing the MCDI's desalination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  9. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  10. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  11. Simulation of Wakefield Effect in ILC IR Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, S; Seryi, A.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC

    2008-06-26

    To achieve super high luminosity, high current beams with very short bunch length are needed, which carry high intensity EM fields. For ILC, two bunch trains with bunch length of 300 {micro}m and bunch charge of 3.2nC are needed to collide at the IR to achieve the ILC luminosity goals. When the 300 {micro}m bunches pass through the IR chamber, wakefields will be excited, which will cause HOM power flowing through the IR chamber beam pipe to the final doublets due to the high frequency characteristic of the induced wakefields. Since superconducting technology is adopted for the final doublets of ILC BDS, whose operation stability might be affected by the HOM power produced at the IR chamber, quench might happen. In this paper, we did some analytical estimation and numerical simulation on the wakefield effects in ILC IR chamber.

  12. Radon progeny deposition in track-detection diffusion chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Simeonov, G

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity dependence for cylindrical diffusion chambers that are used for radon track-detection measurements on the deposition fraction of radon progeny atoms has been theoretically studied (sensitivity is the ratio: area track density/integrated sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn activity concentration). Experimentally, the sensitivity values of both the metal- and plastic-made chambers were determined. Results indicate that the experimental sensitivity for metal chambers is in accordance with the theoretical model while a deviation of 15% is observed for plastic chambers. The uncertainty in the sensitivity values that is related to possible variations of the diffusion coefficient for sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po atoms was estimated to be less than 10%. (author)

  13. A Temperature-Controlled Chamber Based on Vortex Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, John; Nguyen, Hogan; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a temperature-controlled chamber, based on a 'vortex' cooler. The chamber is capable of operation between room temperature and -42 C. The only nontrivial infrastructure requirement is dry compressed gas at 100 psi and 8 cfm. The chamber is economical, easy to operate and to build using commercially available parts. Since the refrigerant is compressed air, the chamber has minimal environmental impact. It does not generate mechanical vibrations nor electrical noise. It is suitable for testing electronically sensitive and low-power electronics at cold temperatures. We measured the reserve cooling capacity of the cold plate to be 17 watts at -27 C. At the limiting temperature of -42 C, reserve cooling power reduces to zero.

  14. Charge production in thin gap multi-wire chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Mincer, A I; Goldberg, J J; Gernitzky, Y; Lazic, D; Lupu, N Z; Robins, S; Rozen, Y; Tarem, S

    2000-01-01

    Resistive cathode thin gap chambers (TGCs) have been used as particle detectors in high-energy physics experiments for more than a decade. A quantitative understanding of charge production mechanisms in TGCs has been developed and a simulation program produced to accurately describe the expected response from a chamber as a function of its design and operating parameters. This simulation is based upon a description of the processes of electron cluster production, drift and avalanche effects and space charge contributions from residual ions. Improved measurements of chamber performance are presented, and the parameters of the simulation have been fitted to these data yielding values consistent with estimates based on the physical mechanisms involved. Sensitivity of chamber timing and amplification properties to operating parameters is discussed.

  15. Ultralightweight, Regeneratively Cooled Combustion Chamber for Mars Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high-pressure, regeneratively-cooled combustion chamber that uses novel material selection for extreme reductions in mass. These materials are...

  16. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  17. 'Reading' bubble chamber pictures with the Spiral Reader eyes.

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Interactive techniques were widely used to study bubble chamber pictures. After a visual scanning of the pictures and a vertex measurement on a Shivamatic, the Spiral Reader allowed the track polar coordinates to be easily measured. See photo 7408137X

  18. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers for In-Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation-cooled, bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for the ascent/descent engines and reaction control systems (RCS) for future NASA missions such...

  19. Production and test of the LHCb Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - The Muon System of LHCb - The Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers for LHCb - Wire tension meter - Wire pitch measurement - Gas leakage test - Test with cosmic rays - Production and test summary - Gap gain uniformity - Production and test summary

  20. Oxford engineering students to study new solutions for vacuum chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Department of Engineering Science - University of Oxford

    2012-01-01

    In April, eleven engineering science students in their third year at Oxford University were invited here to present their design ideas for new vacuum chamber materials to be used in accelerators. We publish below an abstract of the article that the University of Oxford featured on its website.   The 11 Oxford students who worked at CERN on alternatives to beryllium in vacuum chambers. (Photo courtesy of the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.) Engineering Science students invited to design for CERN’s Large Hadron Collider In April, eleven Engineering Science students in their third year were invited to the CERN laboratory in Geneva to present their ideas for new vacuum chamber designs for the experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their design objectives were to propose alternatives to beryllium – the material used for some of the existing experimental vacuum chambers. Beryllium (chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4) is to...

  1. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers for In-Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation-cooled, bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for the ascent/descent engines and reaction control systems for NASA missions such as Mars Sample...

  2. Repair of isolated double-chambered right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M El Kouache

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV is exceptionally rare as an isolated anomaly. It is a congenital cardiac anomaly in which the right ventricle is separated into two chambers, a proximal high-pressure chamber and a distal low-pressure chamber, by anomalous muscles or fibrous tissues in the right ventricular cavity. We report the case of a 6-year-old infant who was admitted for growth retardation. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated DCRV without any other associated congenital anomalies. The patient underwent a successful cardiac surgical procedure of enlargement repair; he was discharged in good clinical condition with a normal cardiac function.

  3. Radiation Hydrodynamic Parameter Study of Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is performed with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY. Simulation with differing chamber parameters are implemented to study the effect of gas fill, gas mixtures and chamber radii. Xenon and argon gases are of particular interest as shielding for the first wall due to their high opacity values and ready availability. Mixing of the two gases is an attempt to engineer a gas cocktail to provide the maximum amount of shielding with the least amount of cost. A parameter study of different chamber radii shows a consistent relationship with that of first wall temperature (~1/r2) and overpressure (~1/r3). This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Combustion Chamber/Nozzle Assembly and Fabrication Process Therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An integral lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its larger end with a rocket body, and terminates at its smaller end in a tube of generally cylindrical contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  5. Fabrication process for combustion chamber/nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its smaller end with a rocket body, and terminates at its larger end in a generally contact contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  6. Fabrication of Composite Combustion Chamber/Nozzle for Fastrac Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T.; Beshears, R.; Burlingame, S.; Peters, W.; Prince, M.; Suits, M.; Tillery, S.; Burns, L.; Kovach, M.; Roberts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center for the X-34 vehicle began as a low cost engine development program for a small booster system. One of the key components to reducing the engine cost was the development of an inexpensive combustion chamber/nozzle. Fabrication of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle was considered too expensive and time consuming. In looking for an alternate design concept, the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Project provided an extensive background with ablative composite materials in a combustion environment. An integral combustion chamber/nozzle was designed and fabricated with a silica/phenolic ablative liner and a carbon/epoxy structural overwrap. This paper describes the fabrication process and developmental hurdles overcome for the Fastrac engine one-piece composite combustion chamber/nozzle.

  7. Effect of Chamber Wall Proximity on Radiometer Force Production (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Gimelshein, N. E; Gimelshein, S. F; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    ... on a given radiometer configuration in both the free molecule and transitional regimes. The contribution of the chamber walls to both the flowfield structure and radiometric force production were examined for helium, argon, and nitrogen test gases...

  8. Magma chamber and mantle reflections - East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Thomas J.; Stoffa, Paul L.; Buhl, Peter

    1980-11-01

    A multichannel seismic reflection profile of stacked and migrated common depth point data across the East Pacific Rise near the Siqueiros Fracture Zone supports and extends previous observations (at two crossings 27 to 50 km to the south) of reflections assumed to be from the top of a magma chamber and of reflections from the M-discontinuity. The reflection assumed to be associated with the top of the magma chamber is 1-1/2 to 2 km below the sea floor. The combined results of the three crossings suggest that the chamber is continuous along the Rise crest and that its width, which varies from 2 to 8 km, correlates with the width of the Rise crest as indicated by the bathymetric contours. The reflections from the crust-mantle boundary can be detected beneath the raised axial block of the East Pacific Rise and although weak, can be detected beneath the magma chamber.

  9. Simulation of the heat transfer around the ATLAS muon chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    This 2D simulation recently carried out on the ATLAS muon chambers by a small team of CERN engineers specialises in the numerical computation of fluid dynamics, in other words the flow of fluids and heat.

  10. Transport of Na48 Drift Chambers to Dubna

    CERN Multimedia

    GOLOVATYUK, V

    2010-01-01

    On 22 July, in the occasion of the departure of the Na48 Drift Chambers from CERN, Mikhail Itkis (acting Director of the JIINR) and Rolf Heuer (CERN Director General) visited the NA62 experimental area.

  11. Cryogenic Optical Metrology Through a Chamber Window Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project for NASA, Flexure Engineering of Greenbelt, MD will design and develop a system that marries the technologies of Thermal Vacuum Chambers...

  12. Effect of salinity on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saline-alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Tang, J C; Li, D S; Zhang, Q M

    2012-09-01

     The aim of this paper is to check the effect of salinity on the bioremediation process of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  In this study, soil salinity was adjusted to different levels by water leaching method and the bioremediation process was conducted for 28 days. Soil pH increased after leaching and decreased during bioremediation process. At initial time, moderate salinity enhanced the biodegradation and addition of microbial consortium was not effective in enhancing degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. At day of 28 days, higher degradation rate was found in treatments with more leaching times with a maximum value of 42·36%. Dehydrogenase activity increased with the progress of bioremediation and positive correlation was found between dehydrogenase activity and degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result showed decreased microbial community diversity with increased salt content.  The result suggested that salinity had great impact on bioremediation, and leaching and addition of inoculated consortium were effective in enhancing biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  The result of this study is important for understanding the bioremediation process of petroleum in contaminated soil. New remediation method of petroleum contaminated soil can be developed based on this study. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  14. TA53:19 Reverb Chamber Quick-Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Within Building 19 of TA-53, a screen room has been evaluated for use as a reverb chamber (with deep gratitude to Dale Dalmas and Greg Dale for their assistance). With minimal additional sealing of the chamber, we expect the Q to increase even more, and thus field levels for the same RF source power. Future studies need to determine leakage field levels, which will define maximum achievable field levels.

  15. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...... in a practical multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. The capacity simulation accuracy is shown to be a valid measure to determine the test area size....

  17. Identification of proteins in fluid collected from nerve regeneration chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether there are novel neurotrophic factors (NTFs in nerve regeneration conditioned fluid (NRCF. Nerve regeneration chamber models were established in the sciatic nerves of 25 New Zealand rabbits, and NRCF was extracted from the chambers l week postoperatively. Proteins in NRCF were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, and Western blot and ELISA were used to identify the proteins. A novel NTF was identified in a protein fraction corresponding to 220 kDa.

  18. Gridded Ionization Chamber; Camara de ionizacion con reja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-07-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Nuclear Design Considerations for Z-IFE Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Schmitt, R C; Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S

    2005-02-02

    Z-pinch driven IFE (Z-IFE) requires the design of a repetitive target insertion system that allows coupling of the pulsed power to the target with adequate standoff, and a chamber that can withstand blast and radiation effects from large yield targets. The present strategy for Z-IFE is to use high yield targets ({approx}2-3 GJ/shot), low repetition rate per chamber ({approx}0.1 Hz), and 10 chambers per power plant. In this study, we propose an alternative power plant configuration that uses very high yield targets (20 GJ/shot) in a single chamber operating at 0.1 Hz. A thick-liquid-wall chamber is proposed to absorb the target emission (x-rays, debris and neutrons) and mitigate the blast effects on the chamber wall. The target is attached to the end of a conical shaped Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) made from a solid coolant (e.g., frozen flibe), or a material that is easily separable from the coolant (e.g., steel). The RTL/target assembly is inserted through a single opening at the top of the chamber for each shot. This study looks at the RTL material choice from a safety and environmental point of view. Materials were assessed according to waste disposal rating (WDR) and contact dose rate (CDR). Neutronics calculations, using the TART2002 Monte Carlo code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), were performed for the RTL and Z-IFE chamber, and key results reported here.

  20. Imploded test-chamber for an ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    At the ISR intersection points the vacuum chambers had to be as "transparent" as possible, for the p-p collision product particles to reach the detectors with minimum hindrance. This meant the choice of a light, yet very strong, metal; minimum thickness; and corrugation for mechanical strength. The test-chamber seen here was made of 0.6 mm thick corrugated titanium, obviously not strong enough to withstand the atmospheric pressure.

  1. Immunoglobulin response to bluetongue virus soluble antigen in subcutaneous chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, I; Jochim, M M; Lauerman, L H

    1977-06-01

    Group-specific antibodies were produced by inoculation of bluetongue virus soluble antigen into polyethylene chambers implanted subcutaneously in 8 rabbits and 2 sheep. For comparison, 5 rabbits and 1 sheep were inoculated intramuscularly with the soluble antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Antibodies present in the serum and chamber fluids were detected by the agar gel precipitin or serum-neutralization tests, qualitatively examined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescence, and quantitated by electroimmunodiffusion.

  2. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, E. W.; Bryman, D. A.; Kuno, Y.; Lim, C.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Redlinger, G.; Soluk, R.; McPherson, R. A.

    1998-02-01

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K+ → π +ν overlineν experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of twelve layers of axial wire cells and six layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150-250 MeV/ c is found to be about 0.9%.

  3. Investigation Deviation Flame in Micro-Turbine's Combustion Chamber with Numerical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sedighi. Mohammad; Aghnia. Mehdi; Neisi. Walid; Hosseini. Hiwa

    2016-01-01

    This study is conducted regarding the investigation of the reasons causing defects in GTCP85-180 combustion chamber. The combustion chamber in this micro-turbine is single can side type. In spite of geometric symmetry in air inlets of the combustion chamber, the air inlet path to the combustion chamber is not symmetrical. Also, in the secondary zone of this combustion chamber, there is an igniter with considerable size. Investigations on several defected combustion chambers show burnings and ...

  4. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Negr?o, S.; Schm?ckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant?s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant?s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of sa...

  5. Energy Loss to Coaxial Vacuum Chambers in LEP and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gluckstern, R L

    1996-01-01

    In many hig-energy storage rings the beam chamber is connected to a separate pump chamber by a metallic wall with many holes or slots whic permits passage of the rest gas. In LEP, the pump chamber contains a metallic 'negstrip' pump, and thereby becomes a coazial transmission line. Also in LHC, a coaxial line is formed by the 'liner' and the surrounding cold vacuum chamber which it shields from heating by sznchrotron radiation. Since the phase velocity of electro-magnetic fields in a coax line is close to light velocity, the fields will be almost in sznchronism with the particle beam and the pump chamber, which may result in a large resistive impedance and could lead to isntability, loss of beam energy, and excessive heating of the chamber walls. Here we estimate the rate of field buildup analytically, and in a subsequent report we will compare these results with numerical computations using 3-D computer codes. The results are tested for diagnostic purposes on a 'slot coupler' with short and wide holes design...

  6. Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur; Tuffias, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    An improved material system has been developed for rocket engine combustion chambers for burning oxygen/ hydrogen mixtures or novel monopropellants, which are highly oxidizing at operating temperatures. The baseline for developing the improved material system is a prior iridium/rhenium system for chambers burning nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine mixtures, which are less oxidizing. The baseline combustion chamber comprises an outer layer of rhenium that provides structural support, plus an inner layer of iridium that acts as a barrier to oxidation of the rhenium. In the improved material system, the layer of iridium is thin and is coated with a thermal fatigue-resistant refractory oxide (specifically, hafnium oxide) that serves partly as a thermal barrier to decrease the temperature and thus the rate of oxidation of the rhenium. The oxide layer also acts as a barrier against the transport of oxidizing species to the surface of the iridium. Tests in which various oxygen/hydrogen mixtures were burned in iridium/rhenium combustion chambers lined with hafnium oxide showed that the operational lifetimes of combustion chambers of the improved material system are an order of magnitude greater than those of the baseline combustion chambers.

  7. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant differences in stem diameter were found between the frequently and the least frequently watered plants, and stem diameter decreased with increasing salinity. Leaf firing increased with increasing salinity reaching 59.9% in the extreme salinity treatment of 15 dS m-1, and it increased with increasing water stress ...

  8. Salinity Gradient Energy: Current State and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Schaetzle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give an overview of the state of the art of salinity gradient technologies. We first introduce the concept of salinity gradient energy, before describing the current state of development of the most advanced of these technologies. We conclude with the new trends in the young field of salinity gradient technologies.

  9. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil salinity is a major limitation to crop production in many areas of the world. A pot experiment was carried out with rapeseed cultivars in order to investigate the effects of salinity stress on plant development and nutrient composition. For the salinity studies, 150 mM NaCl concentration was applied to12 rapseed cultivars ...

  10. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate (CuSO4) and lead nitrate (Pb[NO3]2) against the fish species. On the basis of daily mortality assessment, O. niloticus was found to be unable to survive in media with salinity ...

  11. Measurement of salinity and electrical conductivity of some soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity and electrical conductivity of some selected soil samples from Uruan Local government area of Akwa Ibom state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria were measured. The results show that an increase in salinity gives rise to an increase in electrical conductivity. The salinities of the area under study falls within the ...

  12. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  13. Partnership for adapting Vulnerable Populations to Soil Salinization ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soil salinization affects nearly all regions of Sénégal. Nearly a million hectares are affected by salinization and acidification. It is only in the last few years that researchers have understood the relation between soil salinization and climate change. This project aims to increase the capacity of rural communities, ...

  14. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  15. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  16. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Katagiri

    Full Text Available Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W x 1.8 m (D x 2 m (H, providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant

  17. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wallen-Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium μice-al=0.1 typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction.

  18. Limnological study of a Pantanal saline lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Medina-Júnior

    Full Text Available Limnological studies involving physical, chemical and biological aspects, with emphasis on the zooplankton community, were carried out in a saline lake of the Pantanal floodplain, in the subregion of Nhecolândia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the dry and wet seasons of the local hydrological cycle. The results show that the lake is not directly affected by the flood-pulse through superficial coalescence, probably receiving groundwater instead. Most of the measured variables showed extremely high values, particularly dissolved salts, pH, conductivity, nutrients and chlorophyll a. These values were highest during the dry period due to the system's low water volume. The zooplankton community was basically represented by Metacyclops mendocinus, which displayed high population densities throughout the periods studied. The low diversity recorded is congruent with other studies on continental saline water-bodies.

  19. Limnological study of a Pantanal saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Júnior, P B; Rietzler, A C

    2005-11-01

    Limnological studies involving physical, chemical and biological aspects, with emphasis on the zooplankton community, were carried out in a saline lake of the Pantanal floodplain, in the subregion of Nhecolândia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), during the dry and wet seasons of the local hydrological cycle. The results show that the lake is not directly affected by the flood-pulse through superficial coalescence, probably receiving groundwater instead. Most of the measured variables showed extremely high values, particularly dissolved salts, pH, conductivity, nutrients and chlorophyll a. These values were highest during the dry period due to the system's low water volume. The zooplankton community was basically represented by Metacyclops mendocinus, which displayed high population densities throughout the periods studied. The low diversity recorded is congruent with other studies on continental saline water-bodies.

  20. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  1. Development of secondary chamber for tar cracking–improvement of wood pyrolysis performance in pre-vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, S.; Homma, H.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    Energy crisis and global warming, in other words, climate change are critical topics discussed in various parts of the world. Global warming primarily result from too much emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. To mitigate global warming, or climate change and improve electrification in rural areas, wood pyrolysis technology is developed in a laboratory scale, of which gases are directly applicable to the gas engine generator. Our laboratory has developed a prototype of wood pyrolysis plant with a pre-vacuum chamber. However, tar yield was around 40 wt% of feedstock. This research aims to reduce tar yield by secondary tar cracking. For the secondary tar cracking, a secondary pre-vacuum chamber is installed after primary pre-vacuum chamber. Gases generated in the primary pre-vacuum chamber are lead into the secondary chamber that is heated up to 1000 K. This paper reports performance of the secondary chamber for secondary tar cracking in homogeneous mode and heterogeneous mode with char.

  2. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shilpi; Tuteja, Narendra

    2005-12-15

    World population is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand food productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various abiotic stresses; therefore minimizing these losses is a major area of concern for all nations to cope with the increasing food requirements. Cold, salinity and drought are among the major stresses, which adversely affect plants growth and productivity; hence it is important to develop stress tolerant crops. In general, low temperature mainly results in mechanical constraint, whereas salinity and drought exerts its malicious effect mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. It is now well known that the stress signal is first perceived at the membrane level by the receptors and then transduced in the cell to switch on the stress responsive genes for mediating stress tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with a plethora of genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. Recently, some genes of calcium-signaling and nucleic acid pathways have been reported to be up-regulated in response to both cold and salinity stresses indicating the presence of cross talk between these pathways. In this review we have emphasized on various aspects of cold, salinity and drought stresses. Various factors pertaining to cold acclimation, promoter elements, and role of transcription factors in stress signaling pathway have been described. The role of calcium as an important signaling molecule in response to various stress signals has also been covered. In each of these stresses we have tried to address the issues, which significantly affect the gene expression in relation to plant physiology.

  3. Limnological study of a Pantanal saline lake

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Júnior,P. B.; A. C. Rietzler

    2005-01-01

    Limnological studies involving physical, chemical and biological aspects, with emphasis on the zooplankton community, were carried out in a saline lake of the Pantanal floodplain, in the subregion of Nhecolândia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), during the dry and wet seasons of the local hydrological cycle. The results show that the lake is not directly affected by the flood-pulse through superficial coalescence, probably receiving groundwater instead. Most of the measured variables showed extre...

  4. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  5. Promoted-Combustion Chamber with Induction Heating Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erin; Hagood, Richard; Lowery, Freida; Herald, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    An improved promoted-combustion system has been developed for studying the effects of elevated temperatures on the flammability of metals in pure oxygen. In prior promoted-combustion chambers, initial temperatures of metal specimens in experiments have been limited to the temperatures of gas supplies, usually near room temperature. Although limited elevated temperature promoted-combustion chambers have been developed using water-cooled induction coils for preheating specimens, these designs have been limited to low-pressure operation due to the hollow induction coil. In contrast, the improved promoted-combustion chamber can sustain a pressure up to 10 kpsi (69 MPa) and, through utilization of a solid induction coil, is capable of preheating a metal specimen up to its melting point [potentially in excess of 2,000 F (approximately equal to 1,100 C)]. Hence, the improved promoted combustion chamber makes a greater range of physical conditions and material properties accessible for experimentation. The chamber consists of a vertical cylindrical housing with an inner diameter of 8 in. (20.32 cm) and an inner height of 20.4 in. (51.81 cm). A threaded, sealing cover at one end of the housing can be unscrewed to gain access for installing a specimen. Inlet and outlet ports for gases are provided. Six openings arranged in a helical pattern in the chamber wall contain sealed sapphire windows for viewing an experiment in progress. The base of the chamber contains pressure-sealed electrical connectors for supplying power to the induction coil. The connectors feature a unique design that prevents induction heating of the housing and the pressure sealing surfaces; this is important because if such spurious induction heating were allowed to occur, chamber pressure could be lost. The induction coil is 10 in. (25.4 cm) long and is fitted with a specimen holder at its upper end. At its lower end, the induction coil is mounted on a ceramic base, which affords thermal insulation to

  6. GPR Phase Response to Fracture Saline Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Becker, M.

    2016-12-01

    Flow in fractured rock is highly heterogeneous and difficult to predict. Groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon resource development requires knowledge of fracture fluid flow properties. Geophysical methods such as seismic, electrical and electromagnetic, have been used to image fracture systems. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to image fractures and monitor saline tracers in groundwater aquifers. Previous studies have considered primarily the amplitude response of GPR signals. In this work we examine the phase response of GPR in a series of controlled field experiments spanning over a decade. We compare field observations to analytical models and FDTD numerical simulations of the phase response of GPR signals to saline tracers in fractures. We show that changes in the electrical conductivity of fracture fluid cause predictable and detectable phase changes in reflected and transmitted GPR signals through fractures. Lower frequency signals (MHz range) show greater sensitivity to fluid electrical conductivity changes, while being relatively insensitive to fracture aperture. Phase changes over time (time lapse) are used to image channeled flow through discrete fractures and to monitor tracer breakthrough. Although GPR is used extensively in near-surface groundwater investigations, deployment in boreholes can allow adaptation of the technology to monitor saline tracers in hydrocarbon and geothermal systems.

  7. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  8. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  9. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, S.; Schmöckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. PMID:27707746

  10. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  11. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, S; Schmöckel, S M; Tester, M

    2017-01-01

    Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant's physiology, making it difficult to study in toto Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant's response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant's response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Soil Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurements with Automated and Manual Static Chambers, Forced Diffusion Chamber, and Concentration Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, L.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Géli, M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Knox, S. H.; Nickerson, N.; McArthur, G.; Creelman, C.; Saad, N.; Alstad, K. P.; Arata, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil greenhouse gas fluxes are critical for determining the role of ecosystem dynamics, both natural and managed, in climate change. We compared concentration profile methods with static, forced diffusion, and automated flux chambers using a combination of infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), gas chromatography, and cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy (Picarro G2508) during field campaigns in managed ecosystems in California. At a drained peatland pasture site, we observed large differences between methods (fluxes ranged between 2-15 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). However, low temporal/high spatial replication measurements (manual LI6400 chamber measurements; n=6 collars) encompassed the full range of CO2 fluxes observed across all other methods. This suggests that the majority of variability in CO2 emissions was due to high spatial variation in soil respiration and not due to methodological differences across measurement systems. At a dry upland pasture site, water, nitrate solution and manure were applied during the experimental period to expand the range of greenhouse fluxes. Preliminary results showed good agreement of gas fluxes between static and automatic chamber sampling. We observed large CO2 and N2O fluxes after manure application with both methods. The two chamber types were highly significantly correlated for N2O (slope=0.74, r2=0.94). Mean CH4 fluxes measured by static chambers was -0.36 μg cm-2 h-1, similar to the -0.57 μg cm-2 h-1 measured by the automatic chamber and Picarro analyzer during the study period. Overall, our results suggest that both automated and static chamber methods are in good agreement, but automated chambers are advantageous for capturing diel dynamics and pulse responses to experimental treatments. Our results also highlight the importance of spatial replication, which can be difficult to achieve using expensive automated chambers. We suggest future research efforts to seek a combination of high spatially

  13. Impacts of a Saline Lake and Its Salinity on Local Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the weather research and forecasting model coupled with the community land model (WRF-CLM is used to investigate impacts of the GSL and its salinity from October 2001 to April 2002. A salinity parameterization scheme is incorporated into the lake scheme of CLM. The WRF-CLM model with the salinity parameterization scheme can better simulate temperature and precipitation compared to that without considering the salinity effects. The improvement of simulation is especially significant under cold weather condition. The precipitation caused by the GSL effect is always positive over the downwind area of the GSL during the study period. Increased precipitation is largely attributed to the warm lake surface temperature and high latent heat flux over the GSL, which are favorable for the development of strong convective activity and horizontal wind and moisture convergence. Such kind of GSL-induced forcing is the primary mechanism for the downstream GSL effect precipitation. The GSL effect precipitation is largely contributed by fresh water effect when the temperature is close to or higher than 0°C. However, with lower temperature, the salinity effect becomes dominant for the GSL effect precipitation.

  14. Design and testing of a model CELSS chamber robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Dezego, Shawn; Jones, Kinzy; Kewley, Christopher; Langlais, Mike; McCarthy, John; Penny, Damon; Bonner, Tom; Funderburke, C. Ashley; Hailey, Ruth

    1994-08-01

    A robot system for use in an enclosed environment was designed and tested. The conceptual design will be used to assist in research performed by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Design specifications include maximum load capacity, operation at specified environmental conditions, low maintenance, and safety. The robot system must not be hazardous to the sealed environment, and be capable of stowing and deploying within a minimum area of the CELSS chamber facility. This design consists of a telescoping robot arm that slides vertically on a shaft positioned in the center of the CELSS chamber. The telescoping robot arm consists of a series of links which can be fully extended to a length equal to the radius of the working envelope of the CELSS chamber. The vertical motion of the robot arm is achieved through the use of a combination ball screw/ball spline actuator system. The robot arm rotates cylindrically about the vertical axis through use of a turntable bearing attached to a central mounting structure fitted to the actuator shaft. The shaft is installed in an overhead rail system allowing the entire structure to be stowed and deployed within the CELSS chamber. The overhead rail system is located above the chamber's upper lamps and extends to the center of the CELSS chamber. The mounting interface of the actuator shaft and rail system allows the entire actuator shaft to be detached and removed from the CELSS chamber. When the actuator shaft is deployed, it is held fixed at the bottom of the chamber by placing a square knob on the bottom of the shaft into a recessed square fitting in the bottom of the chamber floor. A support boot ensures the rigidity of the shaft. Three student teams combined into one group designed a model of the CELSS chamber robot that they could build. They investigated materials, availability, and strength in their design. After the model arm and stand were built, the class performed pre-tests on the entire system

  15. Design and testing of a model CELSS chamber robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Dezego, Shawn; Jones, Kinzy; Kewley, Christopher; Langlais, Mike; Mccarthy, John; Penny, Damon; Bonner, Tom; Funderburke, C. Ashley; Hailey, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    A robot system for use in an enclosed environment was designed and tested. The conceptual design will be used to assist in research performed by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Design specifications include maximum load capacity, operation at specified environmental conditions, low maintenance, and safety. The robot system must not be hazardous to the sealed environment, and be capable of stowing and deploying within a minimum area of the CELSS chamber facility. This design consists of a telescoping robot arm that slides vertically on a shaft positioned in the center of the CELSS chamber. The telescoping robot arm consists of a series of links which can be fully extended to a length equal to the radius of the working envelope of the CELSS chamber. The vertical motion of the robot arm is achieved through the use of a combination ball screw/ball spline actuator system. The robot arm rotates cylindrically about the vertical axis through use of a turntable bearing attached to a central mounting structure fitted to the actuator shaft. The shaft is installed in an overhead rail system allowing the entire structure to be stowed and deployed within the CELSS chamber. The overhead rail system is located above the chamber's upper lamps and extends to the center of the CELSS chamber. The mounting interface of the actuator shaft and rail system allows the entire actuator shaft to be detached and removed from the CELSS chamber. When the actuator shaft is deployed, it is held fixed at the bottom of the chamber by placing a square knob on the bottom of the shaft into a recessed square fitting in the bottom of the chamber floor. A support boot ensures the rigidity of the shaft. Three student teams combined into one group designed a model of the CELSS chamber robot that they could build. They investigated materials, availability, and strength in their design. After the model arm and stand were built, the class performed pre-tests on the entire system

  16. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  17. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  18. Design of ITER neutron monitor using micro fission chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki; Ando, Toshiro; Kasai, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Johnson, L.C.; Walker, C.

    1998-08-01

    We are designing micro fission chambers, which are pencil size gas counters with fissile material inside, to be installed in the vacuum vessel as neutron flux monitors for ITER. We found that the {sup 238}U micro fission chambers are not suitable because the detection efficiency will increase up to 50% in the ITER life time by breading {sup 239}Pu. We propose to install {sup 235}U micro fission chambers on the front side of the back plate in the gap between adjacent blanket modules and behind the blankets at 10 poloidal locations. One chamber will be installed in the divertor cassette just under the dome. Employing both pulse counting mode and Campbelling mode in the electronics, we can accomplish the ITER requirement of 10{sup 7} dynamic range with 1 ms temporal resolution, and eliminate the effect of gamma-rays. We demonstrate by neutron Monte Carlo calculation with three-dimensional modeling that we avoid those detection efficiency changes by installing micro fission chambers at several poloidal locations inside the vacuum vessel. (author)

  19. Transfer Chamber for DBD Surface Treatment and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jessica; Gershman, Sophia; Daniels, Ryan

    2012-10-01

    Materials that are hydrophobic, smooth, and have low surface tension lead to poor adhesion for printing and coating. Surface modification using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) improves adhesion by activating the surface, increasing its roughness and functionalizing. We have constructed and tested a DBD discharge system that uses a 15kV, 800-1350Hz pulsed dc source and a mixture of gasses at 300-600Torr. Treated surfaces are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and other methods that require high vacuum environment. We designed a portable transfer chamber to move the sample from the atmospheric pressure treatment chamber to a high vacuum surface analysis chamber with minimal interaction with the environment. The transfer chamber was designed to meet the specific requirements of each system; a bellows drive and sample holder to manually move the sample into the transfer chamber; the ability to fill with pure nitrogen gas to prevent contamination of the sample surface; constructed to withstand a range of pressures from 300 to 10-8Torr; the ability to connect compatibly with each system. Proper surface characterization of the sample is crucial to designing an effective treatment system.

  20. Prediction of temperature front in a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, F.Z.; Kubiak, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Urquiza, G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    Numerical computation has been applied to investigate the temperature field in a gas turbine combustion chamber. The simulation assumed that pressure imbalance conditions of air flow between primary and secondary inlets occur. The combustion chamber under study is part of a 70 MW gas turbine from an operating combined cycle power plant. The combustion was simulated with normal fuel-air flow rate assuming stoichiometric conditions. Under these conditions characteristic temperature and pressure fields were obtained provided equity of boundary conditions at air inlets applies. However, with pressure distribution imbalances of the order of 3 kPa between primary and secondary air inlets, excessive heating in regions other than the combustion chamber core were obtained. Over heating in these regions helped to explain what was observed to produce permanent damage to auxiliary equipment surrounding the combustion chamber core, like the cross flame pipes. It is observed that high temperatures which normally develop in the central region of the combustion chamber may reach other surrounding upstream regions by modifying slightly the air pressure. Microscope scanning of the damaged pipes confirmed that the material was exposed to high temperatures such as predicted through the numerical computation. (Author)

  1. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  2. Bluetooth Communication Interface for EEG Signal Recording in Hyperbaric Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastena, Lucio; Formaggio, Emanuela; Faralli, Fabio; Melucci, Massimo; Rossi, Marco; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Ricciardi, Lucio; Storti, Silvia F

    2015-07-01

    Recording biological signals inside a hyperbaric chamber poses technical challenges (the steel walls enclosing it greatly attenuate or completely block the signals as in a Faraday cage), practical (lengthy cables creating eddy currents), and safety (sparks hazard from power supply to the electronic apparatus inside the chamber) which can be overcome with new wireless technologies. In this technical report we present the design and implementation of a Bluetooth system for electroencephalographic (EEG) recording inside a hyperbaric chamber and describe the feasibility of EEG signal transmission outside the chamber. Differently from older systems, this technology allows the online recording of amplified signals, without interference from eddy currents. In an application of this technology, we measured EEG activity in professional divers under three experimental conditions in a hyperbaric chamber to determine how oxygen, assumed at a constant hyperbaric pressure of 2.8 ATA , affects the bioelectrical activity. The EEG spectral power estimated by fast Fourier transform and the cortical sources of the EEG rhythms estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic analysis were analyzed in three different EEG acquisitions: breathing air at sea level; breathing oxygen at a simulated depth of 18 msw, and breathing air at sea level after decompression.

  3. Low-Cost, High-Performance Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultramet designed and fabricated a lightweight, high-temperature combustion chamber for use with cryogenic LOX/CH4 propellants that can deliver a specific impulse of approx.355 seconds. This increase over the current 320-second baseline of nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine (NTO/MMH) will result in a propellant mass decrease of 55 lb for a typical lunar mission. The material system was based on Ultramet's proven oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture, which has been hot-fire tested with stoichiometric oxygen/hydrogen for hours. Instead of rhenium, however, the structural material was a niobium or tantalum alloy that has excellent yield strength at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Phase I demonstrated alloys with yield strength-to-weight ratios more than three times that of rhenium, which will significantly reduce chamber weight. The starting materials were also two orders of magnitude less expensive than rhenium and were less expensive than the C103 niobium alloy commonly used in low-performance engines. Phase II focused on the design, fabrication, and hot-fire testing of a 12-lbf thrust class chamber with LOX/CH4, and a 100-lbf chamber for LOX/CH4. A 5-lbf chamber for NTO/MMH also was designed and fabricated.

  4. An optical imaging system for window chambers in MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuxiang; Salek, Mir F. S.; Jennings, Nicki; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2008-02-01

    Window chambers are support structures implanted in the dorsal skin fold of a rodent model. Optical imaging of window chambers has been used in many basic cancer and vascular biology studies. We have recently shown that this technique can be extended to MRI by using plastic rather than metal window chambers. Here we describe a system for simultaneous optical and MR imaging of the window chambers. It provides many possibilities for independent cross validation of the measurements of one modality from the other. In the system, a GRIN lens images the tissue to the distal end of a coherent imaging fiber bundle, which relays this image to a camera system located outside the magnet room. Both trans- and epi-illumination are provided to this system. Light sources are located outside the magnet room and the light is delivered through fiber optics. A group of fibers are used to deliver white light from under the window chamber for standard transmission imaging, while another single fiber delivers the laser light from the top to induce fluorescence. An appropriate bandpass emission filter is inserted between the lenses at the camera end for fluorescence imaging. Results of simultaneously optical and MR imaging of tumor and vessel are presented.

  5. Effects of salinity on olfactory toxicity and behavioral responses of juvenile salmonids from copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Frank; Mudrock, Emma; Labenia, Jana; Baldwin, David

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved copper is one of the more pervasive and toxic constituents of stormwater runoff and is commonly found in stream, estuary, and coastal marine habitats of juvenile salmon. While stormwater runoff does not usually carry copper concentrations high enough to result in acute lethality, they are of concern because sublethal concentrations of copper exposure have been shown to both impair olfactory function and alter behavior in various species in freshwater. To compare these results to other environments that salmon are likely to encounter, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on the impairment of olfactory function and avoidance of copper. Copper concentrations well within the range of those found in urban watersheds, have been shown to diminish or eliminate the olfactory response to the amino acid, l-serine in freshwater using electro-olfactogram (EOG) techniques. The olfactory responses of both freshwater-phase and seawater-phase coho and seawater-phase Chinook salmon, were tested in freshwater or seawater, depending on phase, and freshwater-phase coho at an intermediate salinity of 10‰. Both 10‰ salinity and full strength seawater protected against the effects of 50μg copper/L. In addition to impairing olfactory response, copper has also been shown to alter salmon behavior by causing an avoidance response. To determine whether copper will cause avoidance behavior at different salinities, experiments were conducted using a multi-chambered experimental tank. The circular tank was divided into six segments by water currents so that copper could be contained within one segment yet fish could move freely between them. The presence of individual fish in each of the segments was counted before and after introduction of dissolved copper (experiments were also conducted with a submerged structural element. The presence of sub-lethal levels of dissolved copper altered the behavior of juvenile Chinook salmon by inducing an avoidance

  6. Review of Water Salinity Measurement Methods and Considering Salinity in Measuring Water Area Phase Fraction of Wet Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein SERAJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of water area phase fraction is one of key factors for precise measuring of wet gas flow rate. As variation in water salinity affects water area phase fraction measurement, therefore for having accurate water area phase fraction measurement, it is required to measure water salinity and take that into account in water area phase fraction measurement. In this paper, various methods for measuring water salinity in wet gas fluid are reviewed. Then the methodology for considering measured water salinity in water area phase fraction measurement is explained. Since accurate measurement of water area phase fraction is necessary for having precise wet gas flow rate measurement, therefore by considering water salinity in water area phase fraction measurement, the overall accuracy of wet gas measurement increases. In addition, knowing water salinity is very valuable in wet gas flow measurement as water breakthrough can be sensed using the measured salinity.

  7. Reduction of fan noise in an anechoic chamber by reducing chamber wall induced inlet flow disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Mackinnon, M. J.; Woodward, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between the flight and ground static noise of turbofan engines has been identified as a significant problem in engine noise testing. The additional noise for static testing has been attributed to inlet flow disturbances or turbulence interacting with the fan rotor. In an attempt to determine a possible source of inflow disturbances entering fans tested in the Lewis Research Center anechoic chamber the inflow field was studied using potential flow analysis. These potential flow calculations indicated that there was substantial flow over the wall directly behind the fan inlet that could produce significant inflow disturbances. Fan noise tests were run with various extensions added to the fan inlet to move the inlet away from this backwall and thereby reduce the inlet flow disturbances. Significant noise reductions were observed with increased inlet length. Over 5 dB reduction of the blade passage tone sound power level was observed between the shortest and longest inlets at 90% fan speed and the first overtone was reduced 9 dB. High frequency broadband noise was also reduced.

  8. In-situ high field strength testing using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high fieldstrength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. In the case of a stepper motor, the field is stable for some time, and this type of reverberation chamber is called

  9. In-situ high field strength testing using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. In the case of a stepper motor, the field is stable for some time, and this type of reverberation chamber is called

  10. Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pihlatie, M.K.; Christiansen, J.R.; Aaltonen, H.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Nordbo, A.; Rasilo, T.; Benanti, G.; Giebels, M.; Helmy, M.; Sheehy, J.; Jones, S.; Juszczak, R.; Klefoth, R.R.; Lobo-do-Vale, R.; Rosa, A.P.; Schreiber, P.; Serca, D.; Vicca, S.; Wolf, B.; Pumpanen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The static chamber method (non-flow-through-non-steady-state chambers) is the most common method to measure fluxes of methane (CH4) from soils. Laboratory comparisons to quantify errors resulting from chamber design, operation and flux calculation methods are rare. We tested fifteen chambers against

  11. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  12. Characteristics of an anechoic chamber for fan noise testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Essary, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Acoustical and mechanical design features of NASA Lewis Research Center's engine fan noise facility are described. Acoustic evaluation of the 1420-m (50,000-ft) chamber, which is lined with an array of stepped wedges, is described. Results from the evaluation in terms of cut-off frequency and non-anechoic areas near the walls are detailed. Fan models with 0.51-m (20-in) diameters are electrically driven to 20,600 rpm in either the inlet mode (drawing air from the chamber) or exhaust mode (discharging air into the chamber) to facilitate study of both fore and aft fan noise. Inlet noise characteristics of the first fan tested, the JT8D Refan, are discussed and compared to full-scale levels. Turbulence properties of the inlet flow and acoustic results are compared with and without a turbulence reducing screen over the fan inlet.

  13. New Materials for Vacuum Chambers in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum chambers must fulfil ultra-high vacuum requirements while withstanding thermo-mechanical loads. This is particularly true in high energy particle accelerator where interactions of particles with matter may induce thermal load, material activation, background… The choice of the material of the vacuum chamber is crucial for the final application. Metals such as stainless steel, copper and aluminium are usually used. Even with outstanding mechanical and physical properties, beryllium is used for very specific applications because of its cost and toxicity.Ceramics such as alumina are usually used for fast magnet vacuum chambers. With the next generation of high energy physics accelerator generation such as CLIC and TLEP, the problematic of high cyclic thermal load induced by synchrotron radiation is raised. This paper aims at defining some figures of merit of different materials with respect to several load scenarios and presents briefly their vacuum compatibility.

  14. Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, F.; Colonna, M.; Ferri, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing configurations: one called “grip” to maximize finger flexibility and one called “warm” to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.

  15. Growth of hollow cell spheroids in microbead templated chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eddie; Wang, Dong; Geng, Andrew; Seo, Richard; Gong, Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    Cells form hollow, spheroidal structures during the development of many tissues, including the ocular lens, inner ear, and many glands. Therefore, techniques for in vitro formation of hollow spheroids are valued for studying developmental and disease processes. Current in vitro methods require cells to self-organize into hollow morphologies; we explored an alternative strategy based on cell growth in predefined, spherical scaffolds. Our method uses sacrificial, gelatin microbeads to simultaneously template spherical chambers within a hydrogel and deliver cells into the chambers. We use mouse lens epithelial cells to demonstrate that cells can populate the internal surfaces of the chambers within a week to create numerous hollow spheroids. The platform supports manipulation of matrix mechanics, curvature, and biochemical composition to mimic in vivo microenvironments. It also provides a starting point for engineering organoids of tissues that develop from hollow spheroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  17. Development and validation of inexpensive, automated, dynamic flux chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Almand-Hunter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed and validated an automated, inexpensive, and continuous multiple-species gas-flux monitoring system that can provide data for a variety of relevant atmospheric pollutants, including O3, CO2, and NOx. Validation consisted of conducting concurrent gas-phase dry-deposition experiments, using both dynamic flux chambers and an eddy-covariance system, in a grassy clearing in the Duke Forest (Chapel Hill, NC. Experiments were carried out in June and September under a variety of meteorological conditions. Ozone-deposition measurements from the two methods matched very well (4–10% difference in mean flux rate when the leaf-area index (LAI inside the chambers was representative of the average LAI in the field. The dynamic flux chambers can be considered an accurate measurement system under these conditions.

  18. OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

  19. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  20. Streamlined Calibration of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Precision Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, DS; The ATLAS collaboration; Dai, T; Diehl, EB; Ferretti, C; Hindes, JM; Zhou, B

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is comprised of nearly 1200 optically Monitored Drifttube Chambers (MDTs) containing 354,000 aluminum drift tubes. The chambers are configured in barrel and endcap regions. The momentum resolution required for the LHC physics reach (dp/p = 3% and 10% at 100 GeV and 1 TeV) demands rigorous MDT drift tube calibration with frequent updates. These calibrations (RT functions) convert the measured drift times to drift radii and are a critical component to the spectrometer performance. They are sensitive to the MDT gas composition: Ar 93%, CO2 7% at 3 bar, flowing through the detector at arate of 100,000 l hr−1. We report on the generation and application of Universal RT calibrations derived from an inline gas system monitor chamber. Results from ATLAS cosmic ray commissioning data are included. These Universal RTs are intended for muon track reconstuction in LHC startup phase.